.(l.,.;^..)^X^J\U^

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Cornell University Library

32.A76 1913

3 1924 027 971

716

Cornell University Library

The

original of this

book

is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in
text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/cletails/cu31924027971716

A

AND POSSESSIONS WHICH MAKE UP THE " BRITISH EMPIRE," AND IN WHICH THE "UNION JACK" FLIES:—
Thejigv/res given
im,

LIST OF

THE VARIOUS COUNTRIES, ISLANDS, TERRITORIES,
this list are those of the last available statistics.^

Europe.

United Kingdom
Gibraltar Maltese Islands
Asia.

...

46,035,570 18,416 216,617

Cyprus

PPI^
THECBOSS(IF"ST. OEORCE"
FOR ENCLANO.

THE CROSS OF "ST.

ANDREW

THE CROSS OF "ST. PATRICK" FOR IRELAND.

FOR SOOTUHD.

THE

"UNION JACK."

The UNION JACK is made up of the three Grosses of ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, and IRELAND, and is thus truly the Flag of the UNION. In the early history of England the Red Cross of St. George by itself was the Flag of England. When the Crowns of England and Scotland were united at the accession of James the VI. of Scotland to the
throne of England, under the
Britain
title of James the 1st, King of Great and Ireland, the White Cross (op Saltire) of St. Andrew was added to the Cross of St. George; but It was not until the Act of Union between England and Scotland in 1707 that the flag containing the Crosses of England and Scotland became by law the National Flag. In 1801, after the Union with Ireland, the Red Cross of St. Patrick was added, and thus the UNION JACK was made up.

A

History of England
FROM THE LANDING OF JULIUS CAESAR TO THE PRESENT DAY

BY

The Right Hon. H.

O.

ARNOLD-FQRSTER

Author of "The Citizen Reader," "The Laws of Every-day Life," "This World of Ours," "Things New and Old," "In a Conning Tower,|' etc.

WITH ABOUT 250 ILLUSTRATIONS

FORTY-SEVENTH THOUSAND

CASSELL

AND COMPANY, LIMITED
Fall bights reserved]

LONDON, NEW YORK, TORONTO AND MELBOURNE

^^zz^^^
WILLIAM EDWARD ARNOLD- FORSTER,
FOR WHOSE BENEFIT AND INSTRUCTION
IT

WAS ORIGINALLY DESIGNED,
ITS

AND TO WHOSE FRIENDLY CRITICISM OF

PROOF-SHEETS

THE AUTHOR HAS FREQUENTLY BEEN INDEBTED,
THIS BOOK
IS

DEDICATED BY HIS

AFFECTIONATE FATHER,

PREFACE
There
supply
is,

and

it

may

be hoped there
It

will

always be, a demand
pretend that the

for a history of England.
is

would be

idle to

not large and in

many

respects adequate.

At the

same time

there are undoubtedly
neither the

many thousands

of persons

who have
industry of

means

to purchase, nor the leisure to

peruse, the great standard works with which the genius and

modern

historians have happily

endowed

us,

and and

who

yet wish to

know something

of their country's past,

to understand

how, from very small beginnings, our nation
present great position

has achieved
the earth.

its

among

the pieoples of

Those who are acquainted with the teaching

of history in

many

of our public and private schools

must be aware that the

subject often fails to interest, and that

some

of the historical
in

summaries now

in use,

though accurate and admirable and not as a pleasure.

many many

respects, are read as a task

In

homes,

also, there is

undoubtedly a demand for a History of
size at

England of manageable
in

a reasonable cost, and written

such a manner as to attract and pot to repel young readers.
while
it is

And

believed that the present History

may

to

some

extent meet the requirements of schools and of
at their homes,
to.
it is

young readers

believed that

it

may

also be found useful

a

atill

larger qircle of readers.

iv

Preface

A

small work, written in simple language, sufficiently

full

to serve for reference,

and at the same

time sufficiently interest-

ing to be read as well as to be consulted, a reach of
all in

work within

the

matter of price, and

rendered attractive

by good

illustrations copied

from

first-rate originals, is

what very many
old,

English men and women, both young and
require.

undoubtedly

To

supply such a need has been the sole aim of the

author.

A
of the

few words

may be
In

permitted with regard to the character
to the great

work

itself.

making yet another addition
literature,
is

library of English historical

some explanation, or

perhaps indeed some apology,
apply the term
this size
life is

due from the author.

To

"A

History of England
preposterous.

" to a contribution pf

may seem
full,

The record

of our national

so

so long, so crowded with incident, so elaborate,

that even great histories, written in

many volumes by master
of the present
is

hands, can only illustrate and cannot exhaust the theme to

which they are devoted.

The author

work

is
it

very conscious of the fact, and yet

reluctant to bring

forward with any such repellent
Outline of .English History."

title

as

"A Summary,"

or

"An

Such

titles

seem on the face of
and the romance

them to imply that the element
inseparable from the
life

of interest

and doings of individuals are excluded,

and that an amplified chronological table has been made to do duty for a history. But to read English history and fail to
realise that
it

is

replete with interest, sparkling with episode,
is

and

full

of dramatic incident,

to miss all the pleasure

and

most of the instruction which
can give.

its

study,

if

properly pursued,

An

attempt has therefore been made

in the

present History

Preface

v

to clothe the skeleton of chronological fact with the flesh and

blood which are essential parts of the animated and living figure.
In so small a
sacrificing very

work such an

object can only be achieved by

much

that might well be included in a larger

History.

It

has been necessary to select certain episodes and
while other episodes

certain periods for detailed description,

and other periods receive but scant mention or are relegated to the " Summaries " which will be found at the heads of chapters.
But throughout, a consistent endeavour has been made
tain the thread of interest in the story,
to

main-

and the episodes selected

for detailed description are, in the opinion of the author, those

which most

fittingly

express the cardinal fact or the dominating
If

idea of the time in which they occur.

an apparently undue

number
Becket,

of pages be devoted to the story of
it

Henry

II.

and

is

because the story

itself is

an illustration of the

great struggle between the royal and the ecclesiastical power

which marked the time. The story of Magna Charta occupies

more space than the record
incident
;

of

other periods crowded with
its

but the Charter, from the date of
is

being granted

down

to the present day,

a dominating fact in the whole history of
the great intellectual revival
treated at

England.

The Reformation and
it

by which
length
;

was preceded and accompanied are
in this

some

and
life

and

in

other instances pains have been taken
it

to give

to the story

and to make

interesting to the reader

as well as serviceable to those
for himself,

whose

studies are, unfortunately

undertaken only with the view of qualifying for an

examination.

Of the
upon a

structure of the
to be said.

work and

of

its

internal history, a

word remains

The author has

largely based

it

series of

books by himself, which have already appeared

vi

Preface
title

under the

of

"Things New and Old."
and
it

The

earlier part

of that series has been almost entirely rewritten.

The

latter

part

has been extended

modified

in

many

importatit

particulars, so as to adapt
it

to general readers, and to

make
this

uniform

in style

and treatment with the remainder of

"History of England."
The' series on which the present History
is

based has under-

gone the ordeal of public

criticism,

and the

sale of over 100,000

copies has borne testimony to the fact that the
earlier shape

work

in

its

met the requirements

of a considerable

number
inducing
of their
in

of readers.

The author hopes

that the present History will

reach even a wider circle, and

many English

may be the means of men and women to pursue the study

national history

— a study which

will

amply repay them, and
will

which even the most diligent student
available material.

never exhaust the

H. O. A.-F.

PREFACE TO THE
Fifteen years have passed since
written

NEW
some

EDITION
additions have
editions

this "

History of England " was
slight

by

my

husband.
it

Since then

been made to

at intervals in order to bring successive

up to
be
free

date, but

he always looked forward to a time when he should
to

and able

complete the book himself, and to carry on

its

story into the early years of the

new

century.

There were, however,

constant and pressing claims on the time and slender strength of

a

man whose
unwritten

life

was given almost entirely to the public service
that

and the chapters
left

he meant to rewrite and to complete were
in

when he died
was
his

1909.
carried
out, although

Because

it

wish, I have

very
better

imperfectly, the

task that would have been

done so much

by him.

The

chapters dealing with the Victorian

Age have been
bringing

re-arranged and extended, and others have been added
the story
for

down

to our
to

own

times.

My

warmest thanks are due
Miss Rotha Clay, to
love.

the help

given

me

by

my

friend,

whom,

as well as myself, this

work has been a labour of

MARY ARNOLD-FORSTER.
Basset

Down,
Wroughtoii,
1913.

CONTENTS
PART ONE From the Roman to the Norman.
CHAPTER Note
1. 2.

3.
4.

5
6.

7
5. 9.

The Romans in Britain.. 55 B.C. a.d. 436 ... The Coming of the Saxons. 436 449 The Saxon Conquest. 449 597 How the Saxons became English and the English became Christians. 597—837 The Northmen. 837—871 The Reign of King Alfred. 871—901 The English Kings from Edward " the Elder " to Edward " the Martyr."

.....

55 B.C.—A.D. 1066

.....
. .
.

........ ...
.

PAGE
I

2

.30
39

24

....
1016

-52 -57
65
.

901

— 979

ro. 11.

12.

The The The The The

Danish Conquest. 979 1016. Danish Kings and Edward the Confessor.

Conquerors. 1066 Story of the English Historians and Writers of England before the

Norman

...... — .......
1066
.

78 83 90

94

Norman Conquest

loi

PART TWO From the Norman Conquest to the Accession OF Edward. 1066—1272
13.
14.

15. 16. 17.
.18.

Note William 1. The Norman Conquest. 1066 1087 Feudalism William II. " The Red King." 1087— iioo

......
— 1135

105 106

Henry
Henry

I.

Stephen.
II.

iioo 1135

— 1154 1154— 1189

.... ....

114 117 123 129 131 147 153 i6z 176

19.

20.
21. 22.

Richard Coeur-de-Lion. 1189 1199 John— The History of the Charters. 1199— 1216 What the Great Charter did for Englishmen Henry III.—The ParUament of England. 12x6—1272

Contents

part three England under English Kings.
CHAPTER Xote
23. 24.
25.

1272—1485
PAGE 187 18S

Edward
Scotland

I.

26.
27. 28.
29.

Edward Edward

Richard

30. 3r.
32. 33.

34.

Henry Henry 1422— 1445 Henry VI. " The Freeing oi France, York and Lancaster. 1445 1455 Edward IV. 1455 1483 The Invention of Printing Edward V. and Richard III. 1483— 1485

— " The Ruin 1377 — 1399 IV. 1399 — 1413 V. 1413 — 1422 —
III.
II.

II.

— ........ —
and " The Breaking
of Wales."

1272

1307

"The Making

of Scotland

of France.'

1307— 1327 1327— 1377

194 201 208 218
225 231


.

237 245 250 254 259

Note
35 36 37 38

......

PART FOUR The Tudors. 1485—1603
267 268 288 299 309 315 326 333 336 356 369 377 382 394 398 407 419

39 40
41

42 43
44,

45
46,

47
48,

49
50.

Henry VII. 1485—1509 Henry VIII. and England at War. 1509—1547 The Great Cardinal and the King's Divorce The Protestant Reformation Henry as Hea4 of the Church Edward VI. 1547—1553 What the Reformation Meant Mary. 1553—1558 1558— 1603 Elizabeth The Protestant Queen, The Sorrowful History of Mary, Queen of Scots Protestants and Roman Catholics Abroad and at Home The Story of the Great Armada The Last Years of the Great Queen A New World and a New Age Literature and Art in the Tudor Period Parliament Dress Dwellings^Schools The Calendar
.

.... ... ....

1603—1714

part five
Nolc
51.
52.

53.

England, Scotland, and Ireland. 1603 1625 Charles I. How the King angered the Parliament. 1625 1630 The King defies Parliament. 1630 1642
Stuart,
of

James

............
Stuarts.
King

The

— .....

429 430 453 468

Contents
54. 55.
56.

How

Parliament punished the King.
. .

57. 58.

The Commonwealth of England. 1649 1660 Charles II. 1660— 1685 ... James II. and the End of Absolute Monarchy in England, 1685 1688 William III. and Mary The Revolution and Limited Monarchy,
1689

1642

— 1649

.

480

59.
60. 61. 62. 63.

Anne

Last of the Stuarts. 1702 1714 Constitutional History of the Stuart Period Literature in the Stuart Period Writers of the Later Stuart Period Science, Art, and Daily Life under the Stuarts
.

—The

— 1703

494 516 530
541

.

.

.

.

.....
1714—1912
.

...

557 573 578 589 594

PART SIX

The House of Hanover.
64.
65.

66.
67. 68.
69. 70.

71.
72. 73.

74.
75.

Note George I. 1714 1727 George II. 1727 1760 Clive, Wolfe, and Washington George HI. 1760— 1820 The Act of Union with Ireland The French Revolution The Great War with France. Part I. The Great War with France. Part 11. George IV. and William IV. The Great Peace, Writers and Artists from George I. to Victoria Early Days of Queen Victoria, 1837 1861

— —

.

.... ....
.
. .
.

601 601

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

621 642 657 672 678 684 701

1820- 1837

76.

77.
78. 7g.
80.

Empire Steps on the Path of Freedom Later Years of Queen Victoria, i861 1901 Writers and Artists in the Reign of Queen Victoria The Reign of Edward VII. and the Conquests of Peace Death of Edward VII. and Accession of George V.

The

British

— ......
.

.

.

.

.

Index

........

.

.

.

719 727 745 7?2 783 807 814 819 828 837

.

12 "15 ig ig 20 21 Holy Island... . . .... . •. Fleet Street.. .... A Roman Pavement The Shortest Distance between two Points is a Straight Line The Roman Wall.81 .. .. ..... .. ......... ....... ..... 76 . — — • . . 29 - 41 . ••. . Pillars ...75 .. The Murder of King Edward The Death of Alphege . .. .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS The " Union Jack Julius Caesar Dover Cliffs A Penny : Roman Soldiers (from Trajan's Column) Britons and their Boats Stonehenge as it is .. . .47 48 -Si . now covered up Westminster Hall. in Westminster Abbey . An Anglo-Saxon Ship Romsey Abbey One of our English Wild Beasts St...... . .....--.. .. Broom " 119 120 121 iz8 130 133 . . ... . no his Lord . . 58 61 63 73 74 ^The Badger Dunstan's Church. ... Planta Genista... Harlech Castle Canterbury Cathedral The Cathedral of Sens ... . . and there brought before the Emperor Claudius The Roman Gateway at Lincoln . . ... a Sprig of " .. showing the Norman A " Northman The " Keels " of the Northmen A Harp of the Ninth Century The " White Horse " near Uffington ..„... .. The Interior of Durham Cathedral...134 ... .77 . 88 89 ... looking East from near Housesteads. ". " Rose " Window Westminster Abbey Harold taken Prisoner on the Norman Coast Norman and Saxon Arms Norman Soldiers A Vassal doing Homage to . ... . 91 108 113 ... . .. .. .. Rochester Castle and the " Gregory the Great . .... .. ....... Stone marking the Spot where William Rufus was Killed Ancient Buttresses of Westminster Hall... . .. ... . .... " " PAGE Frontispiece The White Walls of England " .. London One of our English Wild Beasts The Weasel . 54 . Stonehenge as it was The Mistletoe Bough " Caractacus was sent to Rome. . "..... Medway .

