Culture: the collection of values, beliefs,bhr, customs,& attitudes-distinguish 1 society fr another.

-foreign business customs, values, and definitions of ethical behavior differ vastly 极大地 from domestic -A society’s culture determines the rules -govern how firms operate in the society. -Rely on home culture to compete in a new market= jeopardize 危害 international success. Including contract negotiations, production operations, marketing decisions & HR mngtt policies (may be affected by cultural variations) Ie. MCD ad in June 2005 showed Chinese man kneeling bfr a mcd’ vendor & begging him to accept his expired discount coupon. The ad caused uproar over the fact- begging is considered a shameful, humiliating act in china culture. The act was pulled due to a lack of culture sensitivity on MCD behalf Ie. Women’s groups r displeased over KFC’s latest ad campaign. The co is recruiting college women to act as ―human billboards‖ to hand out coupons for the Double Down sandwi ch while wearing sweatpants v the p’ logo emblazoned on the rear. President of the National Org for Women said:’ it’s so obnoxious to once again be using women’s bodies to sell fundamentally unhealthy p‖ Ie. Revlon’s expansion in Brazil (what is legal in one country may not be legal in another) They should hv avoided fr making the error bt learning the idea of Cultural Intelligence (CQ)= ability to adapt & work effectively & respectfully v ppl fr other culture, while simultaneously maintaining yr own identity. If Revlon practice the ideo of CQ, they will realize the do’s & X of a culture & act accordingly. They will recognize the meaning bhd the Cameillia flower & perhaps launced other type of perfume. Doing business in China: the Don’t 1. No surprises: make sure – what is to be discussed is made clear bfrhand 2. X be late: Puntuality is considered a virtue 3. Numbers: 4 & 14 r vy bad & mean death 4. X interrupt: remember who hold the floor & X interrupt the speaker 5. Never put anyone on the spot: Always offer a way out so yr counterpart can preserve face The Dos: 1. Business cards: should be exchanged at the beginning of a business meeting 2. Colours: Red, suggests power, prosperity & Authority (preferred) 3. N: 3 means longevity & 8 means wealth & prosperity 4. Speaking: slowly & use short sentences 5. Let them smoke: many Chinese consider smoking is the right thing to do in a business env

1. Characteristics of culture #1 learned behavior :transmitted fr 1 member of a society to another. Some elements of culture are transmitted intergenerationally, as when parents teach their children table manners. Other elements are transmitted intragenerationally, as when seniors educate incoming freshmen about a school’s traditions. #2 Interrelated element. ie, Japan’s group-oriented, hierarchical society stresses harmony and loyalty, which has historically translated into lifetime employment and minimal job switching. Bcs culture is learned behavior, it is #3 adaptive: culture changes in response to external forces that affect the society. Culture is shared by society members & defines the membership of the society. who share a culture are members of a society; those who do not are outside the boundaries of the society.

