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PD 1096

SECTION 1210. Penthouses and Roof Structures (a} Height No penthouse or other projection above the roof in structures of other than Type V construction shall exceed 8.40 meters above the roof when used as an enclosure for tanks or for elevators which run to the roof and in all other cases shall not extend more than 3.60 meters in height with the roof. (b) Area The aggregate area of all penthouses and other roof structures shall not exceed one third of the area of the supporting roof. (c} Prohibited US86 No penthouse, bulkhead, or any other similar projection above the roof shall be used for purposes other than shelter of mechanical equipment or shelter of vertical shaft openings in the roof. A penthouse or bulkhead used for purposes other than that allowed by this Section shall conform to the requirements of this Code for an additional storey. (d) Construction Roof structures shall be constructed with walls, floors, and roof as required for the main portion of the building except in the following cases: (1) On Types 111 and IV constructions, the exterior walls and roofs of penthouses which are 1.50 meters or more from an adjacent property fine may be of one-hour fire-resistive incombustible construction. (2) Walls not less than 1.50 meters from an exterior wall of a Type IV 40 construction may be of one-hour fire-resistive incombustible construction. The above restrictions shall not prohibit the placing of wood flagpoles or similar structures on the roof of any building. (e} Towers and Spires Towers and spires when enclosed shall have exterior walls as required for the building to which they are attached. Towers not enclosed and which extend more than 20.00 meters above the grade shall have their framework constructed of iron, steel, or reinforced concrete. No tower or spire shalt occupy more than one-fourth of the street frontage of any building to which it is attached and in no case shall the base area exceed 150 square meters unless it conforms entirely to the type of construction requirements of the building to which it is attached and is limited in height as a main part of the building. If the area of the tower and spire exceeds 10.00 square meters on any horizontal cross section, its supporting frames shall extend directly to the ground. The roof covering of the spires shall be as required for the main room of. The rest of the structure. Skeleton towers used as radio masts, neon signs, or advertisement frames and placed on the roof of any building shall be constructed entirely of incombustible materials when more than 7.50 meters in height, and shall be directly supported on an incombustible

framework to the ground. No such skeleton towers shall be supported on roofs of combustible framings. They shall be designed withstand a wind load from any direction in addition to any other toads.

BP 344
a) At the space where the primary function is served and where facilities and ingress/egress of the building or structure are located, as to make such space accessible to the disabled persons; provided, however, that where the primary function can be served at the ingress level and where such level is provided with facilities, requirements for accessibility at other levels may be waived. b) Ten percent (10%) of the total number of units of government-owned living accommodations shall be accessible and fully usable by the disabled persons with any fractional part in excess of one-half (1/2) in the computation thereof, to be considered as one unit; for privately-owned living accommodations the number of accessible units shall be as provided in Section 3 of Rule III thereof. c) Ingress/egress from the street to the building or structure shall be made accessible. d) Accessible slots in parking areas shall be located as near as possible to ingress/egress spaces of the building or structure. RULE II - MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR ACCESSIBILITY 1. Design Criteria: 1. CATEGORIES OF DISABLED PERSONS. The categories of disability dictate the varied measures to be adopted in order to create an accessible environment for the handicapped. Disabled persons under these Rules may be classified into those who have: 1.1.1 Impairments requiring confinement to wheelchairs; or 1.1.2 Impairments causing difficulty or insecurity in walking or climbing stairs or requiring the use of braces, crutches or other artificial supports; or impairments caused by amputation, arthritis, spastic conditions or pulmonary, cardiac or other ills rendering individuals semiambulatory; or 1.1.3 Total or partial impairments of hearing or sight causing insecurity or likelihood of exposure to danger in public places; or 1.1.4 Impairments due to conditions of aging and incoordination; 1.1.5 Mental impairments whether acquired or congenital in nature. 1.2 ANTHROPOMETRICS AND DIMENSIONAL DATA AS GUIDES FOR DESIGN. The minimum and maximum dimensions for spaces in the built environment should consider the following criteria: 1.2.1 The varying sizes and structures of persons of both sexes, their reaches and their lines of sight at both the standing and sitting positions. 1.2.2 The dimensional data of the technical aids of disabled persons. Included in the second consideration are the dimensions of wheelchairs; the minimum space needed for locking and unlocking leg braces plus the range of distance of crutches and other walking aids from persons using such devices.

By applying at this very early stage dimensional criteria which take into account wheelchair usage, the physical environment will ultimately encourage and enable wheelchair users to make full use of their physical surroundings. 1.2.3 The provision of adequate space for wheelchair maneuvering generally insures adequate space for disabled persons equipped with other technical aids or accompanied by assistants. In determining the minimum dimensions for furniture and fixtures accessible to disabled persons, the following anthropometric data shall serve as guides for design: The length of wheelchairs varies from 1.10 m to 1.30 m. The width of wheelchairs is from 0.60 m to 0.75 m. A circle of 1.50 m in diameter is a suitable guide in the planning of wheelchair turning spaces. The comfortable reach of persons confined to wheelchairs is from 0.70 m to 1.20 m above the floor and not less than 0.40 m from room corners. The comfortable clearance for knee and leg space under tables for wheelchair users is 0.70 m. Counter height shall be placed at a level comfortable to disabled persons' reach. [Refer to Annex B-2 to B-6, Figs. 2 to 8.] 1.3 BASIC PHYSICAL PLANNING REQUIREMENTS. No group of people shall be deprived of full participation and enjoyment of the environment or be made unequal with the rest due to any disability. In order to achieve this goal adopted by the United Nations, certain basic principles shall be applied: 1.3.1 ACCESSIBILITY. The built environment shall be designed so that it shall be accessible to all people. This means that no criteria shall impede the use of facilities by either the handicapped or non-disabled citizens. 1.3.2 REACHABILITY. Provisions shall be adapted and introduced to the physical environment so that as many places or buildings as possible can be reached by all. 1.3.3 USABILITY. The built environment shall be designed so that all persons, whether they be disabled or not, may use and enjoy it. 1.3.4 ORIENTATION. Finding a person's way inside and outside of a building or open space shall be made easy for everyone. 1.3.5 SAFETY. Designing for safety insures that people shall be able to move about with less hazards to life and health. 1.3.6 WORKABILITY AND EFFICIENCY. The built environment shall be designed to allow the disabled citizens to participate and contribute to developmental goals.