. Bruce reviewing his Troops before the Battle " English Archer armed with the " Long Bow Cannon of the Fifteenth Century Gunpowder puts the Weak and the Strong on Equal Terms Richard II.... . : .. . (from the Portrait by Holbein.. . .. .. ...... Oxford Clement VII. to keep his Promises . . Bannockbum Henry IV." or Capitals The Crown in the Hawthorn Bush a Tudor Emblem — . . . ..... . .. Guard . at the Battle of Bosworth A York and Lancaster Rose. . ... Richard HI.. The Quarrel Caxton presenting Temple Gardens Book to Edward IV... . ... .. 136 I40 144 151 i6o Runnymede The Judges Bailiffs entering an Assize Town " breaking " Magna Charta Queen Elizabeth in her "Ruff" The Barons asking Henry HI. • Carnarvon Castle The Coronation Chair and "The Stone Stirling Castle at the Present ..... . . • 167 173 I75 I79 I95 rgg Day . (from the Portrait in Westminster Abbey) : . . . 264 269 273 276 278 280 282 287 291 in the Possession of the Earl of 294 296 300 301 of Christ Church (College). ...... . of Destiny" .. Westminster Abbey Henry VIII.. to the Loyal City of Exeter .xiv LrsT OF Illustrations Bishop and Barons in the Time of the Normans A Bishop's Court in Norman Times King Henry before the Tomb of Thomas A'Becket at Canterbury King Richard setting out on the Crusade . . Henry's Departure from the Earl of Oxford's Castle at Hedingham A " Rose Noble " of Henry VII..-•• ... . . The Tower of London Sword presented by Henry VII. .. • • Arc (from the Statue The A Trial of Joan of Arc Rose from the Decorations of the Houses of Parliament in the his . in Paris) . .. 3" 314 321 . .. • . ..'s Chapel. . . 205 207 212 214 215 218 227 240 241 248 249 255 256 257 262 263 in the Library of Lambeth Palace) Lines from a Book printed by Caxton " Lower Case. A Yeoman of the Henry VII. . Catharine of Aragon Twisel Bridge Cardinal Wolsey (from the Portrait by Holbein) The Quadrangle . .. Joan of .. . PAGfi .. . ..." or Small Letters " Upper Case. 304 306 307 310 The Tune of " Luther's Hymn " Sir Thomas More (from the Portrait by Holbein) Amie of Cleves (from the Portrait by Holbein) . . Warwick) .. (from the MS. Cranach) . (from the Portrait by Titian) History on a Penny Thomas Cromwell (from the Portrait by Holbein) Martin Luther (from the Portrait by L.. . Red and White on the same Stalk Henry VII. .

Smith.... 328 330 338 341 343 345 346 349 352 355 360 362 Philip II The Martyrs' Memorial. Lords) " On the Rocks of Galway " The Known World before the Tudor Period The Known World at the Close of the Tudor Period Statue of Drake on Plymouth Hoe Some " Things New and Old " . . Mary Stuart. by Himself Portion of the Tomb of Lorenzo. .. (from the Mezzotint by J. the Headsman's Axe and Mask Lady Jane Grey (from the Portrait at the Bodleian Library...•. Queen of Scots John Knox Edinburgh A View from the Castle Henry IV. . • Archbishop Laud The " Speaker " held down Puritans and Cavaliers in the Chair 418 423 423 425 434 437 443 445 447 450 455 456 459 463 467 469 .. .. (from the Portrait by Holbein) The Block. .. A Shilling of Philip and Mary . . .. . .. .... Cambridge I. of France and Navarre (from the Portrait by Rubens) Queen Elizabeth at Tilbury On the Watch Lighting the Beacon The Armada coming up the Channel (from the Painting in the House : . . Portrait ... Some Famous Books of Tudor Timer Anne Hathaway's Cottage Portrait of Raphael.... after Van Dyck) Robert Cecil..... . Florence .... by Zucchero. Oxford) Lady Jane Grey on her Way to the Scaffold Queen Mary (from the Portrait by Lucas D'Heere... ...List OF Illustrations Sea Fight between Lord Howard and Sir Andrew Barton xv PAGH Edward VI... . 399 403 405 408 411 417 in the by Michel Angelo. . . .. " Perpendicular " Window King's College.... Lord Verulam (from the Portrait by Van Somer) Sir Walter Raleigh (from the portrait by Zucchero) Arms of the University of Oxford . in the Possession of the Society of Antiquaries) . first Earl of Salisbury (from the Portrait by Zucchero) The Arrest of Guy Fawkes Francis Baron. 389 393 397 ...... .. : . ... of Urbino... .. A A "'Pointed" Window... tu Possession of Marquis 367 370 371 373 378 385 388 of .. .. . . ..... after Van Dyck) George Villiers.. .. Duke Medicis Chapel.. James .... .. (from the Mezzotint by J. Calais Queen Elizabeth's Signature Lord Burleigh Queen Elizabeth (from the of Salisbury) Archbishop Cranmer (from a Picture at Lambeth Palace) . Duke of Buckmgham (from the Portrait by Gerard Honthorst) . Smith.... .. . . Oxford The Market Place.. Henrietta Maria Charles I.. . .

of Monmouth (after the Painting Monmouth before The Seven Bishops entering the Tower William III. .. . " . by Van Dyck) .... ... . .. 555 559 561 563 564 569 571 579 583 593 595 597 605 607 609 Sir Isaac Newton ..) issued during the Siege of Colchester. Great Seal of the Commonwealth of England (Obverse) Great Seal of the Commonwealth of England (Reverse) General Monk " General-at-Sea " Blake (from the Portrait in Greenwich Hospital) Naval Flag of the ...... designed George I. .... .. • 475 479 481 482 485 486 488 490 490 Siege-piece (value los. now the Royal United Service Institution....XVI List op JLLUSTRATidifS PAGE of Strafford (from the Portrait Thomas Wentworth. . St. . Dublin. . . ' The Old Pretender . Siege-piece issued during the Siege of Newark The Banqueting Hall. Earl King Charles and Speaker Lenthall Prince Rupert (from the Portrait by Van Dyck) Cavalier Soldiers John Hampden . Smith... .. . Charles II...R. . . Sir Christopher Wren Louis XIV.. Statue of -Falkland in the Houses of Parliament Roundhead Soldiers . .. ..) Ships of the Time of Charles II. after Sir Godfrey Kneller) John Churchill. Whitehall ... Duke of Marlborough (from the Mezzotint by J....... Smith. by . . 519 521 522 528 531 535 539 543 547 549 The Duke James II. . .. Williams... after Sir Godfrey Kneller) Charge of Marlborough's Horse at the Battle of Blenheim The Rock of Gibraltar from Algeciras Great Seal of Queen Anne (Obverse) Great Seal of Queen Anne (Reverse) John Milton (from the Miniature by Samuel Cooper) John Bunyan (from the Portrait by Thomas Sadler) A Page from an Early Newspaper . .. Chatham Dockyard) Oliver Cromwell General Monk entering .. . Half-crown of Charles II. Peter Lely) Queen Mary (from the portrait by William Wissing) Queen Anne (from the Mezzotint by J.. . by Sir Godfrey Kneller) . of France James Edward Stuart. .. London . .. .... .. Viscount Dimdee (from the . . King James Portrait by Sir 551 .. R.... at Dover (Portion of a Picture by Benjamin West....... .. The Castle. . ..A. ... . The English Ships breaking the Boom at Derry John Graham of Claverhouse... . after Sir Godfrey Kneller) The Landing of Charles II... . P.Commonwealth (photographed from the Original at . (from the Portrait by Jan Wyck) Chapel Royal.. .. . .. 495 496 497 502 504 505 507 515 518 (from the Mezzotint by G.. Paul's Cathedral..

) 697 Charles James Fox (after the Portrait by Sir Joshua Resmolds) 699 The Treaty of Tilsit -703 Cape Town 705 Sir John Moore 707 The Retreat from Moscow (from the Picture by Adoiphe Yvon) 713 Monument at Oxford to Commemorate the Peace of 1814 714 Sir William Beechey.... . Turin) William Pitt... xvii 'AGE gig 623 624 The House Charles (from the Portrait Nicolas Largilliere) Prince Charlie's Vanguard at Manchester Robert.... .. (from the Portrait by Sir Thomas Lawrence) .A. . . . .. . from the St. Turner. 685 689 691 692 695 . . .724 ..... (from the Portrait by ].. 1814 (from the Portrait by T.. W. the Portrait . . R.. . .A.by R. . Ward. .. Dance) WiUiam Pitt (from the Portrait by Hoppner) Henry Grattan (from the Portrait by F... (after the Portrait by Boze. . .. R. 733 Statue of Burke 734 Statue of Goldsmith 735 R.List of Illustrations Buying and Selling South Sea Shares (from the Painting by E. Edinburgh) .A.. . . .A..) .A. . R. Field-Marshal Blucher (from the Portrait by Sir Thomas Lawrence) George IV. Commons in 1742 Edward Stuart. 653 655 660 663 664 665 666 . .. . .. .. .. ..738 Lord Byron. R.. in the National Gallery of British Art) George II. . 674 676 679 681 Admiral Lord Nelson Nelson coming on Deck before the Battle of Trafalgar The Death of Nelson (from the Engraving published by the Art Union of London.. Cruikshank) .. . .. . . Phillips. Lord Chatham (from the Portrait by R. . M. .. 716 722 725 728 730 731 William IV Lord Palmerston (from the Portrait by T. . ..) . . M..) . . "The Young Pretender" of . 74° 742 Sir Walter Scott (after the Portrait by Sir Henry Raeburn. ... Brompton) George III..... . Lawrence Edmund Burke (from the Portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds) Throwing the Tea overboard in Boston Harbour Lord North (from the Portrait by N.A. . .A. .627 632 636 646 651 by . Robert Bums (from the Portrait by Alexander Nasmyth in the National Gallery. Samuel Johnsotf (from the Portrait by Opie) William Hogarth (from the Print by himself) The Hay Wain (from the Painting by John Constable.). . Calais Pier (from the Painting by J.. . Lord Clive (from the Portrait by Gainsborough) Major Washington planting the English Flag on Fort Duquesne Major-General Wolfe (from a Painting by F. . .) The Duke of Wellington (from 715 . 1785) Napoleon Buonaparte. . First Consul (from a Drawing by L. . .. R. Wheatley) The Bastille. David) Mutineers threatening their Officers Three-deckers going into Action . . after the painting by Daniel Maclise. Paris Louis XVI. Shackleton) Sir Robert Walpole . . .. • . . Dr. (from the Portrait by Allan Ramsay) Quebec.. . .. .

. and Queen Alexandra A Voisin Biplane... .. . ... . .... Castle... . ••. A. .. . opened in 1910 . Map showing Brittany and the Northern and Western Coasts of France Ireland. .A.. London. 191 The King and Queen in India. Ross. . ...M. . ..... . Barker) of the first Volunteers in i860 Captain Cook (from the original Portrait in the Gallery of Greenwich Hospital) Opening of the First Commonwealth Parliament by the Duke of York Some ...... 3 33 37 127 192 234 285 452 .... .R... . .... Sir by W...A....XVlll List of Illustrations PAGE Portrait Queen Victoria (from the Sir by W. in Trafalgar Square) . ^ by G.. 77J 775 777 788 791 797 799 800 801 . . .-... A.... showing the Province of Ulster Map .. .. Watts.. Cape Town Slave Ship Chased by British Man-of-War Lord Shaftesbury Statue of William Edward Forster on the Thames Embankment The " Comet " . The Coronation of George V.R... ....) ...A....A... . . 802 803 805 809 811 8ri Hamo Thorn3'croft. P. ... June 22...) .. . W. ". .. The New General Post Sections of Atlantic Cables General Gordon (Statue by Lord Kitchener of Khartum Lord Roberts of Kandahar Queen Victoria in her Eightieth Year Charles Dickens .. . King Edward VII........ .) Lord Tennyson Robert Browning.... . Ross.... 1911 813 815 815 8t5 815 816 8r7 82r 825 827 829 831 Maps :— The -Empire pf the Romans Map of England showing the Division between the Saxons and the Britons The English Kingdoms The Principal Provinces of France showing the British Districts in England The English Dominions in France in the Time of Henry V..) Government House and Table Mountain.... .... Henry Havelock at War... R.. ..... George Stephenson The " Rocket An Express Engine of To-day . Office Building... Lucknow 765 766 (now George V. F.R. C.......) . P.. O... Thackeray Thomas Carlyle (from the Portrait Lord Macaulay (from the Portrait by Sir Francis Grant.. Sir C... . ... .. ... 1911 The Investiture of the Prince of Wales at Carnarvon . . M. July 13. ...... .R.... ... . Prince Consort (from the Portrait Robert Peel (from the Portrait by The Wellington Memorial The Meeting of Sir Colin in St.......... . R... 75o 751 753 757 759 Albert.A. .... Paul's Cathedral Florence Nightingale nursing the vwDunded soldiers in the Crimean Campbell and (from the Picture by Thomas J.. .A.) Thomas Lawrence...

.d. . . Descent of the Crown from Henry VII. 834 Scroll. to James I... fvom . . Seven Years' .. to Henry VII. . 104 List of the Sovereigns of England : The Kings of the Heptarchy King George V Cliief . Descent of the Crown from James I. Lawrence . .. . .. to King George V. {continueil . War . Descent of the Crown from Henry VII. .List of Illustrations Map India of Central of Eastern Europe at the Close of the of St. divided into Centuries. to King George V. 1901 Facing f-. . p. Family of Henry VII. . . From William Genealogical Tables I. . . 266) . . . . to a. . and tlie Sovereigns from Egbert to 835 . . showing Leading Events in each Hundred Years from 55 B. The United States in 1783 in 190 1 North America The British Empire ..C.. ... Map Canada and the Gulf .. . . 432 449 . . 266 331 ... . . . C39 645 652 668 669 779 . . . . .

