Ceilidh

Materials taken from: Scotland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia en.wikipedia.org Grand Chain - the Scottish Dance Resource scottishdance.net Ceilidh Dance instructions scottishdance.net

Scotland Scotland (/ˈskɒt.lənd/) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the southwest. In addition to the mainland, Scotland is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides. Edinburgh, the country's capital and second-largest city, is one of Europe's largest financial centres. Edinburgh was the hub of the Scottish

Enlightenment of the 18th century, which transformed Scotland into one of the commercial, intellectual, and industrial powerhouses of Europe. Glasgow, Scotland's largest city, was once one of the world's leading industrial cities and now lies at the centre of the Greater Glasgow conurbation. Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europe's oil capital. The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. Having entered into a

personal union with the kingdoms of England and Ireland following James VI, King of Scots, succeeding to the English and Irish thrones in 1603, the Kingdom of Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. This union resulted from the Treaty of Union agreed in 1706 and enacted by the twin Acts of Union passed by the Parliaments of both countries, despite popular opposition and anti-union riots in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere. The Kingdom of Great Britain itself subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of Ireland on 1 January 1801 to create the United Kingdom of Great

Britain and Ireland. Scotland's legal system has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, and Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in public and private law. The continued existence of legal, educational and religious institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 Union. In 1999, a devolved legislature, the Scottish Parliament, was reconvened with authority over many areas of home affairs following a referendum in 1997. In May 2011, the Scottish National Party won an overall majority in the Scottish

Parliament. As a result, a referendum on independence will take place on 18 September 2014. Scotland is a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British– Irish Parliamentary Assembly and also participates within the Common Travel Area agreement. Scotland is represented in the European Union and the European Parliament with six MEPs.

Government and politics
Main articles: Politics of Scotland, Scottish Parliament, and Scottish Government. Scotland's head of state is the monarch of the United Kingdom, currently Queen Elizabeth II (since

1952). The regnal numbering "Elizabeth II" caused controversy around the time of the Queen's coronation because there had never been an Elizabeth I in Scotland. A legal action, MacCormick v. Lord Advocate (1953 SC 396), was brought to contest the right of the Queen to entitle herself Elizabeth II within Scotland, arguing that this was a breach of Article 1 of the Treaty of Union. The Crown won the case. It was decided that future British monarchs would be numbered according to either their English or their Scottish predecessors, whichever number is higher. For instance any future King James would be styled James VIII (since the last Scottish King James was James

VII (also James II of England, etc.)) while the next King Henry would be King Henry IX throughout the UK even though there have been no Scottish kings of that name. Scotland has limited selfgovernment within the United Kingdom as well as representation in the UK Parliament. Executive and legislative powers have been devolved to, respectively, the Scottish Government and the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood in Edinburgh. The United Kingdom Parliament retains power over a set list of areas explicitly specified in the Scotland Act 1998 as reserved matters, including, for example, levels of UK taxes, social security, defence,

international relations and broadcasting. The Scottish Parliament has legislative authority for all other areas relating to Scotland, as well as limited power to vary income tax. In 2008, the prime minister, Gordon Brown, in a BBC Scotland interview, indicated that the Scottish Parliament could be given more tax-raising powers. The Scottish Parliament can give legislative consent over devolved matters back to Westminster by passing a Legislative Consent Motion if United Kingdom-wide legislation is considered more appropriate for a certain issue. The programmes of legislation enacted by the Scottish Parliament have seen a divergence in the provision of public

services compared to the rest of the United Kingdom. For instance, university education and care services for the elderly are free at point of use in Scotland, while fees are paid in the rest of the UK. Scotland was the first country in the UK to ban smoking in enclosed public places. The Scottish Parliament is a unicameral legislature with 129 members (MSPs), 73 of whom represent individual constituencies, and are elected on a first past the post system; 56 are elected in eight different electoral regions by the additional member system. MSPs serve for a four-year period (exceptionally five years from 2011–16). The Queen appoints one

Member of the Scottish Parliament, nominated by the Parliament, to be First Minister. Other ministers are also appointed by the First Minister and serve at his/her discretion. Together they make up the Scottish Government, the executive arm of the devolved government. Bute House, official residence of the First Minister of Scotland, located within 6 Charlotte Square, Edinburgh In the 2011 election, the Scottish National Party (SNP) formed a majority government after winning 69 seats out of 129. This was the first majority government since the modern postdevolution Scottish Parliament was established in 1999. The leader of the

SNP, Alex Salmond, continued as First Minister. The Labour Party continued as the largest opposition party, with the Conservative Party, the Liberal Democrats, and the Green Party also represented in the Parliament. Margo MacDonald is the only independent MSP sitting in parliament. The next Scottish Parliament general election will be held on 5 May 2016. The Scotland Bill, put forward by the Calman Commission and cleared by the UK House of Commons, proposes devolving more power to Scotland. The bill has yet to be enacted as law. The Scottish National Party, whose members did not take part in the consultation, believe the bill does not devolve enough powers to the Scottish

Parliament. Scotland is represented in the British House of Commons by 59 MPs elected from territory-based Scottish constituencies. The Scotland Office represents the UK government in Scotland on reserved matters and represents Scottish interests within the UK government.[124] The Scotland Office is led by the Secretary of State for Scotland, who sits in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom; the current incumbent is Michael Moore.