PD 957
Section 2. Design Standards and Guidelines for Residential Condominium Projects A. Site Criteria Conformity to Comprehensive Land Use Plan/Zoning Ordinance/National Building Code 1. Residential condominium projects shall preferably be located in areas zoned as or appropriate for residential uses. 2. Condominium projects shall likewise conform to the minimum building requirements, lot occupancy, open spaces, parking and other requirements of the National Building Code of the Philippines and its Implementing Rules and Regulations. B. Planning Consideration 1. Area Planning a. Supplementary and supportive activities to residential use shall be allowed provided that the privacy, order, health and safety of the residents are not jeopardized nor threatened and that the land use plan and/or zoning ordinance of the locality can accommodate such mixture of land uses. b. Open spaces shall be provided within the project site pursuant to the National Building Code of the Philippines and its Implementing Rules and Regulations. These shall include courts, yards, setbacks, light wells, uncovered driveways, access roads, parking spaces, buffer strips, parks and playgrounds. Except as may hereafter be otherwise provided these spaces shall be open from the ground to the sky. The open space shall also be allocated for basic utilities and community facilities or common areas. c. Easements for utilities, such as drainage system, water supply, power lines and communication lines, shall be integrated with land circulation system. d. Building orientation on lot shall take into account proper ventilation, sunlight and land characteristics. e. No development shall be allowed within the 5-meter mandatory easement on both sides of the Marikina Valley Fault Trace and such other fault traces as may be identified by PHIVOLCS. (Approved per Board Res. No. 515, Series of 1992)

2. Site Preservation/Alteration a. Slope The finished grade shall have a desired slope to allow rainwater to be channeled into street drains. Where cut and fill is necessary an appropriate grade shall be attained to prevent any depression in the area. Grading and ditching shall be executed in a manner that will prevent erosion or flooding of adjoining properties. b. Preservation of Site Assets Suitable trees with a caliper diameter of 200 millimeters or more, as well as shrubs and desirable ground cover shall be preserved in accordance with the implementing rules and regulations of DENR. Where good quality top soil exists in the site, it shall be banked and shall be preserved for finishing grades of yards, playgrounds, parks and garden area. c. Ground Cover Grass, shrubs, plants and other landscaping materials used for ground cover shall be of variety appropriate for its intended use and location. They shall be so planted as to allow complete and permanent cover of the area. C. Design parameters 1. Space location Space allocations shall provide areas for living, dining, kitchen, sleeping, toilet and bath, laundry/ drying area and storage - the minimum sizes of which shall be in accordance with the requirements of the National Building Code of the Philippines and its Implementing Rules and Regulations/referral codes. a. Parks/Playground and/or Other Recreational Areas A.1 Parks/Playground (exclusive of easements, access roads, driveways, parking space) shall be required for: A.1.1 Projects with a gross saleable area of 1.000 square meters: Or A.1.2 Projects with ten (10) or more condominium units. Except when the condominium is part of a subdivision project or a park/playground not more than or 800 meters away and in reaching it, the pedestrian will not be unduly exposed to hazard.

A.2 The minimum area for a single park/playground shall be 50 square meters. Increments of 3.00 square meters for every additional family dwelling type in excess of 10 units shall be added. A.3 Parks/playground or other recreational facilities may not be required if the condominium is located not more than or 800 meters from a publicly accessible park/playground/or other recreational facilities. A.4 Parks/playground shall be properly landscaped to accommodate both active and passive activities. A.5 Parks/playground may be accommodated in the yard/s provided such yards are adequate and usable as park. A.6 other facilities (optional) such as tennis courts, swimming pool, etc. may be integrated with the park/playground. b. Parking Space Requirement B.1 For Residential Condominium Units B.1.1 The parking slot requirement for residential condominium project snail be in accordance with the provisions of the National Building Code of the Philippines. B.1.2 Off-site parking may be allowed in addition to the on-site parking provided that the designated parking area is part of the project and provided further that the required distance shall be in accordance with the National Building Code of the Philippines. B.1.3 Compliance with additional parking spaces as required by local ordinances shall be mandatory. B.2 For Commercial Condominium Units B.2.1 The minimum parking slot requirement shall be in accordance with the provisions of the National Building Code of the Philippines. B.2.2 Off-site parking may be allowed in addition to the on-site parking provided that the designated parking area is part of the project or the project is within the commercial subdivision where common parking area is part of the approved subdivision plan and provided further that parking arrangements are explicitly indicated in the contract of sale of property to be developed. Off-site parking shall not be located 200 meters away from condominium project.

