ENG 235: Morphology and Syntax of English — Fall 2006: TUE & FRI 13.30-15.

00 Linguistics Section, Department of English Studies — University of Cyprus Kleanthes K. Grohmann (Room M 104, Phone x2106, kleanthi@ucy.ac.cy) September 12, 2006

CLASS 3: AFFIXATION, COMPOUNDING, LEXICALIZATION
DERIVATIONAL MORPHOLOGY An interesting property of English (any language) is the ability to form novel words. (1) a. rebop b. bebop c. bop Unbreak my heart, uncry these tears. (2) (3) (4) (6) shusher — shushee — unshushable smorgsaphobia, quirkologist deinstitutionalization hobbit

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Interesting: We notice novel words very easily — but not new or novel sentences! Negative definition of derivational morphology: Suffixes that are not inflectional must be derivational. The base is a partially complete word form to which a suffix attaches. • one result is an inflected word form, the other a new lexeme (derivational) • the base for an affixation process is what remains when an affix is removed Derivational morphology is word formation (often resulting in a new word class): (7) a. b. c. d. happy, unhappy, happiness, unhappiness care, careless, carelessness, *carenessless educate, education; generate, generation custom, customize, customization

Affixes attach to roots or stems and form new words; better: they attach to bases. Morphemes come in a fixed order and seem to care what they attach to: (8) a. b. c. d. quick – quickly; soft – softly; care – *carely quick – quickness; soft – softness; care – *careness care – careless – carelessness (*quickless, *softless) joy – enjoy; danger – endanger (*ensoft, *enquick) -ly: -ness: -less: en-: Adj ! Adv Adj ! N N ! Adj N!V

final C. -ness.(all through prefixation!) — V-change: transitivity (causativity) • X ! V: de-. -ish • V ! V: re-. In all the above examples the meaning of the whole is determined by the meaning of its parts — yes. there are limits — even in languages like German. -ism — -ance/ence. ‘state of being an X’. amuse – amusement.ENG 235: MASOE (CLASS 3) 2 So in the above examples. -ive — -ful. ‘inhabitant of X’. -en) Did you know. (10) a.+ -ible. b.(plus others. when we stumble upon a closing suffix: (11) lehr(en) – er – haft – igkeit – *… teach – er – like an N – ness . -ful (English/Germanic) — in. -fy/ify — final voicing/V-change — en-/em. -ness attaches to adjectives and forms nouns. lord = loaf ‘bread’ + warden ‘guardian’ woman = wife ‘female’ + mon ‘person’ OTHER DERIVATIONAL PROCESSES As flexible and productive as word formation may sometimes appear. dis. -ing.. -al (Latinate/Romance) • X ! A: passive/participle -ed. en. ‘female X’. -ion/tion/ation. Generally: Principle of Compositionality: The meaning of the whole is determined by the meaning of its parts.+ -able.g. -ment. enjoy – enjoyment cure – curable – incurable Some derivational operations: • N ! N: ‘small X’.attaches to nouns and gives us verbs. -ly attaches to adjectives and forms adverbs. un-. -er — stress. -ing (test: very) — -able. V • A ! A: un. -en. b. -ent/ant. -less. in the spirit of compositionality (but this is not always the case…).. de-. -ise/ize. (9) a. e. ‘devotee of/expert on X’ • X ! N: -ity. -al. -al.

Spanish cucaracha ! cockroach Cree wuchak ! woodchuck Backformation: (17) a. *people-in-the-street — devoted to syntax) • only (?) occurrence of left-headed word forms in English? (e. formed by truncation): (15) a. d. UCY = University of CYprus Skinheads against Racial Prejudice = SHARP • distinction: initialisms vs. b. or mythology Clipping (or shortening. COMPOUNDING. kleenex atlas • based on personal/geographical/commercial names. brassiere ! bra typographical error ! typo Folk etymology: (16) a. reverse acronyms Eponyms: (14) a. surveillance ! surveil editor ! edit Combining forms: (18) anthrop(o) + (o)logy Phrasal words: (19) jack-in-the-box (*jacks-in-the-box. attorney general) . b.g. b. d.3 AFFIXATION. LEXICALIZATION Blending (also known as one meaning of portmanteau): (12) a. influenza ! flu Jonathan ! Jon c. b. guy spartan c. b. literature. b. smoke + fog = smog binary + digit = bit Acronyms: (13) a. folklore.

