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QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS FINAL PAPER

**What is the Gross Enrollment Ratio in EU Member Countries?
**

Moroianu Sorin

Bucharest 2014

to “ensure that by 2015. The purpose of the gross enrollment rate is that it shows the general level of participation in formal schooling by the childhood population. able to accommodate all of its school-aged population. there are more than 75 million children around the world of primary school age who are not in school. regardless of age. The second goal in the United Nations Development Goal is to achieve Universal Primary Education. many developing countries. A gross enrollment rate value of 100 percent indicates that a country is. boys and girls alike will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling. The Research Question The purpose of my analysis falls into the category of descriptive research. GER can be used instead of the net enrolment ratio (NER) when data on enrolment by single years of age are not available and it can also be used together with the NER to measure the extent of over-aged and under-aged enrolment. Relevant literary review The Millenium Development Goals are eight international development goals that were established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000. following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. children everywhere. Since the Millennium Development Goals were launched. more specifically. in principle.1. such . 2. The objective of my research was to accurately describe the development of the educational system in the European countries. in a given year." Currently. Gross enrollment rate is the total enrollment in primary school. The majority of these children are in regions of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia and within these countries. girls are at the greatest disadvantage in receiving access to education at the primary school age. expressed as a percentage of the official school-age population for primary school.

have successfully completed a campaign towards universal primary education. if a nation has 900. 3. .000 people enrolled in school in the academic year 2005/06. In certain areas of the world it is more difficult for children to get to school. severe weather conditions for more than 7 months of the year make school attendance erratic and force children to remain at home In these remote locations. A great factor that contributes to a child’s lack of access and attendance to primary education is location. Cuba. GER shows the overall coverage of an educational system in relation to the population eligible for participation in the system. or that 90 percent is the Gross Enrollment Ratio of that nation. including both primary and secondary levels . This means 90 percent of the people are enrolled. This ratio is useful for those who are interested in the overall participation of the school-age population. Chile. this number is divided by the total number of school-age individuals. Singapore and Sri Lanka. GER can also be used for comparing two or more countries and urban and rural areas.1.000. Suppose this number is 1. For example.as China. Explanation of the selection of variables and data Obviously the selection of the Gross Enrollment Ratio as a variable in my analysis is directly related to the research question. in high-altitude areas of India. 3.000. insufficient school funds contribute to low attendance rates by creating undesirable and unsafe learning environments. How to calculate GER For example.

. while the adult literacy rate is assigned two-thirds weight. incorporating all three levels of education.GER = number of actual students enrolled / number of potential students enrolled = = A combined gross enrollment ratio (CGER). an annual gauge of well-being for UN member states. Amongst other measures used in the calculation. represented by gross enrollment. is used to calculate the Human Development Index (HDI). the CGER is given one-third weight in assessing the knowledge component.

8953612 1.1813978 0.6093245 102. By applying the Descriptive Statistics feature from Excel’s Data Analysis Add-in feature on my GER. I have obtained the following results: GER Mean Standard Error Median Mode Standard Deviation Sample Variance Kurtosis Skewness Range Minimum Maximum Sum Count Confidence Level(95.44907845 4.4.0%) margin of error upper limit lower limit c.7029708 1694. .071575534 105.713963346 109.13358848 97.038839534 3.1765914 #N/A 7.930754788 31.894879258 105.969407011 1. the value of the median indicates that 50% of the GER values are above 105.56938228 128.of Var 4.325779 16 Regarding the measure of the central tendency. Summarized Sample Data using descriptive statistic measures. This indicates that more than a half of the European countries are theoretically able of accommodating its school-aged population.579517033 57.

we can observe that the range( indicator of dispersion.Moving on to the measures of variability. while the standard deviation. another measure of dispersion is square root of variance. In order to find the “relative” dispersion we can calculate the coefficient of variation using the following formula: Coefficient of variation = = 0.07 In order to observe shape of the distribution.57. the variance is around 57. I have used a histogram that is allowing us to observe that the data is not normally distributed Histogram Frequency 8 6 4 2 0 Frequency Bin Bin Frequency 97. . higher score=higher deviations) is 31. 7.3528 7 113. median and mode. the shape of the distribution is not normal.1 which means that the difference between the highest and the lowest value is 31.1 The measure for dispersion of variability.56938 1 105. Since these values are not equal.4.1362 6 120.9196 1 More 1 This conclusion can also be reached by examining the values of the mean.

000 6.000 4.6093245] I am 95% confident that the mean belongs to the previously mentioned interval.The shape of the histogram’s distribution is not normal due to the fact that kurtosis(which shows peakness or flatness of distribution) and skewness(symmetry of distribution) are not close to 0 but they are both positive so the shape is Right Tail Extremes. 5. Scatter Diagram Correlation between GER and Enrollment 140 120 GER (Y) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1.000 2.1813978. so the confidence interval will be: .713963346 That means that + 3. 109. 6.000 3.000 Enrollment(X) . Population mean variable with 95% Through the use of the Excel Data Analysis Tool.000 5.3.713963346. the confidence level has been identified as 3.713963346 belongs to the following interval [102.

wikipedia.529017 1 Enrollment GER 2427851 6049.org/wiki/Universal_Primary_Education http://www.unfoundation. This value is closer to 1 and that means that there is a strong linear relationship between the two variables.jp/ematerial/ematerial_other/PCD_M2_fiji/PCD_M2_4_P2.5 Interpretation: Countries with high primary school enrollment population also tend to have a high Gross Enrollment Ratio Bibliography: http://www.85851105 The value of the sample covariance is 6049.html http://en.amstat.org/publications/jse/v19n2/doane.org/what-we-do/issues/mdgs.529017. Covariance and Correlation Correlation Enrollment GER Covariance Enrollment GER Enrollment GER 1 0. Due to the fact that it is a positive number.pdf .or. both x and y tend to move in the same direction.333 53.pdf http://www.7. The relationship appears strong due to the fact that the value of the coefficient exceeds 0.333. The coefficient of correlation is 0.unsiap.

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