Administrative subdivisions
Main article: Subdivisions of Scotland Historical subdivisions of Scotland

included the mormaerdom, stewartry, earldom, burgh, parish, county and regions and districts. Some of these names are still sometimes used as geographical descriptors. Modern Scotland is subdivided in various ways depending on the purpose. In local government, there have been 32 council areas since 1996, whose councils are unitary authorities responsible for the provision of all local government services. Community councils are informal organisations that represent specific sub-divisions of a council area. In the Scottish Parliament, there are 73 constituencies and eight regions. For the Parliament of the United

Kingdom, there are 59 constituencies. Until 2013 the Scottish fire brigades and police forces were based on a system of regions introduced in 1975. For healthcare and postal districts, and a number of other governmental and nongovernmental organisations such as the churches, there are other long-standing methods of subdividing Scotland for the purposes of administration. City status in the United Kingdom is conferred by letters patent. There are seven cities in Scotland: Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Inverness, Stirling and Perth.

Scotland within the UK

Welcome sign on the A1 at the Scottish border, with writing in Gaelic as well as English A policy of devolution had been advocated by the three main UK parties with varying enthusiasm during recent history. The late Labour leader John Smith described the revival of a Scottish parliament as the "settled will of the Scottish people". The constitutional status of Scotland is nonetheless subject to ongoing debate. In 2007, the Scottish Government established a "National Conversation" on constitutional issues, proposing a number of options such as increasing the powers of the Scottish Parliament, federalism, or a referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom.

In rejecting the last option, the three main opposition parties in the Scottish Parliament have proposed a separate Scottish Constitutional Commission to investigate the distribution of powers between devolved Scottish and UKwide bodies. In August 2009 the SNP proposed a referendum bill to hold a referendum on independence in November 2010. Immediate opposition from all other major parties led to an expected defeat. These plans were put on hold by the Scottish National Party until after the 2011 Scottish Parliament elections. After the May 2011 elections gave the SNP a majority in the Scottish Parliament, a referendum on independence for Scotland is to be held

on 18 September 2014, with the Scottish Government having launched its consultation on 25 January 2012.

Geography and natural history
The mainland of Scotland comprises the northern third of the land mass of the island of Great Britain, which lies off the north-west coast of Continental Europe. The total area is 78,772 km2 (30,414 sq mi), comparable to the size of the Czech Republic. Scotland's only land border is with England, and runs for 96 kilometres (60 mi) between the basin of the River Tweed on the east coast and the Solway

Firth in the west. The Atlantic Ocean borders the west coast and the North Sea is to the east. The island of Ireland lies only 30 kilometres (19 mi) from the south-western peninsula of Kintyre; Norway is 305 kilometres (190 mi) to the east and the Faroes, 270 kilometres (168 mi) to the north. The territorial extent of Scotland is generally that established by the 1237 Treaty of York between Scotland and the Kingdom of England and the 1266 Treaty of Perth between Scotland and Norway. Important exceptions include the Isle of Man, which having been lost to England in the 14th century is now a crown dependency outside of the United Kingdom; the island groups Orkney and

Shetland, which were acquired from Norway in 1472; and Berwick-uponTweed, lost to England in 1482. The geographical centre of Scotland lies a few miles from the village of Newtonmore in Badenoch. Rising to 1,344 metres (4,409 ft) above sea level, Scotland's highest point is the summit of Ben Nevis, in Lochaber, while Scotland's longest river, the River Tay, flows for a distance of 190 kilometres (118 mi).

Currency
Main article: Banknotes of the pound sterling#Scotland Although the Bank of England is the central bank for the

UK, three Scottish clearing banks still issue their own Sterling banknotes: the Bank of Scotland; the Royal Bank of Scotland; and the Clydesdale Bank. The current value of the Scottish banknotes in circulation is £3.5 billion.[189]

Education
Main article: Education in Scotland The Scottish education system has always remained distinct from the rest of United Kingdom, with a characteristic emphasis on a broad education. In the 15th century, the Humanist emphasis on education cumulated with the passing of the Education Act 1496, which decreed that

all sons of barons and freeholders of substance should attend grammar schools to learn "perfyct Latyne", resulting in an increase in literacy among a male and wealthy elite. In the Reformation the 1560 First Book of Discipline set out a plan for a school in every parish, but this proved financially impossible. In 1616 an act in Privy council commanded every parish to establish a school. By the late seventeenth century there was a largely complete network of parish schools in the lowlands, but in the Highlands basic education was still lacking in many areas. Education remained a matter for the church rather than the state until the Education Act (1872).

The "Curriculum for Excellence" provides the curricular framework for children and young people from age 3 to 18. All 3- and 4-year-old children in Scotland are entitled to a free nursery place. Formal primary education begins at approximately 5 years old and lasts for 7 years (P1–P7); today, children in Scotland study Standard Grades, or Intermediate qualifications between the ages of 14 and 16. These are being phased out and replaced by the National Qualifications of the Curriculum for Excellence. The school leaving age is 16, after which students may choose to remain at school and study for Access, Intermediate or Higher Grade and Advanced Higher qualifications. A

small number of students at certain private, independent schools may follow the English system and study towards GCSEs and A and AS-Levels instead. There are fifteen Scottish universities, some of which are amongst the oldest in the world. These include the University of St Andrews, the University of Glasgow, the University of Aberdeen, the University of Edinburgh, and the University of Dundee—many of which are ranked amongst the best in the UK. Proportionally, Scotland has more universities in QS' World University Rankings' top 100 than any other nation in the world. The country produces 1% of the world's published research with less than 0.1% of the world's population,

and higher education institutions account for 9% of Scotland's service sector exports. Scotland's University Courts are the only bodies in Scotland authorised to award degrees. Scotland's Universities are complemented in the provision of Further and Higher Education by 43 Colleges. Colleges offer National Certificates, Higher National Certificates and Higher National Diplomas. These Group Awards, alongside Scottish Vocational Qualifications, aim to ensure Scotland's population has the appropriate skills and knowledge to meet workplace needs.