c. Access Roads Roads shall serve every building, parking space, park/playground and service points (e.g. garbage collection points). Minimum roads or right-of-way shall be 8 meters, 6 meters thereof shall be the carriageway and the remaining 2 meters shall be developed as sidewalk/planting strip. Path walks shall be provided for pedestrian circulation with a minimum width of 1.2 meters. Construction of roads, sidewalk and path walks, shall be in accordance with the standards of residential subdivision. Space for turnaround at dead end shall be provided. Direct vehicular access to the property shall be provided by public street or alley. An independent means of access shall be provided to each dwelling, or group of dwellings in a single plot. Without trespassing adjoining properties. Utilities and service facilities- must be independent for each dwelling unit. An independent means of access to each living unit shall be provided without passing through any yard of a living unit or any other yard. C.1 Hierarchy of Roads For horizontal condominium projects, the hierarchy of roads shall be the same as the minimum design standard requirements for subdivision projects. C.2 Pavement All roads (major, minor, motor court) for both residential and commercial condominium projects shall be paved with concrete/asphalt. d. Basic Facilities and Services D.1 Service Area (Laundry/Drying Area) Adequate laundry and drying areas shall be provided. Where such service areas are held in common, they shall have suitable outdoor locations, fenced or screened and kept away from living rooms, entrance or front yards. D.2 Water supply, power, sewerage and drainage utilities shall conform to the requirements of a subdivision. D.2.1 Reservoir/Water Tank For multi-storey buildings if the height of the building requires water pressure in excess of that in the main water line, a water tank shall be provided. Tank shall also be required if the peak drawn should reduce the pressure on the highest usable floor to less than 0.06 Mpa - the minimum pressure required for satisfactory operation of fixtures, particularly those with flush valves. D.2.2 Capacity - 20% Average Daily Demand plus fire reserve D.3 Mechanical Equipment and Service Areas

D.3.1 Provision of elevators shall conform to the plans and specifications of the duly licensed architect/engineer who shall determine the requirement for elevators including the number of cars, capacity, safety features and standards, elevator type, speed and location in relation to the over-all design and use of the building; the design architect/engineer shall certify under oath that all the components thereof are in accordance with the National Building Code of the Philippines, the Accessibility Law and national industry standards and other pertinent laws. D.3.2 Compliance to the provisions of the Fire Code of the Philippines, shall be mandatory D.4 Refuse Collection/Disposal Centralized garbage depository area and efficient refuse collection and disposal services shall be provided whether independently or in conjunction with the city or municipality garbage collection and disposal services. It shall conform to the provisions of the Sanitation Code of the Philippines and its Implementing Rules and Regulations/pertinent referral codes. 2. Floor Area Requirements A. Single-Occupancy Unit Single occupancy units shall have a minimum floor area of 18 square meters, however, a net floor area of 12 square meters may be allowed provided that: A.1 These are intended for students/employees/workers and provided further that the condominium project to which these will be integrated is within highly urbanized areas. A.2 The same shall be provided with common basic facilities such as laundry/drying area and support amenities such as visitor's lounge and dining area. A.3 Said facilities/support amenities including all other measures that will ensure compliance with the intended use of the unit shall be explicitly indicated in the master deed/ contract to sell. b. Family Dwelling Unit The minimum floor area of family condominium units shall be 36 square meters and 22 square meters for open market and medium cost condominium project respectively. Section 3. Conversion of Existing Structures to Condominium Projects. Existing structures may be converted into condominium projects upon proper application there for with the Board and compliance with the requirements of condominium laws and these rules and standards. Section 4. Variances These design standards and requirements may be modified or varied by the Board in cases of large scale government and private residential subdivision or condominium projects, housing in areas for priority development or urban land reform zones, resettlement or social housing projects for low income groups, or housing projects financed by any government financing

institution, or in cases where strict observance hereof will cause extreme hardship to the subdivision or condominium owner/developer. 1 The location is unique and different from the adjacent locality, and because of its uniqueness, the owners cannot obtain a reasonable return on the residential subdivision/condominium projects;

2. The hardship is not self-created; 3. The proposed variance is due to existing permanent structures (concrete/steel) and is necessary to permit a reasonable use of the residential subdivision/condominium; 4. The variance will not alter the essential character of the location where the residential subdivision for which the variance is sought, is located, and will not substantially or permanently affect the use of the other residential subdivision/condominium in the same locality; particularly those within a 1 kilometer radius thereof; 5. The variance will not give rise to unauthorized reclassification of the approved residential subdivision/condominium plan (i.e. whether partial or full alteration of the plan), and will not adversely affect the public health, safety or general welfare of the community. (Per Commission Proper Resolution No. R-53, S. 1982) High-rise building Also called high-rise, multistory building tall enough to require the use of a system of mechanical vertical transportation such as elevators. The skyscraper is a very tall high-rise building. The first high-rise buildings were constructed in the United States in the 1880s. They arose in urban areas where increased land prices and great population densities created a demand for buildings that rose vertically rather than spread horizontally, thus occupying less precious land area. High-rise buildings were made practicable by the use of steel structural frames and glass exterior sheathing. By the mid-20th century, such buildings had become a standard feature of the architectural landscape in most countries in the world. Introduction This research will be focused on understanding of space issues that are generated by combined functions in highrise mixeduse building. Although this type of building has much potentials and advantages over the typical singleuse building, mixeduse buildings have been considered as difficult buildings to design to achieve efficient space with rational vertical transportation. To become feasible for investment in urban areas, this building type must be an effective solution to solve the space problems generated when dealing with mass amounts of commercial, office, hotel, and residential space.

