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Paper No. 7 November 2000

COMPUTATIONAL BIOMECHANICS

Schiesstattgasse 14B A - 8010 Graz, Austria

**Biomechanics of Soft Tissue
**

G.A. Holzapfel

http://www.cis.tu-graz.ac.at/biomech

Institute for Structural Analysis START-Project Y74-TEC Graz University of Technology

¢¡¤£¦¥¨§ © .

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e. In contrary to other tissues. [8]. the microscopic structure of organs and tissues). It has the special feature that it is based partly on histological information (i. [18]. As a representative example. the general model for soft tissues is speciﬁed to predict the mechanical response of healthy and young arteries under physiological loading conditions [12]. and is concerned with the description of the passive state of arteries. 2. we request that the constitutive formulation is fully three-dimensional and consistent with both mechanical and mathematical requirements. it is a wide-ranging biological material in which the cells are separated by extracellular material. The constitutive framework is based on the theory of the mechanics of ﬁber-reinforced composites [26] and is suitable to describe a wide variety of physical phenomena of soft tissues. contracting elements with biochemical energy supply which are controlled by biological mechanisms. The model neglects active components. supports and protects our human body and structures such as organs is soft connective tissue. The presented general model is a fully three-dimensional material description of soft tissues for which nonlinear continuum mechanics is used as the fundamental basis [10]. drugs. In addition. i.e. Constitutive equations for describing plastic deformations of. applicable for arbitrary geometries and suitable for use within the context of ﬁnite element methods in order to solve complex initial boundary-value problems. Validity An efﬁcient constitutive formulation approximates all types of soft tissues with a reasonable accuracy over a large strain range. We request a simple constitutive equation with only a few material parameters involved that allow an ‘explanation’ of the material response of tissues in terms of their structure. 1 . for example. In clinical procedures tissues may undergo irreversible (plastic) deformations [12] which are of medical importance. ageing and disease. arteries are proposed in [27]. When soft tissues are subjected to loads that are beyond the physiological range the load-carrying ﬁbers of the tissue slip relative to each other. A suitable constitutive and numerical model. Background on the structure of soft tissues – collagen and elastin What do we mean by soft tissues? A primary group of tissue which binds. The presented models do not consider acute and long-term changes in geometry and/or the mechanical response of tissues due to. for example.Biomechanics of Soft Tissue by Gerhard A. Holzapfel Institute for Structural Analysis Computational Biomechanics Graz University of Technology 8010 GRAZ – AUSTRIA 1. is documented in [11]. which is general enough to describe the ﬁnite viscoelastic domain. The performance and the physical mechanism of the model is presented in [11]. The general model describes the highly nonlinear and anisotropic behavior of soft tissues as composites reinforced by two families of collagen ﬁbers. The models are suitable for predicting the anisotropic elastic response of soft tissues in the large strain domain.