Culture

Main article: Culture of Scotland See also: Scottish people, Music of Scotland, Scottish literature, Scottish art, Media of Scotland, and Scottish cuisine A Pipe Major playing the Great Highland Bagpipe Scottish music is a significant aspect of the nation's culture, with both traditional and modern influences. A famous traditional Scottish instrument is the Great Highland Bagpipe, a wind instrument consisting of three drones and a melody pipe (called the chanter), which are fed continuously by a reservoir of air in a bag. Bagpipe bands, featuring bagpipes and various types of drums, and showcasing Scottish music styles while creating new ones,

have spread throughout the world. The clàrsach (harp), fiddle and accordion are also traditional Scottish instruments, the latter two heavily featured in Scottish country dance bands. Today, there are many successful Scottish bands and individual artists in varying styles including Annie Lennox, Runrig, Boards of Canada, Cocteau Twins, Franz Ferdinand, Susan Boyle, Emeli Sande, Texas, The View, The Fratellis, Twin Atlantic and Biffy Clyro. Other Scottish musicians include Paolo Nutini and Calvin Harris. Scotland has a literary heritage dating back to the early Middle Ages. The earliest extant literature composed in what is now Scotland was in

Brythonic speech in the 6th century, but is preserved as part of Welsh literature. Later medieval literature included works in Latin, Gaelic, Old English and French. The first surviving major text in Early Scots is the 14th-century poet John Barbour's epic Brus, focusing on the life of Robert I, and was soon followed by a series of vernacular romances and prose works. In the 16th century the crown's patronage helped the development of Scots drama and poetry, but the accession of James VI to the English throne removed a major centre of literary patronage and Scots was sidelined as a literary language. Interest in Scots literature was revived in the 18th century by figures including James

Macpherson, whose Ossian Cycle made him the first Scottish poet to gain an international reputation and was a major influence on the European Enlightenment. It was also a major influence on Robert Burns, whom many consider the national poet, and Walter Scott, whose Waverley Novels did much to define Scottish identity in the 19th century. Towards the end of the Victorian era a number of Scottish-born authors achieved international reputations as writers in English, including Robert Louis Stevenson, Arthur Conan Doyle, J. M. Barrie and George MacDonald. In the 20th century the Scottish Renaissance saw a surge of literary activity and attempts to reclaim

the Scots language as a medium for serious literature. Members of the movement were followed by a new generation of post-war poets including Edwin Morgan, who would be appointed the first Scots Makar by the inaugural Scottish government in 2004. From the 1980s Scottish literature enjoyed another major revival, particularly associated with a group of writers including Irvine Welsh. Scottish poets who emerged in the same period included Carol Ann Duffy, who, in May 2009, was the first Scot named UK Poet Laureate. Television in Scotland is largely the same as UK-wide broadcasts, however the national broadcaster is

BBC Scotland, a constituent part of the British Broadcasting Corporation, the publicly funded broadcaster of the United Kingdom. It runs three national television stations, and the national radio stations, BBC Radio Scotland and BBC Radio nan Gaidheal, amongst others. Scotland also has some programming in the Gaelic language. BBC Alba is the national Gaeliclanguage channel. The main Scottish commercial television station is STV. National newspapers such as the Daily Record, The Herald, and The Scotsman are all produced in Scotland. Important regional dailies include the Evening News in Edinburgh The Courier in Dundee in the east, and The Press and

Journal serving Aberdeen and the north.[264] Scotland is represented at the Celtic Media Festival, which showcases film and television from the Celtic countries. Scottish entrants have won many awards since the festival began in 1980.[265] As one of the Celtic nations, Scotland and Scottish culture is represented at interceltic events at home and over the world. Scotland hosts several music festivals including Celtic Connections (Glasgow), and the Hebridean Celtic Festival (Stornoway). Festivals celebrating Celtic culture, such as Festival Interceltique de Lorient (Brittany), the Pan Celtic Festival (Ireland), and the National Celtic

Festival (Portarlington, Australia), feature elements of Scottish culture such as language, music and dance.

National symbols
Saint Andrew depicted on a 16thC coatof-arms of the burgh of St. Andrews The image of St. Andrew, martyred while bound to an X-shaped cross, first appeared in the Kingdom of Scotland during the reign of William I. Following the death of King Alexander III in 1286 an image of Andrew was used on the seal of the Guardians of Scotland who assumed control of the kingdom during the subsequent interregnum.[280] Use of a simplified symbol associated with Saint

Andrew, the saltire, has its origins in the late 14th century; the Parliament of Scotland decreeing in 1385 that Scottish soldiers should wear a white Saint Andrew's Cross on the front and back of their tunics. Use of a blue background for the Saint Andrew's Cross is said to date from at least the 15th century. Since 1606 the saltire has also formed part of the design of the Union Flag. There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the thistle, the nation's floral emblem (celebrated in the song, The Thistle o' Scotland), the Declaration of Arbroath, incorporating a statement of political independence made on 6 April 1320, the textile pattern tartan that often

signifies a particular Scottish clan and the royal Lion Rampant flag. Highlanders can thank James Graham, 3rd Duke of Montrose, for the repeal in 1782 of the Act of 1747 prohibiting the wearing of tartans. Scotland's floral emblem, the thistle. Although there is no official national anthem of Scotland,Flower of Scotland is played on special occasions and sporting events such as football and rugby matches involving the Scotland national teams and since 2010 is also played at the Commonwealth Games after it was voted the overwhelming favourite by participating Scottish athletes. Other currently less popular candidates for the National Anthem of