This research will provide better understanding of the complexity of mixeduse building and recommendations to the decision making process within the design stage to improve overall feasibility of mixeduse highrise building.

Background A mixed use tall building can be characterized as 1) a building with three or more significant revenue producing uses, 2) Functional and Physical integration of project components. A mix of uses was once the norm in the major cities prior to the implementation of modern zoning and landuse practices. Modern zoning practices assigned land uses according to function. Retail, work, living schools, etc., were segregated from each other. From the 1910s through the 1950s, integrated land uses were rare in new developments 1960s and 1970s Mixeduse reemerged as a tool for urban revitalization, often as part of large scale public/ private partnerships. Current Mixeduse developments presented walkable urbanism and smart growth initiatives. Residential emerged as a primary use. They became integral components of the creation of Livable Communities. Although creating extremely large or tall buildings is very costly, it also can provide large revenues. The tallest towers in the world always have been the center of economic development and usually attract businessmen, diplomats, tourists and artists from all over the world. So in fact, extreme buildings can not only be deployed to express and establish power, but also to maintain and accumulate it. In contrast to the singleuse building, multiuse tall buildings combine living, working, and servicing activities within the same building. In such cases, commercial, office, hotel, residential, and sometimes parking are included in one building, each function having its own entry and circulation. To become feasible for investment in urban areas, this building type must be an effective solution to solve the space problems generated when dealing with mass amounts of commercial, office, hotel, and residential space. From a marketing and economic point of view, a multiuse building has become attractive to developers in the city core. The multiuse building provides the ultimate flexibility of space division within a very large structural grid. These may be considered more remarkable uses when compared to the usual single use building and multi use building. Obviously, an office or retail client will not desire the same things as a hotel or residential client. Therefore, each use will have its own marketable physical characteristics. To develop an optimum design, research of each function is necessary. When examining the vertical location of multiuse functions from tenant preference and rentability point of view, below grade should be used for parking, the first level above grade should be commercial use, the next level for office space, the next for hotel and topmost level for residential function. However, from the structural point of view, the smallest column space, which is hotel or residential function, always should placed at the bottom of the building for structural efficiency

to avoid special consideration in transferring loads. The challenge is to balance these two issues. With a mix of uses, some types of spaces are more economical to construct in structural steel and others prove to be more costeffective to construct in reinforced concrete.

Objectives The main objective of this research project is to define the complex challenges of a design considerations influenced by vertically stacked functions in the earlier design stage. This research will address the important parameters in the design of mixeduse tall buildings and their relationship to the space efficiency. Comprehensive case study will be performed with comparative analysis by visualizing and computerizing the data to establish digital data base that acquired from various sources. 1 Determine the space problems when several functions are mixed together in a single building 2 Determine the importance of space efficiency in mixed use buildings 3 Determine the different aspects of mixeduse buildings compared to singleuse building 4 Determine the interrelationships between function distribution and space efficiency in mixeduse buildings 5 Provide the overview of factors and considerations for space efficiency and their correlation which will be useful for architects and developer in the initial stage of design 6 Provide direction for rational functional distribution and space efficiency Tower block, high-rise, residential towers, apartment tower, office tower, apartment block, or block of flats A tall building or structure used as a residential and/or office building. In some areas they may be referred to as "MDU" standing for "Multi Dwelling Unit". High-rise buildings became possible with the invention of the elevator (lift) and cheaper, more abundant building materials. The materials used for the structural system of high-rise buildings are reinforced concrete and steel. Most North American style skyscrapers have a steel frame, while residential blocks are usually constructed of concrete. There is no clear definition of any difference between a tower block and a skyscraper, although a building with fifty or more stories is generally considered a skyscraper. High-rise structures pose particular design challenges for structural and geotechnical engineers, particularly if situated in a seismically active region or if the underlying soils have geotechnical risk factors such as high compressibility or bay mud. They also pose serious challenges to firefighters during emergencies in high-rise structures. New and old building

design, building systems like the building standpipe system, HVAC systems (heating, ventilation and air conditioning), fire sprinkler system and other things like stairwell and elevator evacuations pose significant problems. Studies are often required to ensure that pedestrian wind comfort and wind danger concerns are addressed. Apartment blocks have technical and economic advantages in areas of high population density, and have become a distinctive feature of housing accommodation in virtually all densely populated urban areas around the world. In contrast with low-rise and single-family houses, apartment blocks accommodate more inhabitants per unit of area of land and decrease the cost of municipal infrastructure. Skyscraper A tall and continuously habitable building of many stories, usually designed for office and commercial use. There is no official definition or height above which a building may be classified as a skyscraper. One common feature of skyscrapers is having a steel framework that supports curtain walls. These curtain walls either bear on the framework below or are possibly suspended from the framework above, rather than load-bearing walls of conventional construction. Some early skyscrapers have a steel frame that enables the construction of loadbearing walls taller than of those made of reinforced concrete. Modern skyscrapers' walls are not load-bearing, and most skyscrapers are characterized by large surface areas of windows made possible by the concept of steel frame and curtain walls. However, skyscrapers can have curtain walls that mimic conventional walls and a small surface area of windows. Skyscrapers since the 1960s use tubular designs innovated by Bangladeshi-American structural engineer Fazlur Rahman Khan. This engineering principle makes the buildings structurally more efficient and stronger. It reduces the usage of material (economically much more efficient), while simultaneously allowing the buildings to reach greater heights. It allows fewer interior columns, and so creates more usable floor space. It further enables buildings to take on various shapes. There are several variations of the tubular design; these structural systems are fundamental to tall building design today. Other pioneers include Hal Iyengar and William LeMessurier. Today, skyscrapers are an increasingly common sight where land is expensive, as in the centres of big cities, because they provide such a high ratio of rentable floor space per unit area of land. They are built not just for economy of space; like temples and palaces of the past, skyscrapers are considered symbols of a city's economic power. Not only do they define the skyline, they help to define the city's identity. In some cases, exceptionally tall skyscrapers have been built not out of necessity, but to help define the city's identity and presence or power as a city. Pre-19th century