ligaments. In the structure of tendons and ligaments.5 nm [17]). It is the main load carrying element in a wide variety of soft tissues and is very important to human physiology (for example. which can be isolated from any tissue. (for a correlation between the collagen content in the tissue. the hydrated matrix of proteoglycans. while many other tissues have an intricate disordered network of collagen ﬁbers embedded in a gelatinous matrix of proteoglycans. while ligaments are bone-to-bone linkages to restrict relative motion. The rod-like shape of the collagen molecule comes from three polypeptide chains which are composed in a righthanded triple-helical conformation. 263). Blood vessels are prominent organs composed of soft tissues which have to distend in response to pulse waves. blood vessels. It supports internal organs and protects our body. Collagen is a macromolecule with length of about 280 nm. % dry weight. [6]. glycine (33%). 2 . Soft connective tissues of our body are complex ﬁber-reinforced composite structures. Examples for soft tissues are tendons. for example. They shrink upon heating due to breakdown of the crystalline structure (at 65 £ C. for example. Their mechanical behavior is strongly inﬂuenced by the concentration and structural arrangement of constituents such as collagen and elastin. and the topographical site and respective function in the organism. It is the major constituent in blood vessels. etc. The function and integrity of organs are maintained by the tension in collagen ﬁbers. the collagen content of (human) achilles tendon is about 20 times that of elastin). Collagen is a protein which is a major constituent of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue. The skin is the largest single organ (16% of the human adult weight). Chapter 7). Articular cartilages form the surface of body joints (which is a layer of connective tissue with a thickness of 1-5 mm) and distribute loads across joints and minimize contact stresses and friction. proline (15%) and hydroxyproline (15%) [23]. biomechanics and structural engineering (for more details see. Depending on the primary function and the requirement of strength of the tissue the diameter of collagen ﬁbrils varies (the order of magnitude is 1. Tendons are muscle-to-bone linkages to stabilize the bony skeleton (or to produce motion). The intramolecular crosslinks of collagen gives the connective tissues the strength which varies with age.Connective tissues may be distinguished from hard (mineralized) tissues such as bones for their high ﬂexibility and their soft mechanical properties. Collagen. mammalian collagen shrinks to about one-third of its initial length. collagen appears as parallel oriented ﬁbers [1]. p. pathology. and its ultimate tensile strength see Table 1). In this article we are mainly concerned to say something about it from the points of view of material science. skins or articular cartilages among many others. The most common collagen is type I. [6]. Most of the collagen molecule consists of three amino acids. Collagen molecules are linked to each other by covalent bonds building collagen ﬁbrils. which enhances the stability of the molecule. for example. More than 12 types of collagen have been identiﬁed [17].

an organ consisting mainly of connective tissues. As for collagen. Soft tissues behave anisotropically because of their ﬁbers which tend to have preferred directions. some ﬁber orientations also have components out-of-plane.3-0. Some soft tissues show viscoelastic behavior (relaxation and/or creep). [10]. or an increase of internal energy (see. Elastin.5 of the initial length of the unloaded conﬁguration. Elasticity arises through entropic straightening of the chains. soft tissues may undergo large deformations. the random molecular conformations. Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of a typical J-shaped (tensile) stress-strain curve for skin. 33% of the total amino acids of elastin consists of glycine. [6]. for example. The tensile response of soft tissue is nonlinear stiffening and tensile strength depends on the strain rate. In contrast to hard tissues. like collagen. which may be stretched to about 2. In a microscopic sense they are non-homogeneous materials because of their composition. Chapter 7. this network does not exhibit a pronounced hierarchical organization.1). which has been associated with the shear interaction of collagen with the matrix of proteoglycans [16] (the matrix provides a viscous lubrication between collagen ﬁbrils). However. The mechanical behavior of elastin may be explained within the concept of entropic elasticity. 3 .8 1-20 9-40 Ultimate tensile Collagen Elastin strain [%] (% dry weight) (% dry weight) 10-15 10-15 50-100 30-70 60-120 75-85 70-80 25-35 60-80 40-70 ¤¦¥ 10-15 40-50 5-10 - Table 1: Mechanical properties [25]. ligamenta ﬂava of the spine and ligamentum nuchae (the elastin content of the latter is about 5 times that of collagen). General mechanical characteristic of soft tissues Before describing a model for soft tissues it is beneﬁcial and instructive to give some insight in their general mechanical characteristic. Elastin. [15] and associated biochemical data [30] of some representative organs mainly consisting of soft connective tissues. the proline and hydroxyproline contents are much lower than in collagen molecules. In a simpliﬁed way we explain here the tensile stress-strain behavior for skin. As for rubber. In contrast to collagen ﬁbers. It is present as thin strands in soft tissues such as skin. The long ﬂexible elastin molecules build up a three-dimensional (rubber-like) network. It displays very small relaxation effects (they are larger for collagen).Material Tendon Ligament Aorta Skin Articular Cartilage Ultimate tensile strength [Mpa] 50-100 50-100 0. and hence the entropy. which is representative of the mechanical behavior of many (collagenous) soft connective tissues.e. [9]. Elastin is essentially a linearly elastic material (tested for the ligamentum nuchae of cattle). However. i. is a protein which is a major constituent of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue. lung. 3. For the connective tissue parts of the skin the three-dimensional network of ﬁbers appears to have preferred directions parallel to the surface. a decrease of entropy. in order to prevent out-of-plane shearing. change with deformation.