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NOTE. and we shall lear^i to remember that eleven centuries passed between the day when Julius Coesar landed at Deal. the events of those days are without first part of this — importance.C. But it must not be supposed that because we have comparatively little knowledge of what took place in England a thousand or fifteen hundred years ago. The book co?itains a short account of the early history of our country.-A.D. It is natural that this should be so. it covers a great period of time inore than eleven centuries. It is very important to bear this fact in mind. As will be seen from the dates given above. If we look at the chart which appears at page 104. We have much greater knowledge of what occurred in the reign of Queen Elizabeth than we have of what took place in the time of Egbert or Alfred. 55 B. In this book. because the later we come down in history the more numerous are the records from which we learn what took place. and indeed in every History of England great or small. FROM THE ROMAN TO THE NORMAN. the space which is given tcp to describing the events which took place between the landing of the Normans in 1066 and our own time is much larger than that which is given up to a description of the eleven centuries which went before. and . we shall see at a glance what is the true proportion in the two periods of English history of which we have been speaking.HISTORY OF ENGLAND PART ONE. 1066. or fail to have their effect in forming the character of the English people as they now are.

which. c. d. I. Julius Csesax. Queen of the Iceni. Tiberius Csesar. ROMAN OCCUPATION OF Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus. FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED DURING THE TIME OF THE ROMAN OCCUPATION OF BRITAIN. while. Martyr. 274. chapter THE ROMANS IN BRITAIN. the great d.C. Britain. A. first Augustus Csesax. 54 B. strength. Roman poet. 106 b. which gave the nation disciplitie.-A.c.. A.C. Mark Antony. ig B. 51 Caractacus taken prisoner. Invasion. AlariC. The Great Anglo-Saxon. a. 14. and takes the City of . The Struggle with the Danes.D. 62. b. 37. and law.D. or English language. • Invasion of Britain by Julius Csesar. 55 B. d.D.c. an. A.C. 304.D. 70 B. d.C. PRINCIPAL events DURING THE BRITAIN. 337. Hadrian. assassinated 44 B Pompey the Great. Second Invasion of Britain by CaiSar. 76. that on which William the Cpnqiieror landed at Hastings. b. d. 146. Boadicea. c. d. 402 10 436 Withdrawal of the Romans from 410 Alaric besieges Rome.c. d. a Roman general. to unite The Norman Conquest. Roman Emperor. 42 b. Cassivelaunus. 316 Constantine.2 History of England. b. St. 436. SeverUS. 6s Death of Boadicea.D. Constantiae tlie Great.c. b. Caius 138. d.c. b. Cornelius Titus. 43 Claudius sands an army to Britain. Emperor. first Christian Emperor. about 130. Hadrian's wall built. A. 63 b b. A. 304 Death of St. The Birth of Christ. Suetonius. b. d. JESUS CHEIST. Alban. 47 Vespasian conquers Britain. which throws the first light upon our island.D. Virgil. 40. loo b. Alban. Wall of Severus built. b. d. the Roman writer. Caxactacus taken prisoner. Tacitus. The great points on which we should fix our attention in reading the history of this period may be shortly put thus : — The Roman Conquest. King of the Goths. and which gives us some kjiowledge of the Britons who then inhabited it. 30 b. which laid the foundation of our people and of our The Conversion to Christianity.C. d. 70 121 211 I ANNUS DOMINI. Emperor. from the time of the Norman landing to our own days is less than nine centuries. 81.c. helped the English people under one head. b. 55 B. 55. b. 83 b. 48 b. b. 51. Emperor. Emperor.

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HrsTORV OF England. . And thus it is true to say that the History of England begins with the landing of Julius Caesar. " Britannia. is situated in the Western Ocean." Geoffrey of Monmouth's Chronicle (1140). Julius Csesar. It is on that day that the history of England begins. the land which we now call England. they might never have existed. . but he wrote down in words which may be read at this day the story of the strange new people he had found. men and women lived had and died. between France and Ireland . country. and worked and in fought. — of a Fifty-five years before the birth of Christ. at the head Roman army. But of sayings their and doings we have no record. years before the birth of Christ. fiftyfive JULIUS CESAR. the best of islands. and for all that we know of them. Long before the coming of Caesar. . landed on the shores of England." "BRITAIN. no historian has told us of their fortunes. with a plenty that never fails. and a description of the far-off country in which they lived. Suddenly a great ray of light was thrown upon what before was Not only did Julius Csesar land upon the shores of our darkness. it produces everything that is useful to man.

far away the Northern seas." Our King is King ot Great Britain. and one great people who ruled half Europe and vast possessions in Africa.^ And the name. an island." standing high out of the water to the north. : Roman camps Dei gratia Britanniarum Omnium Rex Fidei Defensor Indiarum Imperator. Emperor of India. Step by step he came nearer to the northern coast. the greatest of all the Romans. Defender of the Faith. At that time there was but one great Empire in the world. speaks of Eritaiu separated by almost the entire world. in Italy. and from the coast the Roman soldiers must have seen as clearly as we can at the present day the great white cliffs of an " unvisited land. he carried war into the whole country of the Gauls. or a number of islands." which is now the French district of Provence. It is only twenty-two miles from Calais to Dover.^ man was Julius Caesar. A great Roman writer who lived in Cassar's day. whose chief city was Rome. or " Gaul this side of the Alps. King of Britain.. and Ireland. but which was then called Grallia.'' 5 It is now many hundreds of yean since the landing took place. Already they had given a name to this country. "Britannia rules the waves. which the Romans gave to our land we know and are proud to own at the present day. or Gaul. But the stories of adventurous sailors and merchants were soon to be replaced by a much closer acquaintance. a great man."Britannia. and Gallia Tran--Alpina. and the coins with which we do the business of our daily lives still bear upon them the Latin inscription and the name by which Caesar called our country. and whose language was the Latin tongue in which Julius Csesar wrote. This was the great Roman people. and landing. " Britanularum EeX." s The words " Briti : Rex" on the penny {.see p. 7) are short for The words written round the penny in the picture stand for "Georgius V. Traders from the in Mediterranean sailing up the coast of Spain. by the grace of God. King of all the Britains. Towards the middle of the last century before Christ.^ 1 Gallia. and they knew it to be an island. News had already come to the Romans that there existed." and which included that part of North Italy which is now known as Piedmont . which had never been conquered by the Roman arms. or "Gaul beyond the Alps." The meaning of which is " George V. * ^^ Penitus loto divisos orbe Britannos" ("The Britams almost all the world away ").—Virgil. had been appointed to the command of the armies in the This great content with defending the provinces." . had found land far out in the Atlantic. or. Not Roman looked down upon the narrow waters which divide France from' England. until at length the Roman province of Gaul. had discovered rich deposits of tin which they had worked and brought back to Italy. was divided into two parts Gallia Cis-Alpina. or Gaul. and of that country which we now know as France.

. translated by Dryden. close to the place where the town of Calais now stands." but-on the shore were to be seen a large number of . Disposing peace and war thy own majestic way .' {From a photograph by the Pictorial Agency'^ I men upon the other side of the Channel. he collected eighty ships and 12. and make the world obey. and worthy thee. the fettered slave to free: These are imperial arts.History of England. ' But Rome I 'Tis thine alone with awful sway To rule mankind.000 DOVER cliffs: "the white walls of ENGLAND. man to leave this new country unexplored and In the year 55 b. From Virgil's JEneid.c. The Landing. To tame the proud. Caesar was not the unconquered. — Book VI. A few hours' sailing and rowing brought the fleet to the foot of the "White Cliffs.of the Romans.

to who were ready them as soon it as they got to land. too. The Britons fought courageously against the newcomers. when he saw that the soldiers who were with him in the ship were afraid to land. made in gold or brass. There they made up . threw themselves into the water. At as first if they seemed would sail away once more.the Britons who had come down to oppose the landing. The standard-bearer. their minds that they would land but they found that the water was not deep enough to allow their ships to get to the shore Here. [From Trajan's coluinn. would not enemy. until they came to the place where the town of Deal now stands. The Romans were disappointed. J shall have done my ROMAN SOLDIERS. instead of a flag had a standard." see cried eagle he. "Follow and jumped into the water. This soldier was the standardbearer of the Romans. were large numbers fight of Britons. my comrades. and they took their ships farther along the coast.) duty to Rome and my General. carried with the regiment. but at this moment a brave Roman soldier came have to forward. for they hoped they would have taken the Britons by surprise. They feared to land. on the top of which was the figure of an eagle. The Roman regiments were called legions. they. me. . your to taken " if you by the If I die. too. and though it was deep they waded to the land. seized the " eagle " of the legion in his hand. and which is of which all the soldiers are proud. and each legion." When brave the Roman soldiers saw this act. Each regiment in our own army has a flag. but the discipline .

Ca. the Roman soldiers proved too strong for them. and to promise. however. In less than three weeks.the Britons had their chariots. The first account is that given by Csesar . IV/io oan see the green earth any more As she was by the sources of Time ? Who imagines her fields as they lay unworn by the plough ? as they thought. They went into battle driving at full speed in chariots. Who thinlis Matlhew Arnold : " The Future. and it was not till the summer of the next year (54 b. " Her vigorous. and two of these authors have left us interesting accounts of the Britons. and thence to Rome. military training of tlie and Roman soldiers prevailed. stabbed by the traitor Brutus and other political enemies in the midst of the for a time. and the troops disembarked with safety. not to pay. Of the early Britons. a yearly tribute. The Britons had had time to collect a large army. Britain " and the Britons.sar returned to Gaul. scythe? or sharp blades were fastened and as long as the chariot was moving fast the sharp blades on the wheels cut down those who came near it. but what has been told us by the Roman writers. their life and their habits. and at length Csesar forced his way as far north as the river Thames. they were compelled to return to Gaul." So far we have looked at Britain from a Roman point of view it is iime to inquire what sort of people lived in our island when the Roman in 'asion first threw the light of history upon it.c. It is fortunate for us that the age of Julius Caesar was one in which some of the great Roman authors lived.8 History of England. defeated . and under a chief of the name of CassivelaAinua were able for some time to hold the Romans at bay.) he met with his death.C. where ten years later (44 B. To the wooden wheels of the chariots. But though. and the Britons. The tribes who once roam'd on her breast. we know little . Having thus added another victory to his long list of triumphs. primitive sons ? In the sunshine. time the resistance he met with was serious. to give hostages. Roman make peace.) that This Cassar returned with a large army to complete his conquest. near Wallingford. The Britons fought in a way to which the Romans were not accustomed. consented to if Roman senate.

English people in our own time sometimes make the same mistake which the Romans made. A second account we get from the pen of one who. that the Britons were not really savages at all. the father-in-law of Tacitus. after the date of Caesar's landing.Britain and the Britons. himself. as a writer. and treat the people of other countries as savages and far below them. but one of the clearest and best writers of any age. was even more famous than Csesar." Agricola. was at that time governor of the account which he gave to his son-in-law which is contained in the "Agricola. just because their habits are strange and their ways of thought are not like our own. . In a book called the " Agricola" Cornelius Tacitus has written an account of the Britons as they were a hundred years Britain. From what Cassar and Tacitus tell us we can form some idea ot what the Britons were like. by what the Romans themselves tell us about them. By the Romans they were regarded as savages. but it is easy to see. 9 who not only was a great general and a great statesman. and it is BRITONS AND THEIR BOATS.

Their priests were called Druids. The men were but it seems as if tall and handsome. England was very different from what it is now the country was covered with thick forests. It was of the skins of these animals that the Britons made their clothes. they used to pretend that they had great and terrible secrets which unknown ^ . and the . This drink is sometimes made now it is called mead. for not only did they fight against the Romans and other enemies who came from abroad. and they . but know a very great we do know some deal about what the Britons were things about them. were known to them and to nobody else. In the forests there were wolves. STONEHENGE AS IT IS. often spread over the land and made great swamps and marshes. wild boars. We' do not really like. and many other animals which are quite in England in our own day. These Druids were very strange people. made up of a number of small houses or huts surrounded by a high wall. and fought bravely in battle they were rather too fond of fighting.JO History of England. for we must not forget that at the time we are speaking of. but they often They lived in villages quarrelled and fought amongst themselves. {From a photograph by J. They said that their gods lived in the very thickest and darkest parts of the woods. . They lived chiefly by hunting and fishing. and there were always plenty of wild animals to kill and fish to catch. The Britons were heathens and believed that there were many gods. but they made a strong drink of honey.') being shut in between close banks. Valentine &^ Sons^ rivers. instead of Dundee. The Britons did not drink wine.

ti used to go to pray to their gods under the great oaks in the forests they wore long white robes. to a very strange sight. The Druids have been dead hundreds of years. to be set up in we shall find a still more wonderful thing about some of the stones when we come to look more closely at them. and then take a carriage and drive rather more than ten miles over Salisbury Plain. and the people held them in great awe. we shall suddenly come STONEHKNGE AS IT WAS. but that they are of a kind which must have come from a long way off.Britain and the Britons. others standing straight up. — It seems a wonder how such heavy stones ever got . and their religion has long been forgotten but there are still some things in England in our own time to remind us of the white-robed Druids and their strange . The stones are of enormous size and very heavy many of them are from twenty-three to twentyeight feet high. If we take the train to Salisbury. and some of them resting upon other great — etones in the way shown in the picture. religion. In the middle of the plain we shall see a nurnber of gre^t stones some of them lying on their sides on the grass. We shall find that they are not of the same kind as the stones which are found upon Salisbury Plain. this way but .

12 History op England. one inside the other the outside one of big stones. and the inside one of why . THE MISTLETOE BOUGH. and will help to remind them of the Britons who lived in our land two thousand years ago. and in many other parts of England. . If the stones which have fallen down were still in their places. There is another thing besides the great stone circle which ought to Most of us. they set up the stones. They are the Mistletoe leaves and berries which are gathered from plants which grow on the stems of the trees in Herefordshire. whether we live in town or remind us of the Druids. ii there is On page have looked like before any of the stones . a picture of what Stonehenge must fell down. Gloucestershire. There are other rings of stones in England. Once there were a great many more stones standing up than can be seen now. we should see that the Druids had made two great circles. have seen the sprigs of green leaves with white berries which are put up among the holly and the laurel leaves at Christmas. Druids used to worship their gods and though no one quite knows . in the middle of Salisbury Plain. it is certain that they were looked upon by the Britons as being very sacred. It is not easy at first to guess why it is that Hlstletoe is hung up in smaller ones. but the one at Stonehenge is the largest and most interesting. The place in which these strange stones have been set up is Stoneset up henge. and the stones were have there before the time of Julius Cffisar by the Druids whom we the where places the of one was Stonehenge been reading about. country. All these stones were put up by the Druids and they can be seen to this day by Englishmen.