Until the 19th century, buildings of over six stories were rare, as having great numbers of stairs to climb was impractical for inhabitants, and water pressure was usually insufficient to supply running water above 50 m (164 ft). The tallest building in ancient times was the 146 m (479 ft) Great Pyramid of Giza in ancient Egypt, built in the 26th century BCE. It was not surpassed in height for thousands of years, the 14th century CE Lincoln Cathedral being conjectured by many to exceed it.[23] The latter in turn was not surpassed until the 555-foot (169 m) Washington Monument in 1884. However, being uninhabited, none of these structures actually comply with the modern definition of a skyscraper. High-rise apartments flourished in classical antiquity. Ancient Roman insulae there and in other imperial cities reached 10 and more stories.[24] Beginning with Augustus (r. 30 BCE14 CE), several emperors attempted to establish limits of 2025 m for multi-story buildings, but met with only limited success.[25][26] Lower floors were typically occupied by shops or wealthy families, the upper rented to the lower classes.[24] Surviving Oxyrhynchus Papyri indicate that seven-story buildings existed in provincial towns such as in 3rd century CE Hermopolis in Roman Egypt.[27] The skylines of many important medieval cities had large numbers of high-rise urban towers, built by the wealthy for defense and status. The residential Towers of 12th century Bologna numbered between 80 to 100 at a time, the tallest of which is the 97.2 m (319 ft) high Asinelli Tower. A Florentine law of 1251 decreed that all urban buildings be immediately reduced to less than 26 m.[28] Even medium-sized towns of the era are known to have proliferations of towers, such as the 72 up to 51 m height in San Gimignano.[28] The medieval Egyptian city of Fustat housed many high-rise residential buildings, which Al-Muqaddasi in the 10th century described as resembling minarets. Nasir Khusraw in the early 11th century described some of them rising up to 14 stories, with roof gardens on the top floor complete with ox-drawn water wheels for irrigating them.[29] Cairo in the 16th century had high-rise apartment buildings where the two lower floors were for commercial and storage purposes and the multiple stories above them were rented out to tenants.[30] An early example of a city consisting entirely of high-rise housing is the 16th-century city of Shibam in Yemen. Shibam was made up of over 500 tower houses,[31] each one rising 5 to 11 stories high,[32] with each floor being an apartment occupied by a single family. The city was built in this way in order to protect it from Bedouin attacks.[31] Shibam still has the tallest mudbrick buildings in the world, with many of them over 30 m (98 ft) high.[33] An early modern example of high-rise housing was in 17th-century Edinburgh, Scotland, where a defensive city wall defined the boundaries of the city. Due to the restricted land area available for development, the houses increased in height instead. Buildings of 11 stories were common, and there are records of buildings as high as 14 stories. Many of the stone-built structures can still be seen today in the old town of Edinburgh. The oldest iron framed building in the world, although only partially iron framed, is The Flaxmill (also locally known as the

"Maltings"), in Shrewsbury, England. Built in 1797, it is seen as the "grandfather of skyscrapers, since its fireproof combination of cast iron columns and cast iron beams developed into the modern steel frame that made modern skyscrapers possible. In 2013 funding was confirmed to convert the derelict building into offices.[34] Early skyscrapers In 1852 Elisha Otis introduced the safety elevator, allowing convenient and safe passenger movement to upper floors. Another crucial development was the use of a steel frame instead of stone or brick, otherwise the walls on the lower floors on a tall building would be too thick to be practical. An early development in this area was Oriel Chambers in Liverpool. Designed by local architect Peter Ellis in 1864, the building was the world's first iron-framed, glass curtain-walled office building. It was only 5 floors high. Further developments led to the world's first skyscraper, the ten-story Home Insurance Building in Chicago, built in 18841885. While its height is not considered very impressive today, it was at that time. The architect, Major William Le Baron Jenney, created a load-bearing structural frame. In this building, a steel frame supported the entire weight of the walls, instead of load-bearing walls carrying the weight of the building. This development led to the "Chicago skeleton" form of construction. In addition to the steel frame, the Home Insurance Building also utilized fireproofing, elevators, and electrical wiring, key elements in most skyscrapers today. Burnham and Root's 1889 Rand McNally Building in Chicago, 1889, was the first all-steel framed skyscraper, while Louis Sullivan's Wainwright Building in St. Louis, Missouri, 1891, was the first steel-framed building with soaring vertical bands to emphasize the height of the building and is therefore considered by some to be the first true skyscraper. Most early skyscrapers emerged in the land-strapped areas of Chicago, London, and New York toward the end of the 19th century. A land boom in Melbourne, Australia between 18881891 spurred the creation of a significant number of early skyscrapers, though none of these were steel reinforced and few remain today. Height limits and fire restrictions were later introduced. London builders soon found building heights limited due to a complaint from Queen Victoria, rules that continued to exist with few exceptions until the 1950s. Concerns about aesthetics and fire safety had likewise hampered the development of skyscrapers across continental Europe for the first half of the twentieth century (with the notable exceptions of the 1898 Witte Huis (White House) in Rotterdam; the Royal Liver Building in Liverpool, completed in 1911 and 90 m (300 ft) high; and the 17-story Kungstornen (Kings' Towers) in Stockholm, Sweden, which were built 192425, the 15-story Edificio Telefnica in Madrid, Spain, built in 1929; the 26-story Boerentoren in Antwerp, Belgium, built in 1932; and the 31story Torre Piacentini in Genoa, Italy, built in 1940). After an early competition between Chicago and New York City for the world's tallest building, New York took the lead by 1895 with the completion of the American Surety Building, leaving New York with the title of tallest building for many years. New York City developers competed among themselves, with successively taller buildings claiming the title of "world's tallest" in the 1920s and early 1930s, culminating with the completion of the Chrysler Building in 1930 and the Empire State Building