Scotland include Scotland the Brave, Highland Cathedral, Scots Wha Hae and A Man's A Man for A' That. St Andrew's Day, 30 November, is the national day, although Burns' Night tends to be more widely observed, particularly outside Scotland. Tartan Day is a recent innovation from Canada. In 2006, the Scottish Parliament passed the St. Andrew's Day Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act 2007, designating the day an official bank holiday. The national animal of Scotland is the unicorn, which, though fictitious, has been a Scottish heraldic symbol since the 12th century. Grand Chain - the Scottish Dance

Resource

scottishdance.net SPECIAL_IMAGEhttp://www.scottishdance.net/images/Corn REPLACE_ME Lorna and Stuart SPECIAL_IMAGEhttp://creativecommons.org/images/public REPLACE_ME Creative Commons License

SPECIAL_IMAGEhttp://www.scottishdance.net/images/mine REPLACE_ME Edinburgh Castle Hi. Welcome to the Edinburgh Scottish Dance Web pages!Ceud mìle fàilte gu na duilleige chathan-aodaich

mu dheidhinn an dannsadh albainn ann an Dun Éidinn is anns an tSaoghal! Grand Chain is a set of resources for Scottish Dancers the world over, based in Edinburgh. If you do some form of Scottish Dance - be it Scottish Country Dance, Ceilidh, Highland, Step, Reeling, or even Scottish Music, I hope you'll find something useful here. If there's anything else you'd like to see, drop me a line, and (time permitting) I'll see what I can do. Also, if you have any more information about any of the things on my pages, I'd love to hear from you. Please look at this page to find out what information I need for links. You're also welcome to link to me - please see here

for conditions and my preferred text. Dancing Tribute to Andy Murray there is a new dance here, The Pride of Dunblane, in tribute to Andy Murray, Wimbledon Men's Singles Champion 2013. This dance was premiered at Linlithgow Scotch Hop on 17th July 2013. For more information about how this came about, see here. If you've just come here and don't know much about Scottish Dancing here is a quick overview, and here is a collection of photos on Flickr. If you come here often, here is a list of the latest changes. Note this site is completely voluntary and I do not get paid for it. Scottish dancing is my hobby,

particularly Scottish country dancing, and I provide this resource because I want to share my experience and the experience of others. If you have anything you think could usefully be included in the site, drop me a line and I will be delighted to add it, and full credit will be given. If you want to thank me, an email is welcomed, and new books of dances or albums of Scottish music won't be rejected :-). If you want to help offset my costs in running the site, I am an associate of several online businesses, so if you use them, I get a (very small) cut. Businesses please note: I am not a business and I will not be buying your product. If you ask nicely and your

product is Scottish or dancing related, I will consider adding a link to you but that is all. I'll skip the tourist bit - there are other ways to find out about Edinburgh, and go straight on to the interesting bits: I have sections devoted to particular styles of Scottish Dance. If you can't find what you're looking for here or within these sub-pages, please drop me a line at ian@scottishdance.net and I'll see what I can do. Highlights: I have now taken over the running of Ian Thompson's event pages, which has given me the incentive to get the first version of my event forms/CGI script finally working - it now also backs Ian's

forms. If you have any comments, or if you have any information you would like me to publish here, please drop me a line - mail address ian@scottishdance.net. I am particularly looking for information on forthcoming events in Edinburgh, and on Scottish dance groups (Ceilidh, Scottish country, RSCDS, Highland, Step or Reeling, I don't care) and Scottish bands around in the world. If there is anything else you would like to see here, let me know and I'll see what I can do. Please note these pages are run on a voluntary basis, and are not tied to any particular group. In particular, they are not the pages of the RSCDS or of

RSCDS Edinburgh Branch (although I am a personal member of Edinburgh branch). Obviously the groups I dance with will be better represented, simply because I have more access to the information. I have tried to flag all items which are subjective - these are all based on my own experience unless I say otherwise, and I have tried to be as fair as I can. Basically what I am saying is all opinions are my own, and are just opinions. You may disagree. That's the nature of opinions. (If you do disagree, tell me and I may include your counteropinion as well). This site is a member of various web rings - follow the links for related sites. SPECIAL_IMAGE-

http://creativecommons.org/images/public REPLACE_ME Creative Commons License Except where otherwise indicated, all content on this site (including text, images, dance descriptions and any other original work) is licensed under a Creative Commons License. This page is maintained by Ian Brockbank ian@scottishdance.net Edinburgh, Scotland This website uses Google Analytics, a web analytics service provided by Google, Inc. (“Google”). Google Analytics uses “cookies”, which are text files placed on your computer, to help the website analyze how users use the site. The information generated by the cookie

about your use of the website (including your IP address) will be transmitted to and stored by Google on servers in the United States . Google will use this information for the purpose of evaluating your use of the website, compiling reports on website activity for website operators and providing other services relating to website activity and internet usage. Google may also transfer this information to third parties where required to do so by law, or where such third parties process the information on Google's behalf. Google will not associate your IP address with any other data held by Google. You may refuse the use of cookies by selecting the appropriate settings on your browser,

however please note that if you do this you may not be able to use the full functionality of this website. By using this website, you consent to the processing of data about you by Google in the manner and for the purposes set out above. scottishdance.net

Ceilidh Dance instructions

scottishdance.net SPECIAL_IMAGEhttp://www.scottishdance.net/images/mine REPLACE_ME Grand Chain logo on Saltire SPECIAL_IMAGEhttp://www.scottishdance.net/images/Corn

REPLACE_ME Lorna and Stuart SPECIAL_IMAGEhttp://creativecommons.org/images/public REPLACE_ME Creative Commons License This is a collection of ceilidh dances I know, saying how to dance them and what music they need. This is by no means exhaustive yet, but I welcome suggestions, comments and further tips. Just drop me a mail at ian@scottishdance.net. I explain some of the terminology below. At the moment I have the following dances: You may also like to try the following dances:

Musicians
Notes for musicians wanting guidance on what to play. I have tried to give an indication of suitable tunes along with each dance, together with number of bars and number of repetitions where this matters. In general, the dancers continue until the band take pity, but if not specified, a good length for the 16-bar dances is probably 4-6 times 32 bars (i.e. 8-12 times through the dance); for 32-bar dances like The Dashing White Sergeant, Pride of Erin, Circassian Circle, Lucky Seven it would be 6-8 times through; for set dances like Strip the Willow, continue until the original

couple is back to the top (should be roughly 8x32 for a 4-couple set). There is a tradition at ceilidhs of repeating each dance; if you do this, err on the side of fewer repetitions in each set, so maybe 8 times through the 16-bar dances (4x32), 6 times through the 32bar dances, etc. A good source for suitable tunes is Taigh na Teud's Scottish Ceilidh Collections - these are available from Amazon, Scotland's Music and good Scottish music stores around the country.

The Britannia Twostep
Formation: in threes around the room facing anti-clockwise, man

between two ladies. Music: 6/8 pipe march. Bars: Description 1: Nearer hands joined, touch the left heel then the left toe to the floor, bouncing on the right foot with each touch. 2: All skip to the left for one step. 3-4: Repeat 1-2 with the opposite feet. 5-8: Skip forward for two steps, then backwards for two steps. 9-10: Set on the spot facing forwards. 11-12: Still setting, the man raises his arms and the ladies turn underneath. 13-16: Skip forward for two steps, then backwards for two steps. Repeat ad lib.

The Canadian or Highland Barn Dance
Formation: couples around the room facing anti-clockwise, ladies on the right. Music: 2/4 or 4/4 pipe march (not 6/8) or scottische. Bars: Description 1-2: Starting with the outside foot, walk forward for three steps and hop (or kick). 3-4: Walk backwards for three steps and hop. 5-6: Skip sideways away from your partner (men towards the centre of the room, ladies towards the edge) for two

steps and clap. 7-8: Return to partner and join in ballroom (waltz) hold. 9-12: In ballroom hold, skip sideways to the man's left, lady's right for two steps then back again. 13-16: Use four step-hops to polka anticlockwise round the room. Repeat ad lib.

The Circassian Circle
Formation:Large circle round the room, ladies on the right of their partner. Music: 32 bar Reels. Bars: Description 1-4: Hands joined in a circle, all advance for four steps, retire for four

steps. 5-8: Repeat. 9-12: Drop hands, ladies advance and retire. 13-16: Men advance, turn round and walk out to the next lady CW (the one who was on their left; the one who is now to the right of their partner as they view). 17-24: All spin with new partners 25-32: Hands crossed in front (right to right and left to left), ladies on the outside, promenade ACW around the room. Repeat ad lib.

The Cumberland Square

Eight
Formation: four couples arranged around a square, lady on the right of the man. Couple with their backs to the music are couple number 1, couple on their left number 2, couple opposite number 3 and couple on the right number 4 (ie numbering clockwise). Music: This is normally danced to tunes in common time (32 bar and the dance is 64 bars long) but can be and is sometimes done to jigs (6/8 tempo). Bars: Description 1-8: End couples (1 and 3) take ballroom (waltz) hold and dance across the set, men passing back to back, then dance back again, ladies passing back to

back. 9-16: Side couples (2 and 4) repeat. 17-24: End couples dance right hands across in a star (wheel), then left hands back again. 25-32: Side couples (2 and 4) repeat. 33-40: End couples dance the basket: make a small circle in the middle, men joining hands behind ladies' backs, ladies' arms on top of men's. In this formation, circle round to the left. With sufficient speed, the ladies' feet can lift off the floor (there's a good video of it on YouTube). Remember to leave time to land and get back to place! 41-48: Side couples (2 and 4) repeat (getting the hang of this?).

49-56: All join hands and circle round to the left and back. 57-64: Take promenade hold with partner (right hand in right, left in left, both in front of you) and dance anticlockwise once round the set. Repeat ad lib. Note: sometimes the circle is to the left only; in this case it is for the full eight bars. Note: sometimes the caller misses out the promenade to allow 24 bars for the basket - this allows time for landing and changing over...

The Dashing White Sergeant

Formation: three facing three around the room, man between two ladies or lady between two men. Music:The Dashing White Sergeant - 32 bar reels, starting and ending with "The Dashing White Sergeant". Bars: Description 1-8: Join up in a circle of 6 and circle round to the left for 8 steps (4 bars) and back to the right. 9-12: The person in the middle turns to the person on their right and sets to them, then turns them once round right hand (variation - both hands). The other partner stands still. 13-16: Repeat with the other partner. 17-24: Using elbow grip, turn 1st

partner, then 2nd partner, then 1st partner, then 2nd partner. (Variation dance a reel of three, giving left shoulder to 1st partner to start). 25-28: In the lines of three, advance towards each other (two skip steps) and retire. 29-32: Both lines dance forwards, one line raising their hands in an arch and the other line dancing underneath, and dance on to meet the next set of three coming in the other direction. Repeat with new three.

The Eightsome Reel
Formation: four couples arranged around a square, lady on the right of the

man. Couple with their backs to the music are couple number 1, couple on their left number 2, couple opposite number 3 and couple on the right number 4 (ie numbering clockwise). Music: Lively reels, played 40 bars for the first time through, plus 8 lots of 48-bar repetitions (phrased 24+24), plus a final 40 bars. So that's 464 bars: 40 + 8x48 + 40. "The Deil Amang the Tailors" is commonly used for the first and last 40 bars; other tunes often used include "Soldier's Joy", "Mrs MacLeod of Raasay", "The Fairy Dance", "The Mason's Apron".