" " a. in our own time. took place in England. It was not till nearly a hundred years after Julius Csesar had gone away that the Romans came a second time into Britain. — — . but the use of the mistletoe bough was never quite forgotten and when the people of England learned to pray to another God.c.In the Year of Our Lord. and many changes. we write it " 55 B. 43 " means forty-three years after the year in which Christ was born. It was the Druids who first used the mistletoe. We have long forgotten all about the gods to whom the Druids prayed. but we have not forgotten about the mistletoe they were so fond of. we still put up in our houses the mistletoe berries. write down the year in which Julius Csesar came to Britain." mean " before Christ.D. Claudius determined that he would follow the example of Julius Csesar. — . and they often put them up in the places where they prayed to their gods. In the Year of Our Lord. until we come to the time of the Druids. which ii. " 55 b. which the old Druids first prized in the . there is one thing which we must notice." stand for two Latin words Anno Domini which mean " in the year of our Lord.d. 43. we come to Christmas Day.D. They thought time of the Britons. that its berries were sacred or holy.c." What do "B. and that their country should belong to Rome. And thus it happens that when. they still went on using the sacred mistletoe. the great stones at Stonehenge tumbled down." in this way but if we want to write the year in which Claudius sent an army. and the Roman Emperor was Claudius. good and bad. we put " A." and.C. Julius Caesar was dead." —Luke born this day in the city of David. before we follow the fortunes of the army which Claudius sent If we wish to to Britain. the day on which we commemorate the birth of Christ." "For unto you is Christ is the Lord." means fifty-five years before Christ was born. 11. To find out the answer to the question we must go back a very long way in history.C." and "A. so 13 many houses at Christmas time.d. The letters " a. therefore. and found that the gods of the Druids were false gods." mean? The letters " b. a Saviour. but that this time the Britons should be really beaten. The Romans came over and conquered the Britons. But.

" When the British warrior Queen. 1913. we have only to remember that it began just before the birth of Christ. a great thing must have happened. Now we can easily understand that. It was in the years between the coming of Julius Carear and the coming of the Romans in the time of Claudius that the great event which divides the history of the old world from that of the new had taken place. and of a new faith which was to spread throughout the world. Bleeding from the Roman rods. year after the year in which Christ was born. had allowed sentence of death to be passed upon the Prisoner whom the Jews had brought before him. between the year 55 b. People now sometimes write the year in whicli we live in tliis way^ they say " A. "—Cowper. 43.D. so far as we know anything about it. with an indignant mien. and the year a. remained for over three hundred and sixty years. and their descendants after them. and while they were anxiously loolcing out for the return of the Roman galleys. they only stopped in Britain for two years. Jesus had been crucified. of a new life.c. begins. and that Christ was born in Bethlehem. Caractaeus and Boadicea. When the Romans came with Julius Csesar. we shall know the number of years which have passed since the Romans first came to Britain. Counsels of her country's gods.d. A Roman magistrate. misery with them. or the one thousand nine hundred and fourteenth. and that. This time they were ." meaning that the year in which we live is the one thousand nine hundred and thirteenth." or " A. And thus we see that if we want to know when the history of our country. While the memory of the Roman general who had defeated their armies was still fresh in the minds of the people of Britain. but when they came a second time under Claudius they. a Roman Emperor had issued a Decree " that all the world should be taxed. and the twentieth century of the Christian Era is the twentieth century in the history of our country. Sought." and a Roman officer commanding in the Province of Judasa had carried out the Imperial order. The birthday of England as we know it is almost the same as the birthday of Christianity. 1914.D. and His death had been the birth of a new hope. if we know the year in which we live. The At first they brought nothing but war and Britons fought fiercely. sitting in the Judgment Hall at Jerusalem.14 History of England.

a S .a •a a. o u.

but you will gain more honour if you spare my life. and for a time it seemed as if the brave queen would succeed in driving her hated enemies out of the land. a name which we now know much better as Loudon. But the war between the Romans and the Britons did not end when Caractacus was taken prisoner. . the Roman soldiers sav/ that there were not enough of them to resist the great army of the Britons. led by a chief called Caraotaoua. 51)." and the Roman officers who stood with him heard these brave words. with long flowing hair. the widow of one of the British Chiefs.'' said he to the Emperor. and besides the Romans who lived there. and there brought before the Emperor Claudius (a. and they . As she came near the town. The name of the town was Londiniiim. instead of doing justice. but I am only here because I was true to my country and because I would You can put me to not promise to obey your laws and to be your servant. they could not help admiring the proud Briton. and many of them gathered round her. When Caractacus was brought before Claudius. and that she appeared before her people clad in a long robe and with a gold chain about her waist. under Boadicea. Already Londinium had become a large place. who for a long time was able to keep up a successful resistance to the Roman armies. Boadicea hated the Romans. " / am in your power. prepared to follow wherever she led them. defeated the Roman soldiers. Her beauty and her courage made her loved by the Britons. She called upon her countrymen to join her in resisting the enemy. manded that the prisoner's life should be spared and that he should be . Queen of the Iceni. But at last he was beaten in a great battle. there were many Britons who had taken the side of the Romans. . He was sent to Rome. and she had good reason to do so for not only had they been very unjust to her husband when he was alive.d. both because they were enemies of her country and because they had been cruel to her. In more than one battle the Britons. he spoke to him boldly and told him that he was riot ashamed of what he had done. Claudius com. but proud of it— that he had only fought for his country. he ordered her to be seized and to be beaten with rods. and the Romans soon learnt to fear her. but when she went to complain to the Roman Governor. There arose among the Britons a fresh This leader leader. It is said that Boadicea was tall and beautiful. Boadicea therefore hated the Romans. " and you can do what you phase with me. was Boadicea. When Claudius death. It was to Londinium that Boadicea now led her army.1 History of England. and was takefl prisoner. whose name has become famous in our history. ' well treated. The Romans had built a town upon the banks of a river which we now call the Thames.

country of its enemies. The Britons were quite It was not long before the battle was over. Macaulay : " Prophecy of Capys. Boadicea herself was true to her promise. was ready for the She called upon the Britons to fight like men. unable to resist the Romans. The even trench. But the British Queen had won her last victory. and marched against the Queen. if. the fierce Britons showed no mercy. the sword is thine.Roman Camps and Roman Roads. 17 marched away. would rather kill herself than allow herself to be taken prisoner by the Romans. Roman Camps and Roman Roads. and have set an example 1 Pilum. once inside the town. on her side. Thousands of the people of Londinium were killed. The battle began. The army of the Britons was far larger than that of the Romans. Boadicea. the bristling mound. the Romans had. and from that time the Romans were masters of the whole country. had to fight many battles. .' nearly After the death of Boadicea. collected his scattered troops. They were a very wonderful people. Soon Boadicea came to the gates. and thus ended her own life (a. broad-headed heavy spear borne by the Roman soldiers. not left something by which we might remember them. whose name was Suetonius. With her death ended the hopes of the Britons. the Romans soon became masters of At first they all that part of Britain which we now call England. 62). she took poison. It would indeed be strange after they had been so long in Britain. No less than eighty thousand of them were killed. Rather than be taken prisoner by the Romans. " Thine. and declared that she to herself. leaving behind them all their friends who had trusted them. and in our own day we can many marks of the things they did while they were here. Roman. The legion's ordered line. but after a time the Britons submitted to the Romans and agreed to obey their laws. but the Roman soldiers had long been taught how to fight together. and. The Roman general. to rid their battle. and to avenge the cruelty which had been done She stood in the midst of the army. a short. is the pilum : ' Roman. For nearly four hundred years the still find Romans stopped in this country. and to obey the orders that were given them. and the town was all but destroyed.d.

and they were usually placed on the top of a hill. but the very names by which the Romans called them are used by Englishmen every day.1 History of England. before the soldiers lay down to sleep. we have something like it. We have . During time of peace they were always practising what they would have to do in time of war. Whenever the Roman soldiers came to the end of a day's march. Nor was this all they knew how to protect themselves against an enemy as well as they knew how to attack an enemy when they wished. THE ROMAN GATEWAY AT LINCOLN. built a wall of earth. The Latin word for camp is "castra". the ditch was dug. and the wall was built. In many parts of England these Roman camps may still be seen and not only are the camps themselves still to be found in England. and all worked together. and made a ditch round their camp. The Roman soldiers were the wonder of the world. and though we have not got exactly the word " eastra " in English. and. in whatever part of the world they were. They all for Sometimes they built much larger camps than those which were wanted one night only. they did the same thing. in many things to all the nations who have come after them. . and they could march well. They could fight well. as the soldiers knew how to work. These camps had deep ditches and high walls.

Roman Camps and Roman all Roads. Ma!«-chester. which stands on the river Dee.and its name because in the time of the Romans there was a full of soldiers there. Don-ca.. in such places as Lancaster. The names of all these places tell us quite plainly that the Kortiai) soldiers once ugon a time built their Wall We . and we have also the word castra written caster.ater. 19 heard of Chester. and many others. camp Chester got or strong place The word " Chester " is really the same as " castra. A ROMAN PAVEMENT. the capital of Cheshire. have CW-chester. Tarf-caster. i?o-cheBter. But Chester is not the only place where we find a Roman name.

their ditch there in the days that came after the landing of Julius Csesar. were great builders they knew how to erect and specially of brick. they were still more famous as makers of roads. The floors of the houses were paved The Romans. . But though the Romans were famous as builders of houses.20 and dug History of England. the shortest distance between the two places is always a straight line. but we cannot find a shorter way from a to b than the straight line. too. In the picture on this page are two points. large buildings of stone . with tiles in artistic patterns. . it. and Latin words which up. but parts of them have been found in many places and enough is left to show how beautiful the buildings must have been when they were new. a and b. and there were many comforts which we sometimes think were not known before In some places our own time. beautiful statues have been dug and many thousands of gold and silver and copper coins have been found which have stamped on them the heads of the Roman Emperors. The roads were paved with stone. a hill rather than to go up the hills But the Romans were quite right to do as they did in their time. . Most of the buildings which they built in Britain have fallen into ruin. We may try as long as we Uke. and it is very THE SHORTEST DISTANXE BETWEEN TWO POINTS IS A STRAIGHT LINE. The reason why we do not make our roads go in a straight line now is th^t we use a great many carriages and carts. were baths supplied with hot water. If we want to go from one place to another. there were carved pillars inside There and outside the houses. us something about the coins. The Romans were the tell first people to make great roads from one end of England to the other. and there is a straight line joining them. and they ran in a Nowastraight line up hill and down dale from one town to another. days it would not be considered wise to take the roads straight up it is more usual to go round.

a fe) J ^ .

Sometimes we come to a stretch of road which goes on quite straight for several miles we may generally be sure that we are on the line of a road which has never changed for eighteen hundred years. of Vespasism or Severus." which goes from London to Lincoln and on to York. or Titus. . and those who went on long journeys travelled either on foot or on horseback their luggage was taken from place to place on the backs of horses or mules."' which runs all along the sea-coast of Wales down into Pembrokeshire. or The best Watling Street. they found that they were often troubled by enemies who came down from the country which we now call Scotland these enemies were known as the "Picts. some other Roman known Roman roads in England are called "The which goes from London to Chester " The Fosse Way. But when the Romans were in Britain carriages and carts were scarcely used at all. After the Romans had made peace in that part of Britain which is now called England." .d.22 History of England. So that there are many things still left in our country to remind us that the Romans once ruled over it. therefore. and a straight road enabled the Roman soldiers to get from place to place very quickly." and many parts of both are still to be seen in our own day. ^ Via Maritima. Besides their buildings and their roads. and had begun to rule quietly there. This wall is called " The Wall of Severus." which goes from Bath to Lincoln. . hard for a horse to pull a carriage or a cart up-hill. but they found them so troublesome that at last they built a great wall right across the country to keep them out. built a second wall. named Severus. The Roman Emperor Hadrian ordered the wall to be built (a. did not matter very much. . and "The Seaside Eoad. 121). the Romans have also left us a very wonderful mark of their work on the border between England and Scotland." The Romans fought and beat the Picts many times. The hills. and after Hadrian's death another Roman Emperor. There are many places in England where the roads still follow exactly the same line as the old Roman roads. "The Ermine Street. command general. and which was first planned by one of the Roman officers under the .

" Longfellow :•' Psaim oj Life. . the first Christian Emperor. were put to death for refusing to give up their religion. After many struggles and much suffering the Christians had obtained permission to carry on their worship at Rome. and they feared to lose the Roman soldiers who had so long protected them from every . and churches were built. "And departing Footprints on leaue behind us tfie sands of time. At such a time every Roman soldier was needed to defend and orders were therefore sent that the armies Italy and Rome which were in Britain should return to Italy. there was little fear of any fresh enemy coming and taking the country. So long as the Roman soldiers were here. but for the most part they were destroyed in the terrible years that followed the departure of Roman Christianity was indeed swept the Romans from Britain. Albans. and during the greater part of that time there was peace and quiet in the country. did not prevent the' spread of Christianity. and Britain once more became a pagan land. in Hertfordshire. Many . and the'name of Alban has been handed down martyr in the British Church. traces have been found in our own day. Helena. he was unable to protect those of his own religion from the fierce persecution of the Emperor Diocletian. ascended the throne. to us as that of the first still away. Constantine the Great. whose British mother. became known in after years by the name of St. and that the Emperor was afraid that Rome itself would be taken. In the year 306 Christianity had been already introduced into England under the rule of Constantine. Helena of York. This great gift was Christianity. But at length there came news from Rome that a formidable enemy was marching against Italy. The persecution. and which would have been the most important of all their gifts had it lasted. This was sad news for the Britons. however." There is one other thing which the Romans gave to this country. of the British Christians. for by this time they had come to look upon the Romans more as friends than as foes. in the year 312. His name is preserved by the famous Cathedral of St. Of these churches Bishops were created. The Romans stopped in Britain for nearly four hundred years.23 Roman Christianity— Departure of the Romans. Gradually their teaching spread until. But though Constantine was a Christian. it is said. which was first introduced into England during the time of the Roman occupation.

d.24 History of England. A. enemy. and' they had begun to teach the Britons the arts which they had brought with them from Italy. King of the Huns.'. b. 436—449. FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED DURING THE PERIOD DESCRIBED Attila. the CHAPTER II. Chief of the Saxon. the Romans had built towns in Britain many of them were married to British wives. and sailed away across the sea on their road home to Italy. PRINCIPAL EVENT DURING THE PERIOD DESCRIBED IN THIS CHAPTER. IN | THIS CHAPTER."— Longfellow. Invasion of Britain by Hengist and Horsa. are reading the history of England. Hengist. THE COMING OF THE SAXONS. was But we at last itself conquered. For all these reasons. which had conquered so many countries. Besides. can be read in the history of Rome. and we must now bid farewell to Roman soldiers as we lose sight of the sails of their ships crossing the Channel between England and France. 453. What happened to the legions when they got to Rome. . 406. 'Dark and many-folded clouds foretell The coming on of storm. The Gathering.of the Storm. 449. 488. and the Romans were too good soldiess to disobey the orders which they received from Rome. and how the great city of Rome. The legions marched down to the sea-coast. the Britons were naturally grieved when the order came for the Roman legions to sail across the Straits of Dover and to leave the white cliffs of Britain behind them. got into their ships. we must return once more to the story of . But a soldier must do what he is ordered. Now that to their we have seen the last of the Roman soldiers sailing back own country.