in 1931, the world's tallest building for forty years. The first completed World Trade Center tower became the world's tallest building in 1972. However, it was soon overtaken by the Sears Tower (now Willis Tower) in Chicago within two years. The Sears Tower stood as the world's tallest building for 24 years, from 1974 until 1998, until it was edged out by Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur, which held the title for six years. Modern skyscrapers The Empire State Building in New York City. Completed in 1931, it was the tallest building in the world for nearly 40 years. Modern skyscrapers are built with steel or reinforced concrete frameworks and curtain walls of glass or polished stone. They utilize mechanical equipment such as water pumps and elevators. From the 1930s onwards, skyscrapers began to appear around the world - also in Latin America (such as So Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires, Santiago, Caracas, Bogot, Mexico City) and in Asia (Tokyo, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Manila, Singapore, Mumbai, Seoul, Kuala Lumpur, Taipei, Bangkok). Immediately after World War II, the Soviet Union planned eight massive skyscrapers dubbed "Stalin Towers" for Moscow; seven of these were eventually built. The rest of Europe also slowly began to permit skyscrapers, starting with Madrid, during the 1950s. Finally, skyscrapers also began to be constructed in cities of Africa, the Middle East and Oceania (mainly Australia) from the late 1950s. After the Great Depression skyscrapers construction was abandoned for over thirty years. German architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century. He conceived of the glass faade skyscraperand designed the Seagram Building in 1958, a skyscraper that is often regarded as the pinnacle of the modernist high-rise architecture. In the early 1960s structural engineer Fazlur Khan realized that the rigid steel frame structure that had dominated tall building design and construction so long was not the only system fitting for tall buildings, marking the beginning of a new era of skyscraper revolution in terms of multiple structural systems. His central innovation in skyscraper design and construction was the idea of the "tube" structural system, including the "framed tube", "trussed tube", and "bundled tube". These systems allowed far greater economic efficiency, and also allowed efficient skyscrapers to take on various shapes, no longer needing to be box-shaped. Over the next fifteen years, many towers were built by Khan and the "Second Chicago School", including the massive 442 m (1,450 ft) Willis Tower. The tubular systems are fundamental to tall building design. Since 2000, cities such as Chicago, Shanghai, Dubai, and New York have experienced a huge surge in skyscraper construction, thanks to the new tubular design. Chicago, Hong Kong, and New York City, otherwise known as "the big three," are recognized in architectural circles as having especially compelling skylines. A landmark skyscraper can inspire a boom of new highrise projects in its city, as Taipei 101 has done in Taipei since its opening in 2004. In 2010, The

Bank of America Tower at One Bryant Park became the world's first commercial LEED Platinum skyscraper. Basic design considerations Good structural design is important in most building design, but particularly for skyscrapers since even a small chance of catastrophic failure is unacceptable given the high price. This presents a paradox to civil engineers: the only way to assure a lack of failure is to test for all modes of failure, in both the laboratory and the real world. But the only way to know of all modes of failure is to learn from previous failures. Thus, no engineer can be absolutely sure that a given structure will resist all loadings that could cause failure, but can only have large enough margins of safety such that a failure is acceptably unlikely. When buildings do fail, engineers question whether the failure was due to some lack of foresight or due to some unknowable factor. Loading and vibration The load a skyscraper experiences is largely from the force of the building material itself. In most building designs, the weight of the structure is much larger than the weight of the material that it will support beyond its own weight. In technical terms, the dead load, the load of the structure, is larger than the live load, the weight of things in the structure (people, furniture, vehicles, etc.). As such, the amount of structural material required within the lower levels of a skyscraper will be much larger than the material required within higher levels. This is not always visually apparent. The Empire State Building's setbacks are actually a result of the building code at the time, and were not structurally required. On the other hand John Hancock Center's shape is uniquely the result of how it supports loads. Vertical supports can come in several types, among which the most common for skyscrapers can be categorized as steel frames, concrete cores, tube within tube design, and shear walls. The wind loading on a skyscraper is also considerable. In fact, the lateral wind load imposed on super-tall structures is generally the governing factor in the structural design. Wind pressure increases with height, so for very tall buildings, the loads associated with wind are larger than dead or live loads. Other vertical and horizontal loading factors come from varied, unpredictable sources, such as earthquakes. Shear walls A shear wall, in its simplest definition, is a wall where the entire material of the wall is employed in the resistance of both horizontal and vertical loads. A typical example is a brick or cinderblock wall. Since the wall material is used to hold the weight, as the wall expands in size, it must hold considerably more weight. Due to the features of a shear wall, it is acceptable for small constructions, such as suburban housing or an urban brownstone, to require low material

