# 2013

Experiment 1: To Verify Bernoulli’s’ Principle Introduction
In hydrodynamics, that is, fluids in motion, energy is stored in three forms namely: potential energy, kinetic energy and pressure energy. From the principle of conservation of energy, the total energy in the fluid is conserved and equal to a constant. This is shown in the Bernoulli’s equation which is in fact a form of the principle of conservation of energy. Total nergy ! "otential nergy # \$inetic nergy # "ressure nergy ! mgh # % mv& # "m ' ( ! constant The equation is rewritten in the form of total head for unit mass of fluid as Total )ead ) ! " ' (g # v& '&g # h ! constant It is assumed that the fluid is incompressi*le and no energy enters or leaves the system. )owever, in actual situations, frictional losses occurring due to certain features like sudden change in diameter, *ends, *oundaries and valves amongst others have to *e included in the equation. These conditions are difficult to satisfy especially when dealing with comple+ fluids *ut fortunately for many real situations where the conditions are appro+imately satisfied, the equation gives very good results.

,-,

2013

Aim
The aim of this e+periment is to verify that "'. # / &'&g is a constant, where "'. is the pressure head, i.e. the height of the water in the pie0ometer tu*e and / &'&g is the velocity head.

Apparatus
"erspe+ tank, stopwatch, converging tu*e, graduated collecting tank.

Procedure
-. .ater is allowed to flow in the "erspe+ tank. &. The outflow is ad1usted so that the water levels in the pie0ometers are steady. 2. The reading on each pie0ometer which is the pressure head is recorded. 3. .ater is allowed to flow into the collecting vessel for a time t seconds and the height h of water collected in the tank is recorded. 4. The area 5 of the tank is calculated. 6. The flow rate 7 is calculated which is 859h:'t. ;. The velocity / of the flow at any section is o*tained *y dividing 859h:'t *y the area of the converging tu*e at that section.

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6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3&< 3&& 3-3 3-= 3=& 2>= 2.2013 Experimental Results Section Number Pie#ometer Readin\$!mm Pie#ometer Readin\$!mm !m m -== "ime !s 6-.& -&& --< --6 --& -=3 >3 <= -== 6>.2. .2 5rea 5 of collecting tank ! 82=2 + 2=2: mm& .

. -&>.< -->.& 66&.3.mm!s.3 (or 0o'er *ead --< 3<-.6 ! -3>=3=mm2's For second set of readings 8&or lo'er ead:: Time taken for water to rise *y -==mm ! 6>.2 <= <<2..2 --& 4<<.2 32=.mmPie#ometer *ead P!+\$ .& &<.mm.2 -=3 66&.= 32&.> 3&& 3-3 3-= 3=& .& -&2... "abulation o& Results Section Number Area o& Pie#ometer!mm2 Pie#ometer *ead P!+\$ .& 2.= 4>6.3 2>= <4-.& >>2.6 -&& 33-.2013 %alculations For first set of readings 8&or upper ead:: Time taken for water to rise *y -==mm ! 6-.< -&.3 -4.= -<.4 .= >3 . --.< --6 4&>.2s 5verage volume flow rate 7 ! 859h:'t ! 82=2+2=2+-==:'6>.6s 5verage volume flow rate 7 ! 859h:'t ! 82=2+2=2+-==:'6-..= &>.. ! .> -3.3 &&.4 2 &4= 3 &&4 4 &== 6 -.2 ! -2&3<=mm2's The velocity at any section / ! 7 ' 5rea of pie0ometer at that section.2!2\$ .34.< 43&. .&&.2!2\$ ..32&.2 -2=.mm.> -2-.2 3&&. -4= (or )pper *ead 3&< 3>6. .6 33=.6 >.= 3&.3 32.mm2== & &.mm!s.. ! .3 -&6.4...2!2\$ .< -&>.mmP!+\$ / .& 2>.6 4=. 2.< -.mmP!+\$ / .2!2\$ .

2013 1rap &or )pper *ead 500 450 400 350 Head /mm 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Section Number Piezometer Head P/ρg (mm) V2/2g (mm) P/ρg + V2/2g (mm) 1rap &or 0o'er *ead 140 120 100 Head /mm 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Section Number P/ρg + V2/2g (mm) Piezometer Head P/ρg (mm) V2/2g (mm) . .4.

