Standard Method of Test for

Sampling of Aggregates
AASHTO Designation: T 2-91 (2000) ASTM Designation: D 75-87 (1992) є1
AASHTO T 2-91 is identical to ASTM D 75-87 (1992) є1 except that all references to ASTM Standard C 702 contained in ASTM D 75-87 (1992) є1 shall be replaced with AASHTO Standard T 248.

Designation: D 75 - 87 (Reapproved 1992) є1

American Association State Highway and Transportation’ Officials Standard AASHTON No 12

Standard Practice for Sampling Aggregates1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 75; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or. in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon (є) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This practice has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense. Consult the DoD Index of Specifications and Standards for the specific year of issue which has been adopted by the Department of Defense. є1 NOTE—Editorial changes were made throughout in September 1992.

1. Scope*
1.1 This practice covers sampling of coarse and fine aggregates for the following purposes: 1.1.1 Preliminary investigation of the potential source of supply, 1.1.2 Control of the product at the source of supply, 1.1.3 Control of the operations at the site of use, and 1.1.4 Acceptance or rejection of the materials. NOTE 1—Sampling plans and acceptance and control tests vary with the type of construction in which the material is used. Attention to directed to Practices E 105 and D 3665. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to

establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 2. Referenced Documents 2.1 ASTM Standards: C 702 Practice for Reducing Field Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size2 D 2234 Test Method for Collection of a Gross Sample of Coal3 D 3665 Practice for Random Sampling of Construction Materials4

E 105 Practice for Probability Sampling of Materials5 E 122 Practice for Choice of Sample Size to
Estimate the Average Quality of a Lot or Process5 E 141 Practice for Acceptance of Evidence Based

For more comprehensive guidance. particularly when the sampling is done for the purpose of determining aggregate properties that may be dependent upon the grading of the sample.03.3 Procedure: 4.3. see the Appendix. and space them such that the material contained between them will yield an increment of the required weight. Published December 1987. This approach will allow the sampling agency to use a sampling plan that will give a confidence in results obtained therefrom that is agreed upon by all parties concerned to be acceptable for the particular situation.02. 4. Vol 14. 3. A set of rails may be necessary to support the pan as it is passed under the discharge stream.02. such as Practice D 3665. The sampling plan shall define the number of samples necessary to represent lots and sublots of specific sizes. 4. Current edition approved Oct. 30.2 Sampling from the Conveyor Belt— Select units to be sampled by a random method.4. Samples from the finished product to be tested for abrasion loss shall not be subject to further crushing or manual reduction in particle size in preparation for the abrasion test unless the size of the finished product is such that it requires further reduction for testing purposes. the shape of which conforms to the shape of the belt in the aggregate stream on the belt. such as Practice D 3665.30 on Methods of Sampling.1 Sampling is equally as important as the testing. design a sampling plan for the specific case under consideration. Take each increment from the entire cross section of the material as it is being discharged.2. samples to be tested for quality shall be obtained from the finished product. This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-4 on Road and Paving Materials and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D04. Insert two templates.3.4. Stop the conveyor belt while the sample increments are being obtained. 4. keep bins continuously full or nearly full to reduce segregation. This device consists of a pan of sufficient size to intercept the entire cross section of the discharge stream and hold the required quantity of material without overflowing. 1 3. NOTE 2—The preliminary investigation and sampling of potential aggregate sources and types occupies a very important place in determining the availability and suitability of the largest single constituent entering into the construction. from the unit being sampled and combine to form a field sample whose mass equals or exceeds the minimum recommended in 4. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Securing Samples 4. from the production. Obtain at least three approximately equal increments. Annual Book of ASTM Standards.1 Sampling from a Flowing Aggregate aggregate or mixed coarse and fine aggregate from stockpiles or transportation units whenever possible.2 Inspection—The material shall be inspected to determine discernible variations. This investigation should be done only by a responsible trained and experienced person. Obtain at least three approximately equal increments. Significance and Use 3. If circumstances make it necessary to obtain samples from a stockpile of coarse aggregate or a stockpile of combined coarse and fine aggregate.05. Vol 05. 1987.3. selected at random. Carefully scoop all material between the templates into a suitable container and collect the fines on the belt with a brush and dustpan and add to the container.3 Sampling from Stockpiles or Transportation Units— Avoid sampling coarse 4. from the production. The seller shall provide suitable equipment needed for proper inspection and sampling. and the sampler shall use every precaution to obtain samples that will show the nature and condition of the materials which they represent. NOTE 3—Sampling the initial discharge or the final few tons from a bin or conveyor belt increases the chances of obtaining segregated material and should be avoided. Originally published as D 75 — 20 T. 2 Annual Book of ASTM Standards.1 General—Where practicable. General principles . 3 Annua/ Book of ASTM Standards. from the aggregate standpoint. contractor. selected at random from the unit being sampled.on the Results of Probability Sampling5 Stream (Bins or Belt Discharge)—Select units to be sampled by a random method.2 Samples for preliminary investigation tests are obtained by the party responsible for development of the potential source (Note 2). Vol 04. Samples for tests to be used in acceptance or rejection decisions by the purchaser are obtained by the purchaser or his authorized representative. or other parties responsible for accomplishing the work. Last previous edition D 75 —82. 4.2. Vol 04. It influences the type of construction from the standpoint of economics and governs the necessary material control to ensure durability of the resulting structure. It is usually necessary to have a special device constructed for use at each particular plant. Samples of materials for control of the production at the source or control of the work at the site of use are obtained by the manufacturer. and combine to form a field sample whose mass equals or exceeds the minimum recommended in 4. Insofar as is possible.

