A. Excretion 1. Definitions • Excretion - release of metabolic wastes and excess water • Defecation (or elimination) - the release of unabsorbed wastes (e.g., feces) from the digestive tract 2. Components a. Liver - excretes bile pigments - bile pigments derived from heme portion of hemoglobin, and incorporated into the bile here b. Skin - perspiration (solution of water, salt, and urea) - helps to maintain body temperature, by cooling (evaporation) - may also rid body of excess urea c. Large Intestines - excretes Calcium and Iron salts - defecation d. Kidney - ammonia, a toxic by-product of metabolism of proteins is converted to urea in the liver, which is excreted here - hypothalamus regulates function with hormones - ADH raises the osmotic concentration within kidney, and so promotes the reabsorption of water - Aldosterone stimulates sodium ion reabsorption e. Lungs - CO2, and water 3. Key Definitions a. Kidney - the organ the filters the blood (600 L/day) to remove nitrogenous wastes and regulates the balance of water and solutes in the blood plasma. - Cortex

Generally speaking, o Hormones are secreted. o Wastes are excreted. and o Bile is secreted and/or excreted depending on your point of view.

Intake of water o Drink 1500ml/day o Food 1000ml/day o Metabolism 200-350ml/day Excretion of water o Lungs 500ml/day o Skin 400ml/day o Feces 200ml/day o Urine 1600ml/day

Text Diagram: Kidney

Erythropoietin The kidneys make this hormone, which stimulates the bone (red) marrow to make blood cells, in response to low levels of O2 in the blood.

Human Biology



Excretion Outer Medulla Inner Medulla Renal Pelvis . Urethra . Bladder .stores urine. Ureters .Renal Circulation (abridged pathway) Aorta ! Renal artery ! Afferent arteriole ! Glomerulus (capillaries) ! Efferent arteriole ! Peritubular capillaries (and vasa recta) ! Renal vein ! Inferior vena cava b. prior to elimination d.the tubes (2) carrying urine from the kidneys to the bladder c.the tube carrying urine from the bladder to the exterior of the body Human Biology 2 Excretion .

one of numerous tubules (about a million) involved in filtration and selective reabsorption of blood.Adrenalin – medulla . an enclosed glomerulus.Aldosterone .the functional unit of the kidney.Afferent arteriole Human Biology 3 Excretion . and a renal tubule Text Diagram: Nephron Arterioles . Each one consists of a Bowman’s capsule.Excretion Adrenal Gland .cortex 4. The Nephron .

a cluster of capillaries enclosed by the Bowman’s capsule. out of the glomerular capillaries into the Bowman’s capsule.a. The kidney works by forced filtration. which are too large to pass through the glomerular capillary wall.helps maintain concentration gradient in the medulla for reabsorption Glomerulus (L. uric acid. and drains into the Renal vein . which surrounds the glomerulus.Peritubular capillaries ! venule ! vein Peritubular Capillaries .is located between the DCT and the afferent arteriole . K+. through which it enters the renal tubule. bicarbonate (80-90%). creatine.filtrate Glomerular (Pressure) Filtration of Blood . the filtrate contains water and ions (which are recovered) and metabolic wastes (which are eliminated as urine). a. Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT) . after which it passes through the nephron.takes up reabsorbed material. water (65%). and seen on the previous page. Bowman’s Capsule . Human Biology 4 Excretion . where most water and ions are reabsorbed into the bloodstream and the residue is excreted as urine .Excretion Juxtaglomerular apparatus leads into Glomerulus Juxtaglomerular apparatus . estrogen/progesterone o Many organic acids and bases (either endproducts of metabolism or exogenous) - note the variation in this diagram…it is actually a more realistic image than the splayed open image generally used to label the parts on the provincial exam. ammonia. (100%).Tubular excretion (secretion) . under pressure.the bulbous unit of the nephron.exits glomerulus . “little ball”) .Efferent arteriole .Tubular Secretion (Excretion) o H+. but not red blood cells or large proteins. blood pressure driving blood plasma from the glomerular capillaries into the Bowman’s capsule.blood plasma is forced. penicillin. Na+ (65%) Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) .Tubular (Selective) Reabsorption o Glucose (100%).