Triangular notch 2. which we have used in the following e+periment. a notch is usually made in a plate. "2pes o& notc es -. Doreover. @ince the top edge of the notch a*ove the liquid level serves no purpose. The only difference *etween a notch and a weir is that the notch is of a small si0e and the weir is of a *igger one. Aectangular notch &. in the case of a weir. made of a metallic plate and is used to measure the discharge of liquids. is the /. shows the following relation: 7 ! 8<'-4: Bd√&g tan 8θ'&: h4'& .. 7. θ ! angle of the notch. over which the liquid flows.hereC Bd ! coefficient of discharge h ! height of the liquid a*ove the ape+ of the notch. The conditions of flow. usually. is known as sill or crest of the notch and the sheet of liquid flowing over a notch 8or a weir: is known as a nappe or vein. like a large orifice.. . . @tepped notch The type of notch. over which the water flows. therefore a notch may have only the *ottom edge and sides. whereas a weir is usually mad of masonry or concrete. 8ii: 5 structure. with the upstream liquid level *elow the top edge of the opening. used to dam up a stream or river. That is why a notch is sometimes called as a weir and vice versa. is called a weir. Trape0oidal notch 3. The *ottom edge. 5 notch is. are practically the same as those of a rectangular notch.notch and its discharge.2013 Discharge Over Weirs Introduction !otches 8i: 5 notch may *e defined as an opening in one side of a tank or a reservoir.

. . * ! *readth of the weir.<.2013 "2pe o& 3eirs4 8a: Aectangular weir 8*: Bipoletti weir The type of rectangular weir we have used is the rectangular weir and its discharge is related *y the following equation: 7 ! 8&'2: Bd *8√&g:h2'& Bd ! coefficient of discharge h ! height of the liquid a*ove the crest of the weir.

e. water is admitted from the *ench supply to the apparatus until the level is appro+imately correct. until the crest of the weir lies 1ust on the surface. with a channel and a rectangular or /. it is first leveled and the 0ero of the hook gauge is esta*lished. The edge of the notch is sharp. and then carefully *aled out or in. using a small *eaker.notch at the end. .hen the correct level has *een o*tained. i. In some cases the relationship *etween the water level upstream of the weir and the discharge over it. 6escription 5& Apparatus The apparatus is as shown in the diagram. .notch. the hook gauge reading corresponding to the level of the crest of the notch. Experimental Procedure4 • If the apparatus is fitted with Esill tu*e with )ook FaugeG. weirs are commonly used to regulate flow in rivers and open channels. the reflection of the / in the surface serves to indicate whether the level is correct or not as illustrated in Fig. • To do this. is known. the hook gauge is set.8-:*. • • • For the rectangular weir. The water flowing over the notch may *e collected in a hopper and can *e weighed or measured. . this can *e checked or illustrated in Fig 8-:a. so that the discharge at any time may *e found *y o*serving the upstream water level. in the water surface in the side tu*e and the reading taken. For the /.2013 Introduction 5& Apparatus In hydraulic engineering.>. *y placing a steel rule on the crest.

.23.3== <..== &=.6= "!s 2.34= "!s 2. &.236 Dean! 3.x1894.26.33 2.m3 &&.-4 -2.-&-m2'& .2= &&.=2-6m2'& 1 2 3 .m3 <.=63m2'& 1 2 3 .!.->= .6= :!.24 -3.x1894.x1894m3!s..x1894.244 &.x1894m3!s&.-== .262 h ! =.-= mC 8speed -:C h2'& ! =.-2> 1 2 3 .=6m h ! =..-6mC 8speed &:C h2'& ! =..>4 "!s 2. 3..2.!.m3 -2.&3 2.2&.-=2 Dean! .-< 2.!.=6 &. -= . 3.-2 2. Dean!&.&:!.=4 2.2013 Results 7 %alculations4 Aectangular weir * ! =.232 h ! =.>= :!..&34m 8speed 2:C h2'& ! =.x1894m3!s3.-&4 .