They are primarily aligned with one another in the direction in which the load is applied. and on the strain rate. osmotic pressure.I II III Stress Strain Figure 1: Schematic diagram of a typical (tensile) stress-strain curve for skin showing the associated collagen ﬁber morphology. Unstretched skin behaves approximately isotropically. The crimped collagen ﬁbers gradually elongate and they interact with the hydrated matrix. that the skin is normally under tension in vivo. This form. In addition. With deformation the crimp angle in collagen ﬁbrils leads to a sequential uncrimping of ﬁbrils. at high tensile stresses. In phase I the tissue behaves like a very soft (isotropic) rubber sheet. age. Beyond the third phase the ultimate tensile strength is reached and ﬁbers begin to break. Figure 1 shows how the collagen ﬁbers straighten with increasing stress.1-2 MPa). representative for many soft tissues. Phase II. the elastic modulus of skin in phase I is low (0. Phase III. In the absence of load the collagen ﬁbers. The stress-strain relation is approximately linear. The mechanical properties of soft tissues depend strongly on the topography. The material properties are strongly related to the quality and completeness of experimental data. the collagen ﬁbers tend to line up with the load direction and bear loads. which come from in vivo or in vitro tests having the aim of mimicking real 4 . The straightened collagen ﬁbers resist the load strongly and the tissue becomes stiff at higher stresses. and the elastin ﬁbers (which keep the skin smooth) are mainly responsible for the stretching mechanism. which are woven into rhombic-shaped pattern. pH. physical and chemical environmental factors such as temperature. the crimp patterns disappear and the collagen ﬁbers become straighter. Initially low stress is required to achieve large deformations of the individual collagen ﬁbers without requiring stretch of the ﬁbers. are in relaxed conditions and appear wavy and crimped. The stress-strain relation becomes linear again. risk factors. differs signiﬁcantly from stress-strain curves of hard tissues or from other types of (engineering) materials. The deformation behavior for skin may be studied in three phases I. species. II and III: Phase I. as the load is increased. Note. In phase II. In phase III.

loading conditions. Table 1 attempts to present ranges of values of mechanical properties and collagen/elastin contents (% dry weight) in some representative organs mainly consisting of soft connective tissues. We assume the decoupled form §©¨© . to present speciﬁc values for the ultimate tensile strength and strain of a speciﬁc tissue is a difﬁcult task. Therefore. 4. Nevertheless. Description of the model At any referential position X of the tissue we postulate the existence of a Helmholtz free-energy function § .

. . Green tensor and F ¨ with !¨#"%$& F ')( denoting the local volume ratio.>=@?/ X BA D §FE GH. are two unit vectors characterizing the orientations of the families of collagen ﬁbers in the (undeformed) reference conﬁguration of the tissue (see Figure 2). Here C ¨ F F denotes the modiﬁed right Cauchy F is the unimodular (distortional) part of the deformation gradient F. Since most types of soft tissues are regarded as incompressible (for example. This is sufﬁciently general to capture the salient mechanical feature of soft tissue elasticity as described in Section 3 (a more general constitutive framework is presented 5 . where a -2.10 a -/. * A + A. The structure tensors A and A are deﬁned as the tensor products a -/. (1). arteries do not change their volume within the physiological range of deformation [2]) we now focus attention on the description of their isochoric deformation behavior characterized by the energy function § .>=@? associated with isotropic deformations and a part §OE GH.>=@? associated with anisotropic deformations. a-/ at position X. In addition. X § X C A A (1) where is a purely volumetric (dilatational) contribution and § is a purely isochoric (volumepreserving) contribution to the free energy § . is a set of two (second-order) tensors which characterize the anisotropic properties of the tissue at any X. We suggest the simple additive split C CK N CM §:¨ §<. 34¨657+8 . in eq.>=I?2 X JA LA (2) of § into a part §F. a0 1 X a0 2 Figure 2: Arrangement of collagen ﬁbers in the reference conﬁguration characterized by two unit vectors a -9 .