Bars: Description Chorus:

1-8: All join hands in a circle and circle round to the left for 8 steps (four bars) and back. 9-12: Ladies join right hands in the middle, and hold partners around waist, and all dance right hands across in a star (wheel). 13-16: Swing round (couples still holding around the waist) so the men join left hands, and dance back with a left

hand star. 17-20: Face partners and set twice. 21-24: Spin partners (turn RH). 25-40: Giving right hands to partner to start, dance a grand chain around the set (keep going in the same direction and give right hand, then left hand, then right hand, ... until you get back to place). If you get back early,

spin until the end of the phrase. Figure - repeat 8 times 1-8: 1st lady goes into the centre of the set and sets while the others circle round to the left and back. 9-16: 1st lady sets to partner, turns him, sets to opposite man and turns him. 17-24: 1st lady turns partner, opposite man, partner, opposite man (variation -

dance a reel of three with partner and opposite man, giving left shoulder to partner to start). 25-32: Repeat bars 1-8. 33-48: Repeat bars 9-24 with side men. Repeat Figure with 2nd lady, 3rd lady, 4th lady, 1st man, 2nd man, 3rd man, 4th man in the centre. Chorus: Repeat the 40 bars of the start of the dance.

The Flying Scotsman
There are several versions of this, but one common one is: Formation: Longwise sets of 4 couples, men on the right and ladies on the left as viewed from the band. Couples number from nearest the band. Music: 32-bar Reels, either 4x32 or 8x32 - Freeland Barbour wrote "Duncan's Return" for it, but I don't think it's official. Bars: Description 1-8 1st lady, followed by 2nd and 3rd ladies, dances across the top of the set, behind 1st man, in front of 2nd man, behind 3rd man and across the bottom

and back to place. 9-16 1st 3 men repeat around the ladies. 17-24 1st couple join both hands and side-slip (gallop) down the room for 8 slip-steps (4 bars), then back up again TO THE BOTTOM OF THE SET (4th place). 25-32 All join hands on the sides and sideslip down the room and back up again. Finish in the order 2, 3, 4, 1, ready to start again.

The Gay Gordons
Formation: couples around the room facing anti-clockwise, ladies on the right. Music: 2/4 or 4/4 march. E.g. "Scotland the Brave", "The Gay Gordons".

Bars: Description 1-2: Right hands joined over lady's shoulder (man's arm behind her back) and left hands joined in front, walk forward for four steps, starting on the right foot. 3-4: Still moving in the same direction, and without letting go, pivot on the spot (so left hand is behind lady and right hand is in front) and take four steps backwards. 5-8: Repeat in the opposite direction. 9-12: Drop left hands, raise right hands above lady's head. Lady pivots on the spot. (The man may set). 13-16: Joining hands in ballroom hold, polka round the room. Repeat ad lib.

For scottish country dancers, the grip in the first eight bars is allemande hold.

Highland Schottische
Formation: couples in a circle around the room, ladies on the outside, men on the inside, joined in ballroom hold with partners. Music: Schottische. Bars: Description 1-2 Men with left foot, ladies with right, point toe in 2nd, bring foot up in front of shin (3rd aerial), point in 2nd and bring foot up behind calf (3rd rear aerial). Bounce on supporting foot on each of these four beats.

3-4 Step onto that foot, close other foot behind, step onto the original working foot again, and close original supporting foot behind calf. 5-8 Repeat 1-4 with other leg. 9-10 Repeat 3-4 (ie step, close, step, hop). 11-12 Repeat 7-8 (ie 9-10 in other direction). 13-16Polka as in Canadian barn dance step, hop, step, hop - rotating clockwise and following line of dance anticlockwise around the room. Repeat ad lib. There follow chapter, verse, chorus and encore on the "Schottische" (for whom it may concern !) from Charles Gore:

The Highland Schottische was introduced in 1855 and was known by the name of "the Balmoral Schottische" (Robbie Shepherd, who knows all there is to know - and quite a lot besides about Scottish Dancing) Scott Skinner published a "Balmoral Schottische" in his Elgin Collection (1884); on the same page of this collection is a tune of his called "Glenlivet" which describes as Strathspey or Highland Schottische. [From a Dictionary of Music]; "Schottische (English !), Schottisch (German "Scottish", a misnomer since there is no evidence of Scottish origin); the German Polka, a round dance of the mid-19th cent. Some books confuse it

with the Ecossaise, which is a country dance and thus very different. Both are in simple duple time. [From Caoimhin Mac Aoidh, "Between the Jigs and the Reels"]: The Berlin Polkey was a popular dance in Donegal maybe in the late 19th c. and up to 1930 or so. The Highland is special to Donegal; though universally so called "it appears to have originated from the Schottische, a dance of German origin". "The Highland as commonly performed throughout Donegal today is a couple dance (ie. a girl and a boy)", dancing first side by side, then face to face. The term "Highland Schottische" appears to have arisen to differentiate it from a "German Scottische". "A Barn Dance in

Donegal has the unusual title of the "german". [Are you still with me ?] There is no precise equivalent in Gaelic. Highland Scottisches seem to have been danced (traditionally) to tunes like "Orange and Blue", "Lad wi' the Plaidie", "Cathkin Braes" and "John MacAlpine" (aka: Oft in thStilly Night). They all look like strathspeys to me!

