APA: Reference List

Format
General format
One author

1. Books
Citation for PRINTED BOOK Source

Author(s). (Year of Publication). Title. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Battles, M. (2003). Library: An unquiet history. New York: W.W. Norton.
Invert all authors’ names and give surnames and initials only. Capitalize only the first word of the titles and of the subtitle, and any proper nouns. Omit the publisher’s province, state, or country, if they are well known. Canadian provinces are abbreviated with two letters (e.g., ON, NB, BC etc.).

Several books by same author

Wurman, R.S. (1989). InformationAnxiety. New York: Doubleday. Wurman, R.S. (2001). InformationAnxiety2. Indianapolis: Que.
The author’s name is repeated. If the same author (or coauthors) have several publications in the same year, list them alphabetically and add an “a,” “b,” and “c,” etc., after the date to distinguish them.

Two or more authors

Burka, J.B., & Yuen, L.M. (1983). Procrastination: Why you do it, what to do about It. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Put all authors in inverted order and use “&” for “and”. (Use “and” within the text of the report/essay) If there are more than six authors, name the first and add “et al.” (“and others”): Burka, Jane B., et al. Name all the authors in the first citation. Beginning with second citation, use first author and add “et al.”

No author, date, place of publication, or page Second or later edition

New York Public Library American history desk reference. (1997). New York: Macmillan.
When you make your Reference List, alphabetize the entry by title, ignoring A, An, or The. Use “n.d.” when works give no date of publication.

Booth, W.C., Colomb, G.G., & Joseph M. Williams. (2003). The craft of research (2nd ed.) Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Edition information is put in parentheses. The full name of a university as publisher is used.

Edited book

Mintz, A.P. (Ed.). (2002). Web of deception: Misinformation on the Internet. New York: Information Today.

Multi-volume work Single volume in a multivolume work Encyclopedia article, with author given

Sadie, S. (Ed.). (1980). The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians. London: MacMillan. Naylor, P. R. (1980–81). Footprints at the window: Vol. 3. The York trilogy. New York: Simon and Shuster. Likens, Gene E. (2001). Acid rain. In World Book. Chicago: World Book.
Note the use of “In” with title of reference book. City and publisher of reference book are given.

© 2005 Toronto District School Board

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Research Success @ Your Library

Austin Clarke. L.utoronto. (1991). (n. (1992). 2005. Lancashire (Ed. Retrieval Information Wells. Representative poetry online: Canadian poets. World Book multimedia encyclopedia. p. Publisher. Vol. Aardvark. McCullough (Ed. 83–88). p. 2002. from <library.) Toronto: Oxford University Press. (Year of Publication). 311. CD-ROM. Real women in fiction. Bibliography: History of a tradition. story.).d.com> Ardvaark. or poem in a collection) Novel or play (anthology) Government publication Pamphlet 1. D. Retrieved June 17.org/etext/35> The URL of an Internet site is not italicized. Canadian Oxford dictionary. Balsamo.) Encyclopedia article.ca/canpoetry/avison/poem2. CA: Doubleday.A. There is no period after the URL. 23. The twilight zone. R. Books Amaravati Sculpture. from <gutenberg. Modern American plays. (Original work published 1985). In I.htm> © 2005 Toronto District School Board . Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario. 2005.G. Tuque. The time machine. Berkeley. Ontario Ministry of Education (2002). Anderson. 2005. Format General format Online book Citation for ELECTRONIC BOOK Source Author(s). Retrieved June 10. Avison. from <gme. (1995).). J. where are you? In E.V.80 - Research Success @ Your Library . Title. (1994).grolier. In Grolier multimedia encyclopedia. Online encyclopedia CD-ROM article Online poem or play Sentman. provide the page numbers of the entire piece or section you are citing. essay. E. The Ontario Curriculum. Simple and direct: A rhetoric for writers. Barzun.). Etext 35. In R. 1. Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. Chicago: World Book.g. (1988). (1999). M. Draper. Black literature criticism.. Detroit: Gage Research. J. Project Gutenberg archive. (2005). (2004). New York: Scribner’s. (Original work published 1990).APA: Reference List (cont’d. Vol.). (1895). no author given Reference book article Dictionary Republished book Translated book Part of a book (e. W. 3. The role of women in Canadian literature (pp. H. Essential skills: Skills to build on. nd Serling. Retrieved May 6.). (1975). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica. Pettas (Trans. In Encyclopedia Britannica. Toronto: MacMillan. The Dumbfounding. Grades 11 and 12: Interdisciplinary Studies. Smith (Ed. (2 ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. For reference and books.