It was not long before their strength was put to the test by an enemy more terrible than any they had yet had to encounter. fair-haired. It sometimes happens that before the beginning of a great storm'. though they had doubtless gained much from their masters.The Gathering of the Storm. when the sky has already become overclouded and the air has become still and hushed. to protect the Britons. an enemy than on the day at Deal. . they launched their ships and sailed away again to the land from which they came. the very fact that they had not had to depend upon fit their own valour for their own safety had made them less when they stood on the shore Julius Csesar. but now they would have to fight their own battles themselves. and. . Wherever they landed they brought fear and alarm with them. From time to time there reached the shores of Britain ships filled with fierce soldiers from a land across the seas . P'or nearly four hundred years the Britons had been ruled over by a people stronger than themselves. strong. 25 Britain and of the Britons now left behind without the protection of the Roman sword. ready to face the legions of to resist A people which has ceased to rely upon itself for its own defence must alway^ be in danger. and talking a language quite different from that of either the Britons or the Romans. They robbed and. these warlike strangers did not do more than visit the coasts of Britain and sail awaj again. after they had the people and killed those who resisted them taken what plunder they could get. these men were tall. and seem to tell us of the downpour which will so soon drench the earth. But so long as the well-drjlled Roman soldiers remained. a few big drops of rain come splashing down by themselves. Something lil<e this happened in Britain in the years which passed just before the Romans sailed away. they foretold the terrible storm which was soon to break over Britain. The Britons had learnt to rely upon the Romans to fight their battles for them. The Roman armies were always ready to meet them and But these short visits were like the raindrops. armed with swords and axes.

There were other reasons. Till the waters uast Filled them with a vague devotion. no doubt. Perhaps it was that they thought their own country was a poor one. they were glad to seek for a new country in which no one would disturb them. And the sounding blast.26 History of England. With the freedom and the motion. With King Olaf sailed the seas. ' Thirty men they each commanded. the Angles. and they wished to iind some more fertile land in which It is very likely that they had such a thought. We And. and the Saxons wish to cross the sea. which made the Jutes. These Jutes. there was. There were other nations behind them who kept attacking them and driving them forward down to the sea and when they got there. . Saxons. With the roll and roar of ocean. and of the German Ocean. The people who came from these countries belonged to three tribes or nations. and it comes down close to that part which we now call Holland. They had just . Iron-ainewed." Longfellow : " TJte Saga of King Olaf. the Angles. The Sea Rovers. Shoulders broad. The country from which these people came is now a portion of what we call Germany It touches the shores of the Baltic Sea. horny-handed. tribes or nations were called the and the cannot tell exactly what it was that made the Saxons. for even now to live. which are the countries in which the Jutes and the Angles lived. too. These. and from what land they had sailed in their ships. another reason which made the and the Saxons leave their homes. the north of Germany and the south of Denmark. and chest expandedTugging at the oar. last of all. the Angles. are barren and sandy. the Angles. and unfit to grow wheat upon." And now it is time to ask who these new-comers were. Jutes. and many more lifie these. covered in many places with forests of fir-trees. and the Jutes leave their own country and sail across the sea to Britain.

in the long run. It is interesting to remember that. and that in this battle the this battle Britons were defeated. No sooner had the last of the Roman soldiers left the shores of and the strong power of the Romans been taken away. For a time they settled in the Isle of Thanet. map. too. and to find new lands and if. but everywhere. They loved to travel. in the year 453. than the storm which had been so long hanging over England began to break. but they landed upon our shores and stopped there.ce perhaps better and in this matter. over and over again. they marched with their armies upon London. a few at a time. but it seems clear that at or about the time named a great battle did take^lace between the Saxons and the Britons. 27 the same love of adventure which many English people have nowadays. not as before. who are said to have landed at Ebbsfleet. when they came to a new land. and that in Among named Horsa was killed. They did not. they did not object. land to plunder and sail away again. in Kent. the Saxons. and the Jutes came over the sea in Britain. "History repeats itself. the result was the same. they had to fight for it. with no thought of going back to their own country. — . at n place called Aylesford. Everywhere the Britons resisted. and step by step they pushed the Britons further back from the coast. The new-comers were victorious. The story runs that a great battle took place upon the Riyer Medway. but in great numbers. The Ford of the River Medway. day. All along the south coast of England their ships were to be seen.The Ford of the Medji^ay. who like adventures all the better if there be danger in them. as before. we shall see that the part of England which is closest to the . in which the Britons tried to prevent the Saxons crossing the Medway and getting to London." the earliest of the invaders were two great Saxon chiefs Hengist and Horsa. but picking a quarrel with the Britons. they were not unlilce some Englishmen in our own . they liked fighting quite as well as being at pea. battles have been fought upon the River Medway for just the same reason as this If we look at the battle between the Saxons and the Britons. The Angles. in the year 449. their ships. It is not certain whether the story of the death of Horsa be more than a legend. Indeed.

and after them the Normans. of which there is a picture on the next page. and when the Saxons came this fortress prevented them crossing the river at this place. we can still see what is left of the fortresses which our forefathers built at different times. is the reason which makes us defend it with a great fortress in the days in which we live. The greater part of these earth and brick walls still remain. They were forced to come up the bank of the river till they reached Aylesford. the Norman castle was not strong enough to defend the crossing of the Medway. and to protect the ships of war which lie at Chatham. The easiest and the way from the coast of Kent to London. Then the Saxons built a strong fortress at Chatham. and though many yearc have gone by. where the stream is narrow. Rochester. built of earth and brick. and we can see them any day if we go to Chatham. After gunpowder was invented. though it is in ruins. After the . The Romans. from the name that there was a Roman camp at shortest at . can be seen at the present day. is across the Medway Chatham and it is for this reason that. and that anyone who lands in the county of Kent. built a great stone castle." as we have already learnt. and wants to get to. liave made a great fortress at Chatham. those who wanted to defend London against an enemy. and where there is now a bridge over it. continent of Europe is the county of Kent. therefore. and which.28 History of England. but he will be forced to go up as far as Chatham. always knew which was the best place for a fortress. Now " Chester. the Britons in their turn made a strong Chatham. more than fourteen hundred years ago. He will not try to cross where it is very broad. And so we see that though times have changed. is really the Latin word for a " camp. If we go to Chatham now. fortress at Remans had gone." and we know. London. a new fortress has been built all round Chatham. was made in its place. and they were the first to make a great " camp " close to Chatham. to prevent an enemy crossing the Medway. who were very great soldiers. And now. the reason which made the Britons defend the Medway in the time of Hengist and Horsa. all through English history. will have to cross the River Medway. The towns of Rochester and Chatham touch each other. and another fortress. quite lately. of whom we shall read later on.

.

" Pope. 453. THE SAXON CONQUEST. b. Landing of the South Saxons. Ida.. d. b. defeats the Romans at the battle of Soissons. King of the Franks. III. b. the great 483." the time of the landing of Hengist and Horsa the history of England ceases to be an account of either the Britons or the Romans. whose magic song Made huge Plinlimmon bow his cloud-topt head. FAMOUS PERSONS WHO DESCRIBED IN THIS LIVED DURING THE PERIOD CHAPTER. 465. 488. ^thelbert becomes King of Kent. Gregory I. St. Victory of the Britons at Badon Hill. the great Irish preacher. The Kingdom of Kent founded. 449' 452. St. is Cadwallo's tongue. and is occupied with the spread and final settlement of the great flood For of German invaders which now began to pour into the country.30 History of England. Gildas. ThefoUciving are supposed King of in the sixth century — have lived. Attila invades Italy. King of the Huns. 547. b. Ida founds the Kingdom of Bernicia. 597- Attila. or. Patrick. Irish Missionary. ye mourn in vain Modred. CHAPTER 449-597. 491. 547. 552. 511. At the end of that time we find the various tribes of invaders firmly established in England. one wave following another. King of the Franks. b. Columba commences Columban starts his mission in ' Scotland. called " The Great. That hush'd the stormy main Braue Urien sleeps upon his craggy bed: Mountains. PRINCIPAL EVENTS WHICH TOOK PLACE DURING THE PERIOD DESCRIBED IN THIS CHAPTER. d. d. upon a mission to France. King of Kent. two hundred years the invasion continued. 520. Hengist. 565- ColumbaZlt the great about 543. we find them divided into many separate From . Landing of the West Saxons. St. d. Roman law-maker. Clovls. 521. British historian. killed at Aylesford. to : iEthelbert. Columha. Justinian. daughter of Charibert. King Arthur. 595. 495- Hengist and Horsa land in Kent. 457477486. 449. ClOViB. The Breaking" of the Storm "Cold . King of Paris. HorSAf the companion of HengisC. Britons and Saxons. Bernicia." Gray : " The Bard. d. 561. wife of iEthelbert. Bertha. d. 565. Chief of the Saxons..

and the great difficulty of the historian is to know what things are important enough writing. and the new-comers have begun to quarrel fiercely among themselves. before the first landing of the Jutes in 449. if we look at the scroll which is unfolded at page 104.- but in the early Saxon days there was little wars even the few written documents which did exist had little chance of escaping destruction. in order that we may understand how great a period of time elapsed. King of the West Saxons. than we do of the eight to be told by him . Saxons and Danes together are forced to give battle to 3'et another invader. . less than is six centuries. The story of the events which have just been referred to must be told at greater length but it is well to look forward a little at this point in our history. It easy to understand why our history should contain much shorter descriptions of early times than of late times. which is described in a few short chapters in this book. great or small. than to those which took place before that date and yet. And lastly. 31 kingdoms under various leaders. and then another. and the conquest of England by the Normans in 1066. The chief work of the king of the united country is to defend it against the attack of fresh invaders the fierce Danes. In our own day everything which takes place is written down. and are defeated by the Normans at the battle of Hastings in the year io56. during which first one Saxon kingdom. becomes the first king of all England. we shall see that the portion of our history which is so fully described occupied far less time than that of which so . in the year 827. and defeats its rivals. as in days when every event is written down and recorded. Tlie Britons have been driven out and are no longer to be feared. Although we know less about the six hundred years which passed between the landing of Hengist and Horsa and the landing of the Normans. It is important to remember these things. In this book. At last. as in every other history of England. Egbert.The Breaking of the Storm. and in those times of fierce .scanty an account is given. who for a time seem likely to treat the Saxons as the Saxons treated the Britons. far more space is given up to the events which took place after the year 1066. because we are sometimes liable to forget that the life of a people goes on just the same in days of which history gives us little or no account. while the period which elapsed between the landing of Hengist and Horsa and the coming of the Normans in io56. Nearly four centuries pass. becomes the most powerful. was no . The historian can only write of things which he has learnt through books and records. From the landing of Julius Caesar to the time of the Norman Conquest is little more than eleven hundred years .

nearly the whole of England was inhabited only by the Angles. Not in one year. But though victory sometimes cheered the Britons. Wales. had learnt to live peaceably and quietly under the Romans. Stratholyde is really that part of England and Scotland in which the counties oi Cumberland. the new-comers waited until fresh ships could come over the sea bringing more of their friends to help them. and those who did not fly they put to death. we shall see a broad This line runs from Carlisle to Chester. They took the lands of the Britons for themselves. Westmorland. the end was always the same. nor. and from Cardiff to Plymouth. hundred years which followed the last-named event. Checked for a moment. Of one great battle. — — bright. from Chester to Cardiff. It was into these three parts of our some think at Fought probably neighbourhood of Bath. ^ and Wigtown now in the are. of which the name has come down to us. if the old British legends sung by the Bards can be believed. . The two hundred years of our history which follow the landing of Hengist are occupied with the invasion of our islands by the Angles. The fight between the Saxons and the Britons was very different from that which had taken place five hundred years before between the Briton and the Romans. Kirkcud. And so it happened that. the Britons won the victory. indeed. The Roman armies had beaten the people of Britain and made them obey the laws of Rome. Fierce battles were fought. the Saxons. But the Britons. on that account. line which runs down one side. Many of the Romans married British wives. in many years. On the left hand that is to say. and drove from them all those who had formerly lived on them.' the legend seems undoubtedly true. or Badbury. on the West side of this line we shall see marked We know Cornwall and Wales nowaCornwall. than the last eight centuries of which history tells us so much. or had lees effect in making our country and our people what they are.32 History op England. the Jutes. less important. and the Saxons and the Britons who had been left alive were shut up in a small part of this island. in Dorsetshire. Renfrew. we must not suppose that they were. the battle of Badon Hill. But it was quite different when the Saxons came. and the Romans taught the Britons many arts and accomplishments which the Britons were quite ready to learn. They did not spare their enemies they drove all before them. Dumfries. who remained in their land. at the end of the long fight between the Saxons and the Britons. was the invasion accomplished. in some of which. and Stratholyde. Ayr. If we look at the map on the opposite page. Lanark. and the Jutes. but we no longer know anything about Strathdyds. days.

As they pushed the Britons before them. and the Angles came over from the North of Europe. The Saxons. to France.The Breaking of the Storm. BETWEEN THE SAXONS them up against the farthest edge of the island and thus it was that the Britons came to be found in Wales. the Jutes. . Many of those who live now in these parts of the kingdom are descended from the ancient Britons and the beautiful and interesting language of Wales is really that of our British forefathers. it was only natural that they should at last push MAP OF ENGLAND SHOWING THE AND THE UIVISION BRITONS. . In Cornwall but if we go across the Channel this language is no longer spoken . and landed on the East side of England. and is easy to see how this came about. 33 it island that the unfortunate Britons were pushed by the Saxons. Cornwall. we shall find that in the province of Brittany. and Strathclyde only. the province c .