to model the (isotropic) non-collagenous Y matrix material any Ogden-type elastic material may be applied [18]. for examC1K CNM ple. (5). op¨ Y "B$1x b ) KH M 8 §<. then the soft tissue responds similarly to a rubber-like (purely for example. The invariants A and A are squares of the stretches in the directions of a -9 and C CK CNM a-/ . (4).>=@? with the mechanical response of the non-collagenous matrix of the material (which is less stiff than its elastin ﬁber constituent). In relation (2) we used A P¨ second-order unit tensor). vk¨p"} ^~U" denotes the hydrostatic pressure and "B$x9 furnishes the deviatoric e operator in the Eulerian description. 6 (7) . To determine the non-collagenous matrix response we propose to use the isotropic neo-Hookean model according to where '!( is a stress-like material parameter. in extension. which are stretch measures for the two families of collagen ﬁbers (see. to be derived in the decoupled form § (6) op¨©8R "B$1xzy F { F¡| C { with the volumetric contribution ohrs?ut and the isochoric contribution o to the Cauchy stresses. If. Hence. A C1K isotropic) material described by the energy function (4). [12])."B$1x4 a. that is when A ':5 CNM or A '©5 . [26]. we get with (6) an explicit constiop¨qoXrs?ut7 o with oXrs?utB¨wv I tutive expression for the isochoric behavior of soft connective tissues in the Eulerian description. However. respectively.>=@?X¨ZY UA \[]¥91 8 (4) _ ` _ C1K _ K CNM ` f e e ! §FE GH.>=I?^¨ _ (5) $acbd 2UA [!52 ! [ 5cg< _ K $acb4d U A [!52 S [ 5cgh 8 8 _ _ _ _ K '( are dimensionless where i'(% j'( are stress-like material parameters and k'(% _ parameters.e. However. so that "B$1x49Q I ¨:( . the collagen ﬁbers are active and energy is stored in the ﬁbers. Since the (wavy) collagenous structure of tissues is not active at low stresses (it does not store strain energy) we associate §W. Function (1) enables the Cauchy stress tensor. According to morphological ﬁndings at highly-loaded tissues the families of collagen ﬁbers become straighter and the resistance to stretch is almost entirely due to collagen ﬁbers (the tissue becomes stiff). i.in [8]. According to relations (2). In the stress relation (6). [11]. Hence the relevant part of the anisotropic function (5) is omitted for this case. and the deﬁnitions C C Q I for the ﬁrst invariant of tensor C (I is the CK A C a-RST¨ C Q A CNM A C a-U1V¨ C Q A (3) of the invariants. the collagen ﬁbers do not inﬂuence the mechanical response of the tissue in the low stress domain. The operator is deﬁned as "B$x9T¨9[ d@9Q I I. Using the additive split (2) and particularizations (4). Isotropy is described through the invariant A and anisotropy through A and A . Due to the crimp structure of collagen ﬁbers we assume that they do not support compressive stresses which implies that they are inactive in compression. C1Kml CNMnl 5 and A 5 . denoted o .1 . the strain energy stored in the collagen ﬁbers is taken to be governed by the polyconvex (anisotropic) function C §F.B0 a. (5). [10]).