(75 mm) 330(150) 3 1/2 in.5 mm) 25 (10) 1/2 in. and Practice E 141. . Shipping Samples 5.for sampling from stockpiles are applicable to sampling from trucks. the properties to be measured. exploration of potential sources. base or subbase) minimum weight shall be coarse aggregate minimum plus 25 lb (10 kg). B lb (kq) Fine Aggregate No. Generally speaking.36 mm) No.2 The field sample masses cited are tentative.4.3) required depends on the criticality of. taking care to exclude any underlying material. from the construction. number and sizes needed to estimate character. Keywords 6. (50 mm) 220 (100) 2 1/2 in.5 mm) 165 (75) 2 in. aggregates.2 Shipping containers for aggregate samples shall have suitable individual identification attached and enclosed so that field reporting. laboratory logging. 25 (10) 25 (10) 6. Practice E 105. Take all increments from the roadway for the full depth of the material. The masses must be predicated on the type and number of tests to which the material is to be subjected and sufficient material obtained to provide for the proper execution of these tests. 4 (4. (63 mm) 275 (125) 3 in. the amounts specified in Table 1 will provide adequate material for routine grading and quality analysis.0 mm) 55 (25) 1 in. B For combined coarse and fine aggregates (for example. Practice E 122. (19. For general guidance in sampling from stockpiles. and test reporting may be facilitated. 4.3.1 Transport aggregates in bags or other containers so constructed as to preclude loss or contamination of any part of the sample. and combine to form a field sample whose mass equals or exceeds the minimum recommended in 4. (37. (25. such as Practice D 3665.0 mm) 110 (50) 1 1/2 in. 5.1 aggregates. Obtain at least three approximately equal increments.1 The number of field samples (obtained by one of the methods described in 4. Mass of Field Samples.4 Number and Masses of Field Samples: TABLE 1 Size of Samples Maximum Nominal Size A of Aggregates Approximate Minimum NOTE 4—Guidance for determining the number of samples required to obtain the desired level of confidence in test results may be found in Test Method D 2234. Clearly mark the specific areas from which each increment is to be removed: a metal template placed over the area is a definite aid in securing approximately equal increment weights. (90 mm) 385 (175) A For processed aggregate the nominal maximum size of particles is the largest sieve size listed in the applicable specification. or damage to the contents from mishandling during shipment. Designate each unit from which a field sample is to be obtained prior to sampling.75 mm) Coarse Aggregate 3/8 in. Standard acceptance and control tests are covered by ASTM standards and specify the portion of the field sample required for each specific test. 4. upon which any material is permitted to be retained.4 Sampling from Roadway (Bases and Subbases)— Sample units selected by a random method. sampling 4. aggregates. selected at random from the unit being sampled. 8(2. rail cars. 5.2.5 mm) 35 (15) ¾ in. 4.4. Extract test portions from the field sample according to Practice C 702 or as required by other applicable test methods. (9. barges or other transportation units. The number of field samples from the production should be sufficient to give the desired confidence in test results. and variation in. (12.4. see the Appendix.