2-+-=.. -.a\$ainst 3!2 !m3!2 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 y = 53.15 8&'2: Bd *8H&g: ! gradient ! 4.=6m. .. .1 0.7824 Fradient ! 42. Bd ! =.2C where * ! =.3 m2'&'s @ince 7 ! 8&'2: Bd *8H&g:h2'& C 0.=2 • • Aeadings are not taken when the level has fallen to a point at which the stream closes to spring clear of the notch plates The flow of the water is given time to *ecome steady each time the supply value or pump switch is changed to a new position.082 + 0.+ -=.05 0.x1894m3!s.2013 1rap :!.

>. . &. 2. Iischarge definition: The coefficient of discharge is the ratio of the actual flow rate to the theoretical flow rate. through which water flows at a steady rate.notch. <.ater channel with a notch at end. Balculation of Flow Aate 4. the time for the level to rise *y a certain value ) 8e. is calculated. &cm: is noted. for the rectangular notch. 3. stopwatch. the volume flow rate. 6..2013 Introduction This e+periment uses an open channel which has a notch at its end. 7. -& . the reading on the pointer scale is read and this indicates the water level. the coefficient of discharge can *e calculated. . for a particular volume flow rate and water level. the volume flow rate is constant when the pointer stays 1ust in contact with the water surface. Thus. It is the fraction of the theoretical flow rate which gives the actual flow rate. and an average is taken.notch and the rectangular notch. for the /. the pointer is lowered so as it 1ust touches the surface of the water. Procedure -. Apparatus . The supply valve is opened to o*tain a small flow rate. the level of water is seen to rise on the scale found outside the tank.g. The two types of notches used in this e+periment are the /. the volume flow rate is calculated from a series of three readings of volume of water collected in a container in a given time. the discharge valve in the square tank is closed. The discharge at the notch can *e found *y o*serving the water level in the channel. . Aim The aim of this e+periment is to calculate the coefficient of discharge of water passing through the notch.

. a graph of 7 against h4'& is plotted.34 4 5.53 5. the pump switch 8or supply valve for /. -&.2013 -=.75 38. of water collected in tank in time t.<-:-'&h4'&tan 8-3.-: Results of volume flow rate obtained.cm J ! Tan.notch: 5pe+ height.<4: cm /olume.56 3 10.!5 33.2 = Flow equation for /.50 3!. h ! 8hn K 2. Precautions  Aeadings are not taken when the level has fallen to a point at which the stream closes to spring clear of the notch plate. -2 .9notc ) ! & cm Initial water level ! 2.idth.71 3.78 3.. cm . * ! -&.!6 !.. --.notch: 7 ! Bd <'-4 8&g:-'&tan Jh4'& ! Bd <'-4 8&+>. and width. steps -.2! 2 37.06 3.10 11.notch the height.notch: is ad1usted to a different position 8roughly equal increments in head: to give a new flow rate.=& + =.43 5.46 3!. of the /. the gradient of the graph is used to find the coefficient of discharge.06 Ta*le -.2: .0! 3. Results and calculations &or . s ! =.M ! -3. .77 5 3.58 5. /.. /. -2.75 6 3.>& + -.58 11. *.!7 3. For the /.&& ! =.L8-&.84 3. -3.  The flow of the water is given time to *ecome steady each time the supply valve or pump switch is changed to a new position.-'&:'&2. h.notch is measured and the angle J is calculated while the width of the rectangular notch is measured.=&&3 m2 Time t (s) to rise by h (cm) Experiment number 1 38.17 37.> are repeated and a series of readings of low and head on the weir is found and recorded.<4 cm Borrected water level. h ! &2.1! 41.

67 16 12.78 Ta*le -.8! " 5.30 68.-: '=." (m !/s) 1 3!.75 167.4 0. -3 . g ! 2.13 Ta*le -.65 !68.2>&6& m-'&'s Bd ! 82.00 14.7 -orrected h /cm 6.74!7 60.00 20.&: Flow rate values for each experiment. height /cm 10.2013 7 ! =.00 50.6! 22.0685 1.0775 1.5 15.00 ! 10.! 0.6=2 ! =.8 h#/ h/1++ (m) 0. Graph of Q 80.85 122.00 20.42 23.1!!5 17.1835 14.04 5.!262 + 0.00 10.00 30.00 10.>&6& + -=.00 6.15 514.43 6.1565 !.00 16.00 h From graph.!5 1777.! (m #/ ) 11.3 + -=2 ! =.75 37.00 4.6 0. Fradient.35 1442.6 7.58 40.1215 5.2 0.25 # 3.15 1!.00 18.8 1!.6=2Bdh4'& Experiment number %ean time& t /s '(o) rate Q& */t x 1+.54 \$ 3.00 y = 3.77 5!.2: Calculation of h5/2 (m5/2).00 8.00 0.00 0.00 12.>2 + -=.00 Q 40.00 against h 70.64 .00 2. .7 0.23 h#/ x1+.75 20.2 18.