if blood becomes alkaline. such as certain drugs.ADH. results in increased “salt” (Na+) reabsorption o Side affect increased reabsorption of water o Increased excretion of K+ in urine o Co-transport of Cl-. increased reabsorbtion of Na+ (excretion of K+) and water along the ascending limb and arch) Collecting Duct (CD. Removal of excessive K+. as such human urine may be as much as 4.is reabsorbed and more HCO3. How The Kidney Works . and Controlling blood pH.2 times as concentrated as blood plasma. The longer the loop the greater the water reabsorption. CT) . H+. HCO3-. or from the tubule cells themselves into the filtrate. Adrenaline / Epinephrine Isoproterenol Tubular Secretion This is an essential mechanism for removing unwanted substances from the plasma. increased permeability to water. the kidney uses the hairpin loop of Henle to set up a countercurrent flow.(at PCT). K+. Cl. basically then the kidney is divided into two zones: 1.Excretion o o Anions: " Endogenous: Urate. and certain organic acids move from the blood of the peritubular capillaries through the tubule cells. cortex. where it is collected by blood vessels impermeable to the high urea concentration but permeable to water. creatine. results in increased water reabsorption Aldosterone. Oxalate " Exogenous: Penicillin.The outer portion. contains the upper portion of the loop including the upper ascending arm where reabsorption of salt from the filtrate by active transport occurs If blood becomes acidic. By contrast. drains into the Renal Pelvis ! ureter ! bladder ! urethra o o o - 5. and K+. Substances such as H+. the renal tubule cells actively secrete H+ (at DCT) into the filtrate and retain more HCO3. This facilitates the movement of water from the filtrate out into surrounding tissue. which have been reabsorbed by passive processes. 14 times. Removing unwanted substances or metabolic waste products such as urea and uric acid. Aldosterone. increased permeability to “salt” (Na+).leaves the body in the urine. The countercurrent processes involves the passage of two solutes across the membrane of the loop: salt (NaCl) and urea. Salicylates Cations: " Creatinine Quinine. Tubular secretion is essential for: o Removal of substances not already in the filtrate. dessert animals such as the gerbil are even higher.The human kidney achieves a high degree of water reabsorption by using the salts and urea in the glomerular filtrate to increase osmotic concentration of the kidney tissue. - - Human Biology 5 Excretion . NH4+. Dopamine.

but even low concentrations can kill cells. and combine with H+ ions to form ammonia (NH3). therefore it must be removed from the body . and can be transported at far higher concentrations . Nitrogenous Wastes . (the remainder of the amino acid is converted to sugar or lipid. medulla. Salt reabsorption from the filtrate of one arm of the loop establishes a gradient of salt concentration.by selectively removing substances from the blood.The inner portion.) Ammonia is toxic to all cells.The Kidney helps regulate the composition of the blood . It is the high salt concentration that raises the total osmotic concentration so high that water passes by osmosis out the collecting duct.and therefore also internal body chemistry . almost half of the urea entering the blood is Human Biology 6 Excretion . which is permeable to urea the active reabsorption of salt in the cortex drives the process.Deamination occurs in the liver .enzymes break down amino acids by removing the amino group (NH2).the urea is carried by the blood stream to the kidneys. The Kidney As Regulator Organ . where it is excreted as the principal component of urine - 7. it can control concentrations of ions and other chemicals while most amino acids are retained in the kidneys. with concentration higher in the medulla at the bottom of the loop. therefore it is necessary to transport it in very low concentrations Humans and most mammals detoxify ammonia by converting it to urea in the liver which is far less toxic. 6. contains both the lower portion of the loop and the bottom of the collecting duct.Excretion 2.

and hormonal controls the body requires that the osmotic concentration of blood be maintained within a narrow margin . reabsorb less salt by decreasing the production of Aldosterone Hormones: . i.are maintained .Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) which stimulates passive water reabsorption .Aldosterone which stimulates active sodium reabsorption… a.The kidney is concerned with homeostasis . where it is stored for subsequent release Its secretion is regulated by the osmolality of the body fluids and the blood volume and pressure.g.e. Na+. the kidney can. Hormones and Homeostasis . . dilute it by reabsorbing more water by producing more ADH ii.this then serves to maintain a constant blood pH 8.Changes in body fluid osmolality of a few percent are sufficient to significantly alter ADH secretion. a key plasma protein responsible for maintaining the osmotic pressure in the blood. .. Ca++. Digestive system notes Human Biology 7 Excretion .affects ion concentration . Cl-. Mg++. ADH is produced in hypothalamus and descends along nerve fibres to the posterior pituitary. autonomic.voluntary.Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) aka vasopressin regulates the volume of water excreted by the kidneys.ADH increases the permeability of the distal convoluted tubule and the collecting duct to water. Review: What is Albumin? .Excretion eliminated glucose not normally eliminated. and HCO3. is lost by diabetics concentrations of H+. if there is too much salt.cf. Water Balance (Osmoregulation) .regulation is controlled by the central nervous system . .for this reason it is not always desirable for your body to retain the same amount of water . K+.made in the liver.