ACT (24) ski-.PRES. cumulative exponence.PERF-2SG. AN. • if more than one morphosyntactic feature maps to a single form. we speak of simple exponence. limiting. what do we do with new words aka coinage? (20) !: EURO / EYP" — what’s the plural for English: euro or euros …? Morphosyntax: In general. re:x -e:runt (Latin) rule. To start from the opposite end: while we all know the regular inflections for words of our language.SUB/1SG. seas: sea-s [z] (23) a. re:x -isti: rule. rolling.IND. (22) a. skw-: 2SG.OBJ bu-k\…y ‘a divorce’ (26) a. nodding b.ACT b. Another term for this stuff is morphosyntactic feature or morphosyntactic property.ENG 235: MASOE (CLASS 3) INFLECTIONAL MORPHOLOGY 4 Yes.ACT. passing. the type of information that inflection gives to a particular lexeme (! morphosyntactic information).ACT. the interaction between morphology and syntax — more specifically.IND.OBJ (Cherokee) (25) ´-ka…y ‘to divorce’ (Kujamaat Jóola) ci…y-: 1SG. (27) [PRES-PART] / [PROGR]: /-î˜/ arguing.PERF .SUB/3SG. cant-o (Latin) sing-1SG. • if a single morphological feature is realized on more than one form.PRES. extended exponence. agap-o (Modern Greek) love-1SG. inflectional morphology is that part of morphology that results in inflected word forms.PERF Context-sensitivity: Inflection is context-free (simple directional mapping between a morphosyntactic feature and a particular phonological string) or context-sensitive (when the realization varies).PERF-3PL. sailed: sail-ed [d] b. (21) Morphosyntactic representation Morphology Morpholo gy Phonological representation Exponence: Exponence refers to the realization of morphosyntactic features via inflection: • in a one-to-one relationship between form and meaning.

b. drank. genitive / dative / instrumental / locative Verbal inflection marks person. V–NP[CASE]) • concord (agreement) — taking morphosyntactic features of another element (N–A) INFLECTIONAL FORMS OF LEXICAL CATEGORIES Nominal inflection in English is pretty much restricted to number. LEXICALIZATION a. (You can read up more in Andrew McIntyre’s morphology text about lexicalization and other issues I don’t touch on here. but: • there is something interesting here concerning this class of category we can say: e. cup-s. Consider this handout “additional reading. • in English. went hit. wanted [-\d] Some inflections are inherent. passive) Adjectives in English only mark the dimension of comparison (periphrastically).g. THAT surfaces as that or those. but the lexeme BE has a fuller paradigm • if two or more forms of a lexeme are systematically used elsewhere: syncretism • other languages mark person (exclusive vs inclusive and 1st / 2nd / 3rd) and tense / aspect (imperfective vs perfective) / mood / voice (active vs. won. of inherent (pro)nominal gender.”) . c. or SHE as she/her. scissors vs. put sent.g. ablaut suppletion zero (Ø) /-t/ /-d/ ran. d. shone was. we find dual and/or trial (paucal) next to singular and plural • some languages mark gender as well (masculine / feminine / neuter) Determiners and pronouns don’t fit into the open class. and so on • case in English is marked only on pronouns (the lexeme comes in handy again) • in other languages. we really only get third person singular –s as verbal inflection (plus past –ed and participial –ing / -en). number. sat. lent helped [-t]. COMPOUNDING. • the suffix –s is a plural morpheme (for count nouns) alongside which we can postulate a zero plural or zero suffix –Ø (for some domesticated/hunted animals) • others are formed with a periphrastic form • in other languages.) • government — one word dictating the form of another (e.5 (28) [PAST]: AFFIXATION. we find different cases: nominative & accusative vs. and tense. pants.g. shrugged [-d]. (A typical example of assigned inflection is case. ergative & absolutive (transitive vs intransitive). e. cut. while others are assigned: e.