. The walls of the channel and tank 8for rectangular notch: can *e made stronger to resist *uckling 8as o*served during the e+periment: when the level of water is high. The /.viscous: and the flow assumed to *e laminar 8steady and uniform:. The coefficient of discharge for the different flow rates shows how much the actual flow rate agrees with the theoretical calculations.notch is used to measure the flow of a river. The circular inlet valve can *e num*ered so that the flow can *e chosen at almost equal increments. In this e+periment the actual flow rate is 64 N of the calculated flow rate.64 which is an accepta*le value if a /. * ! 6cm 7 ! Bd 8&'2:*H8&g:h4'& %onclusions The coefficient of discharge for a /.notch apparatus can *e improved *y making the channel correctly rectangular all through.notch was found to *e =.2013 Results and calculations &or rectan\$ular notc For rectangular notch. Onfortunately. this is difficult to achieve in practice and this e+plains the value =. This large discrepancy *etween the actual and calculated flow rates can *e e+plained *y considering the assumptions used in the calculations: the fluid is an ideal 8incompressi*le and non. -4 . .64 in this e+periment.

sectional area for different volumetric flow rate. It is the fraction of the theoretical flow rate which gives the actual flow rate. and 5-/. -6 .! 5&/&:. flows through it. In this e+periment. . according to Bernoulli’s equations 8" # %(/& # h(g ! Bonstant. Aim The aim of this e+periment is to investigate how the pressure varies at different positions along a tu*e of varying cross. . . @ince the area is changing. eleven pie0ometer tu*es with a scale are used instead of the gauge. By placing pie0ometer tu*es at different positions along the constricted tu*e.2013 TO "T#D\$ T%E &'OW T%(O#)% * VE!T#(+. the velocity of water is changing as well as the pressure at a particular cross. the difference *etween any two readings giving the pressure difference. This is the concept of the venturimeter and *y varying the flow. the pressure at different cross. )ere.sectional area can *e found for a certain flow of water.ater in . The coefficient of discharge 8Bd: is also to *e found.-: Pie ometers alon! a "enturimeter.ater out Figure -.sectional area in which water. of volumetric flow rate 7.ET(E Introduction This e+periment uses a tu*e of varying cross. The coefficient of discharge is the ratio of the actual flow rate to the theoretical flow rate.section. a pressure gauge measures the difference in pressure *etween points 5 and B in the constricted tu*e. different pie0ometer readings can *e found. The figure *elow illustrates the *asic concept of the venturimeter.

.E -<4 -64 -34 -&4 -=4 <4 64 34 &4 4 ( 1 * @ A 0 &== ->3 &=& &=6 &=> &-2 &-6 &-> &&& &&6 &&> -<.38 7 &=. hn is the ideal head of fluid a*ove datum for a particular pie0ometer h.. > &3& -= &3< ? % 6 .= -64 -6= -46 -4= -3= -<> -<6 -<3 -<2 -<= -."m !/s) 1 . %alculations Balculating the ideal pressure at pie0ometer 5 and B Osing the equation hn. /.3 -6.34 4.&= 1.6 -6< -4< -4= -3= -2& -&4 -=4 -=6 -<4 -<-.3& 2.3 -. ->..4'-=== ! . .& &=4 2 &-= 3 &-3 4 &&& 6 &&6 . 2.! 8a&:& .-3 3.05 6 &&.4 + -=.*/t (x 1+.6 -.h. -<6 -<< ->& ->3 ->4 ->6 ->6 -6< -4-24 --< -=& <6 .44 3& -.3 -.& ->2 ->& ->= ->->= ->= ->= ->= ->= ->3 ->3 ->3 ->6 ->.72 < -<.is the cross sectional area of pie0ometer 5 a& is the cross sectional area of pie0ometer I 8a-:& 8an:& quation - Balculating the actual flow rate Dass of water collected ! .82 3 2&.2 m2 Experiment no.4 \$g /olume. ->> &== &=& ->4 ->6 ->4 ->> &== &=& &=3 &=4 &=. -<2 -.46 3.is the actual pie0ometer reading at pie0ometer 5 u& is the speed of flow at pie0ometer I g is the acceleration due to gravity an is the cross sectional area of the particular pie0ometer a.05 2 3-.>3.2013 Results Pie#ometer A ..31 4 &.&= 3.&.45 .<3 4..< -. of water collected ! . &2& < &2. -6. -< .71 5 &3.!7 = 18 -.-.-= 1. 8a&:& u&&'&g where.. -6& -4< -3> -32 -2. 1 +periment &=no. t>s Q.= 2.