" and the " Bridge of the Blessed Ford " tell their own stories To those who only know English. many of the strange. We shall see how. Red-ditch. it must not be forgotten that the ancient British race still is to be found in Wales. and that. quite plainly to those who still speak the language of the Britons. they rendered a great service to England in another way. Christians ever attempted to teach their religion to the Saxons. as our own English names. and expulsion of the Britons meant also the defeat and expulsion of Christianity from all that part of England which the heathen invaders made their own. in later days. we think them natural enough. Once more the land was inhabited by a heathen people worshipping idols. and so on. But when we see such names as Llwmpia. Although the greater part of England is now inhabited by men and women of Saxon race. as a rule. When we iind such names as Wells. and there preached and taught with great success. and have as much meaning. But though the worship of Christ was for the time almost entirely banished from England. or barely escaped with their lives to the mountains of Wales. In Wales Christianity never altogether died out and though it does not appear that the Welsh defeat . Welsh names appear and impossible to understand but that is only because Englishmen do not. and Pontrhydvendigred." Magpies' Grove. who did. . Llwyn Helig. Bath." "Willow Gsove. we think them strange. whose very name reminds us of Britain. whose ancestors had destroyed the Church of the Britons and had driven the British Christians across the Irish Channel.34 History of England. Cold-stream. preserve their faith and maintain their churches through all the dark years of the early Saxon invasions. The churches which had been built in Roman times were destroyed the priests were put to death. and how they helped to convert the Saxons. know the meaning of the Welsh names. The . Irish teachers came back to England. because they are made up of simple words with which we are familiar. forgetting that to those who know the language to which they belong they are just as simple. and who naturally speak English. From the Welsh coasts Christian teachers found their way over to Ireland. a language is still spoken which is almost the same as that which is spol<en by many Welshmen to-day in the counties of Merioneth and Carnarvon. difficult to pronounce. . undoubtedly. there still remained in the western part of our island a small remnant of the British population.

we say England. in England. Rolls mingling with their fame for ever. . we have milhons of people who are often described as Anglo-Saxons. the land of the Saxons is there also an Angleland. the Saxons." —Byron." but we call it by a namfe so similar that there is no difficulty in guessing in a moment what that country is. Let us see whether we know anything about them nowadays. and there are few who have not heard the Enghsh people themselves called " Anglo-Saxons. . The meanest rill. but of the Saxons who live in the kingdom of Saxony. ." The term describes the people descended from the Angles and the Saxons together and thus. instead of Angleland. If. and we shall find there the province of Jutland. the land from which the Jutes came. lone and gray. who had And now we must return to the history of the invaders succeeded in winning for themselves the possession of our country. We know that. It is true that we do not call that land " Angleland. we all know something yet the name of Saxon is not altogether unfamiliar to us in England itself. « Their * » « memory sparliles o'er the fountain . or the land of the Jutes so the name of the Jutes is not yet forgotten. The woods are peopled with their fame. in the German Empire. they were made up of three great tribes or nations the Jutes. the mightiest riuer. The Highland Scots still call the English-speaking Lowlanders " Sassenach. the land of the Jutes that there is Saxony. — . Do we know anything of the Angles in England at the present day ? We have seen that there is Jutland." or Saxon. And now we come to the last of the great invading peoples. though we have no Saxons. the Angles. Do we know the name of the Saxons in England ? We do not. and the Angles. 3s Names New and 01d» " The waters murmur of their name. we shall see that the Angleland to which the Angles came is our own England in which we live and whose name is — .I^AMES New and Old. The silent pillar. for the most part. the land of the Angles ? Undoubtedly there is. We certainly do not know the name Jutes in England but we have only to cross the North Sea to Denmark. so called.

moOn . is the day of the goddess Freia. the day of the . It is not hard to guess that Wednesday is the same thing as Woden's Day. If we want to know the names of some of these nations. They show us that come down from the Saxons who landed and the words which England fourteen hundred years ago. we are really going back into the history of England. names of four of the old gods of we come to think over the names does Tuesday mean ? It means Tuesco's Day. which we have made into Tuesday. There was not one great Saxon people in England. and how they gave and Tu. so famous throughout the world. It is to the Angles that we owe the name of our country and the great English language which we speak.y. it will be said. and all these nations and tribes have SUB Monday. the day of the ' Sundny is. on the contrary. It is idols. while Frida.36 History of England. Freia. the Saxons. and the Jutes kept separate from one another. The Saxons who drove and worshipped besides. or Tuesco. these were their chief gods. read further on how the Saxons became Christians. out and defeated the Britons were heathens Their gods were called Thor and Woden." means SatUm'S day* . but it is quite true. Thor'a Day only needs to be altered by one letter to become TIiursdsLy. say that we will do a thing on Tuesday. Thursday or Friday. we are really giving the the Saxons. or tribes. we have only got to look at the map. Woden. er " Saeterday. each tribe under its own king or chief. when we speak of the days of the week. and there were others years ago since anybody living in shall England worshipped Thor. For a long time the Angles. Hengist and Horsa and their followers used then. or Tuesco many hundred We up their belief in their old gods. it would not be true to say that we have forgotten all about them. but a number of small tribes. Freia. History becomes What cut short and more in real when we and find we have really truly out things like this. we use in our daily speech. . while Saiur(\siy. This is clear when of the days of the week. of course. not a day passes on which we do not mention the name of one or other of When we them. as we can guess in a moment. Wednesday. But though we who live in England no longer worship the gods of the Saxons. and are using words and names which were first brought into England by the Saxons who landed on our shores with Hengist and Horsa. how can we find these names on the map ? There were no atlases in the time of the Saxons. But. This seems strange at first.^ And so we see that.

.THE ENGLISH KINGDOMS.

up into several tribes some went south. have not the country We of the " North Folk. however long we look upon the map of England." or the " South Saxons. some west. and Wessex." the " East Saxons. the previous page.jS History of England. Now it will be said that. of which the known . we shall see that it is than twelve different districts. Then." We see that. and first gave Saxon names to the places in which they lived. we shall find that some of the Angles landed on our shores near where the town of Yarmouth now stands. They divided into two tribes. we have "never forgotten those names." and of another which was known as the " Wiltsaetas." but we shall find the counties of " Norfolk " and " Suffolk " on the map in a moment. and their names will not be marked in any map of England which we have now. If of "Wilts" we look into at the map on divided greater no less number are in that part of the British Islands which is now as England. Our special attention should be given to the divisions which are marked Kent. do not talk of the " Middle Saxons. Northumbria. the " East Saxons. or went south. like the Angles.'' and there were many other tribes whose names might be given. too." or the " Dorsaetas. and to learn the names of the different divisions." and "Sussex. some east. and some of them stayed where they were." we all know something about the counties and "Dorset. the East Saxons." but we do talk of "Middlesex. the West Saxons. in the same way.'' of the "West Saxons" or . Those who went north were called the "North Folk". some of them went porth. those who stayed in the south were called the " South Folk. we read of a tribe which was called the " Dorsaetas. and a fourth tribe was to be found in the middle of the other three and soon people began to talk of the country of the South Saxons." It is quite true that we shall not find these very names. Mereia. and the Middle Saxons. to an end long ago. we shall never find marked upon it the country of the "North Folk" and the "South Folk." the " Wiltsaetas. Let us see. though we have not got the " Wiltsaetas " nor the " Folk or the " South We "Dorsaetas." "Essex. It will be well to study the map closely. If we go back to the old Saxon histories." And. for each of these became in turn the most important of the Saxon kingdoms." come Then we find that the Saxons. but still use them e\-ery day just as' the Saxons did who first gave them to us. though more than a thousand years have passed since the Saxons first came to hve in England. but we shall find names so very like them that it does not require to be very clever to guess that they are really the same. divided themselves .

King of Mercia. HOW THE SAJ^NS BECAME ENGLISH. 714. d. d. 768. King of the Franks. £thelfrith. King of the Franks.. b. wife of Edwin. Augustine. b. daughter of Ethelbert. first Aidan. Offa. the iifth and sixth centuries. called "The Great. 742. Charlemagne. CHAPTER IV. King of Mercia. 814. which Old. b. King of the West Saxons. Faulinus. and the Welsh language of to-day is really the same as that which was spoken by the Britons of . 757. 838. 597—837. called " The Venerable Bede. King of Mercia. Sttielburga. poet. 632. Sop. remained British. 570. C16. King of the \Vest Saxons. Pepin. d. Charles Martel. 728. 672. IN THE PERIOD DESCRIBED about 689. 670. King of Northumbria. West Wales has lost its Strathdyde has long ago become Saxon British language. 651. Strathdyde. Archbishop of Canter- bury. 67S. b. Penda. it is really as much a part of Saxon England as the neighbouring county of Devon. Archbishop of York.Names New and On Wales. b. d. 795. b. which now bears the nanie of Cornwall. 716. d. King of Kent. Haroun Al Bashid. St. about 552. b. King of Northumbria. Oswald. Wultbere. Egbert. 586. d. b. afterwards " Overlord " of England. d. d. about 605. 642. CSSdmon. St. King of Kent. 605. 605. Ine. 617. iEthelbala. 735. d. AND THE ENGLISH BECAME CHRISTIANS. 655. King of Paris. d. daughter of Charibert. Khalif of Bagdad. 644. Bede. d. 741. d. b. d. the ArablanJProphet." Pope. St. d. d. d. the Saxon Mahomet. FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED iEthelbert. 633. King of Northumbria. In North Wales and parts of South Wales alone the British tongue and the British race still hold their own. Bertlia. Gregory I. King of Mercia. d. These are the districts which. and though it is still distinguished in many ways from the other Saxon and English-speaking counties. North is the whole of Wales as we now know it. d. for a long time after the first coming of the Saxons. King of the Franks. . d. about 775. father of Charlemagne. died about 680. Edwin. 763. first Oswy. d. d. King of Northumbria. wife of Ethelbert. 687. IN THIS CHAPTER. d. b. and West Wales. 39 the west side of the island are three districts. Cuthbert. b.

632. cast aside their old heathen religions. crowned Emperor of the West. In a previous chapter we read that the Saxons. when they first became masters of England. Battle of Windwid Field. 655. King of Northumbria. history of the kingdom of Kent. 787. King of the Franks. We have now to read how it was that the pagan Saxons learnt the rtory of Jesus Christ. 636. 823. 63i. Freia but the name of these gods is but a memory among us. to tell it It is a very beautiful and interesting story. and became little kingdom of Kent. Conversion of Northumbria. Defeat of Saracens by Charles Martel death at the battle of Tours. Oswy. Egbert defeats Danes at Hengestdown. . Egbert. 626. is a very short has the greatest possible importance for our country. 835- Egbert becomes " Overlord " of England. is the in the south-eastern corner of the island. The Bomans. were heathens. Battle of Burford. Death of the Venerable Bede. Greg-ory and the Ang-els. but with the departure of the Romans and the arrival of the Saxons at the time . Christians. as we know it one but. York converts the South and Northumbria at Nectansmere. 733752. between Mercia and First landing of the Danes in England. Wilfrid of Saxons. "Non Angli sed Angeli. Charlemagne. 732. The . Aidan settles in Holy Island. and for centuries England has been a Christian land. and which were to become the foundation ot modern England as we know it. Thor. and that they worshipped gods named Woden. St. Danes land in Isle of Sheppey. The iirst to be noticed in point of time. 800. but to the new Saxon kingdoms which were growing up in the south and west. Egbert becomes King of Wessex. had introduced Christianity into England. Death of Cuthbert. It is no longer to the British parts of the island that we must now turn our attention. Mercia and Northumbria subdued by Death of Mahomet. 597. as we know. of Egfrith of 832.4° History of England. Death of Penda. Defeat 687. Augustine lands in Kent. PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE PERIOD DESCRIBED IN THIS CHAPTER. and it is well as nearly as possible in the very words of those who were living when the change took place. between the Mercians and the West Saxons. 670. though short. though not in point of importance. and who wrote down what they saw with their own eyes and heard with their own ears. 827. it. Battle of Ellandune. dies.

Roman who had become browned with the heat of the warm sun of Italy. He was told that they came from the island of Britain. his " Rightly are they so called. 41 and the other heathen tribes. other places. he gave a deep sigh. "for they have the faces of angels. and. he came to the market-place where slaves were sold for at that time. When Gregory saw the little English children. " what a pity that such beautiful children as these should come from a land where men have not yet learnt about Christ. about the year 580. mind that the Angles should be taught (590). he went up and asked from what country they came. When Gregory heard this. Then he asked whether the people of Britain were heathens. He was told that it was the nation of the Angles. One day Gregory was walking in the streets of Rome. He was told that they were still heathens. as he walked. men. the Roman churches were destroyed. " Alas I said he.Gregory and the Angels. their faces were and whiter little their skins children were of the than those 'GREGORY THE GREAT. and children were often sold as slaves both in Rome and . beautiful." Then Gregory made up the story of Christ. there lived a great and good man named Gregory. the Britons who had become Christians were put to death." but which we now were call "Yorkshire. In the city of Rome. a monk. and for many hundreds of years afterwards." said Gregory. and after he became Pope he looked about ." Then he asked what was the name of the nation to which the children belonged. England under its new masters once more became a heathen land. We shall learn how Christian teachers from Rome landed a second time in England. and a second time set to work to convert the heathen whom they found there. or driven to take refuge in Wales or Ireland." They fair-haired children. or had become Christians. women. many slaves Among the were some Uttle children from that part of England which was then called " Deira.

and he had a wife named Bertha. himself was a heathen. and Broadatairs now are. as we say now. He was not alive at the he was not born until time when Augustine came over to England nearly a hundred years after Gregory had seen the little English children But Bede may easily have heard the in the market-place in Rome. It was possible in the time of ^thelbert to sail all the way from Sandwich to The Reculvers. but when he received the order from The Story of Aug-ustine. Augustine lived in Rome. and the king. but there is dry land instead. — I spsati of the things which I story of Augustine. If we look at the map of Kent. Now there is no longer any stream there. In our own day the Isle of Thanet is a part of the county of Kent. which separated it from the west of Kent. " my heart is inditing of a good matter : haue made unto the King. we shall see that in one corner of it there is a part which is called "The Isle of Thanet.ffithelbert (560). or an island. for there was a stream of water all round it. The name of this Englishman is Bede.42 History of England. At the time when Gregory sent -Augustine to England. Eamsgate. The name of this king was . and ended near the place which is marked on the map as The Beculvers. The in a . but in the time of King jEthelbert it was really an isle. who now is often spoken of as Saint Augustine. there was a king in that part of our country which we now call Kent. It was in the island of Thanet that Augustine landed when he . story which he tells from those persons who really saw the things This is the story as it is written by happen about which he wrote. allowed her to go to church and to keep her own religion. to find the best him man whom he could send over as a teacher or Augustine. the Englishman. a truly good and pious man. This stream. Now Bertha came from the land of the Franks ^Ethelbert or. began near where the town of Sandwich now is. and had never been in England Gregory to go. i. is contained book written by an Englishman. The person whom he chose was named . but Bertha was a Christian." It is in the Isle of Thanet that the towns of Margate. and how he came to England. missionary. which was called the Wantsum. her husband. from France." Psalm xlv. he went at once. the land of the French. Bede.

Then Augustine. when she heard that Augustine was coming. he sent a messenger to King ^thelbert to ask leave to come into his country. and then Augustine told the king about the new rehgion and about the story of Christ. Soon the people began to find out that the strangers were good men.^thelbert said. Then many of the people began to believe the words of Augustine. It was here that Augustine. with forty companions. Perhaps the king would not have given him leave if it had not been that his wife Bertha was already a Christian. and those who were with him.lEthelbert became . . teaching and preaching to the people. Before he landed.The Story of Augustine. he made up his mind that he would go and hear what Augustine had to tell him. and not very far off from where Augustine had landed. The king heard him in silence. and to become Christians and before very long and in . and he feared that there might be some plan to do him harm or to kill him he would. but as they are new to us. more than thirteen hundred years ago. but he sent one of his friends to tell the king that he had brought him a most joyful message. " Your words and your promises are very fair . He would not go inside a house. and because I believe that you really mean to say what is right and to do what is good. He went to the Isle of Thanet. first 43 came to England. and as we are not certain what they mean. but that they lived good and honest lives. . like his wife Bertha a few years all the English people in the kingdom of . If you can make people believe you. He sat on a chair in the open air when Augustine came. only let Augustine speak to him out of doors. nor can I give up the religion of my people you have come to my kingdom from so far off. and there they built a church and lived for some time. As they came they sang and prayed.lEthelbert himself became a Christian. and that he had come to tell him about the true and living God. landed from the ship that brought him to England (597). There is a place in the county of Kent called Ebbsfleet. which is in the county of Kent. for he did not understand what this new teacher had come to tell him. I will be kind to you. therefore. I cannot agree with but because them now. When the king got the message. He did not at once go to King jEthelbert. But Bertha. Christians. and wh"en Augustine had finished . . So Augustine and his followers went to the town of Canterbury. and she persuaded the king to receive him kindly. . was very pleased." Then the king told Augustine that he might stay in the city of Canterbury. . and that they not only taught what was good. and will let no one do you harm. and sent for Augustine. I will not prevent you. came before the king. and will take care of you.

