Contents

Acknowledgments Introduction vi vii

Strategies for learning vocabulary 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Learning vocabulary: general advice Learning vocabulary: specific techniques Organizing a vocabulary notebook The names of English language words Using your dictionary Reviewing vocabulary Guessing and explaining meaning

Word formation 8 Suffixes 9 Prefixes 10 Roots 11 Abstract nouns 12 Compound adjectives 13 Compound nouns: noun + noun 14 Compound nouns: verb + preposition 15 Words from other languages 16 Abbreviations and acronyms 17 New words in English Words and pronunciation 18 19 20 Words commonly mispronounced Onomatopoeic words Homonyms

Connecting and linking words 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Time Condition Cause, reason, purpose, and result Concession and contrast Addition Text-referring words Discourse markers in speech Discourse markers in writing

Countable and uncountable nouns 29 30 31 32 33 34 Uncountable nouns Nouns that are usually plural Countable and uncountable nouns with different meanings Collective nouns Making uncountable nouns countable Containers and contents

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and desires Speaking The six senses What your body does Basic Concepts 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 Number. and languages The weather Describing people’s appearance Describing people’s character Relationships At home Everyday problems Global problems Education Work Sports The arts Music Food The environment Towns The natural world Clothes Health and medicine Transportation Vacations Numbers and shapes Science and technology Computers and the Internet The media and the press Politics and public institutions Crime Money and finances Feelings and Actions 63 64 65 66 67 68 Belief and opinion Pleasant and unpleasant feelings Likes.cambridge. and lending Movement and speed Texture. dislikes. density. and difficulty iv © Cambridge University Press www. and probability Sound and light Possession. nationalities. quantity. possibility. need. brightness. failure.Topics 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 Countries. degree. and weight Success.org . and intensity Duration of time Distances and dimensions Obligation. giving.

Idiomatic expressions 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 Idioms and fixed expressions: general Everyday expressions Similes Binomials Idioms describing people Idioms describing feelings and mood Idioms connected with problematic situations Idioms connected with praise and criticism Idioms connected with using language Miscellaneous idioms Proverbs Phrasal verbs and verb-based expressions 89 90 91 92 93 94 Expressions with do and make Expressions with bring and take Expressions with get Expressions with set and put Expressions with come and go Miscellaneous expressions Special Topics 95 96 97 98 99 100 Headline English The language of signs and notices Words and gender Formal and informal words Varieties of English American English and British English Pronunciation symbols Index Answer key 202 203 236 v © Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org .

B Words for people involved in disasters / tragedies It was a terrible accident.Unit 42 A Global problems Disasters / tragedies earthquakes [the earth moves/trembles] hurricanes / tornadoes / typhoons [violent winds/storms] volcanoes [hot liquid rock and gases that pour from a mountain] explosions (e..g. Hundreds are feared dead.g. The area is suffering its worst drought in many years. Millions are starving as a result of the famine. a bomb) major accidents (e. etc. Thousands of refugees have crossed the border looking for food and shelter. The flu epidemic spread rapidly throughout the country. New malaria drug tested disease caught from certain mosquitoes. raccoon.. The explosion/typhoon/flood resulted in 300 casualties. A big earthquake shook the city at noon today. Civil war has broken out in the north of the country.org .g. a fire) floods [too much rain] drought [no rain] famine [no food] epidemics [diseases affecting large numbers of people] and pandemics [diseases affecting almost everyone in an area] war / civil war / unrest Verbs connected with disaster/tragedy words A volcano has erupted in Indonesia.cambridge. and damage is used with things. [dead and injured people] C Headlines about diseases and epidemics Rabies out of control in many parts of Asia disease that can be caused by a bite from a dog. e. a plane crash.. claims Tourism Minister diseases caused by infected food and water 84 © Cambridge University Press www. causing fever Cholera and typhoid shots not needed. A tornado swept through the islands yesterday. destroying hundreds of homes. [people who live through a disaster] The real victims [people who suffer from a disaster] of the civil war are the children. with only three survivors. Many people were injured and dozens of buildings were damaged in the hurricane. note injure is used with people.