3 m& 7 ! -.2.=4 + -=. -! -2. From the conservation of mass: 7 ! 5/ +periment 5rea of pie0ometer at I ! 88P'3: + -6&:'-====! &.< mm +periment & 7 ! -. 5: area /: velocity of flow 7: flow rate .& mm From quation -.=4 + -=. .! &=.! ->> mm The same calculation is done for the remaining pie0ometers for *oth e+periments and the results are ta*ulated in Ta*le -.3 m2's /elocity of flow at I.+ -=.and & are used: The reference point is at pie0ometer I.>.mm Ideal head for pie0ometer ) for e+pt.3:' 8&.3:' 8&.3: ! =.<& + -=. -> .2013 @ince at lower flow rates there are less energy losses.=.O&&'&g ! 3&.<& + -=. the flow rates of e+periment .+ -=.<3&:&M # &=.4& ms.3 m2's /elocity of flow at I. Ideal pressure ! h(g . hn ! 8u&'&g:L8a&'a-:& K 8a&'an:&M # hh.=.+ -=.! 8-. u.O-&'&g ! -2.3: ! =. u& ! 8-.here h is the head in metres ( is the density of water 8-=== \$gQm2: g is the acceleration due to gravity.=.ms.<L8-6&'&6&:& K 8-6&'&-.

1<34 1<55 -64 161= 1<<8 -6< 164< 1=15 -.& Actual PressureB /g (0a) Ideal head 8mm: Ideal PressureB +\$ .. .4 -<6. &= .& &=4 &=-.Actual PressureB /g (0a) Ideal head 8mm: Ideal PressureB /g (0a) +periment no.Pa- A &=- ? &== % ->3 1=83 6 .6 1727 1=37 -<4 1<15 ->= 1<64 1=72 1=61 &=4 &=& 1=52 1=62 1=6= 1=72 -<> ->2 ->3 ->4 2811 1=<2 &=4 1<54 1<=3 1=83 1=13 ->3.< -.6 ->4.2 1<33 1617 1738 1<37 2811 1=77 1=86 1=<2 2883 2811 Fraph of pressure 8R'm&: against distance along the pie0ometer tu*e 8mm: from 5 for 7-: 1!80 1!60 1!40 1!20 1!00 1880 1860 1840 1820 1800 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 "dea# Pre\$\$%re &or '1 ()t%a# *re\$\$%re &or '1 .2 &=& &=3.2 -<.->-.& ->.2013 Pie#ometer +periment no. &=- ->>...6..> ->4.> -63.4 1=14 -<. 2-<4 1<15 E -<6 1<25 ( -<< 1<44 1 ->& 1<<4 * ->3 @ ->4 A ->6 0 ->6 1=72 1=62 &=- 1=83 1=13 1=23 1=23 ->> &== &==.-<>..

72 3.43 10. < > -= Q..== <>. & 2 3 4 6 .82 2.31 2.82 11.== --.*/t (x h-.. H 8h-.-.86 14.== 3=.1+.== -3-.38 3.87 12. &.== 64. .34 4.45 .== C.5! 1.32 8.== &-.73 15..2013 Fraph of pressure 8R'm&: against distance along the pie0ometer tu*e 8mm: from 5 for 7&: 2050 2000 1!50 1!00 1850 1800 1750 1700 1650 1600 0 20 ()t%a# *re\$\$%re &or '2 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 "dea# *re\$\$%re &or '2 Ietermination of Bd: From Ta*le -."m !/s) 4.05 3. 19 2.== &32.== ->&.!2 13.05 1..71 3.h& -6.00 6.== -6.h&: is calculated for each e+periment and is plotted against the flow rate 7: Experiment no.!7 4.06 !.

