CHAPTER I INTRUCTION 1.

Background
Nowadays we need more information to find out about the discharge instruction, lifting and transferring patient, promoting hygiene, Taking the laboratory sample and patient’s diet. because it is so important in the process leading to a patient's healthy. which is usually granted by the health personnel. In this paper, there are several articles on the subject. which will add to our knowledge about that.

2. Derict Link
What are the discharge instruction, lifting and transferring patient, promoting hygiene, Taking the laboratory sample and patient’s diet?

3. Profits
Student know what discharge instruction, lifting and transferring patient, promoting hygiene, Taking the laboratory sample and patient’s diet are.

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Organize follow-up for tests or appointments. It should involve information on diet and medications. commode. A thorough survey of all medications is required prior to a patient's discharge from hospital to keep off medication errors. Easy measures taken after patient's discharge from hospital are of enormous value. is exceedingly critical to the physical and psychological health of your family members. chores and transport. keluarga pasien berperan penting dalam mengawasi kesehatan pasien setelah pemulangan pasien. Penyedia layanan kesehatan. dan kurang memperhatikan perawatan di rumah. There may be physical. the style in which this transitional phase is coordinated. Helps to know if he can go home or to a care unit depending upon the level of tending required. Right planning for discharge and adequate follow-up improves patient's health. Health care providers. there is a deficiency of professionalism in the arrangement of discharge from the hospital. Summary: Biasanya kita memfokuskan perhatian kita pada perawatan medis di rumah sakit. Statistics show that 40% of patients over 65 years of age were not provided with proper medication after patient discharge and 18% of Medicare patients after discharge from hospitals are readmitted within 30 days. A collective approach to patient discharge is really ideal. social worker or other person. A phone for care information and a follow up appointment with the medical practitioner are some of them. financial or other restrictions like occupation or a baby to look after and these limitations should be discussed with the hospital staff. oxygen and also nomination of personnel for preparation of meals. Whereas discharge from hospital can be cleared only by a doctor. ward off readmissions and lowers health care costs. Yet. a rehabilitation center or a nursing home. Even though hospital discharge planning is a significant constituent of the total patient care. Article discharge instruction Patient Discharge Planning Is Essential For Every Hospital by Tariq Ghazi (submitted 2010-01-19) Usually and understandably we focus most of our attention to the medical treatment in the hospital. household members unitedly should play a significant role in supervising the patient's health after patient discharge. The discharge planners need to discuss with the caregiver about his ability to supply care. It is essential that assessment and discussion should precede the patient discharge planning. It has been studied and proved that an efficient discharge from hospitals has a huge effect of improvement for the patients when they step into the following stage of care. Discussion is essential to survey the patient's state of wellness. 2 . Determine what support or training for the caregiver is required.CHAPTER II ARTICLES 1. Ascertain aid level needed by home care unit or care centers of the community. The changeover could be to house. Discharge from hospitals is a procedure aimed at making the patient move from one care stage to another as smooth as possible. This is damaging to the patient as well as the funding authority. equipments needed like a wheelchair. and less to the discharge from hospitals. You should even workout the procedure for the patient's shift to his house or another care center. the actual hospital discharge planning can be executed by a nurse. Licensed personnel should assess the patient and the caregivers have to know about them.

Karena biasanya kurang dari 30 hari pasien akan kembali masuk ke rumah sakit. both they and their patients can be injured. baik mereka dan pasien mereka dapat terluka. 2. di rumah. Perawat harus tau bagaimana penggunaan peralatan modern mekanik. An article – ―Safe Lifting and Moving in Healthcare: An Emerging Trend of Caring technology‖ (excerpt from journal) — published in the Fall 2013 issue of the Risk Management Quarterly. But when healthcare workers are required to lift or reposition patients without modern mechanical lifting and moving equipment and training. nursing homes and other healthcare settings need assistance when moving to and from beds or chairs.Tenaga keperawatan seperti dokter melakukan penilaian dan diskusi dengan tenaga medis seperti perawat tentang keadaan pasien apakah dapat dipulangkan. Setelah itu tenaga kesehatan memberikan penyuluhan tentang diet dan obat-obatan. training. or being repositioned for care-giving purposes. Patient & Family urges that there is a better way. Article lifting and transferring patient Safe Lifting & Moving in Healthcare Safe Lifting & Moving in Healthcare: Some patients in hospitals. pekerjaan dan transportasi. so that all New York hospitals and nursing homes have effective programs that patients and their loved ones can count on. 3 . It describes how modern mechanical equipment. oksigen dan juga bantuan dalam mempersiapan makanan. panti jompo. atau yang reposisi untuk tujuan perawatan-memberi. dan pengaturan kesehatan lainnya membutuhkan bantuan ketika pindah ke dan dari tempat tidur atau kursi. namun di pulangkan. . peralatan yang dibutuhkan seperti kursi roda. a publication of the Association for Healthcare Risk Management of New York. Pengambilan keputusan dari tenaga kesehatan yang salah akan mempengaruhi keadaan pasien. Summary: Beberapa pasien di rumah sakit. Tapi ketika petugas layanan kesehatan yang diperlukan untuk mengangkat atau mereposisi pasien tanpa mengangkat mekanik dan peralatan modern dan pelatihan bergerak. An report. The Case for Caring Technology that to learn about what other states are doing to ensure safe lifting and moving in healthcare and the need for standards in New York. and full engagement of healthcare staff and patients in a safety program (sometimes called ―Safe Patient Handling‖) can improve health and safety for both patients and healthcare workers. sehingga dapat meningkatkan kesehatan dan keselamatan bagi pasien dan petugas kesehatan. dimana pasien yang seharusnya tiddak pulang. Akan merugikan pasien dalam hal biaya.