Thus. that is. the experience of numerous parental relationship transitions is likely to result in the reproduction of these behaviors by adult children. and financial adviser as roles within families. and resources between generations. Petrillo and Smith (1982) state that values that are important for family life and for the family members are more effectively transmitted. parents want to transmit those values that are important for them. Rothbaum et al. parents’ personal values and their socialization values often are correlated (Whitbeck & Gecas. Also the parents’ motivation to transmit certain values is important for their successful transmission. In this context. For example.# 2. ie parents and children. in a form of generational succession. in the way they define family and in the relative importance they place on the individual’s role within groups. Keith and Finlay 1988. Some empirical findings support these ideas. For example. Ann Duffy and Julianne Momirov (2000) utilize the concept of intergenerational transmission to explain the social learning of violence within families. Nicholas Wolfinger (2000) concludes that the children of parents who have had more than one marriage tend to replicate these patterns of marital instability. This work documents how not only are these roles in themselves mechanisms for the transmission of information. subsequently. Societies differ. some values (such as selftranscendence values) were transmitted even when there was no specific motivation of the parents. July) reports that the motivation of parents to transmit conservative values enhanced the success of transmission.. Multiple family structure transitions have a negative effect on children. family & groups. Occur in familial 家族的 & non familial settings and involve interaction that demonstrates positive and negative interactions. 2000). intergenerational transmission refers to the socialization and social learning that helps to explain the ways in which children growing up in a violent family learn violent roles and. 2003. may play out the roles of victim or victimizer in their own adult families. confidante. Goodnow (1997) also assumes that in general. beliefs. Knafo and Schwartz (2001) found that parental values were perceived more accurately the more important these values were for the parents. Rosenthal and Victor Marshall (1988) also examine the intergenerational transmission of ritual in families in a study across three generations of Canadian families. Family roles may also be transmitted from generation to generation. kin keeper. ** intragenerationally :occurs within a generation # Another important aspect to be considered is that transmission is selective depending on the content to be transmitted. Schönpflug (2005.** intergenerationally: occurs btwn generations . studies in the United States have found that parental divorce increases the likelihood that adult children will experience separation or divorce (Glenn and Kramer 1987. 1988). however. Amato 1996). Hoge. but that the roles are passed through the generations. The concept of intergenerational transmission is also used by social scientists who conduct research on family violence. . values. For example. Elements of culture #1 Social Structure : All human societies involve Individuals. However. Family researchers have also studied the intergenerational transmission of difficult life course transitions like marital dissolution or divorce.. Carolyn Rosenthal (1985) describes the roles of headship. It can be argued that values that are in line with the respective culturespecific developmental pathway are transmitted more effectively than other values (Greenfield et al. In particular. Schönpflug and Silbereisen (1992) found that those values which were held as more important by adolescents also showed a stronger similarity between parents and adolescents. Even when factors such as the socioeconomic status of both parents and children are controlled for. advice.

for Business Language) 1. In the United States. Hindi . In more socially mobile society ie US. occupation. #2 Language: Most popular languages spoken worldwide (English is still the famously popular . occurring between generations. Clans:Somalia Ie. mother.312-380 million 4.includes > relatives than a nuclear family ie Malaysia. and the competence of a man who married the boss’s daughter is routinely questioned by co -workers. Arabs. It filters observations and perceptions and thus affects unpredictably the messages that are sent when two individuals try to communicate.nepotism ie US. the importance of these categories in defining how individuals interact with each other within and between these groups varies by society.206-422 million 5. English . Societies differ in their degree of social stratification. • Mobility can also be either intergenerational. In Arab-owned firms. All societies categorize people to some extent on the basis of their birth. risk taking. occurring within a generation. Ie. • Mobility can also be either intergenerational. and hiring relatives is a common. or intragenerational.882 million 2. and offspring) ie US Extended family: consists of non-nuclear/"non-immediate" family members living together with nuclear family. or intragenerational. • Social mobility can be up or down. Social mobility tends to be higher in less stratified societies. Anti. Social mobility is the ability of individuals to move from one stratum of society to another. family ties are crucial. Singapore & Canada –individuals are motivated to pursue higher education. Cultures also differ in the importance of the individual relative to the group. lingua franca. educational achievements. human capital formation. • Social mobility can be up or down. Mandarin Chinese . Language provides important clues about the cultural values of the society and aids acculturation. and entrepreneurship. occurring within a generation. . Social mobility (or the lack thereof) often affects individuals’ attitudes and behaviors toward such factors as labor relations. although the American dream emphasizes upward movement. firms discourage nepotism 裙带关系.Nuclear family : a family group consisting of a pair of adults and their children (father. or other attributes. Arabic . Spanish . however. although the American dream emphasizes upward movement. occurring between generations. accepted practice.325 million 3. These differing social attitudes are reflected in the importance of the family to business. Nepotism ie Chinese and Arabs family bis • Nuclear family = Extended family = Social mobility is a person’s movement over time from one class to another. However.181 million -organizes the way members of a society think about the world.