Charlie Lucky Seven
Formation: Large circle round the room, ladies on the right of their partner. Music: 32 bar Reels or Jigs. Bars: Description 1-8: Hands joined in a circle, circle

round to the left (8 bars/16 steps). 9-16: Advance into the centre and retire twice. 17-24: Dance a grand chain around the circle, starting giving right hand to partner, left hand to the next person, right to the next, and so on, continuing in the same direction around the circle and counting aloud until you reach "seven". When you reach seven, do not pass, but stop with that person. Men are travelling anti-clockwise, ladies clockwise. 25-32: Spin that new partner, finishing back in the large circle, lady on the right, ready to start again. Repeat ad lib. Once the dancers have the hang of the dance, the caller often varies the

number of hands, 8, 9, 10, etc.

The Military Twostep
Formation: couples around the room facing anti-clockwise, ladies on the right. Music: 6/8 pipe march. Bars: Description 1-2: Lady with hand on man's shoulder, man with arm around waist, touch heel then toe of outer foot to ground twice, bouncing on the inner foot with each touch. 3-4: Walk forward for three steps then turn towards each other to face in the opposite direction. 5-8: Repeat in the opposite direction. 9-10: Facing partner and joining both

hands, bounce on both feet, then kick the right foot across the body (to the left), followed by the left foot across the body (to the right). 11-12: The man raises his left hand and the lady turns underneath (dropping the other hand). 13-16: Polka around the room. Repeat ad lib.

The Pride of Erin Waltz
Formation: couples around the room facing anti-clockwise, ladies on the right. Music: 32 bar waltzes. Bars: Description 1-4: Nearer hands joined, swing the inner leg (and joined hands) forward and

back, then walk forwards. 5-8: Repeat in the opposite direction. 9-10: Facing partner, both hands joined, and heading clockwise, cross trailing leg over leading leg (ie right over left for ladies, left over right for men), then point with leading leg. 11-12: Repeat in opposite direction. 13-16: Take four steps anti-clockwise, pulling leading shoulder back to face alternately away from and towards your partner with each step. 17-24: Joining both hands, swing together (slightly to the right of partner) and away, then change places, turning the lady under the man's left arm while doing so. Repeat. 25-28: In ballroom hold, take two steps

anti-clockwise, then two clockwise. 29-32: Waltz round the room. Repeat ad lib.

The Sausage Machine
Formation: Longwise sets of 4 couples, men on the right and ladies on the left as viewed from the band. Couples number from nearest the band. Music: 32-bar 4/4 reels or 6/8 jigs. Bars: Description 1-8: 1st couple cast behind their lines to below 4th couple, turn once round by the right hand, and cast back up behind their lines to original place. 9-16: 1st couple with 2nd couple, and 3rd couple with 4th couple dance right

hands across in a wheel (star) and back with the left. 17-24: All join hands in a circle. 1C dance down under an arch made by 4C, then cast back up to the top, making an arch over the other dancers. Other dancers follow as appropriate. Keep hands joined throughout this movement!25-32: 1st couple cast behind the lines to the bottom of the set (below 4th couple) and turn by the right hand to the end of the phrase Repeat with a new top couple.

The St. Bernard's Waltz
Formation: couples around the room in ballroom hold heading anticlockwise, ladies on the outside.

Music: waltzes. Bars: Description 1-4: In ballroom hold, take three steps sideways towards the lady's right, man's left, then stamp both feet. 5-6: Take two steps sideways in the opposite direction. 7-8: Take two steps towards the centre of the room (lady heading forwards with right foot then left foot, man backwards with left foot then right). 9-10: Take two steps back out (same feet). 11-12: Lady turns about on the spot under the joined hands. 13-16: Waltz onwards round the room. Repeat ad lib.

Strip the Willow

Formation: Longwise sets of 4 couples, men on the right and ladies on the left as viewed from the band. Couples number from nearest the band. Music: 6/8 or 9/8 double jigs. E.g. "The Irish Washerwoman", "The Curlew", "The Jig of Slurs" for 6/8 and "Drops of Brandy" for 9/8. Bars: Description 1-8 1st couple spin RH. 9-20 1st lady turns 2M LH, partner RH, 3M LH, partner RH, 4M LH. 21-24 Spin with partner RH to the end of the phrase. 25-36 1st man turns 4L LH, partner RH, 3L LH, partner RH, 2L LH. 37-40 Spin with partner RH to the end of

the phrase. 41-52 1st lady works down men, while 1st man works down ladies, turning 2C LH, partner RH, 3C LH, partner RH, 4C LH. 53-56 Spin with partner RH to the end of the phrase. Repeat ad lib.

Orcadian (or Shetland) Strip the Willow
Formation: Couples in a long line down the room, men on the right and ladies on the left as viewed from the band. Couples number from nearest the band. Music: 6/8 or 9/8 double jigs. E.g. "The Irish Washerwoman", "The Curlew", "The Jig of Slurs" for 6/8 and

"Drops of Brandy" for 9/8. Bars: Description 1-8 1st couple spin RH. 9-... 1st couple work down the opposite line (ie of the people of the opposite sex) turning side person LH, partner RH, next side person LH, ... When 1st couple reach the bottom, they spin to the end of the phrase, then join the side lines. A new couple starts every 16 bars.

The Swedish Masquerade
Formation: couples around the room in heading anti-clockwise, nearer hands joined, ladies on the outside. Music: That tune...

Bars: Description Slow march1-8 With nearer hands joined, walk slowly along the line of dance 9-16 With nearer hands joined, walk slowly against the line of dance back to starting point Waltz17-20 With nearer hands joined, facing along line of dance, balance away from partner and back towards partner twice. 21-24

Waltz along line of dance. 2532 Repeat bars 17-24. Polka33-36 With nearer hands joined, facing along line of dance, balance away from partner and back towards partner twice. 37-40 Polka along line of dance. 41-48 Repeat bars 33-40. The Veleta
Formation: couples around the room facing each other, both hands joined, ladies on the outside, men with backs to centre.