Hence. (2) takes on the speciﬁed form §<:¨Y §<¨ 8 8 / _ C Y UA []¥9 _ 8 8 / _ C A [¥9 U _ ` _ C KH M 1 $ acb4d UUA . § K ¨{ The speciﬁc form of the proposed constitutive equation (7) requires the ﬁve material parameters _ _ _ K whose interpretations can be partly based on the underlying histological structure.sk[!5 e [!5 g . For a detailed study of the mechanics of arterial walls see the extensive review [13]. matrix and collagen of the tissue. 3F¨578 . (5) for each tissue layer (each layer responds with similar mechanical characteristics) but use a different set of material parameters. In a young non-diseased artery the intima (innermost layer of the artery) exhibits negligible wall-thickness and mechanical strength. Each tissue layer is treated as a composite reinforced by two families of collagen ﬁbers which are symmetrically disposed with respect to the cylinder axis. and hence the artery is modeled as a thick-walled elastic circular tube consisting of two layers corresponding to the media and adventitia. ` _ CK _ CK §FE H G . is about an order of magnitude higher than that of the adventitia [32]. orthotropic ( T¨ ). In particular.>=I? (9) UA [¦52 $acb4d UA [¦52 e [¦5 g § ¨ { CNM ¨ 2 A { are (scalar) response functions and a . . transversely . the arterial layers have different physiological tasks. In addition. ^¨ _ _ _ _ isotropic ( ^¨6( or ¨6( ) and isotropic hyperelastic descriptions ( ^¨ ¨6( ) at ﬁnite strains are included as special cases. For an adequate model of arteries incorporating the active state (contraction of smooth muscles) see [22].s][!52 fe [!5cg . Hence. ` _ C KH M $1acb4d 2UA . _ 5. 7 (10) (11) . each tissue layer is considered as cylindrically orthotropic (already postulated in the early work [20]) so that a tissue layer behaves like a so-called balanced angle-ply laminate. The media is much stiffer than the adventitia. eq. .X¨ Fa-/. _ _ _ _ K Y i. It is a speciﬁcation of the constitutive framework for soft tissues stated in previous section. Experimental tests show that the elastic properties of the media (middle layer of the artery) and adventitia (outermost layer of the artery) are signiﬁcantly different [31].e. Representative example: A model for the artery In this section we describe a model for the passive state of the healthy and young artery (no pathological changes in the intima. in the unloaded conﬁguration the mean value of Young’s modulus for the media.>=I? e (8) CK ¨ A [¦52 $acb4d 2 A [¦52 [¦5cgh A { ` _ CNM _ K CNM M §FE GH. We use the same forms of strain-energy functions (4). for several pig thoracic aortas. are the Eulerian counterparts of the unit vectors a-2. Note that in (7).where b ¨ FF denotes the modiﬁed left Cauchy-Green tensor. which is the innermost arterial layer frequently affected by atherosclerosis) suitable for predicting three-dimensional distributions of stresses and strains under physiological loading conditions with reasonable accuracy.

the media and adventitia. i. We end up with a two-layer model incorporating six material parameters. 2 . i.e. associated with the anisotropic parts of the two tissue layers are deﬁned by C1K CNMN A ¨ C Q A and A ¨ C Q A R. _ _ _ _ .2β M 2βA Figure 3: Load-free conﬁguration of an idealized artery modeled as a thick-walled circular tube consisting of two layers. N Y Y The invariants. . and three for the adventitia . / . N .e. .e. i. three for the media .

the components of the unit (direction) vectors a -9 a-/ read in matrix notation d a-9 e ¨ ( N L ¡ f¢@£¡ ¥¦¤ d a-U e ¨ ( 7 L ¡ z¤¦ f @ ¢ X £ ¡ [ .¨©H . The structure tensors A A are given by A ¨ a-R 0 a-9 A ¨ a-/ 0 a-/ P¨©H (12) and Employing a cylindrical coordinate system.

for example. By considering the arterial layers as circular cylindrical tubes we may characterize the reference (stress-free) conﬁguration of one arterial layer as a circular sector. are neglected. the residual stress-state is very complex. It has been known for some years that arteries which are excised from the body and not subjected to any loads are not stress-free (or strain-free) [28]. Residual stresses. §¨f . the experimental studies [29] for bovine specimens). have different opening angles (see. and residual stresses (strains) in the axial direction may also occur. In general. For each 8 . Note that residual stresses result from growth and remodelling mechanisms [24]. as. which. the media and adventitia are separated and cut in a radial direction the two arterial layers will spring open to form open (stress-free) sectors. for example. in general. If. [21].¨:HP (13) and ¡ . are the angles between the collagen ﬁbers and the circumferential direction in the media and adventitia (see Figure 3). Small components of the (collagen) ﬁber orientation in the radial direction. reported for human brain arteries [5]. for example. as shown in Figure 4.