such as India and Singapore. If you drink Pecsi. Most European and Japanese public school students study English for many years. and the United States is facilitated by their common use of English. not the words themselves. The motive = get closer to consumers.Some linguistic differences may be overcome through translation. depending on the dialect. . Some countries that have many linguistic groups. requires more than merely substituting words of one language for those of another. firms with managers from many different countries may use English as the official corporate language.The presence of more than one language group is an important signal about the diversity of a country’s population and suggests that there may also be differences in income. 25% people tend to say ―Pecsi‖ instead of ―Pepsi‖. in which nationhood defines the society. or lingua franca. Coca-cola name in China was first read as ―kekoukela‖=’Bite the Wax Tadpole‖/ ―Female Horse Stuffed v Wax‖. Translators must be sensitive to subtleties in the connotations of words and focus on translating ideas. however. the United Kingdom. Generally.‖ . especially with an Argentine accent. In Argentina. dominance since World War II. with language providing an important means of identifying cultural differences within the country. however. of international business. As a result of British economic and military dominance in the nineteenth century and U.X find a bilanguage manager to manage the factory. you save. Thus they have to move back their facilities to their origin country. Similarly. The linguistic legacy of colonialism also affects international business. So BBDO Argentina (ad agency) came up with the idea of simply making ―Pecsi‖ the spelling and launched an integrated campaign to support it. -ie. English has emerged as the predominant common language.S. which came out as the far less appetizing ―Eat Your Fingers Off. India recognizes 16 official languages. and educational achievement. To conduct business. The process. work ethic. When speaking Spanish. have adopted English as an official language to facilitate communication among the diverse groups. For instance. A classic mistake is KFC’s initial translation of ―Finger Lickin’ Good‖ into Chinese. countries dominated by one language group tend to have a homogeneous society. international businesspeople must be able to communicate.000 characters to find a phonetic equivalent ―kokoukole‖. New Zealand. loosely translated into ―happiness in the mouth‖ Pepsi’s new campaign in Argentina has been renamed Pecsi.000 dialects are spoken within its boundaries. Countries with multiple language groups tend to be heterogeneous. and approximately 3. The message: If you drink Pepsi. Canada. .Linguistic ties often create important competitive advantages because the ability to communicate is so important in conducting business transactions. Coke then researched 40. drinking a Pepsi costs one peso less than drinking a Coke. you save as well. They have said it like this for years. Lichel Train co: moved its manufacturing facilities to Mexico to take adv of lower labor $. by including those who weren’t pronouncing the name of the brand correctly but also by focusing on saving and standing by consumers’ sides in a time of crisis. Commerce among Australia. a reflection of the heterogeneity of its society.

pitch. . Members of a society communicate with each other using more than words.Another cultural difficulty international businesspeople face is that words may have different meanings to persons with diverse cultural backgrounds.‖ but in parts of Latin America. the original translation of Pillsbury’s Jolly Green Giant for the Saudi Arabian market was ―intimidating green ogre‖—a very different image from what the firm intended (although it still might encourage children to eat their peas).Similarly. the word is used to mean ―some other day—not today. Japanese business etiquette requires solicitous hospitality. hand gestures. inflection. that vary according to the occasion and .‖ Even the use of yes and no differs across cultures. thus avoiding communication mistakes.Gift-giving and hospitality are important means of communication in many business cultures. symbolism of food. Japanese businesspeople often use yes to mean ―Yes. intonation. I agree with you‖ and are disappointed when the Japanese later fail to accept contract terms that the foreigners had assumed were agreed to. Misunderstandings can be compounded because directly uttering ―no‖ is considered very impolite in Japan. #3 Communication Nonverbal Communication may account for 80-90% of all info transmitted among members of a culture. Firms can reduce the chances that they are sending the wrong message to their customers by using a technique known as backtranslation. outsiders may find the nonverbal communication difficult to comprehend. body positioning. These personal bonds are strengthened by the exchange of gifts. North Americans typically translate the Spanish word mañana literally to mean ―tomorrow. In contract negotiations. Elaborate meals and after-hours entertainment serve to build personal bonds and group harmony among the participants. oral • Interpersonal distance gratification • Cosmetics • Touching • Sound signals • Eye contact • Architecture/ interior design • Time symbolism • Artifacts and non-verbal symbols • Timing and pauses • Graphic symbols • Silence • Art and rhetorical forms . • Smell Forms of Nonverbal Communication: • Hand gestures • Speech rate. This technique provides a check that the intended message is actually being sent. With backtranslation. then a second person translates the translated version back into the original language.‖ Foreign negotiators often assume that their Japanese counterparts are using yes to mean ―Yes. eye contact. I understand what is being said. one person translates a document. Although most members of a society quickly understand nonverbal forms of communication common to their society. This nonverbal communication includes facial expressions. volume • Facial expression • Color symbolism • Posture and stance • Synchronization of speech and • Clothing/hair style movement • Walking behavior • Taste. and body posture.