If Too Much Water: osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus detect the decrease in blood solute concentration (osmolality) and lessen the hypothalamus output of ADH baroreceptors/stretch receptors .a small volume of highly concentrated (hypertonic) urine is excreted - - - So why is the medulla hypertonic? ∵ of aldosterone (see notes below) . which in turn is dependent on blood volume and pressure.DCT and CD are made permeable to Na+ which flood the medulla… ADH makes the walls of the DCT and collecting tubule more permeable to water so that more water will be reabsorbed and less will be excreted with urine. and the Low osmolality means less solute. and filling the bladder faster. Alcohol inhibits ADH. and aortic arch. the carotid sinus. .measure of the solute concentration.low osmolality and high blood volume inhibit ADH release ADH causes walls of collecting ducts to become more permeable to water and thus permits osmolar equilibration and absorption of water into the hypertonic medulla. receptors) respond to stretch of the vessel wall. carotid and aortic arch detect expansion of the vessel with increased reabsorption of water…signaling a decrease in ADH production If Too Little Water: ADH release is increased . decreasing the reabsorption of water. the increased production of urine by the kidney…leading to increased micturition / voiding / urination — aka #1 or peeing.Excretion Decreases in blood volume and pressure of 10% to 15% or more are needed to effect ADH secretion.by high blood osmolality affecting hypothalamic osmoreceptors and .by low blood volume affecting the baroreceptors/stretch receptors. the large pulmonary vessels. Osmolality: . These “baroreceptors” (stretch more solvent (water). High osmolality means more solute. resulting in… Diuresis. . and - The blood volume and pressure sensors are found in less solvent (water).in the pulmonary vessels. Human Biology 8 Excretion .

HCO3.DCT (ascending limb and arch) and CD Aldosterone causes Na+ to be reabsorbed at the DCT (~4%) slightly more than at the CD (~3%). Salt Balance . charge. as with Cl-) .for various reasons the salt levels in your blood must not vary widely.And excreting K+ Na+ is actively reabsorbed at the PCT.Drawing water. . although intake may vary . DCT and CD Na+ is passivley reabsorbed at the ascending loop of Henle Juxtaglomerular apparatus – contact between the afferent arteriole and DCT . the hormone Renin stimulates the adrenal cortex increases production of aldosterone a steroid hormone that stimulates active sodium (and water) reabsorption via the: .when blood volume (and blood P) drops.Excretion Source: VPL Science Librarian b. .when sodium ion levels drop in association with low blood volume (low blood pressure).( ∵ of neg.detected by “stretch receptors” Human Biology 9 Excretion .

.25dihydroxycholecalciferol.Stimulus: cardiac cells stretched due to increased blood volume 10 Excretion Human Biology . H+.Source: Atria (of heart) . blood volume and blood pressure increase.e. attracting negatively charged Cl-. a vasocontrictor that also) .(changes angiotensinogen [a plasma protein from the liver] into angiotensin I which then becomes angiotensin II. . A critical anti-cancer vitamin. in laying down of calcium into the bone and. but tread carefully. will also be reabsorbed (cf.Na+ have a positive charge..follow the Na+ out of the Loop and into surrounding tissue. This is the active form of vitamin D3. There are indeed overlaps between these processes.stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone “ The reabsorption of Na+ is followed by the reabsorption of water. The traditional illustration of this is in Victorian child mineworkers who rarely saw the sun (and probably had a poor diet as well). and K+ (although. (Do not confuse regulation of calcium metabolism by vitamin D etc.) Vitamin D is involved in stimulating the absorption of calcium from the diet. with the role of calcium as an intracellular second messenger.uk/~petesmif/teaching /1bds_mb/notes/kidney/endocrn.htm) - Renin . If you don't have enough vitamin D as a child you get rickets (bendy bones) and bad teeth.In the transport of Na+/K+ (pump). Thus. excreted with the urine because of aldosterone). The liver converts cholecalciferol into 25hydroxycholecalciferol and the proximal tubule cells of the kidney convert 25hydroxycholecalciferol into 1.ANH (Atrial Natriuretic Hormone) . generally K+ are more likely to flowing in the opposite direction.source: Pete Smith (http://www. the Cl. reduced stretch of Juxtaglomerular cells and glomerular (pressure) filtration decreases the Juxtaglomerular apparatus secretes Renin The kidney is also responsible for activating vitamin D3. PTH and calcitonin) it controls many aspects of calcium metabolism in the whole body. 3 Na+ move out of the tubule (are reabsorbed) for every 2 K+ that gets pulled into the tubule (are excreted). Vitamin D is very important to dentists because (along with parathyroid hormone. . HCO3 -.Excretion (osmorecepotors) in the Juxtaglomerular apparatus — i. ADH) Filtered Load Reabsorbed (%) Factors That Stimulate Reabsorption Angiotensin II Sympathetic nerves Sympathetic nerves Aldosterone Aldosterone Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) Factors That Inhibit Reabsorption Dopamine - - - Proximal tubule Loop of Henle Distal tubule Collecting duct 67 25 ~4 ~3 Source: VPL Science Libarian - Aside: . Therefore.liv.ac. water. Because of the (hypertonic) concentration gradient set up by aldosterone. ” Byproduct is the co-transport of Cl-. Vitamin D (cholecalciferol) can either be ingested with food or made from 7dehdrocholesterol by the action of ultraviolet light (sit out in the sun and make vitamin D). most importantly (at least from the point of view of a dentist) in the mineralisation processes involved in dentinogenesis and amelogenesis.aka ANP(Atrial Natriuretic Peptide) .