For the first time the Saxons had established their dominion from sea to sea. " It is reported that there was then such perfect peace in Britain. King of Northumbria. was a heathen. in the reign of iEthelfrith. fighting to the last on behalf of their religion. who still maintained themselves in the north of Britain he destroyed their churches and killed their priests. It seemed as if the cause of Thor and Woden were about to triumph finally over the cause of Christianity. that a woman with her newborn babe might walk throughout the island. from sea to sea. and of his teaching the religion of Christ to the Enghsh people. from the history of the little kingdom of Kent to that and much more important division. and the ConveFsion of NortliumbFia. wheresoeuer the dominion of King Edwin extended. and ere another twenty years had gone by the teaching of St. the kingdom of Bernicia was united with the Saxon kingdom of Deira the modern Yorkshire under the name of the Kingdom of Northumbria.^Ethelfrith. namely. Edwin. In the year 547 a Saxon chief of the name of Ida landed on the east coast and established the kingdom of Bemicia. Augustine. and to this day a great cathedral stands in the city of Canterbury upon the place on which Augustine and his companions from Rome first taught the story of Christ thirteen hundred years ago. jEthelfrith. in the massacre that followed his victory. This is the story of the coming of Augustine to England. without receiving any harm. But only ten years before the capture of Chester. Augustine was acknowledged by the successor of . Canterbury was the first place in which a church was set up. the great King of Northumbria. King of Kent. which stretched from the Tees to the Firth of Forth. were cut down without mercy. He led his armies against the Britons. which stretched from the Humber to the Firth of Forth. and he was a great warrior. two thousand monks. the kingdom of Northumbria. and how.Edwin. had accepted the teaching of St. of a larger We now pass — — . and which has left its name in our own northern county of Northumberland.44 History of England. Forty-six years later (593). A story still remains of how he besieged the last army of the Britons in the fortress of Chester (607)." — Chronicle of the Venerable Bede. . King. yEthelbert.

Paulinus came and preached to the king and his counsellors. . ivho was high in favour with the king. The teacher whom Edwin sent for was called Faulinus. King Edwin married . and said to him. 45 In the year 617 jEthelfrith died. It was Bertha.Ethelburga. . who persuaded her husband to send for Augustine. Bede. no one had been allowed to wear a sword or carry a spear when they went near a temple. was a Christian. Then he set fire to the temples and threw down the idols and broke them. in-law. And thus it was that Paulinus led Edwin to give up idols . and was succeeded by his brotherA tie of marriage now united the Icingdoms of Kent and Northumbria.King Edw:n. and how the heathen King of Northumbria accepted the new religion. and the Conversion of Northumbria.ffithelburga. " is the right person to break the idols and burn the Then the high priest said to the king. and to burn the temples. I advise you at once to give up your false gods . and to believe in Christ (626)." Then Edwin said that he would do as he was asked. " O King. He went to King Edwin. and was the high priest of the country." Then Coifi mounted on a horse and fastened on a sword. King of Kent. the wife of King ^thelbert. At the court of King Edwin there was a certain man called Coifi. " Btit who. This was to show that he no longer believed in the idol for. " There can be no temples ? " person more fit to do this thing than I myself." said King Edwin. the daughter of ^thelbert. who has given us the account of the coming of Augustine. In hlce manner. now persuaded King Edwin to send for a teacher who could tell him about the new reUgion. Edwin. For a time the people of Northumbria became Christians. but the greater part of England still remained heathen. and I advise you. has also told us the story of how Paulinus came to the court of King Edwin. a friend and follower of Augustine. and took a spear and threw it against one of the temples. in order to show that you do not believe in them any longer. who. to break the idols which stand in the temples. up to that time. When the high priest had heard what Paulinus had to tell. like Bertha. he learnt that the gods in whom he had believed were false gods.

of which it is now time to the kingdom of the March. Warwickshire. The names of Aidan and Cuthbert will always be memorable in the history Both of them have received of Christianity in the North of England. the title of Saint. Cheshire. deprived of his example and encouragement. Cuthbeft. as much. Aidan has been written. in the-Ooean. At the date we have now reached. the Mercians had now become very powerful. and occupied the country which now comprises the counties of Lincolnshire. the Mercians were spreading over the whole of the Midlands. Edwin of Northumbria. the Britons were still in full possession of the centre of England for the men of the March were those who . in a very small island called Fame. Herefordshire. and in obedience to the orders of the king."— Chronicle of the Venerable Bede. life of St. this life {685) he promoted of the Church of Lindisfarne. which. who had for many years led a solitary life in great continence of body and mind. he moved those with whom he had to do as much by the beauty and of St. and his people. and some other counties. Derbyshire. of whose conversion by Paulinus we have just read. Mereia. or the Story of Aidan and Cuthbert. Earnest and sincere. as St. The . indeed. distant about nine miles from that same Church. Christian teachers of even greater power and influence than Paulinus came to the rescue of Northumbria in these dark times. liad been founded lived on the borders of a hostile country. pefhaps. by the Anglian tribes in the sixth century. free from all alarm on the side of the upon their kindred in the North.46 History of England. Under a king named Penda. or Border. had not yet been reached by Christianity kingdom of Mereia. Augustine. the holy and venerable Cuthbert. and invaded Northumbria. The Conversion of Mereia. and it is certain that few people did more than he to convert the people of our country to Christianity. however (626). Fortunately. about the time when jEthelbert was reigning in Kent. and. was killed in battle (633). ' 7he same year that King Egfrid departed to the bishopric Among the parts which central was the great speak. The name tells us that when the Mercian kingdoms were first set up. many of them had given up' only in name. went back again for a time to their old heathen beliefs. and many churches to this day preserve the names Britons. they turned Aidan and of St.

.

In his youth. tian religion which just off the Northumberland coast. THE INTERIOR OF DURHAM CATHEDRAL. off the coast of Argyllshire. SHOWING THE NORMAN PILLARS. if possible. and under his influence both Northumbria and its king learnt to understand and believe in his message. Thence he passed through Northumbria teaching and preaching. and an active helper in . having escaped from persecution in his own country. who. visit to became to he sent Columba and begged him to choose one of his monks to come and teach the people of Northumbria and to bring them back. Oswald had been driven out of There his country by King Edwin and had sought refuge in Scotland. After he king. King of Northumbria. he had found his way to the lonely cell of Columba. to the Chris- they had forsaken. had found refuge in the little rocky island of lona.48 History of England. Oswald himself became a pupil of Aidan. master Columba. Aidan was chosen He came southward. We can judge what sort of man he was from the pupils whom he taught. goodness of his life as by his preaching. or Holy lale. Columba like himself. Among these pupils was Oswald. an Irish Christian. had gathered round him other missionaries and it Oswald never forgot what he saw and learnt is clear that during his lona. settled on the little island of Lindisfame. and following the example of his for the task. who had succeeded Edwin in 635.

for any Christian kingdom in England. and Northumbria recovered from the defeat and death of But as long as Penda. " It was delightful. it regained strength. but in his turn was defeated their king. But Oswald. The work of Aidan was continued by Cuthbert. had been among the Scots and knew their language. and the Mercians were defeated. Mercians.The Conversion of Mercia. with terrible loss. his fame was even greater than that of Aidan. the fierce heathen King of Mercia. " to see the King helping the preacher. where the stately cathedral church of St. the King translated into a language which the people could understand. among whom he had Uved. and his name still lives in more than one English place name. till at last fortune turned in favour of the Christian army. 49 Coming from a far-off country.' Under the wise guidance of the new teachers Oswald's reign prospered. He died in the year 687. Enough is Field. and was buried at Diinelm (now called Durham). near Leeds (655). lived. but once again under its new king. He offered his services to Aidan as interpreter. and as Aidan preached. indeed.^jfvP=" . too. the preacher could only speak the language of the Scots. there was no real safety for Northumbria. Cuthbert still commemorates the life and work of the great and the Mercians Northumbrian teacher. Oswald hastened to the rescue. or Holy Isle. Edwin." says Bede. who wrote the life of Aidan. in the battle of Winwid Penda himself fell in the battle. and killed in the battle which took place between the Northumbrians Once more Northumbria was overrun by the (642). Oswy. who also lived at Lindisfarne. As a teacher and preacher. and the stories of his goodness and of the wonderful things which he did have come down to us from the time in which he lived. Q. East Anglia (now the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk) had become Penda marched into the land of the East Angles and slew Christian. nor. known about him to show that he was really a great man. his work.

he set his people to work to dig a long ditch and to build a wall of earth between his own kingdom of Mercia and Wales. in what is now the county of Fife. and sometimes the Welsh. Offa himself died and his kingdom disappeared but : . Oifa. King of the Mercians. his name is not yet forgotten in England. King of the Mercians. This long ditch stretched all the way from the River Dee. buried for hundreds of years but though he has been dead so long. and Mercia took without dispute the first place among the English While the fortunes of Mercia grew brighter. but in a terrible battle at Neotansmere. a Christian. of whom the greatest were Offa. The great ditch was called " Offa's Dyke" or " Offa's Ditch. Penda. in the county of Monmouth. Andrew. to the River Wye. Wulfhere. From » Charter of grant of land by King Offa to the aforesaid gift. and. marched into his country. In the year 685.of Mereia. When Offa was King of Mercia.Sthelbald and Offa. and as its influence declined. Ojja. the Plots in Scotland. Egfrith. in order to keep them out. King.go History of England. For a hundred and sixty years Mercia remained the iirst among the English kingdoms under its kings. " /. marched against his Northern enemies. that of Mercia grew. he was slain. this my — We must now leave Northumbria. he fought a great many battles with the Welsh. Rochester. At last Offa made up his mind that the Welsh should come into his country no longer. which is in the county of Cheshire. and this is how it came to be remembered. Northumbria faded. a son of Penda. . became king. in their turn. which runs into the mouth of the Severn. Under his leadership the Northumbrians were defeated. and return for a while to the Northumbria never recovered its full power after Midland kingdom. Thus ended the once powerful Northumbrian kingdom. and his army destroyed. those of kingdoms. has been dead and . have sealed with the seal of the Cross. King of Northumbria. Sometimes he marched with his army into Wales. the death of King Oswy (670). and Mercia was freed from the authority of the Northumbrian king who had claimed the right to interfere with its government ever since the death of Wulfhere extended his kingdom to the south and west. and the Rise of the West Saxons." Years went by. Church of St.

and who was at that time at the height of his power in his great kingdom. had. and which bears his name. King of the years later the Mercians under Wiglaf. West Saxons. There are and the wall of earth can still be seen. King of the Franks. which extended over half of France and half of Germany. who reigned still remains to us. and he appears to have been treated as an equal in rank by Charles. must look once more upon the map to see where the kingdom of the West Saxons lay. The fame of King Offa was known not only in his own country but on the continent of Europe. and English people living in Shropshire or in Herefordshire at this very day can walk along the bank which Offa. Bat on Offa's death the power of Mercia soon came to an end. It must not. Egbert. — . or the kingking ' NORTHMAN." dom of the West Saxons. from 688 to 736. be supposed that the kingdom of Wessex suddenly sprang into existence at the time of King Wiglaf of Mercia. foii in 823. who is generally known in history as Charlemagne.OffA. It is the fourth of the Saxon kingdoms whose fortunes who only two or three won another victory over We we have had is to follow. indeed. It was in the year 800 that Egbert became King of Wessex. been founded three hundred and six years before in the year 519 by a king of the name of Cerdic. King of the Mercianr< built. His. and who drew up a code of laws for the West Saxons of which a copy still exists. to this day part of the places where the ditch 51 work which he did still remains. and several kings had succeeded Cerdic during the two hundred and sixty-six years between his death Of these West Saxon kings some record (534) and the days of Egbert. The most famous of them was Ine. BeomwiUf was defeated in battle by a new enemy. He died 728. Wessex. AND THE Rise of the West Saxons. and its history of special importance because it is from Wessex that there came at last a who was to unite all the English kingdoms under his rule.

and to make him'f master of the whole country. a Danish chief. 879. and He then turned his arms against joined their kingdoms to his own. Perhaps Egbert was moved by the example of Charlemagne. Mercia. iEtlielbert. son of ^thelwulf. THE NORTHMEN FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED . d. where he put himself under the proAt that time tection of Charles the Great. and the Northumbrians. d. IN THE PERIOD DESCRIBED IN THIS CHAPTER. son of Mthelwulf. 858. V. Bishop of Winchester. King of Wessex. and compelled to take refuge at the court of Offa. Alfred. Ruric. who thus became the first king or ". The Britons. King of Mercia. which he compelled to submit to him after the Mercians had been defeated at the great vbattle of Ellandune. son of ^thelwulf. for he had been exiled from his country. afterwards King of Wessex.ffithelWUlf. con of Egbert. submitted to Egbert. 860. 866 £thelred. Essex. 849. Charles was engaged in conquering the Prankish and German kingdoms. ( Hasting. Kine of Wessex. King of the Franks. £tlielbald. before he became king had been one of misfortune. Swithin).52 life History of England. . or Il'e/s/z. of their own accord. in Wiltshire In the west he conquered the district now known as the (823). d. b. d. were driven into Cornwall and the river Tamar was fixed as their boundary.' as the Saxons called them.Overlord " of all England (827) CHAPTER 837-871. There now only remained the kingdom of Northumbria outside the dominion of Egbert but Northumbria was no longer strong enough to fight against so powerful an enemy as the King of Wessex. d. d. county of Devon.s of Kent. Th? name Welsh means " foreigner. a Danish chief. for no sooner had he come to the throne of Wessex than he set to work to win over or subdue the other kings of England." . and added it to Wessex. He first fought against the kin{. and Sussex. Thence he had been compelled to fly a second time to the Continent. SwitMn (St. 861. King of >V?s§f x son of jEthelwulf. which he at length formed into one great kingdom or empire. 871. . King of Wessex.