Religion is an important aspect of most societies. the universal spirit. Hinduism (14. 74 percent of the world’s population adheres to one of four religions: Christianity. The Protestant ethic makes a virtue of high savings rates. While consumption booms during the Christmas holidays. The business culture of Arab countries also includes gift-giving and elaborate and gracious hospitality as a means of assessing these qualities. however. the caste system of Hinduism traditionally has restricted the jobs individuals may perform. all of which are necessary for the smooth functioning of a capitalist economy.6 percent). its homogeneity of religious beliefs.3 is provided on the following slide.6 percent). Protestant (12. in the belief that their contact with adult males should be restricted to relatives. Hinduism emphasizes spiritual accomplishment rather than economic success. thereby affecting the labor market and foreclosing business opportunities. Religion also affects the types of products consumers may purchase as well as seasonal patterns of consumption.the status of the giver and the recipient. such as Saudi Arabia and Iran. The goal of a Hindu is to achieve union with Brahma. production plummets as employees take time off to visit friends and family. and Eastern Orthodox (3. and Buddhism (6. For example.0 percent). Map 4. Hinduism provides little support . and its toleration of oth er religious viewpoints. depending on the country’s legal system.3 percent). business gifts are opened in private so as not to cause the giver to lose face should the gift be too expensive or too cheap relative to the gift offered in return. to which all Muslims are supposed to make a pilgrimage sometime in their lives. Consider Saudi Arabia. work stops five times a day when the faithful are called to pray to Allah. The teachings of the Koran form the basis of the country’s theocratic legal system. yet very little business is done on Christmas Day itself. . limit job opportunities for women. in order not to disrupt personal relationships. and reinvestment of profits to improve future productivity. In contrast. and 99 percent of the Saudi population is Muslim. comprising Roman Catholic (17. Strong political pressure exists within the country to preserve its religious traditions. for example. so bad news often is communicated informally from a junior member of one negotiating team to a junior member of the other team. home of the holy city of Mecca. Approximately 85 percent of the world’s 6. maintaining harmony among participants in a project is emphasized.3 billion people claim some religious affiliation. bad news is typically delivered as soon as it is known. The quest for material possessions may delay one’s spiritual journey. In the United States. In most Christian countries. the bad news is often only hinted at.3. it is delivered at day’s end so it will not ruin the recipient’s whole day. by leading progressively more ascetic and pure lives as one’s reincarnated soul goes through cycles of death and rebirth. In Japan. the Christmas season represents an important time for gift-giving. In Korea. Even better. Unlike in Japan. The impact of religion on international businesses varies from country to country. However.3 percent). Norms of hospitality even affect the way bad news is delivered in various cultures. #4 Religion Religions impose constraints on the roles of individuals in society. a third party may be used to deliver the message to preserve harmony within the group. For example. Islam (20. Countries dominated by strict adherents to Islam. constant striving for efficiency.4 percent). Further. It affects the ways in which members of a society relate to each other and to outsiders. As reflected in Map 4. business gifts are opened in public so that all may be aware of the giver’s generosity. Thus.

the family. Israel national airline. profits earned in fair business dealings are justified. and all Muslims are expected to act charitably. Office size. age.2 million Muslims annually descend on the Grand Mosque in Mecca. and humbly in their dealings with others. Islam. Artifacts: Physical structures/ symbols -building structure may shape & reflect culture -office design conveys cultural meaning: furniture. wealth accumulation. justly. and the social hierarchy that we discussed earlier. and the constant quest for higher productivity and efficiency.Business in Saudi Arabia: Work stops 5 times a day for prayer &Muslims fast the whole month during Ramadhan -whn MCD printed Saudi Arabia flag (v sacred inscription) in takeout bags: caused an outrage How does religious affect business operation? -EIAI. for example. According to Islam. Cultural values often stem from deep-seated beliefs about the individual’s position in relation to his or her deity. Japan totally reinvents MCD’s v its Ebi Filet-O (shrimp burgers). education. the McAloo Tikki. Time Status Age Education . while supportive of capitalism. Saudi Arabia as part of the Hajj.for capitalistic activities such as investment. karoke burger (mashed potato. Ebi-Child (shrimp nuggets) & Green Tea-flavored milkshake Religion Sensitivity: -Y Halal logo is important for Muslims? -Does Halal logo hs any significant influence in Muslim’s purchasing bhr/ decision? #5 Values/attitudes Culture also affects and reflects the secular values and attitudes of the members of a society. Cultural attitudes toward such factors as time. X fly on Sat (Jewish Sabbath) -Kedah & Kelantan : Friday is non-workday -Max building height in Bali can not be higher than 15meters (coconut trees) Maharja Mac (made of lamb/chicken meat) there is also a vegetarian burger. and status reflect these values and in turn shape the behavior of and opportunities available to international businesses operating in a given culture. but a firm’s profits may not result from exploitation or deceit. places more emphasis on the individual’s obligation to society. wall hangings . cabbage & Katsu sauce). .