which in turn promotes the excretion of water (and blood P and volume decrease). therefore promotes the excretion of Na+ (natriuresis). Renin-An giotensin-Aldosterone System Source: VPL Science Librarian Human Biology 11 Excretion .Excretion Fcn: inhibits Renin.

uric acid. penicillin. creatine + efferent arterioles ! peritubular capillaries ! (venule) ! ultimately to the Renal Vein + below the Inner medulla feeding the Ureter is the Renal Pelvis Human Biology 12 Excretion . H+.Excretion Glomerular Filtration Tubular Reabsorption Tubular Secretion (Excretion) Ammonia.

Decreased BP (as detected by stretch receptors in the atria of the heart) reabsorbs Na+. Angiotensin II then constricts blood vessels.stimulates the hypothalamus to activate the thirst reflex. Ca2+…) Water Urea and lipid-soluble solutes Small proteins Mechanism Active transport Active transport (cotransport with Na+) Passive transport (cotransport with Na+ for HCO3. within tubule cells) Human Biology 13 Excretion . Mg2+.a.a.) Increased reabsorption of water Adrenal cortex Presence of Renin (due to sodium deficiency). which is further converted into angiotensin II by ACE. (and indirectly water) excretes K+. atria. and .increases the secretion of ADH and aldosterone.Selective Reabsorption a. .Excretion Key Hormones (Simplified) Hormone Summary Antidiuretic Source Hormone (ADH) Stimulus aka Vasopressin* - Hypothalamus. produced by the liver.Tubular Reabsorption Virtually all nutrients (glucose. but stored and released from the posterior pituitary gland Secretion in response to reduced plasma volume is activated by pressure receptors in the veins. and carotids. vitamins…) Anions (Cl-. the angiotensinconverting enzyme primarily within the capillaries of the lungs. Renin) may stimulate the secretion of ADH Constricts arterioles (increased BP) Lowers heart rate (associated drop in body temp. raises blood pressure juxtaglomerular apparatus (between glomerulus and DCT) also Function Aldosterone Source Stimulus Function Renin Source Stimulus - - - - * .by active transport) Passive transport Osmosis Passive diffusion (side effect of gradient created by movement of water) Endocytosis (digested to a. (too little water) Secretion in response to increases in plasma osmotic pressure is mediated by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus (too many solutes) Angiotensin II (cf. .. .Decreased “salt” (NaCl) Renin activates the renin-angiotensin system by cleaving Function angiotensinogen. potentially having many more functions in the body not directly related to the excretory system. This is much more complex hormone. What gets Reabsorbed & Where Tubule Segment Substance Reabsorbed PCT Na+ . to yield angiotensin I.Low blood volume . leading to increased blood pressure. HCO3-) Cations (K+.