© 2005 Toronto District School Board . The public and private dialogue about the American family on television.) Format General format Magazine or newspaper article. Title of article. include the volume number in italics followed by the issue number in parentheses. New Combat: A Journal of Reason and Resistance. page numbers. The libraries of Sarajevo and the book that saved our lives. June 17). Periodicals: Magazines.81 - Research Success @ Your Library . [Letter to the editor]. (1994. L. 136. Toronto Star. [Review of the book In praise of slowness: How a worldwide movement is challenging the cult of speed]. Connect Magazine. or The in the journal title. An. separated by commas. CRTC turns radio on its head with landmark satellite ruling. Article in a scholarly journal with continuous pagination Article in a scholarly journal that pages each issue separately Abstract in an abstracts journal Bakaršić. 11. F. Title of Periodical.” or “pp.APA: Reference List (cont’d. Globe and Mail. The fog of war. K. Identify if the article is an editorial. Give the volume number in italics. April/May). EJ471027. but not for magazines and journals. 79–110. (2005. (2005. Review of a book. movie. (1991. etc. To identify different issues of a journal that does not number page continuously throughout the year.” for newspaper articles. but do not use the abbreviation “Vol. Journal of Communication 50 (4). Use the abbreviation “p. If an article is not printed on consecutive pages. 45. with author 2. Tuck. A24. (2005. Research in Higher Education 34. Abstract No. 26.” before the number. pp. Magazine or newspaper article. 61–62. and Journal Articles Citation for PRINTED PERIODICAL Source Author(s). 647–58. Give the periodical title in full. Newspapers. 13–15. McQuillin. Omit A. A. Shambala Sun. June 17). (Date). Morrow. February 4). in upper-case and lower-case letters. Albada. Abstract obtained from Current Index to Journals in Education 1994. Issue number. and use italics. Canadians Abroad Deserve Better. give all page numbers. D. Omit the name of the author of the work being reviewed. Simon. B1. Lance. p. Identify the medium in brackets. with no author Let go of the tension in your life. (1993). B3. Faculty responses to academic dishonesty: The influence of student honour codes. (2005. May). K. Time. Autumn). McCabe. (2000).

epnet. from <http://www. Arthuriana 11(4). Title of article. Diabetes Public Health Resource FAQs About Diabetes. D.. African American Review 32.82 - Research Success @ Your Library .htm> Notice the information that may be omitted for articles found without using a subscription database. 2004. March-April) Canadian Geographic. from <www. 2003. N.org/search> Online abstract Nastali.smu. (2003). 2004.edu/arthuriana/> Online government publication U. 2004. from Virtual News Library database <http://www. Retrieved May 25. D. The gestalt of online searching. librarians. 66–73. (Date). November-December). volume no.com> Benjamin Franklin. Retrieved March 20. 9–12. Retrieved October 1. 2002. Article found in an online scholarly journal Tolson.com> Abilock. Title of Periodical. P.cdc. from <http://www.search. electronic byways.virtualnews. (1997. June).com/MMSchools/nov97/ story. (1998). Newspapers.) Format General format Magazine article found in an online subscription database Newspaper article found in an online subscription database Reference article found in an online subscription database Magazine article found on the Web 2. and cultural back roads.APA: Reference List (cont’d. Retrieved October 12. N.htm> © 2005 Toronto District School Board . 2005.gale. National Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (2002.jstor.galenet. Retrieved October 1. Periodicals: Magazines. Retrieved November 10. from Galenet database <http://www. Toronto Star. Chemists learn why vegetables are good for you. and Journal Articles Citation for ELECTRONIC PERIODICAL Source Author(s). from Canadian Reference Centre EBSCOhost database <http://www. Abstract retrieved October 1. from JSTOR database <http://www. page numbers. Searching for Arthur: Literary highways. D. & Boardman..gov/diabetes/faqs. (2001).infotoday. 2002. When the earth moves. (1996. Retrieval information Lanken. Making books available: The role of early libraries. Discovering World History. Centre for Disease Control. 108-22.S. and booksellers in the promotion of African American children’s literature. April 13). (1993. Multimedia Schools [online].com> Angier.