4 6.4 Fill in the blanks with words from page 84. 6 Flood Warnings Not Heeded In Time 42. Shelling and mortar fire could be heard all over the town.1 Write the type of disasters from A on page 84 that these situations are about. 1. 4. The lava flow destroyed three villages. 1. No one was rescued.000 trying to escape the civil war to enter the country. lava is hot liquid rock that comes from a volcano. 5. What disease can be caused by a mosquito bite? 2. 1. It was a tragic highway accident. 2. What disease can you get by drinking infected water? 3. Then explain what each disaster means.cambridge. Verb destroy erupt explosion injure starve survival Noun: thing or idea Noun: person/people ------------------the injured ------------------Adjective 42. Try to answer from memory. Where there are dashes.5 Disease quiz. you do not need to write anything. 5 Hurricane Smashes Coast 2. 4.m. 42. or whether a disaster has happened or has been avoided. of the famine. The earth is cracked and vegetation has withered. local time. using a dictionary if necessary.2 Complete this table. with twelve . People boarded up stores and houses and stayed indoors. 1. Police Defuse Bomb All Survive Emergency Landing 5. Another fifty people died today. Poison Gas Cloud Spreads 3. The tremor struck at 3:35 p. The government has agreed to allow 3. 42. What disease can you get from an animal bite? 85 © Cambridge University Press www. 3. A: Were there any from the ship that sank? B: I’m afraid not. AIDS Time Bomb Ticking Away 4. volcano. 3.org .Unit 42 Exercises 42.3 Read these headlines and say whether the situation is getting worse or better. all 2.

who share facilities (there are also elder hostels for traveling senior citizens)] time-share [a house or an apartment. with leisure facilities such as tennis courts.] motel [a hotel for motorists. usually for children] youth hostel [cheap lodging. a golf course.m. owned by many people and used by each owner for a specified time period (e. please.g. inn. with parking spaces directly outside the rooms] bed & breakfast (B&B) [a small hotel.Unit 55 A Vacation Different places where you can spend a vacation resort [a hotel (usually large and expensive). beach... I’d like a wake-up call at 7 a. Do you have a nonsmoking room with an ocean view / a river view available? I’d like to guarantee my reservation with a credit card. usually in a resort area. providing a room and breakfast the next morning for one price] campground [an outdoor area where you can pitch a tent or park a van or an RV] summer camp [a summer recreation area in the country. mainly for young people.cambridge.org . please. or private home. We’d like room service. swimming pools. health spa. etc. What time is check-in/checkout? Is late checkout available? Common adjectives used for describing vacations breathtaking scenery/views exhilarating feeling/ride/moment exotic beauty/location glamorous surroundings/hotel intoxicating views/air picturesque streets/village unspoiled charm/nature sublime simplicity/beauty D 110 © Cambridge University Press www. 1–2 weeks a year for vacations)] B Activities that people like to do on vacation sunbathe or go to the beach swim or go swimming do some sightseeing or go sightseeing hike or go hiking cycle or go cycling go to an amusement park go shopping camp or go camping C Useful language when you are on vacation I’d like to book a single/double room with two beds / twin beds / a queen-size bed / a king-size bed.

m. you want to reserve a room for a couple? you want to reserve a room for yourself? you don’t like cigarette or cigar smoke? you have to wake up at 6 a. 4. get some brochures or other tourist information in English. Are there any you would definitely never do? Can you think of others you would prefer to do during your vacation? What would you say in a hotel when . When you receive the information.org . 1. 3. Make a sentence for each one. picturesque: I love the picturesque villages along the Amalfi Coast in Italy.5 Find seven typical language mistakes in the paragraph below and fix them. follow-up To find useful language about vacations. 7. . and they made a travel around the island. based on your personal preferences. Smith had a sunbath. 6. You could try the embassies or tourist offices of English-speaking countries.cambridge. 1.Unit 55 Exercises 55. 5. Put the eight activities shown in B on page 110 in order. The children had a cycle. . The Smiths stayed at a camping last summer.2 55. 111 © Cambridge University Press www. Smith made a sightseeing. or a travel agency. breathtaking: exhilarating: exotic: intoxicating: glamorous: unspoiled: sublime: 55. 2. and Mr.1 Which of the vacation places in A on page 110 have you or any of your friends stayed at? Think of at least one advantage and one disadvantage for each place. so they could shopping. even if you have no experience staying there. for an important meeting? you want to find out what time you must leave the room in the morning? you’d rather not go to the restaurant for dinner? 55.3 55. 8. Every day Mrs. 4.4 Name a place that you are familiar with that fits each of these descriptions. 3. 2. The castle had a gift shop. 6. One day the family made an excursion to a local castle. note down any useful new words and expressions that you find. 5.