Identiﬁcation of the material parameters Preferred directions in soft tissues are well speciﬁed by the orientation of prolate cell nuclei. Figure 4 shows the cross-sectional respresentation of one arterial layer at the load-free conﬁguration obtained from the reference conﬁguration by pure bending. One possible approach to consideration of the inﬂuence of residual stresses on the overall threedimensional stress behavior is to measure the strain energy from the load-free (stressed) conﬁguration and to include the residual stresses [19]. _ ¨ 8 / 82m[]¨ (14) where ©N. Considerations of residual strains has a strong inﬂuence on the global pressure/radius response of arteries and also on the stress and strain distributions across the deformed arterial wall. w © . For analytical studies of residual stresses see. 6. Therefore. the works [14]. Another approach is to start with the energy function relative to the stress-free (and ﬁxed) conﬁguration. for example. By visual inspection there exists a high directional correlation between smooth muscle cells and collagen 9 . are the internal radii associated with the two conﬁgurations. [12]. which contain further references.Reference (stress-free) configuration Pure bending Load-free (stressed) configuration R α Ri r ri Figure 4: Cross-sectional representation of one arterial layer at the reference (stress-free) and load-free (stressed) conﬁgurations. [4]. They can be identiﬁed in microphotographs of appropriately stained histological sections. and determine the deformation required to reach the load-free (stressed) conﬁguration. The importance of incorporating residual stresses associated with the load-free (but stressed) conﬁguration into the computation has been emphasized in. as assumed in the presented models. [22]. the radius © of an arterial layer in the load-free conﬁguration may be computed from the radius ª of the associated reference conﬁguration as [12] ©¨ ª ¥ [ ª _%«J¬ . . With the condition of incompressibility. The (constant) axial «¡¬ _ stretch is denoted by and the parameter is a convenient measure of the tube opening angle in the stress-free conﬁguration. arterial layer of the blood vessel a certain opening angle ¨ can be found by experimental methods. for example. ª. it is essential to incorporate the residual stresses inherent in many biologic tissues.

it is suggested to treat the collagen ﬁber orientations as additional (phenomenological) ‘material’ parameters.ﬁbers. Media _ Y N _ / ¡ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¥ (7(7(7(Ld>®°¯± e 8 ¥7´7¥98Bd>®°¯± e ( ¸· ¥7¹7¥Ldº[ e 8 ¹ ( £ Adventitia ²¨ _ Y N²¨ _ /²¨ ¡ ²¨ ( ¥7(7( (Ld³®°¯\± e ( ¶µ ´98U(Ld³®°¯\± e ( ¶» 5758Bd[ e ´98 ( £ Table 2: Table of parameters for a carotid artery from a rabbit (experiment no. inﬂation.39 mm (adopted from [3]). Note that the change of the throughthickness mean value of the angle due to bending to the load-free (stressed) conﬁguration (see Figure 4) is small so that it has a negligible inﬂuence on the stress-strain analysis of arteries. axial extension and torsion. while in the media the collagen ﬁbers tend to run around the circumference. In the adventitia many collagen ﬁbers run closer to the axial direction of the artery. axial extension. How to use it The energy functions are well-suited for use in nonlinear ﬁnite element software. 8. By using a wall thickness of 0. 71 in [7]). the parameters in Table 2 predict the characteristic orthotropic behavior of a carotid artery under combined bending. 10 . which allow symbolic computation. Furthermore. computations may be carried out with some of the commercially available mathematical software-packages such as Mathematica or Maple. Values of the material parameters associated with the model for soft tissues are then obtained by ﬁtting the equations to the experimental data of the soft tissue of interest by using standard nonlinear ﬁtting algorithms. (11) and are given for a representative _ _ carotid artery from a rabbit (experiment no. 71 in [7]) in respect of eqs. The material parameters and the Y angles of collagen ﬁbers ¡ are summarized in Table 2. Based on Mathematica. The ﬁber angles ¡ are meant to be associated with the reference (stress-free) conﬁguration. in [12] a numerical technique for solving the bending. Hence. For the case that the mean values of the orientation of cell nuclei (collagen ﬁber) may not be identiﬁed experimentally. The angle ¡ (and thus the unit vectors a-9 a-/ ) may be identiﬁed as the mean value of the corresponding statistical distribution. 7. Aspects of ﬁnite element implementation and numerical analysis of the model are presented in [11]. the (bell-shaped distribution of) collagen ﬁber orientations may be obtained from an image processing analysis of stained histological sections. as documented in [12]. (10). (11). inﬂation and torsion problem of an artery is described. Table of parameters Values of the parameters correspond to the functions (10). and making the assumption that the media occupies 87~ ¥ of the arterial wall thickness. which enables complex boundary-value problems to be solved. such as the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.