at least 1 ft (0.l. except for adjusting the number of increments according to the size of the truck. and at the bottom third of the volume of the pile. For coarse or mixed coarse and fine aggregate. The trench bottom should be approximately level.l In sampling material from stockpiles it is very difficult to ensure unbiased samples. barges. effort should be made to enlist the services of power equipment capable of exposing the material at various levels and random locations.I Scope (30-mm) mm by 6 ft (2-m) mm in length may be Xl.3 Record—In addition to the general information accompanying all samples the following information should accompany samples taken from ledges or quarry faces: . sampling tubes as described in Xl. due to the segregation which often occurs when material is stockpiled.I Scope X2. Where power equipment is not available. Sampling tubes approximately 1 ~ XI. SAMPLING AGGREGATE FROM STOCKPILES OR TRANSPORTATION UNITS should be removed and the sample taken from the material beneath. Xl. XI .2 Sampling Stone from Quarries or Ledges X2.3 m) in width and in depth below the surface.3. or trucks.3 Sampling from Transportation Units Xl . small sampling pile composed of materials drawn from various levels and locations in the main pile after which several increments may be combined to compose the field sample. and this piece should be free of seams or fractures.2 may be used to extract an appropriate number of increments to form the sample. For fine aggregate in transportation units.2. X2. with coarser particles rolling to the outside base of the pile. I Inspection—The ledge or quarry face should be inspected to determine discernible variations or strata.2 Sampling from Stockpiles Xl. X2. a common procedure requires excavation of three or more trenches across the unit at points that will. This appendix is intended to provide general guidance and list more comprehensive references.2. Differences in color and structure should be recorded. every effort should be made to enlist the services of power equipment to develop a separate.1 Sampling for evaluation of potential aggregate sources should be performed by a responsible trained and experienced person.1 In sampling coarse aggregates from railroad cars or barges. at the midpoint.APPENDIXES (Nonmandatory Information) XI. Xl. In sampling stockpiles of fine aggregate the outer layer. give a reasonable estimate of the characteristics of the load.2.2. (150 by 150 by 100 mm) in size with the bedding plane plainly marked. A board shoved vertically into the pile just above the sampling point aids in preventing further segregation. from visual appearance. The sample should not include material weathered to such an extent that it is no longer suitable for the purpose intended. samples from stockpiles should be made up of at least three increments taken from the top third. which max’ have become segregated.1. EXPLORATION OF POTENTIAL AGGREGATE SOURCES X2.2 Sampling and Size of Sample—Separate samples having a mass of at least 50 lb (approximately 25 kg) should be obtained from each discernible stratum. One or more pieces in each sample should be at least 6 by 6 by 4 in. the procedure should ensure that segregation does not introduce a serious bias in the results. X2.2 Where power equipment is not available. A minimum of three increments from approximately equally spaced points along each trench should be taken by pushing a shovel downward into the material. Coarse aggregate in trucks should be sampled in essentially the same manner as for rail cars or barges. In such cases sample. separate samples should be drawn from separate areas of the pile. Because of the wide variety of conditions under which sampling may have to be done it is not possible to describe detailed procedures applicable to all circumstances. If necessary to indicate the degree of variability existing within the main pile.2. X2.l In some situations it is mandatory to sample inserted into the pile at random locations to extract a aggregates that have been stored in stockpiles or minimum of five increments of material to form the loaded into rail cars.