Attitudes about time differ dramatically across cultures. #1 Social Orientation: a person’s beliefs about the relative importance of the individual and the groups to which that person belongs. Emeritus Professor. meetings not only often start later than the stated time. Important cultural differences exist in attitudes toward age. In some societies.Culture also affects and reflects the secular values and attitudes of the members of a society. and the social hierarchy that we discussed earlier. Geert Hofstede. it remains the largest and most comprehensive work of its kind. • Each cultural cluster comprises countries that share many cultural similarities. In others.‖ In Latin American cultures. the prevailing attitude is ―time is money. In Arab cultures. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster. age. the family. In Asian and Arab cultures. Hofstede’s Five Dimensions (most influential study by Geert Hofstede) Although Hofstede’s work has been criticized for methodological weaknesses and his own cultural biases. • Japanese firms are likely to enter the market via a greenfield investment (a brand new one) because they are less comfortable working with British partners. education. status is inherited as a result of the wealth or rank of one’s ancestors. although differences do remain. however. The means by which status is achieved also vary across cultures. Youthfulness is considered a virtue in the United States." ~Prof. it is earned by the individual through personal accomplishments or professional achievements. and status reflect these values and in turn shape the behavior of and opportunities available to international businesses operating in a given culture. but they also may be interrupted by family and friends who wander in to exchange pleasantries. Cultural values often stem from deep-seated beliefs about the individual’s position in relation to his or her deity. few participants would think it unusual if a meeting began 45 minutes after the appointed time. however. Hofstede’s work identified five important dimensions along which people seem to differ across cultures. • Canadian firms are likely to expand into Britain via a joint venture with a British partner. In Anglo-Saxon cultures. " Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. . Maastricht University The Cultural Cluster Approach • An approach to understanding communication based on meaningful clusters of countries that share similar culture values • 8 country clusters have been identified by researchers. Education: A country’s formal system of public and private education is an important transmitter and reflection of the cultural values of its society. Cultural attitudes toward such factors as time.. age is respec ted and a manager’s stature is correlated with age. The two extremes of social orientation are individualism and collectivism. Preserving Traditional Values in the cityscape of Kyoto (home to Imperial Palace) -Max building height is 45m (1973) to 33m (2007) -Impact on business: ad contracts dropped by 40% fr existing 400 rooftop adv .