Int. L. Humphrey. in press. New York. Rate-independent elastoplastic constitutive modeling of biological soft tissues: Part I. N. 2000. John Wiley & Sons. Vaishnav. 1968. Holzapfel. 23:1–162. [2] T. C. Pseudoelasticity of arteries and the choice of its mathematical expression. Johnson and A. D. 237:H620–H631. Burr. Springer-Verlag.-Y. and B.. A.. [6] Y. Continuum basis. Three-dimensional collagen organization of human brain arteries at different transmural pressures. [4] C. C. 1979. B. Canham. Engr. C. 3:447–470. Frontiers in Biomechanics. Springer-Verlag. Math. in press. 2nd edition. Betsch and E. Sharkey. 105:268–274. K. T. Methods Appl. The elastic properties of elastin. Res. 2000. Engr. Elasticity. Mechanical Properties of Living Tissues. [12] G. 1986. Circ. A new constitutive framework for arterial wall mechanics and a comparative study of material models. [8] T. Chichester. editors. F. A. Schmid-Sch¨ onbein. Compressibility of the arterial wall. Holzapfel. [15] R. B. and R. 1983. Structure and mechanical properties of rat tail tendon. Baer. Vasc. Comput. 2000. Nonlinear Solid Mechanics. J.. ASME J. Hoger. D. Chuong and Y. J. 1993. 80:6523–6526. Am. Fung. Flory. 1998. [10] G.References [1] D. of Solids. and P. J. C. Gasser. Soc. Patel. McCullough. Fung. Carew. Mechanics of the arterial wall: Review and directions. S. Patitucci. Biomechanics. W. Zweifach. [9] C. J. Residual stress in arteries. Biomech. The use of strain energy to quantify the effect of residual stress on mechanical behaviour. [7] Y. 1980. 11 . [14] B. J. Mech. Three-dimensional stress distribution in arteries. in press. A. Finlay. 23:61–68. W. 1998. 1995. and N. C. J. Fung. and D. Engr. A Continuum Approach for Engineering.. Woo. algorithmic formulation and ﬁnite element implementation. E. L. 2000. C. Am. A. pages 117–129. Critical Reviews in Biomed. [13] J. 1958. A.. Physiological Soc. E. A viscoelastic model for ﬁber-reinforced composites at ﬁnite strains: Continuum basis. and P. 17:83–94. Ogden. Holzapfel and T. A. Martin. C. Gasser. computational aspects and applications. Chem. Springer-Verlag. J. Skeletal Tissue Mechanics.. New York. W. Res. [5] H. Solids and Structures. R. [11] G. Holzapfel. Chuong and Y. Biorheology. Fronek. Hoeve and P. M. [3] C. J. Gasser and G. B. In G.. New York. Fung. 32:301–312. 1995. J. Mech.