Kita harus mencuci tangan sebelum dan setelah makan. Many organizations nowadays prefer to have ADA bathroom signs. An ADA bathroom sign is compliant with ADA standards. Washing hands not just prevents us from many infectious diseases. Likewise bathroom signs are must in every facility. the free encyclopedia A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are done on clinical specimens in order to get information about the health of a patient as pertaining to the diagnosis. 4. karena memberitahu kepada semua untuk menjaga kebersihan dan kesehatan. These signs educate the people about the swine flu virus and its preventive measures. because it informs all to maintain cleanliness and hygiene. A very effective and easiest tool to combat these gems is hand washing. After the deadly attack of this pandemic. but also reduce the spread of the infections to others. especially bathrooms and restrooms are required to install wash hands signs. Doctors recommend that we must wash hands before and after every meal. each of which being subdivided into multiple units. Mencuci tangan tidak hanya mencegah kita dari berbagai penyakit menular. Bathroom and rest room signs must be placed at locations from where they are clearly noticeable. so that the sign is easily identifiable by the disabled people also. Article Taking the laboratory sample Medical laboratory From Wikipedia. Article promoting hygiene Promote Hygiene with Wash Hands Signs by Frederick Palmer (submitted 2010-06-09) Germs are present all around us and it is very easy to get infected if we are not careful. A restroom sign must contain recognizable graphics and directional indications. Setiap fasilitas. which signify bathroom locations and gender specification. and prevention of disease Laboratory medicine is generally divided into two sections. Bathroom and restroom signs help the people in locating the bathrooms and the restrooms. Summary: Kuman dapat dengan mudah terinfeksi dengan kuman yang ada di sekitar kita. These two sections are 4 . treatment. terutama kamar mandi dan toilet yang membutuhkan tanda peringatan mencuci tangan. Custom bathroom signs with innovative text lines and catchy artwork is also an attractive way to promote safety and cleanliness. Hand washing instructions are also commonly seen on swine flu safety signs. after using bathrooms or visiting any public place. This is why every facility. tetapi juga mengurangi penyebaran infeksi kepada orang lain. setelah menggunakan kamar mandi atau mengunjungi tempat umum. swine flu protection signs are being installed everywhere. A wash hands sign is an important component of every good bathroom signage.3. Langkal yang sangat efektif untuk mmencegah infeksi tersebut dengan mencuci tangan.

if found. urine. Academically. each unit is studied alone in one course. cerebrospinal fluid. pathology. Reproductive biology: Semen analysis. as well as possible infected tissue. Hematology works with whole blood to do full blood counts.     Distribution of clinical laboratories in health institutions varies greatly from one place to another. Coagulation requires citrated blood samples to analyze blood clotting times and coagulation factors. with nothing called a "microbiology" lab The following is a detailed breakdown of the responsibilities of each unit:  Microbiology receives almost any clinical specimen. are further identified based on biochemical tests. sputum. Anatomic pathology: units included here are histopathology. virology. Also.  Virology is concerned with identification of viruses in specimens such as blood.   5 . Clinical Chemistry: Units under this busy section include instrumental analysis of blood components. urine. and mycology. blood. andpathophysiology. sensitivity testing is carried out to determine whether the pathogen is sensitive or resistant to a suggested medicine.immunology. feces. Hematology: This section consists of automated and manual analysis of blood cells. to look for suspected pathogens which. toxicologyand endocrinology. However. and blood films as well as many other specialised tests. Genetics is also studied along with a subspecialty known as cytogenetics. which arecoagulation and blood bank. synovial fluid. histology. cytopathology. enzymology. sputum. and electron microscopy. some health facilities have a single laboratory for microbiology. It includes two subunits. The work here is mainly concerned with cultures. The most frequently encountered specimen here is faeces. Sperm bank and assisted reproductive technology. Other courses pertaining to this section include anatomy. and other samples may also contain parasites.blood. for microbiology.  Parasitology is a microbiology unit that investigates parasites.   Clinical pathology. including swabs. while others have a separate lab for each unit. and cerebrospinal fluid. For instance. Results are reported with the identified organism(s) and the type and amount of drug(s) that should be prescribed for the patient. parasitology. which includes: Clinical Microbiology: This encompasses five different sciences (units). physiology. These include bacteriology. urine.