Music: waltzes.

Bars: Description 1-2 Step to the side along line of dance (man with left foot, lady with right) and swing other leg across. Step back and swing other leg across. 3-4 Step, close, step to the side along line of dance. 5-8 Repeat in the opposite direction. 9-12 Step, close, step to the side along line of dance and then back again.

13-16 Take ballroom hold and waltz along the line of dance. The Virginia Reel
This seems actually to be a family of similar dances - probably word-ofmouth having lead to variations. One variety is: Formation: Longwise sets of 4 couples, men on the right and ladies on the left as viewed from the band. Couples number from nearest the band. Music: "Hoedown" reels, e.g. "Turkey in the Straw". Bars: Description 1-8 All advance and retire, then turn

partners RH. 9-16 All advance and retire, then turn partners LH. 17-24 All advance and retire, then turn partners BH. 25-32 All advance and retire, then dance back to back with partners (do-si-do). 33-40 1st couple join both hands and side slip down the middle and back. 41-48 1st couple, followed by 2nd, 3rd and 4th couples cast off to the bottom; 1st couple make an arch and the other three couples dance up to new positions. Finish 2,3,4,1, ready to start again. One variation has bars 33-40 expanded - slip down to the bottom (4 bars) and strip the willow back up again (12 bars), followed by the cast and arch

figure on bars 49-56. Another has two advance and retires to start, followed by the three turns and do-si-do all together in 16 bars (9-24). Another is advance and retire, turn RH, turn LH, back-toback, followed by 33-48. There is also a 64-bar version which I can't remember at the moment. The basic shape seems to be: Start with advancing/turning/dosi-do with partners (in various amounts) 1s solo (various different versions) 1s lead cast to the bottom, make an arch and everyone else dances up under the arch to progress (2341). Comment from Sylvia Miskoe, band leader in Concord, NH USA:

In the US when you have a live band and are doing it the American way, you play a jig for the first part where dancers are doing things with their partners. Usually 32 bars worth. Then when the strip begins the music changes to a reel like Rakes of Mallow of Mrs McLeod. When the march/cast off/up the center starts the music changes to a march like Yankee doodle, Hail Hail the Gang's All Here, or even Ode to Joy. The musicians have to pay close attention to the caller and the dancers because often the strip can take more than 32 bars and the march can be short.

Terminology
Up/Down In a longwise set, the couple

nearest the band is numbered 1, and the other couples are numbered 2, 3, 4 (and 5, ... if appropriate) working down the line. "Up" is towards the band, and "down" is away from the band. Ballroom hold has the man facing the lady, lady's right hand in man's left, man's right hand on lady's waist, and lady's left hand on man's right shoulder. Line of dance (LoD): the direction a normal waltz (polka or whatever) moves around the floor (anticlockwise around the room). Anti-line of dance (Anti-LoD): the opposite to LoD. Setting The basic idea of a setting step is to spend two bars admiring your partner (or someone else) while shifting

the weight from foot to foot. To be more precise (something alien to the ceilidh dance ethos, but hey!) the step is the pas de basque: Bar 1: step onto the right foot beat with the left foot in third position (a "T" formation with your feet, left heel in right instep), bringing the right foot off the ground step back onto the right foot pause (if you're feeling ambitious, go for the jetté at this point) Bar 2:Repeat with opposite feet. Note the phrasing with 4 beats in the bar, even though you only do things on three of them. Best practised to a reel (4/4 - "egg and mustard") rather than a

jig (6/8 - jiggety jiggety). cast off or "cast to 2nd place" A cast takes you behind the standing person/people (or where they would be if they were standing) - "off" takes you "down" the set (away from the band, towards the higher numbers), up takes you "up" the set. Unless otherwise stated, you only move one place down or up. eg: /--1M 1L--| | >2M 2L<-/ 3M 3L 4M 4L Cast off one place (also in this instance cast off to second place) - note if 2nd couple are still there they will get run over. Reel of 3Reel of 4 Think of a reel of three with an extra person and an extra loop. Four dancers in a line, middle

dancers facing out, outer dancers facing in. / / Out1 Mid1 Mid2 Out2 / / Bar 1: Out1 & Mid1, and Mid2 & Out2 Pass RS. Bar 2: Out1 and Out2 pass LS while Mid1 and Mid2 turn around to face in. Bar 3: Mid1 & Out2, and Out1 & Mid2 Pass RS. Bar 4: Mid1 and Mid2 pass LS while Out1 and Out2 turn around to face in. Bars 5-8: Repeat (heading in opposite direction) back to place. Return to the Ceilidh home page. SPECIAL_IMAGEhttp://creativecommons.org/images/public REPLACE_ME Creative Commons License

Except where otherwise indicated, all content on this site (including text, images, dance descriptions and any other original work) is licensed under a Creative Commons License. This page is maintained by Ian Brockbank ian@scottishdance.net Edinburgh, Scotland This website uses Google Analytics, a web analytics service provided by Google, Inc. (“Google”). Google Analytics uses “cookies”, which are text files placed on your computer, to help the website analyze how users use the site. The information generated by the cookie about your use of the website (including your IP address) will be transmitted to and stored by Google on servers in the

United States . Google will use this information for the purpose of evaluating your use of the website, compiling reports on website activity for website operators and providing other services relating to website activity and internet usage. Google may also transfer this information to third parties where required to do so by law, or where such third parties process the information on Google's behalf. Google will not associate your IP address with any other data held by Google. You may refuse the use of cookies by selecting the appropriate settings on your browser, however please note that if you do this you may not be able to use the full functionality of this website. By using

this website, you consent to the processing of data about you by Google in the manner and for the purposes set out above. scottishdance.net ♦ Archive All • Download Newest