265:H52–H60. Vossoughi. N. [30] S. E. Borris. 30:819–827. Inelastic constitutive modeling of arterial and ventricular walls. Yu. C. 1997. Silver. Schulze-Bauer. M. Minns. In Biomedical Engineering II: Recent Developments. Estimation of residual strains in aortic segments.). Norwalk. 24:1–8. New York. D. McCulloch. modiﬁcations. Wien. Constitutive theory for strongly anisotropic solids. D. Continuum Theory of the Mechanics of Fibre-Reinforced Composites. M. Hayashi and H... Nimni and R. E. Hedjazi. Mechanical properties of the aorta: A review. [27] E. Gomez. FL. Xie. [28] R. Dover. 1993. Biomech. SpringerVerlag. 27:455–467. J. J. [20] D. 27:459–468. Patel and D. J. In G. Engr. Critical Reviews in Biomed. In A. [19] R. Yamada. L. Physiol. Bending of blood vessel wall: Stress-strain laws of the intima-media and adventitia layers. pages 434–437. W. In Computational Biomechanics. Biomed. Biomech. Vaishnav and J. Mechanics in Biology Symposium. Chemistry of collagen. Rachev. Orlando. Rodriguez. S. Circ. CISM Courses and Lectures No. and A. H. Woo. L. [26] A. Buntin. M. K. A. The role of the ﬁbrous components and ground substance in the mechanical properties of biological tissues: A preliminary investigation. Tanaka. Intimal residual stress and strain in large arteries. Ishikawa (Eds). 1984. Vienna. injuries and treatment.. Academic Press. [24] E. Spencer. and D. editor. Biomech. pages 103–183. Hall (Ed. [31] J. Nimni. Molecular structure and functions of collagen. Z. M. New York. editor. A. 17:323–358. in press. H. 1993 Bioengineering Conference ASME. 6:153–165. Biomech. D. 107-133. Collagen. J. Engr. The elastic symmetry of arterial segments in dogs. A. J. [22] A. [23] G. J. and F. 1997. 1985. New York. Neutral axis location in bending and Young’s modulus of different layers of arterial wall. Appleton Crofts. C. C. W. Zhou. Non-linear Elastic Deformations. L. 1988.. K. J. 2000. D. pages 1–32. Ramachandran. Ogden and C. 1999. Zhou. In M. [32] Q. and W. and S. and Y. Melvin (Eds). International Centre for Mechanical Sciences. Spencer. [29] J. W. 24. Murakami. P. 137-163. 1973. 1995. Engr. Res. Rachev and K. Springer-Verlag. [18] R. 1967. J. Treatise on Collagen. [17] M. Hoger. Am. [25] F. N. H. Fry. 1989.. Boca Raton.. Ramachandran. Soden. Jackson.. S. 1969.[16] R. 1983. CRC Press. ASME. and C. and Y. J. N. Florida. Ann. M.. Hayashi. Vossoughi. Mechanical behaviors of soft tissues: Measurements. 1996. In Bed-Vol. 1993. 12 . Nahum and J. Pergamon Press. Harkness. J. Christiansen. Phenomenological and structural aspects of the mechanical response of arteries. Theoretical study of the effects of vascular smooth muscle contraction on strain and stress distributions in arteries. J. pages 3–35. Y. A. In The Biomechanics of Trauma. editor. Akeson. Ogden. [21] A. Fung. 1994. 117:136–145. 282. J. 330-333. Theoretical study of the effect of stress-dependent remodeling on arterial geometry under hypertensive conditions. Fung. Stress-dependent ﬁnite growth in soft elastic tissues.

Phenomenological and structural aspects of the mechanical response of arteries. Stadler and R.A.C. November 2000. 2. Holzapfel and C. Schulze-Bauer. Ogden and C. C. G. August 2000. October 1999. R. Schulze-Bauer and M. G. Holzapfel.A.A. October 2000.A.A. G. Eberlein. balloon and stent. G. 4.at/biomech/ or by sending e-mail to ¼½°¾¿%À2ÁÂ%ÃRÄ1½TÅÇÆ/ÈcÉ2¼UÊ7ËUÌÅËRÄÅ Ë/Æ 1. R.J. Biomechanical properties of human iliac arteries. 3. Graz. Schulze-Bauer. Graz. Aspects of stress softening in ﬁlled rubbers incorporating residual strains.W. G. Graz. Ogden. October 2000. C. 7. Graz. 6.J. July 2000.tu-graz. Holzapfel. An anisotropic constitutive model for annulus tissue and enhanced ﬁnite element analyses of intact lumbar disc bodies.cis.J. August 2000. Graz.A. 5. Schulze-Bauer. .A. Graz.A.ac. computational aspects and applications. Biomechanics of Soft Tissue. Holzapfel and T. Stadler.Preprints in this series Pdf-ﬁles of the listed preprints may be obtained from our website at http://www. Gasser.J. Graz.A. A viscoelastic model for ﬁber-reinforced composites at ﬁnite strains: Continuum basis. Holzapfel.W. M. Mechanics of angioplasty: Wall.

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