costs and little maintenance. In this way, shear walls, typically in the form of plywood and framing, brick, or cinderblock, are used for these structures. For skyscrapers, though, as the size of the structure increases, so does the size of the supporting wall. Large structures such as castles and cathedrals inherently addressed these issues due to a large wall being advantageous (castles), or ingeniously designed around (cathedrals). Since skyscrapers seek to maximize the floor-space by consolidating structural support, shear walls tend to be used only in conjunction with other support systems. Steel frame The classic concept of a skyscraper is a large steel box with many small boxes inside it. The genius of the steel frame is its simplicity. By eliminating the inefficient part of a shear wall, the central portion, and consolidating support members in a much stronger material, steel, a skyscraper could be built with both horizontal and vertical supports throughout. This method, though simple, has drawbacks. Chief among these is that as more material must be supported (as height increases), the distance between supporting members must decrease, which actually in turn, increases the amount of material that must be supported. This becomes inefficient and uneconomic for buildings above 40 stories tall as usable floor spaces are reduced for supporting column and due to more usage of steel. Sky lobby The first sky lobby was also designed by Khan for the John Hancock Center. Later buildings with sky lobbies include the World Trade Center, Petronas Twin Towers and Taipei 101. The 44th-floor sky lobby of the John Hancock Center also features the first high-rise indoor swimming pool, which remains the highest in America. This was the first time that people could have the opportunity to work and live "in the sky".

Mixed-use development isin a broad senseany urban, suburban or village development, or even a single building, that blends a combination of residential, commercial, cultural, institutional, or industrial uses, where those functions are physically and functionally integrated, and that provides pedestrian connections. The term ("a mixed-use development") may also be used more specifically to refer to a mixed-use real estate development projecta building, complex of buildings, or district of a town or city that is developed for mixed-use by a private developer, (quasi-)governmental agency, or a combination thereof. Traditionally, human settlements have developed in mixed-use patterns. However, with industrialisation as well as the invention of the skyscraper, governmental zoning regulations were introduced to separate different functions, such as manufacturing, from residential areas. In the United States, the heyday of separate-use zoning in the U.S. was after World War II, but

since the 1990s, mixed-use zoning has once again become desirable as the benefits are recognized. These benefits include:

greater housing variety and density reduced distances between housing, workplaces, retail businesses, and other destinations more compact development stronger neighborhood character pedestrian and bicycle-friendly environments

Throughout most of human history, the majority of human settlements developed as mixed-use environments. Walking was the primary way that people and goods were moved about, sometimes assisted by animals such as horses or cattle. Most people dwelt in buildings that were places of work as well as domestic life, and made things or sold things from their own homes. Most buildings were not not not divided into discrete functions on a room by room basis, and most neighborhoods contained a diversity of uses, even if some districts developed a predominance of certain uses, such as metalworkers, or textiles or footwear due to the socioeconomic benefits of propinquity. People lived at very high densities because the amount of space required for daily living and movement between different activities was determined by walkability and the scale of the human body. This was particularly true in cities, and the ground floor of buildings was often devoted to some sort of commercial or productive use, with living space upstairs. This historical mixed-used pattern of development declined during industrialisation in favor of large-scale separation of manufacturing and residences in single-function buildings. This period saw massive migrations of people from rural areas to cities drawn by work in factories and the associated businesses and bureaucracies that grew up around them. These influxes of new workers needed to be accommodated and many new urban districts arose at this time with domestic housing being their primary function. Thus began a separating out of land uses that previously had occurred in the same spaces. Furthermore, many factories produced substantial pollution of various kinds. Distance was required to minimize adverse impacts from noise, dirt, noxious fumes and dangerous substances. Even so, at this time, most industrialized cities were of a size that allowed people to walk between the different areas of the city. These factors were important in the push for Euclidian or single-use zoning premised on the compartmentalization of land uses into like functions and their spatial separation. In Europe, advocates of the Garden City Movement were attempting to think through these issues and propose improved ways to plan cities based on zoning areas of land so that conflicts between land uses would be minimized. Modernist architects such as Le Corbusier advocated radical rethinking of the way cities were designed based on similar ideas, proposing plans for Paris such as the Plan Voisin, Ville Contemporaine and Ville Radieuse that involved demolishing the entire center of the city and replacing it with towers in a park-like setting, with industry carefully sited away from other uses.