Atlas of Canada.). from <http://www. from <www. from <http://www. M. Retrieved November 24.spacetelescope. (1993). Editor.cbc.jpg> Photograph Diagram or map Aboriginal peoples circa 1823.co. (1994). Newsgroups.ca> Sexton. from <www. Howells. Retrieved May 23.dylan> Painting or sculpture Kaufman.bbc. (2005). Leeuwen (Ed. 2005. 2004.com/> Personal home page Newsgroup Fox. from <http://www.83 - Research Success @ Your Library . K. Retrieved November 10. 2004.) Format General format Entire Internet site 3. Retrieved July 10.simmons. 1999.cbc. December.asp?i=10898330&vID=1&rID=101> SM3A: Installation of the fine guidance sensor.discoveryschool/schrock. (Director).com/default. Message posted to <news://rec.APA: Reference List (cont’d.shtml?focuswin> © 2005 Toronto District School Board . Title of Site or Page. from <http://search.com> Bartleby. April 15).com: Great books online (2005). Email. S.atlas. (2005. from <bartleby. (1970). 2005.gc. Retrieved April 24.archives.gif> Film or film clip Sound recording or sound clip Radio or television show Hyland. Internet. (2005. Retrieved July 4. from <www. [Photograph].edu/~fox/> Powers. S.org/images/medium/ sts103_501_026. M. Kathy Schrock’s guide for educators. (1999. and Other Online Resources Citation for INTERNET source Author(s)/Name of sponsoring institution or organization. The Internet goes multimedia [Film clip]. 2005. Home page. A. Fwd. (2005).archives. 2005. Retrieved July 10. (Date). Envisioning a global network. FAQs: Bob Dylan.ca> Spry.uk/radio2/r2music/documentaries/robertjohnson. Japanese crane in snow [Painting].music. Retrieved June 10. Hellhounds on his trail: The Robert Johnson story. 2005. P.corbis. 19–27). G.ca/images/shared/tmp/map81511205122955017. Retrieval information Schrock. from <www. June 29). J. (2001). 2005. Retrieved June 3.

Other Media and Human Sources Citation for MEDIA or HUMAN Source Brooks. Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: Random House. director. (2001). add the necessary details. NBC. National Geographic [Television Program]. compare the same film on DVD or video where you include the medium and the release date (if relevant). 92. Cond.APA: Reference List (cont’d. Perf. (1974). Gene Wilder. Israel Philharmonic Orchestra. van. studio. opera. New York. You may include other relevant information such as names of the writer or performers. M. (1660) Self Portrait. J. Theatre Passe Muraille. Suzanne Smith. Gene Wilder. Marty Feldman. (Director/Writer). When you cite a photograph of a work of art found in a publication. Peter Boyle. or concert) Bali. S. Cond. ballet. Rembrandt’s Eyes. E. 2005. In Schama. Perf. L. Treat a formal interview as a speech above. Gauntley and J. ON. 7 in A. (1813). Perf. Marty Feldman. or course lecture Interview Rosenfeld. LaForty. (2002). Bouchard. Angela Hewitt. (2005. (Director/Writer). op. Toronto. August 31). Roy Thomson Hall. (1999). 1660. (1998). Mehta. Rembrandt van Rijn. Musical composition Painting. Z. (2002). Brooks.S. Lilies. 2002. Dir. 1985. U.84 - Research Success @ Your Library . (1974) Young Frankenstein [Motion picture]. 2001. U. A film citation must include the title. sculpture. February 5) Address: Ontario School Library Association. Masterpiece of the Gods. Below. Annual convention. New York. Bach. Rembrandt van Rijn. Claudio Abbado. Interviews should be cited in the text only: Research is about thinking (T. Deutsche Grammophon.) Format Film or video recording 4. Toronto. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Twentieth Century Fox. Young Frankenstein [Motion picture]. Berlin Philharmonic. Do not include a personal interview in reference list. DVD. Twentieth Century Fox. Television or radio program Sound recording Performance (play. personal interview. academic talk. S. 640. or photograph Beethoven. Peter Boyle. M. Cloris Leachman. Speech. (1660) Self Portrait. May 1. May 10. Italian Concerto in F Major. 1660.S. © 2005 Toronto District School Board . CD 419 218-2 GH. and year of release. M. Toronto. (1735). Cloris Leachman. Symphony no.