&& .00 4.4'&'s By the conservation of mass and energy and from Bernoulli’s equation.00 6.00 Fradient of graph ! 82.=7 Balculating Bd for each e+periment: 7 ! kBd H 8h-.h ) m1/ 10. H-.00 y = 3.00 0.3: ! 8.00 SQ1T(h1. The actual flow rate.00 1.00 8.3: ' 8>.00 2.00 2.h ) against Q 18.00 12.3 m4'&'s ! k .00 4.00 0.=.50 2. + -=2 m.2> + -=3:'H-=== ! -.6& + -=.00 3.50 4. 7 ! Bda&H&g8h-.h&:M .i-ear (+erie\$1) 1.50 +erie\$1 .50 5.00 14.00 0.6& + -=.2013 Graph of SQ1T(h1. 8a&'a-:& a&H&g ! >.h&: H-.8a&'a-:& %d ! Linverse Fradient of graphM' k ! 8>." m!/s 3.50 Q x 1+.3052 16.24 + -=.h&: Bd ! 7'LkH 8h-. .3!31 + 0.

44 0.72 3.*19*2.!7 0.50 2.45 0.!4 0.38 3.!7 4. < > -= 0.38 0.31 2.47 0.05 1.!4 0.!8 0.34 4.2013 Experiment Q.!6 0.!2 -d 0.og.71 3.00 4.20 0.d no. .86 0.41 0.50 .!5 0.4! 0.!4 0.34 0."m !/s) -Graph of -d against Q 1.84 0.13 0.50 4.00 3.!4 0.00 1. !m 1+.86 0.00 .!4 0.82 2.!5 0.30 0. (+erie\$1) 1.50 5.!3 0.*/t (x C.25 0.50 Q 3. &2 .!4 0.05 3.00 2.00 +erie\$1 0.88 & 2 3 4 6 .!0 0.

The actual and theoretical discharge will *oth decrease since energy is used 8or lost: to move the fluid to a higher elevation along the venturimeter and is converted to potential energy.>. the elevation head is similar and cancel out in Bernoulli’s equation 8as used *efore: and is not included for calculations.h&: against the flow rate 7 is a straight line. The graph of Bd against flow rate 7 shows a curved line where Bd is small for small flow rates and large for large flow rates. The difference in pressure *etween ideal and actual *ecomes greater as we move along the length of the pie0ometer tu*es. the pressure is lower since the cross. a hori0ontal venturimeter was used and the reference points were all at the same elevation with respect to any hori0ontal datum.N of the theoretical flow rate. most of the values seem to *e close to =. occurring due to tur*ulence at the diverging section and due to greater frictional losses with the inner walls of the tu*e. which means that the actual flow rate if >. a straight hori0ontal line passing through =. This confirms the validity of the flow rate equation used *efore. Doreover. .2013 %onclusions The venturimeter has a coefficient of discharge of =. meaning that these two varia*les are proportional to each other. this value of discharge is a very good estimation for flow rates and this is why venturimeters are commonly used to measure flow in pipes.3 m2's. Therefore. at the lowest pressures 8at the trough: as the graph goes down to its lowest values. In this e+periment. The graph of H 8h-.. This is so *ecause of greater energy losses along the length of the tu*e. The values of Bd *ecome more or less similar *etween flow rate values of &. 8as calculated a*ove: should have *een o*tained. . nergy losses accompanying the change of flow pattern within the converging section is lower than the diverging section. In theory. The readings on the pie0ometer tu*es will *e lower from 5 to S than o*tained here.>3. the elevation would have *een different and hence the elevation head would have to *e included in the calculations.>.and 7& shows that the actual fluid pressure is always smaller that the ideal flow rate. In this case. If an inclined venturimeter was used. &3 .3 + -=.sectional areas of the tu*es are lower and the velocities are high 8pie0ometer I and :. The graph of ideal and actual pressure against for 7. Therefore.