sell-out. b. Whíte House. black bóard. PN • note: nonce forms (‘a particular occasion’) / hapax legomena (‘said once’) Headless compounds are also known as exocentric compounds (“center outside”). in-house. (31) a. c. film society student film society […] student film society committee […] student film society committee member Compounds have a constituent structure (allowing disambiguation). language teacher … learner-driver. toy fáctory [NP phrases] híghschool. 6 high schóol. apposition. film society. b. tóy factory [compounds] (these are all right-headed) (?*VA: fail-safe. c. c. student [film society] [student film] society Elements are related to each other: head-modifier. green hóuse. b. pickpocket. b. wrap-in. gréen house. offshore. hand-wash. AN. (30) a. white hóuse. sit-in (VP–N) overland.ENG 235: MASOE (CLASS 3) COMPOUNDING A compound is a word that contains more than one root. right-headed) • compound verbs: VV. *sing-happy) (main stress on left. (29) a. AA. downmarke (PN–A)t Right-headed compounds (the majority of compounds in English) and left-headed compounds (the famous attorney general cases) are endocentric (“center inside”). predicate-argument. (33) a. (32) a. NN. b. PA • compound nouns: VN. COMPOUNDS: SOME PROPERTIES Compounding is recursive. faintheart (not about a heart or a faint). mother-child … . killjoy. d. footpath … truck driver. cutpurse take-off. AV. PV • compound adjectives: NA. bláckboard. NV.

What counts as a synthetic compound? • The non-head is an argument: truck driver. b. b. compounds show lexical integrity. / The German one.g. b. The heads of synthetic compounds inherit the argument structure of the verb . LEXICALIZATION Compounds can be endocentric or exocentric: (34) a. The subject can never be the non-head: *child driver (a child who drives) 3. greenhouse.g. e. moth-eaten… • Perhaps compounds based on adjectives: machine readable … Properties of synthetic compounds: 1. truck driver … pickpocket. COMPOUNDING. PRIMARY VS SECONDARY COMPOUNDS Primary (root) compounds are formed with simple words. Which society committee member did you see? * The student film one. c. Secondary (verbal. / The one with glasses. greenhouse. synthetic) compounds have a complex word as their head. The verb’s internal argument is satisfied by the non-head: drive a truck – truck driver 2. The non-head could be an adjunct: act fast – fast acting. film society. *greenerhouse doghouse.7 AFFIXATION. postal order. *dogshouse Likewise. b. truck driving. film society truck driver (no reference to specific film) (no reference to a specific truck) Compounds show morphological integrity (cannot be split up by other elements). Which member did you see? * The student film society committee one. (37) a. (36) a. truck driver. e. A: B: A: B: A: B: Which student film society committee member did you see? The tall one. push up … Lack of referential properties of the non-head: (35) a. eaten by moths – moth eaten 4. slum clearance … • Perhaps passive participles: hand-made.

undressed unpacked unzipped (46) a. b. • flower child ! flower children.[ [ [ ROOT ] -suffix1 ] -suffix2 ] ] [ BASE1 ] [ BASE2 ] [ BASE3 ] A 3 pseudo A 3 A -istic natural (43) A 3 A -istic 3 superA natural (42) inflection (more on this station next week): (44) [ [ [ [ [ ROOT ] -suffixD ] -suffixD ] -suffixI ] *-suffixD ] Concerning derivations. c. lawnmower b. *frogmans (walkmans) derivation: (41) [ 3prefix. we can investigate possibilities and generalizations: (38) a.ENG 235: MASOE (CLASS 3) WORD STRUCTURE 8 Based on structural properties. c. *flower childs • frogman ! frogmen. consider reversative -un. insightful . b. for example (and some exericses): (45) a. biodefenses c. Input Lexeme A Input Lexeme B Input Lexeme A ! ! ! Output Lexeme B Output Lexeme C Output1 Lexeme B ! Output2 Lexeme C ! Outputn Lexeme Z compounding: (39) (40) [ [ non-head ] head ] N 3 A N green house For your interest: head operation (we won’t discuss these any further).