Hofstede’s research suggested that people in the United States. Spain.Individualism is the cultural belief that the person comes first. Taiwan. Israel. and Singapore to be relatively power respecting. Some cultures are characterized by power respect. and they tend to assess decisions in terms of how those decisions affect them as individuals. Hofstede found people in France. Societies that tend to be collectivistic are usually characterized by well-defined social networks. Ireland. People are expected to put the good of the group ahead of their own personal welfare. These people are more willing to question a decision or mandate from someone at a higher level or perhaps even refuse to accept it. and co-workers. Germany. Individual behavior in such cultures is strongly influenced by the emotion of shame. These same people also tend to respect the superiors’ right to that power. • China = it is out of question to disagree with someone’s opinion in public. In addition. New Zealand. People at all levels in a firm accept the decisions and mandates of those above them because of the implicit belief that higherlevel positions carry the right to make decisions and issue mandates. These people often put their own career interests before the good of their organizations. Ie. Hofstede found that people from Mexico. • At workplace = hierarchy means inequality of roles (hierarchy is established for convenience) • At workplace = subordinates expect to be consulted In contrast. Colombia. group members try to fit into their group harmoniously. Australia. Sexy work uniform at hooters? Inappropriately exploiting women? Short orange sports & white tank tops r too sexy? Tasteful adult entertainment? The co fired back defending: the uniform displayed by their Hooters Girls was no different than what u c from football team’s cheerleaders/ model Collectivism. Norway. • German = people stress on personal achievements and individual rights. Women are becoming more and more individualistic. Austria. Indonesia. • Japan = frequent changing job = disloyalty. . Hong Kong. Mexico. Key values of individualistic people include a high degree of self-respect and independence. including extended families. when a group fails. its members take the failure very personally and experience shame. Canada. Hofstede’s work suggested that people in the United States. Peru. This means that people in a culture tend to accept the power and authority of their superiors simply on the basis of the superiors’ positions in the hierarchy. Denmark. Brazil. They are willing to follow a leader when that leader is perceived to be right or when it seems to be in their own self-interest to do so but not because of the leader’s intangible right to issue orders. or success. interests. tribes. with a minimum of conflict or tension. • In family = children are encouraged to have a will of their own. Greece. and the Netherlands tend to be relatively individualistic. the opposite of individualism. Singapore. #2 Power Orientation: the beliefs that people in a culture hold about the appropriateness of power and authority differences in hierarchies such as business organizations. Japan. • USA = women and men compete in the workforce for jobs. people in cultures characterized by power tolerance attach much less significance to a person’s position in the hierarchy. and New Zealand tend to be more power tolerant. is the belief that the group comes first. the United Kingdom. and Pakistan tend to be relatively collectivistic in their values.

According to Hofstede. Norway. including those of Pakistan and West Africa. and other aspects of society. Austria. future orientation that values dedication. Ambiguity and change are seen as undesirable. routineness. Hong Kong. Denmark. have a long-term. life. people in cultures characterized by uncertainty avoidance dislike ambiguity and will avoid it whenever possible. men are expected to work and to focus their careers in traditionally male occupations. develop. and concern for others. France. individualistic and power-tolerant countries seem to cluster. According to Hofstede’s research. quality of life. whereas cultures that emphasize passive goal behavior do not. Sweden. At the other extreme. Canada. and Germany tend to avoid uncertainty whenever possible. cultures that value aggressive goal behavior also tend to define genderbased roles somewhat rigidly. Italy. as do collectivistic and power-respecting countries. perseverance. and Finland tend to exhibit relatively passive goal behavior. Japan. For example. tend to focus on the past and present. women are generally expected not to work outside the home and to focus on their families. Hofstede suggested that many people from the United States. emphasizing respect for traditions and fulfillment of social obligations. Italy. they are usually expected to pursue work in areas traditionally dominated by women. • At workplace = hierarchy means existential inequality. and carve out new opportunities. and overbearing structure.• In family = children are educated toward obedience to parents. is the extent to which members of a culture adopt a long-term versus a shortterm outlook on work. way of doing things. Singapore. Taiwan. People who exhibit aggressive goal behavior tend to place a high premium on material possessions. certainty carries with it a sense of monotony. One extreme on the goal orientation continuum is aggressive goal behavior. Colombia. Mexico. money. Other cultures. In these cultures. Ambiguity is seen as a context within which an individual can grow. Some cultures. and thrift. #5 time orientation. We can gain additional perspectives on Hofstede’s dimensions by viewing them in combinations. #4 Goal orientation= manner in which people are motivated to work toward different kinds of goals. In contrast. Sweden. such as those of Japan. people who adopt passive goal behavior place a higher value on social relationships. If they do work outside the home. and South Korea. Hofstede’s work suggests that the United States and Germany tend to have an intermediate time orientation. and assertiveness. . many people in Japan tend to exhibit relatively aggressive goal behavior. These people tend to prefer a structured and routine. Denmark. and the United States exhibit moderately aggressive goal behavior. and Australia are uncertainty accepting. Hong Kong. Peru. even bureaucratic. when social orientation and power orientation are superimposed. #3 Uncertainty orientation : feeling people have regarding uncertain and ambiguous situations. Men and women in passive goal behavior cultures are more likely to both pursue diverse careers and to be well represented within any given occupation. In cultures characterized by extremely aggressive goal behavior. whereas many people in Germany. People in cultures characterized by uncertainty acceptance are stimulated by change and thrive on new opportunities. People from the Netherlands. Hofstede found that many people in Israel. • At workplace = subordinates expect to be told what to do. hard work.