3 Quantity and character of overburden.3.) X2. assumed to have been from the truck. nature of the deposit.X2.2.3.6 Details as to extent and location of material represented by each sample. and thus of the material.3.2 Sampling—Samples should be so chosen from each different stratum in the deposit discernible to the sampler. should be indicated by unit sampled.3.3. showing the thickness and location of the different layers is recommended for this purpose.2 A unit of bulk material composed of Standard graded aggregate or aggregate mixtures might consist X3. plan. statistical measures. If visual inspection indicates that there is considerable variation in the material.2 Estimate of approximate quantity available. and Variability X3.3. a field sample estimate of the average quality of a unit. is recommended for this purpose. character of the material.3. X2.3 Record—In addition to the general information accompanying all samples the following information should accompany samples of bank run sand and gravel: X2. if any.3.1—A sketch.3. of the average gradation that might be measured from X3. etc.2.3 Significant variability with a lot of representation of the field sample. and potential value of the material in the deposit. I Inspection—Potential sources of bank run sand and gravel may include previously worked pits from which there is an exposed face or potential deposits discovered through air-photo interpretation. X3.3.3. X2. If the deposit is worked as an open-face bank or pit. the entire load be tested of sufficient size to provide an acceptable might be tested.3.) X2. as a practical matter.1. X3.3. (If quantity is very large this may be recorded as practically unlimited. sufficient size extracted from the larger field sample by a procedure designed to ensure accurate X3. Research has shown that such a produced by the same process (for example.1 This appendix presents the rationale used sample should neither be so large as to mask the by the responsible committee in the development of effects of significant variability within the unit nor be this practice. topography of the area.3.4 Length of haul to proposed site of work. a truck load or a .2.2. a day’s procedure permits an acceptable estimate to be made production or a specific mass or volume).2. X2. or other types of terrain investigation. I Location of supply.4 unit—a batch or finite subdivision of a lot of bulk material (for example. so as to represent the materials proposed for use. is composed of three or more increments chosen at X3.1 Approximate quantity available. An estimate of the quantity of the different materials should be made. so small as to be affected by the inherent variability between small portions of any bulk material.2 Descriptions of Terms Specific to This X3. X2. The number and depth of test holes will depend upon the quantity of the material needed. geophysical exploration. where it might exist.3.2 lot—a sizable isolated quantity of bulk random from the material as it is loaded or unloaded material from a single source.3.3 A detailed record showing boundaries and location of material represented by each sample. showing the thickness and location of different layers.5 Character of haul (kind of road. and elevation. such as the standard deviation between units selected at random from within the lot.3.1 Scope X3.3. individual samples should be selected from the material in each well-defined stratum. samples should be taken by channeling the face vertically. X2. NUMBER AND SIZE OF INCREMENTS NEEDED TO ESTIMATE CHARACTER OF UNIT SAMPLED specific area covered).2 Quantity and character of overburden.3 Test Unit. Overburdened or disturbed material should not be included in the sample. X2. X3. NOTE X2.3. X3. X2. Each sample should be thoroughly mixed and quartered if necessary so that the field sample thus obtained will be at least 25 lb (12 kg) for sand and 75 lb (35 kg) if the deposit contains an appreciable amount of coarse aggregate.2—A sketch of plans and elevations. bottom to top.3 test portion—a quantity of the material of 15 or 20 increments from the truck.3 Sampling Roadside or Bank Run Sand and Gravel Deposits X2.2.3. Size. X2. Test holes should be excavated or drilled at numerous locations in the deposit to determine the quality of the material and the extent of the deposit beyond the exposed face.2. NOTE X2. maximum grades.1 The unit to be represented by a single field X3. If it were possible. 1 field sample—a quantity of the material to of a full truckload.3.

1916 Race St. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM Headquarters. This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and if not revised. PA 19103. either reapproved or withdrawn. This section may also include descriptions of the changes or reasons for the changes. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee. . If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards. (1) Appendix X3 was added. For the convenience of the user. and the risk of infringement of such rights. or both. Philadelphia. are entirely their own responsibility. which you may attend. The American Society for Testing and Materials takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard.SUMMARY OF CHANGES This section identifies the location of selected changes to this practice that have been incorporated since the last issue. Committee D-4 has highlighted those changes that may impact the use of this practice.. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights.