Running head: CORRELATION OF UNEMPLOYED POOR FILIPINOS AND CRIME CASES

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Correlation of Prevalence of Poor Unemployed Population and the Volume of Crime Cases in the Philippines Tyrone Reden L. Sy Ateneo de Manila University

a moderately strong and direct significant correlation existed when the magnitude of poor unemployed Filipinos and the volume of crime cases were correlated. Archival research techniques were used to gather secondary data from the websites of the Directorate for Investigation and Detective Management website of the Philippine National Police. strain theory . The findings are in support of Merton’s and Agnew’s Strain theories. poverty. unemployment. and the National Statistical Coordination Board. However.CORRELATION OF UNEMPLOYED POOR FILIPINOS AND CRIME CASES 2 Abstract This study aimed to investigate whether the magnitude of poor unemployed Filipinos is correlated to the volume of crime cases across Philippine regions. Analysis reveals that there is no significant correlation between the magnitude of poor Filipinos and the volume of crime cases. Keywords: criminal behavior.

people find that their way to achieve those cultural goals is blocked (e. go to college and work hard). For example. get rich) and legitimate ways to achieve those goals (e. Psychologists would often emphasize personality variables. social psychology and sociology have pointed to the environment as a stronger determinant of criminal behavior. disappointed and frustrated to the extent that the person will use crime and delinquent behavior as solution to his “negative affect”.CORRELATION OF UNEMPLOYED POOR FILIPINOS AND CRIME CASES 3 Correlation of Prevalence of Poor Unemployed Population and the Volume of Crime Cases in the Philippines The etiology of criminal behavior is varied. they cannot find a job that fits them). 2010). leads him to commit acts which are usually against the moral and legal norms of a society. however. Merton’s and Agnew’s Strain Theories are indispensable especially in analysis of the prevalence of poverty in relation to crime.g. One such theory is that of Robert Merton’s Strain Theory (1956. He contends that for a person to commit criminal behavior a key mediating variable is that a person must have “negative affect”. it is estimated that 23 million . either because he is born with one through genetics.g.g. For Agnew (1992). they have no money to go to afford college tuition fees. they usually emphasize how an individual’s ‘faulty’ personality. that is. When people feel strained. they may resort to other means to achieve those goals and one of these means is through criminal behavior. 1968 as cited in Henslin. 1994). According to this theory. At times. In the Philippines. Merton’s assumptions have been augmented by Agnew (1992 as cited in Paternoster & Mazerolle. society has cultural goals (e. it is not only the strain that is caused by discrepancy between our goals and the means to achieve those goals that causes criminal behavior. hence they feel strained. In contrast. he must feel angry. In 2008. or he has been raised in a dysfunctional social environment.

CORRELATION OF UNEMPLOYED POOR FILIPINOS AND CRIME CASES 4 Filipinos (27% of Philippine population) are living below the Asia-Pacific poverty line of about $1. 2013).9% of Filipinos are currently unemployed and 19. Unable to fully satisfy their needs because most are underemployed or even unemployed (their way to achieve the cultural goal of being able to eat at least thrice a day is blocked). it can be said that Filipino will experience strain given that a significant number are below the poverty line. the SWS also found that 18. In a separate survey.3% are underemployed as of April 2012 (http://www. 2013). On the assumptions of Merton and Agnew’s Strain Theory. Methods Archival research was utilized to gather secondary data. there would be an increase in the prevalence of crimes in the Philippines.inquirer.5% were severely hungry (the families experienced hunger and not have anything to eat only often + always).ph/secstat/ d_labor.gov.ph/ retrieved January 25.gov. An SWS survey conducted in September 2011 found that 52% of Filipino respondents rated themselves as “poor” (http://www. 2013).ph/ . Crime statistics across regions of the Philippines were retrieved from the databases of the Directorate for Investigation and Detective Management website of the Philippine National Police (http://didm.sws. But is this really the case? This correlational study will thus provide quantitative evidence to determine whether there is an association between the prevalence of Poor Unemployed Population and the Number of Crime Cases across the 17 regions of the Philippines. The poverty and hunger experienced by Filipinos are compounded by the fact that almost 6.35 a day (http://globalnation.nscb.0% of respondents were moderately hungry (the families experienced hunger and not have anything to eat only once + a few times) while 3.org.net/news/breakingnews/view/20080827-157167/23million-Filipinos-living-below-Asia-Pacific-poverty-line retrieved January 25.pnp.asp retrieved January 25.