 Clinical Biochemistry usually receives serum or plasma. Electron microscopy prepares specimens and takes micrographs of very fine details by means of TEM and SEM. pengobatan. Urine and blood samples are submitted to this lab. while others don't. dan pencegahan penyakit Setiap perbedaan jenis pemeriksaan membutuhan specimen yang berbeda pula. It also prepares blood components. These include a wide array of substances. or Blood bank determines blood groups. termasuk feses. This can be helpful in prenatal diagnosis (e. Down's syndrome) as well as in cancer (some cancers have abnormal chromosomes). blood sugar. Some health care providers have a urinalysis laboratory. cairan sinovial dan serta jaringan yang mungkin terinfeksi.  Histopathology processes solid tissue removed from the body (biopsies) for evaluation at the microscopic level. limbs. cairan serebrospinal. each component of the urinalysis is performed at the corresponding unit. seperti pada Mikrobiologi menerima hampir semua spesimen klinis. Tes 6 . and hormones. tumors. this unit determines a patient's blood type and Rh status. enzymes. urin. Immunohaematology. Regulated by the FDA since giving blood is considered a drug. such as lipids. and performs compatibility testing on donor blood and recipients. If measuring urine chemicals is required. the specimen should be submitted to the cytopathologylab. Instead. Surgical pathology examines organs. darah.g. and cross matches units that are negative for the antigen. fetuses. the specimen is processed in the clinical biochemistry lab. Immunology/Serology uses the concept of antigen-antibody interaction as a diagnostic tool. but if cell studies are indicated.  Toxicology mainly tests for pharmaceutical and recreational drugs. checks for antibodies to common antigens found on red blood cells. and other tissues biopsied in surgery such as breast mastectomys     Summary: Sebuah laboratorium medis atau laboratorium klinik adalah laboratorium di mana tes dilakukan pada spesimen klinis untuk mendapatkan informasi tentang kesehatan dari pasien yang berkaitan dengan diagnosis. cancer. and products for transfusion. Cytogenetics involves using blood and other cells to get a karyotype.    Urinalysis tests urine for many analytes. and so on. and other conditions. Genetics mainly performs DNA analysis. Cytopathology examines smears of cells from all over the body (such as from the cervix) for evidence of inflammation. dahak. derivatives. They test the serum for chemicals present in blood. Compatibility of transplanted organs is also determined.

dan film darah serta banyak tes khusus lainnya. uric acid. kidney stones happen simply because there is a calcification in your urinary program. Article patient’s diet Continual Kidney Failure Diet plan . Consequently. Juga. A detailed dietary history taking could possibly also be necessary to be capable to point out the portion of the patient's diet that triggered the formation of kidney stones. uric acid (10%). Sebaliknya. Kind and cause of stone formation present information on how to handle kidney stones. pengujian sensitivitas dilakukan untuk menentukan apakah patogen sensitif atau resisten terhadap obat yang disarankan. dan sebagainya. abnormal urinary excretion of calcium. Far more than 200. Beberapa penyedia layanan kesehatan memiliki laboratorium urine. Up to 4% of the population in the United Stares has kidney stones.000 americans need hospitalization for treatment of stones every single yr. sementara yang lainnya tidak. spesimen diproses dalam biokimia klinis laboratorium.ini untuk mengetahui mikrobiologi patogen atau tidak. The following are some tips on the kidney stone diet: 7 . Selanjutnya tes Hematologi bekerja dengan seluruh darah untuk melakukan jumlah penuh darah . or cystine (a lot less than 1%). In the first position. setiap komponen urinalisis yang dilakukan pada unit yang sesuai. oxalate. jika ditemukan. Most typical calculi are composed of calcium oxylate (70-80%). 5. higher urine pH (doing it alkaline). Jika mengukur bahan kimia urin diperlukan. this diet tackles all the pointers you must have to control your kidney stone. About 12% of males have renal stone by the age of 70. they are normally asymptomatic until they pass into the reduce urinary program. Dan juga Urinalisis tes urine bagi banyak analit. They form largely on the kidneys but they can migrate to the lower urinary process. The most prevalent indications and indicators include low urine output. struvite (9-17%). It is so recurrent to the level that 50 % of the patients impacted will create one other bout of renal calculi in the next ten many years. selanjutnya diidentifikasi berdasarkan tes biokimia. tetapi jika penelitian sel ditunjukkan. cure selections include things like restrictive diet program and modifications.Is it Actually Productive in Reversing Long-term Renal Failure? by Pete Miles (submitted 2011-08-01) As the name suggests. spesimen harus diserahkan kepadaSitopatologi lab. or combo of these substances. Usually.