In the United States, another impetus for Euclidian zoning was the birth of the skyscraper. Fear of buildings blocking out the sun led many to call for zoning regulations, particularly in New York City. Zoning regulations, first put into place in the 1916 Zoning Resolution, not only called for limits on building heights, but eventually called for separations of uses. This was largely meant to keep people from living next to polluted industrial areas. This separation, however, was extended to commercial uses as well, setting the stage for the suburban style of life that is common in America today. This type of zoning was widely adopted by municipal zoning codes. With the advent of mass transit systems, but especially the private automobile and cheap oil, the ability to create dispersed, low-density cities where people could live very long distances from their workplaces, shopping centres and entertainment districts began in earnest. However, it has been the post-second World War dominance of the automobile and the decline in all other modes of urban transportation that has seen the extremes of these trends come to pass. In the 1920s, the U.S. National Zoning Enabling Act of 1923 and a series of National Subdivision and Planning acts in English-speaking countries first set forth standards and practices of single-use zoning to be adopted by every municipality, which soon became the standard for all post-World War II development. These laws enforced and codified standards for modern suburban design as it is known today, which have been exported to many other countries through planning professionals and transportation engineers. The resulting bills progressively included restrictions on alleyways, minimum road widths, restrictions on cross streets for major arteries, buffer zones between separate areas, and eliminating mixed-use in all new developments, resulting in a moratorium on traditional urban development which remains in place in most areas that are not specifically zoned as "mixed use" or "general urban development", a common term for grandfathered urban areas. In addition, some existing urban areas commonly cited as mixed-use have been rezoned in such a way that, if demolished, they could not be rebuilt as such; for example, post-flood redevelopment areas in the 18th-century city of New Orleans. Throughout the late 20th century, it began to become apparent to many urban planners and other professionals that mixed-use development had many benefits and should be promoted again. As American, British, Canadian and Australian cities deindustrialized, the need to separate residences from hazardous factories became less important. Completely separate zoning created isolated "islands" of each type of development. In most cases, the automobile had become a requirement for transportation between vast fields of residentially zoned housing and the separate commercial and office strips, creating issues of Automobile dependency. In 1961, Jane Jacobs' influential The Death and Life of Great American Cities argued that a mixture of uses is vital and necessary for a healthy urban area. Zoning laws have been revised accordingly and increasingly attempt to address these problems by using mixed-use zoning. A mixed-use district will often serve as the "downtown" area of a local community, ideally associated with public transit nodes in accordance with

principles of transit-oriented development and new urbanism. Mixed-use guidelines often result in residential buildings with street front commercial space. Retailers have the assurance that they will always have customers living right above and around them, while residents have the benefit of being able to walk a short distance to buy groceries and household items or see a movie. Benefits of mixed-use development include: Greater housing variety and density, more affordable housing (smaller units), life-cycle housing (starter homes to larger homes to senior housing)

reduced distances between housing, workplaces, retail businesses, and other amenities and destinations better access to fresh, healthy foods (as food retail and farmers markets can be accessed on foot/bike or by transit) more compact development, land-use synergy (e.g. residents provide customers for retail which provide amenities for residents) stronger neighborhood character, sense of place walkable, bike-able neighborhoods, increased accessibility via transit, both resulting in reduced transportation costs

Mixed use development is often seen as too risky by many developers and lending institutions because economic success requires that the many different uses all remain in business. Most development throughout the mid to late 20th century in the United States was single-use, so many development and finance professionals see this as the safer and more acceptable means to provide construction and earn a profit. Christopher B. Leinberger notes that there are 19 standard real-estate product types that can obtain easy financing through real estate investment trusts. Each type, such as the office park and the strip mall, is designed for low-density, single-use zoning. Another issue is that short-term discounted cash flow has become the standard way to measure the success of income-generating development, resulting in "disposable" suburban designs that make money in the short run but are not as successful in the medium to long term as walkable, mixed-use environments. Mixed-use commercial space is often seen as being best suited for retail and small office uses. This precludes its widespread adoption as the trend to ever-larger corporate and government employment accelerates. Construction costs for mixed-use development currently exceed those for similarly sized, single-use buildings; challenges include fire separations, sound attenuation, ventilation, and egress. Additional costs arise from meeting the design needs. In some designs, the large, highceilinged, columnless lower floor for commercial uses may not be entirely compatible with the smaller scale of the walled residential space above.

Single-use developments are commonplace at high, medium, and low urban density, but low-density mixed-use developments are rare. Where density is high and transport is by automobile, parking space requirements (often mandated by the same subdivision act requirements that restrict mixed-use) are likely to exceed those of low density residential development, and the large number of parking spaces may be difficult to finance. Note that this is equally true for any other higher-density development remote from public transport; however, compared to residential zones, this may be a drawback due to the required higher initial investment that only amortizes over the medium and long term. On the other hand, in denser areas, owning an automobile might be considered a luxury rather than a necessity, especially where there is good public transport. Therefore, others argue that mixed-use neighborhoods need less parking space and are more efficient, if the authorities do not require generous parking (see Donald C. Shoup, The High Cost of Free Parking). Manhattan is an example of an unusually high density leading to relaxation of standards in this matter.

Types of contemporary mixed-use zoning Some of the more frequent mixed-use scenarios in the United States are:

Neighborhood commercial zoning convenience goods and services, such as convenience stores, permitted in otherwise strictly residential areas Main Street residential/commercial two to three-story buildings with residential units above and commercial units on the ground floor facing the street Urban residential/commercial multi-story residential buildings with commercial and civic uses on ground floor Office convenience office buildings with small retail and service uses oriented to the office workers Office/residential multi-family residential units within office building(s) Shopping mall conversion residential and/or office units added (adjacent) to an existing standalone shopping mall Retail district retrofit retrofitting of a suburban retail area to a more village-like appearance and mix of uses Live/work residents can operate small businesses on the ground floor of the building where they live Studio/light industrial residents may operate studios or small workshops in the building where they live Hotel/residence mix hotel space and high-end multi-family residential Parking structure with ground-floor retail Single-family detached home district with standalone shopping center