57.57* 1 . Analysis reveals no significant correlation between the two variables (r = .CORRELATION OF UNEMPLOYED POOR FILIPINOS AND CRIME CASES 5 Statistics/2010/Crime%20Statistics%202010. Magnitude of Poor Population and Magnitude of Poor Unemployed Population across Philippine Regions (N=17) Magnitude of Poor Population Magnitude of Poor Unemployed Population Total Volume of Crime Total Volume of Crime Magnitude of Poor Population Magnitude of Poor Unemployed Population Note: *p < .05).05).21. 2013). p < 0.05. a moderately strong and direct significant correlation was found when the magnitude of poor unemployed population was correlated with total crime volume (r = . Results Statistical data on the magnitude of poor population across the regions of the Philippines for 2009 was first correlated with statistics on total crime volume for 2009. p > 0. the number of people living in poverty is not related to the prevalence of crime. What is significantly correlated to crime .68* 1 Discussion The findings of this study indicates that in the Philippines.nscb. All data were encoded and analyzed using the IBM Statistical Product and Service Solutions (IBM SPSS) version 20. Table 1 Pearson’s Product Moment Correlations between Volume of Crime.21 .gov. However.ph/poverty/2009/tables_basic.asp retrieved January 25. 2013) whereas statistics on the prevalence of poor population were downloaded from the National Statistical Coordination Board website (http://www. 1 .pdf retrieved January 25.

Undergoing strain. governmental policies should thus be aimed not only at eliminating poverty but also at empowering the poor by giving them employment opportunities. However when we take into account the unemployment status of the poor. It can be inferred from this that the etymology of the crime in the Philippines results not only from mere poverty but also from not having the opportunity to respond and rise from their poverty (e. Analysis indicates that the greater the number of poor people who are unemployed. For one.g. In this regard. no significant correlation exists. Caution must be exercised however when interpreting the findings of this study. is the number of poor unemployed population. Future studies should thus address this logistical limitation and attempt to further segment data by city-level or even by barangay for more accurate results. It is interesting to note that when the magnitude of poor population is correlated with crime rate per region. The statistics provided by the Philippine National Database only enumerated total crime volume per region hence limiting the total number of cases to 17. frustration and disappointment because of lack of financial security. being unemployed). a national study . this study is limited by the availability of crime and poverty data per region. the correlation between criminal behavior and poverty becomes significant and directly proportional. the higher the prevalence of crimes reported. First. The results of this study therefore give support to the assumptions of Merton’s and Agnew’s Strain Theories. Most importantly. Given this research’s findings. underreporting of crimes and poverty levels is very prevalent in the Philippines. as inherent in most survey designs. some of the unemployed Filipino poor may have resorted to engaging in criminal behavior as instruments in order to survive from day-to-day. crime and poverty data analyzed in this study may have contained some sampling errors.CORRELATION OF UNEMPLOYED POOR FILIPINOS AND CRIME CASES 6 however.

R. Philippine Poverty Statistics.sws. New Perspectives for Research on Juvenile Delinquency (pp. (n.CORRELATION OF UNEMPLOYED POOR FILIPINOS AND CRIME CASES 7 should be conducted to determine the prevalence of crime and conditions of crimes at the local level. D.ph/ . Washington D. Retrieved from http://www. In H. Boston: Pearson Higher Education. The Socio-Cultural Environment and Anomie.pnp. R. (2012).gov. Witmer. R.pdf Dumlao.: U. August 27). Social Weather Station. (1956). (n. Criminology. Illinois: Free Press. Retrieved from http://www. Retrieved from http://globalnation. References Agnew. Retrieved from http://www. (1968). Merton.asp Paternoster. 47-87.org.).C. Kotinsky.ph/Statistics/2009/Crime%20Statistics%202009. Foundation for a General Strain Theory of Crime and Delinquency.. National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved from http://didm. (1994). Labor and Employment. R. General Strain Thoery and Delinquency: A Replication and Extension.net/news/breakingnews/view/20080827-157167/23-millionFilipinos-living-below-Asia-Pacific-poverty-line Henslin.d.ph/secstat/d_labor.d. (2008. Merton. 24-50). (1992).nscb. J. (n.).S.inquirer. Department of Health.ph/poverty/2009/tables_basic.gov. Inquirer Global Nation.nscb.asp National Statistical Coordination Board.d.).). & Mazerolle. Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Education and Welfare. Glencoe. Directorate for Investigation and Detective Management. 235-263. Social Theory and Social Structure.gov. (n. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency.d. P. & R.