irreversible damage of kidney operate. At the exact same time. nuts. cure technique. Batu ginjal terjadi hanya karena ada pengapuran dalam program kemih. obstructive kidney conditions these kinds of as kidney stones and birth defects. fluid imbalances. This is the stage the place most Us residents with kidney disorder worry most. and most lately learned illicit medicines and abnormal analgesic use. The persistent kidney failure eating habits depends on the individuals. team wheat bran. ample caloric intake and vitamin supplementation will need to be ensured. CRF has a lot of triggers like glumerolunephritis. Irrespective of the lead to. mereka biasanya tanpa gejala sampai 8 . sodium intake to balance sodium losses and some restriction of potassium. beets. diabetes mellitus and systemic lupus erythematosus. and strawberries Do not exceed advised day-to-day allowance for vitamin C as it improves urinary oxalate excretion Animal protein ought to be controlled to one g/kg physique pounds Salt consumption ought to be limited to less than a hundred mEq/dl Long-term renal failure is a end result of progressive. The adhering to need to tutorial you about your precise regimen. professional medical situation and dietary position of the individual. nephrosclerosis. All of which have an effect on various entire body systems. chocolate. diet ini membutuhkan perhatian yang ekstra. rhubarb. Dietary intervention is vital with deterioration of renal function and consists of careful regulation of your protein intake. It is typically a sickness that bit by bit develops about months and several years depending on the insult carried out to the kidneys and the extent of damage. fluid consumption to harmony fluid losses. electrolyte deficiencies and far more. It is vital to avert progression of any kidney condition to long-term renal failure as this would sooner or later lead to stop-stage renal ailment (ESRD). Summary: Seperti namanya. Mereka terbentuk sebagian besar di ginjal tetapi mereka dapat berpindahi ke perkemihan bawah. Akibatnya. the consequence will be the very same: retention of nitrogenous wastes.-Tailor diet to particular metabolic disturbances and individual dietary routines to assure compliance       Calcium restriction must be prevented Calcium and oxalate must be in balance Limit intake of spinach.

kerusakan permanen ginjal beroperasi. Beberapa tips tentang diet batu ginjal: pembatasan Kalsium. konsumsi cairan kehilangan cairan harmoni.mereka masuk ke dalam program yang mengurangi kemih. kacang-kacangan. Hewan-protein harus dikontrol untuk pon satu g / kg fisik Garam konsumsi harus dibatasi kurang dari seratus mEq / dl. tim dedak gandum. bit. asupan kalori yang cukup dan suplemen vitamin akan perlu dipastikan. Intervensi diet sangat penting dengan penurunan fungsi ginjal dan terdiri dari peraturan yang cermat asupan protein Anda. dan stroberi . 9 . Pada saat yang sama. Hal ini biasanya penyakit yang sedikit demi sedikit berkembang tentang bulan dan beberapa tahun tergantung pada penghinaan dilakukan untuk ginjal dan tingkat kerusakan. pengonsumsian vitamin C jangan melebihi yang disarankan sehari-hari penyisihan vitamin C karena meningkatkan ekskresi oksalat urin. Tips diet tersebut untunk mencegah supaya tidak menjasi gagal ginjal jangka panjang adalah hasil akhir progresif. cokelat. penderita batu ginjal. asupan sodium untuk menyeimbangkan kerugian natrium dan beberapa pembatasan kalium. Kalsium oksalat harus seimbang Batasi asupan bayam. program diet ketat dan modifikasi dapat menbantu.

That are influenced the development of the patient's health. Taking the laboratory sample and the patient's diet are. Therefore we as nurses have extensive knowledge about it. 10 . lifting and transferring patient. promoting hygiene.CHAPTER III CLOSING 1. Conclusion As a nurse is very important to know what the discharge instruction.