HCO3Water Urea Source: Human Anatomy and Physiology 6ed. N. Marieb Osmosis Passive transport Active transport Passive transport Active transport (Aldosterone) Active transport (PTH) Diffusion.a. K+. Mg2+ Na+ Ca2+ ClWater Na+. Cl-. H+. HCO3K+. Cl-. Cl-) Ca2+.. as NaCl) * (~8%) (secreted) * (secreted) (secreted) (secreted) ? of 53% * Can be reabsorbed or secreted depending on what is required to maintain blood pH Human Biology 14 Excretion . some co-transport w/ Na+ (active) Osmosis (ADH) Active transport (Aldosterone) Passive transport (side effect of gradient created by aldosterone) Co-tansport w/ Na+ (active) Osmosis (ADH) Facilitated diffusion (most remains in the medulla) Collecting Duct Some Percentages of Reabsorption PCT Water 65% HCO3 80-90% Glucose 100% Loop 10-20% - Na+ 65% 25% (ascending) DCT CD ADH & Aldosterone impact * * Affected by hormone levels o Aldosterone = ~ rest of 7-9% (but more K+ is secreted) o ANH = ~0 4% (greater) 3% (lesser) ClK+ a. Cl-) Salt (Na+.Excretion Loop of Henle Descending Loop Water Ascending Loop DCT Salt (Na+. E. H+ NH4+ Some Drugs Urea 50% 55% 100% (secreted) (secreted) (secreted) ? of 53% 35% 30% - ~ 14% (both active & passive.

which is about 1200 ml/min or over 1700 L/day. N.850 4.900 460 800 53. on an average day.000 600 18.400 %reabsorbed 99. Marieb Summary Source: Pete Smith (http://www. E.000 4..liv.uk/~petesmif/teaching/notetoc. It does.4% of it. the kidney is fantastically good at both Substance (mM) Sodium Potassium Chloride Bicarbonate Urea Glucose Total solute filtered 26.3 99.000 secreted 50 excreted 150 90 150 0 410 0 700 reabsorbed 25. the kidney has got to come into contact with a lot of blood.4 93.2 100 53 100 87 100 Human Biology 15 Excretion .900 870 800 54. Every day the kidney filters 180 L of plasma into the urine and.htm) In order to be an efficient blood scrubber.Excretion Summary of Nephron Function Source: Human Anatomy and Physiology 6ed. reabsorbs 99.850 560 17. The kidney receives 25% of cardiac output.ac. leaving a daily urine production of about 1L Overall.

are filtered out of the blood flowing through the glomerulus. and Human Biology 16 Excretion . the proximal tubule is the main site of secretion.5kg of salt dissolved in 180 L of water.4 Each day the kidney filters and reabsorbs an incredible 1. NH4+. K+. Cotransporters often couple the free energy released by the energetically favourable movement of Na+ along its electrochemical gradient to the transport of substances such as amino acids and glucose against their electrochemical gradients. by simple diffusion. Tubular reabsorption is a transepithelial process carried out in the PT.ac. facilitated diffusion. however. with the exception of high molecular mass proteins. or they are actively reabsorbed via cotransporters. the entire length of the renal tubule is involved in reabsorption.auckland. The final stage of urine production is storage in the bladder and micturition. the cells of different regions of the renal tubule are adapted to perform specific transport functions. All molecules. Tubular Secretion This is an essential mechanism for removing unwanted substances from the plasma. creatine. and consequently. The proximal tubule is the site of most reabsorption. where fluids and solutes are driven through a membrane under hydrostatic pressure. o Removal of excessive K+. which have been reabsorbed by passive processes. loop of Henle. DCT and the collecting ducts. Tubular Reabsorption Of the ~125 ml of plasma filtered by the glomeruli. With the exception of K+ (which is mainly secreted from the distal tubule and collecting duct). into the glomerular capsule of the renal tubule. To some degree. o Removing unwanted substances or metabolic waste products such as urea and uric acid.nz/physiome/ontologies/urinary/tissues.php Glomerular Filtration Is a passive. the absorptive capacities of the different regions of the renal tubule differ. Substances such as H+. such as certain drugs. or from the tubule cells themselves into the filtrate. non-selective process.Excretion (mOsm) Water (L) 180 1 179 99. and osmosis. and certain organic acids move from the blood of the peritubular capillaries through the tubule cells. Water. 124 ml is reabsorbed during passage through the renal tubules.bioeng. Tubular secretion is essential for: o Removal of substances not already in the filtrate. Summary of Processes Source: http://www. ions and nutrients are reabsorbed either passively along their electrochemical gradients.

Human Biology 17 Excretion .is reabsorbed and more HCO3. the renal tubule cells actively secrete H+ into the filtrate and retain more HCO3-. and K+. Cl. If blood becomes acidic.Excretion o Controlling blood pH.leaves the body in the urine. By contrast. if blood becomes alkaline.