The Danes attack Winchester. mandy. King of Wessex. of ^thelred. y/exa now to be brought face to face with a common enemy. Battle at Ockley. Death of ^thelwulf. and its western shore can be reached in thirty-six hours' steaming from the mouth' of the Tyne. land in Nor- 861. lands in Russia. and the Saxons vi^ho had so long fought among themselves. It was this land of Denmark that gave its name to the new invaders who appeared in England in the time of King Egbert. Death of ^thelbald. Death of Swithin. 867.The Coming of the Danes. PRINCIPAL EVENTS WHICH OCCURRED IN THE PERIOD DESCRIBED IN THIS CHAPTER. 85s. 53 The Danes under Hasting. The Danes Death of East Anglia. " Rokeby. 870. Alfred visits Rome. and conquer Northumbria. have just read above hovjr Egbert." Scott .' canto iv. These new enemies were the Danes. a people whose name from forward becomes very closely connected with the history of England. The Danes of our day are a sturdy and industrious people. 868. The Coming- of the Danes. 849. The peninsula of Denmark stands put from the northern coast of Europe. who threatened to treat them as their ancestors three hundred and seventy years before had treated the . Death of ^thelbert. Surrey. Ruric. became master of the other EngUsh kingdoms but the rule of Wessex was not long to remain undisputed. 851. Win- 871. the Dane. defeated at Ashdown. The Danes take York. and founds the ancient Royal family of Russia. 841. King Alfred born. Bishop of chester. pillage Canter- 866. But this time . ' When Denmark's rauen soar'd on high Triumphant through Northumbria's sky And the broad Blactien'd each cataract shadow of her wing and spring. its most northern point is on a level with the" city of Aberdeen. Edmund). and speaking a Scandinavian language which is not altogether unlike the language of the Eastern Lowlands of Scotland. The Danes King kill Edmund (St. The Danes capture and bury and London. jEthelred and Alfred make peace wiih the Danes at Nottingham. We Britons. not unlike Englishmen in appearance.

were great sailors. we constantly find them spoken of as the Northman.54 it History of England. and it is not wonderful that they longed to sail over the sea to some richer land than their own. The — — — — THE " KLELS ' OF THK NORTHMEN. principally that the Danes came. The country in which they was wild and bare. in the histories of the time. fierce in war and eager for plunder. was not from Denmark only nor. Many of them came from further north from the Fjords of the wild Norwegian coast and hence. indeed. lived Northmen. Each year parties of them sailed further and further from home. or Danes. and it was not long before some of their ships reached the coast of . They were a cruel but brave people.

55 England (787).The Coming of the Danes. Sometimes they were in the form of a raven or an eagle. till they came to Ireland. or took refuge in some strong town. in the reign of ^thelred (794). killing all who could not escape. but Normans . and that the news of their coming spread terror through the land. worked by the strong arms of fifty rowers. because we shall read about them again further on. On the mast was spread a broad painted sail. We must not forget about these Northmen who sailed to the south and landed in France. They first appeared in Northumbria. not Northmen. sometimes of a serpent or dragon. sometimes of a bear or wolf. Their Long-ships sailed into many years. to take from them all they possessed. we must remember who they were and where they came from. Soon the Danes ^egan to act on a new plan. At the front of each great ship was a tall prow. and soon the English began to know too well the vessels of their terrible enemies. destroying their towns. When they saw the Danish ships coming they fled from their homes into the woods. and in the ship itself could be seen the fierce Northmen armed with their heavy axes and spears. Nor was it only to England that the Danes came." or " Keels. They no longer came only to plunder and to sail away again. we shall find they are called. and when we read the story of the Normans." as they came up into the river-mouth. and their first thought when they landed was to kill the English. and with their standards in their midst. cruel men who bore them. When we come to them. If the wind blow off the land. Some of them sailed to the north. Ship after ship sailed across the sea. and to sail back again with the plunder they had taken. which was often made into the figure of a dragon or of some other fierce animal. they built forts to protect themselves. On the outside hung the bright shields of the Danes. They soon found the rivers on the east side of England and when the Northmen had landed. The standards themselves seemed to tell of the fierce. the ship was driven forward by the long rows of oars on either side. and from that time forward their visits continued during that England was a richer and pleasanter country than their own. No wonder that the fear of the Danes was great. . It must have been a terrible sight for the English to see the Danish " Long-ships. and taking cattle and everything of value they could find. Others sailed away to the south until they came to France. the English. There they landed and set up a kingdom of their own. but they stopped in England and made their homes there. round the coasts of Scotland. which swelled with the east wind as the ship swept through the water. and marched against all .

in Surrey. had ceased to be wandering They had become rich and settled. against them with a large army. terror of the Danes among the English.56 History of England. the English were very different from what they had been when their forefathers first landed in England. moreover. alas this was not to be. who wefe only too glad to find some one to help them against their old enemies the to ! . and. The Danes were beaten. and for a time it seemed as if England would be freed from them. This was a great blow to the English. But. But the Northmen of whom we are now to read are those who came England.ffithelwulf It was in his day that the (837). But. English. for same people. that it became the custom to put into the prayers which were offered up in the churches this prayer really they belonged almost to the " From the fury of the Northmen. not those who went to France." . and they knew neither pity nor justice. make good laws and to live at peace among each other. the history of Danes and of accounts of It seems strange of the people of England. They both came from the northern part of Europe. that they came in great numbers. and a fierce battle was fought at a place called Ockley. by the time of King jEthelwulf.er Thames and plundered London (851). but it was not till the time of Egbert's son. It was in the time of King Egbert that the Danes or Northmen began to come to the south of England. They were Christians. . they wandered from place to place in search So great was the of plunder. and they determined to try and get King iEthelwulf marched rid of their terrible enemies once for all. Danes and English should have been such bitter enemies. good Lord deliver us. They cared for no laws. and had already learnt to tribes. and the Danes spoke a language not very unUke that which was spoken by the English. More ships came across the sea and this time the Danes found friends among the Welsh." But the Northmen who now came over the sea were still heathen. Danes sailed up the Riv. From England that this time. for is full of stories of battles with the the misery and suffering more than a hundred years.

d. Asser. I desire men who come after me a remembrance of me in good works. Death of Alfred. daughter of Alfred. But it so happened that though each of his three brothers became king in turn. RollO. And so. IN III. He was born in the year 849. goi. 849. the historian of King Alfred. 901. after all. for his three brothers all had a right to come to the throne before him. FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED KING ALFRED. the "//. m. 890. we must go back to the story of the English. Asser: " Life of Alfred. " The Simple." beside him. rV.. 868.ffithelwulf.." King of France. The name of this great Englishman is Alfred. . . " Truth-Tellep. 871. each of them died a very short time after he had come to the throne. £thelfleda ("The Ladyot the Mercians"). the "So long as I have lived I have striven to Hue worthily. AlCSWitll. and learn how a great Englishman arose who saved his country in a time of trouble.57 CHAPTER 871-901. wife of jEthelred. no one ever thought that he would become king. THE REIGN OF KING ALFRED. PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE PERIOD DESCRIBED IN THIS CHAPTER. alderman of Mercia. Rollo captures Rouen. a Danish leader." Charles Charles King of France. When he was young. wife of Alfred. 888. became king 871. and who prevented the Danes from becoming masters of the whole of England. d. VI. Alfred builds a navy. the whole of the hingdom the poor. which is over a thousand years ago. Hasting. a Danish chief. afterwards Duke of Normandy. Alfred. Alfred becomes king of Wessex. a Danish chief. King Alfred (871) was the youngest son of . son of jEthdwulf. THE REIGN OF " The Fat. Alfred became King of the West Saxons. d. b. 876. King of Wessex." Now that we know something of this terrible people.Sthelred. 879. Peace of Wedmore. had few or no to leave protectors. Alfred. 897. GuthTUm.

character of any man or woman. though they were great soldiers and men of much ability. This tutor's name was Swithin. Fortunately we know far more about the early years of King Alfred than we do about those of any of the Saxon kings before his time. for he was a great scholar in It seems strange nowadays to times when scholarship was rare. But before we come to the story of we must learn something about his early days. King of the West Saxons. there had been a great change for it was during this time that the Danes had begun to come in large numbers into England. but in the days of King and there have even been kings England at a much later time who. and how it was that he overcame the difficulties and dangers by which he and his country were surrounded. . and how in the end he gained a great Alfred's grandfather. But Alfred learnt to read and write when he was quite young. instead of being a powerful king like his grandfather Egbert. Egbert. that Alfred. what he said. or St. and the time when Alfred came to the throne. and became at last victorious. The 15th day of July is caUed "St. Although he lived more than a thousand years ago. always a great lover of books. Some of these books were written by the hand of Alfred himself. He had a tutor who taught him to read books. They had become so powerful and so numerous. We must remember that victory. books were written in his time which tell us truly what he did. Alfred also learnt as he grew up many other useful things. when he came to the throne. boy is father to the man " and in order to understand the A HARP OF THE NINTH CENTURY. . Alfred's success. it is necessary to know something of how theii character was formed in youth. had for many years to fight hard for his own life. still sounds very familiar in our ears. We shall see how bravely he fought. The name of Swithin. the Bishop of Winchester. especially such a person as a king. It is truly said that " the . should not be able to read and write easily. and to protect his own kingdom of Wessex. and was Alfred very few could read or write of . think that any grown-up person. who was had made himself king over very nearly the whole of England but between the time when Egbert was king. and what he learnt. Swithin.58 History of England. . could not write their own names.

and to speak the truth. It is a name which should not be forgotten. it was. and of what is going on in foreign countries. There are probably few people who talk of St. he learnt how to use the sword. Alfred grew up strong. When he was quite young. Alfred fitted himself for the battle of life while he was young. accomplishments. and learnt to play upon the harp. It was still was fortunate that Alfred had learnt the work of a soldier while he young. Swithin's Day. above all. where he met many learned and wise men. In such stormy times of war and danger as those in which Alfred lived. is useful to anyone. He was fond of music. He was . Nor did he forget to learn those things which strengthened his body as well as those which improved. Alfred's Defeats and Victories. A master of all these a warrior able to lead his people in battle. We have already seen that he skilled in various accomplishments. and in every way fitted to be a king. There is one name by which Alfred was called both by his friends and his enemies. and how to hunt. loved to read and write. dealings. to love what was right.Alfreds Defeats and Victories. Travel is always good for those who know how to travel wisely. and are sometimes very ignorant." and there is a sasdng that if it rains on St. and where he learnt much which was afterwards of value to him. brave. and was the tutor who taught King Alfred when he was a young man. He visited France. for it was not long before he had plenty of fighting to . necessary that the king should be brave and active. " The darkest hour comes before the dawn." In many other ways besides those which have been mentioned. and instructed his mind. But Swithin tapght his pupil other things which were more useful to He taught him to be true and just in all his him than book-learning." and undoubtedly those who stay at home and never travel will learn little of what is going on in the world. there will be forty wet days to follow. and wise. for it was one of the greatest and most honourable names that could be given to a king or to any other man. and a knowledge of how other people live. Swithin nowadays who know that he was a real person. especially to one who has to be a king. He practised shooting with the bow. and knew Latin well. 59 Switkin's Day. strengthened. how to ride. There is a proverb which tells us that " home-keeping youths have ever homely wits. He was called "Alfred the Truth-Teller. Alfred travelled on the Continent.

and they either fled or made submission to the Danish chiefs. began to come over in larger numbers than ever. their king should be little more than a boy. who for a while had been beaten back. ^thelbald. sometimes the Danes were victorious.. History of England. They made themselves masters of Northumbria and Mercia. At last. Their Long-ships sailed into every river along the east coast of England. When Alfred heard that the Devonshire men had been victorious.and Alfred had not been king more than a month when they marched against his own kingdom of Wessex. time was one of great peril. and calling together his friends. deserted by his army. For a long time he lived with a few of his most faithful followers in the marshes near Athelney. But at last the Danes became so numerous that Alfred's soldiers no longer dared to face them. It seemed. . and ^thelred. in order to escape being taken and killed by the Danes. The shepherd's wife little suspected who the forsaken stranger that did the humble work of the homestead really was. But Alfred's thoughts were far away. in Somerset. Sometimes Alfred was victorious. gave her unhappy servant a sound rating and a beating for his negUgence. and to serve a shepherd who lived in a little hut among the marshes of Athelney. and into many harbours on the south coast. ^thelbert It seemed as if all hope of Alfred ever regaining his throne were gone. One day she bade the king watch a batch of cakes that were being cooked before the fire. It is at this period of Alfred's life that the famous story is told of King Alfred and_ the cakes. a misfortune for the West Saxons that at the time when a great and growing danger threatened For indeed the them. Before he reached the age of twenty-two his three elder brothers. While the king was hiding in the shepherd's hut. alone with the people of Wessex. was forced to take refuge in flight from his fierce enemies. the Danes advanced into Devonshire. he came out of his hiding-place. but better days were in store. The Devonshire men met them and beat them. To such a strait had the king been brought. The Danes. and thinking of the day when he might once more lead his West Saxons into battle. was left to fight against them. the next county to Somerset. He was shaping a bow. Alfred.6o do. indeed. The shepherd's wife returned. he was obliged to dress himself up as a peasant. and Alfred was called to the throne of Wessex. and finding her precious cakes burned and spoiled. He was to be sure not to forget to turn them from time to time. had died. Many battles were fought. so that they might not become burnt. Alfred. he once more put himself at the head of the people of Wessex. It seemed as if all England would fall into the power of the Danes.

.

The soldiers drew out upon the grass the figure of a great horse. was made governor of the southern part of Mercia. He was King ouer the whole English nations. Many tierce battles were again fought between the English and the Danes. the principal Danish chieftain. the fresh invaders who kept coming . whose name was iEthelfleda. weary of the strife. which could be seen upon the hillside from a long way off. The hills near Uffington are made of white chalk.we can still see the " white horse" high up on the hillside. Then they cut away all the turf up to the edge of the figure of the horse. Guthnun."— •Anglo-Saxon Mass of Chronicle. and he held the kingdom one year and a half less than thirty years." But it made to was a bad plan to trust the Danes their promises were only be broken. six days before the All Saints. as we travel by train from London to Exeter. who had married Alfred's daughter. 1 ' Alderman or " Elderman. And now in our own day. in Berkshire. while the king on his side gave up the greater portion of England north of the Ouse to the new-comers. It is now a thousand years since Alfred's soldiers first cut the white horse in the turf after their battle with the Danes. The Danes on their part promised to leave Alfred in undisturbed possession of his kingdom of Wessex. Moreover.^ England's First Navy. In this way they made a big white picture of a horse. the son of /Ethelwulf. and the Wopk and Wisdom of King" Alfred. so that the white chalk underneath showed through. and when the fight was over.^ named . The English won the day. was baptised and became a Christian. and on top of the chalk there is fine. One great battle was fought near Uflington. But ever since that time the white horse has been taken care of. so that it is still white and clear. and with varying fortune. if we look out of the window between Didcot and Swindon.62 History of England. agreed to make peace. except that part which was under the dominion of the Danes . At length. A Saxon chief or Alderman." This arrangement was called the " Peace ofWedmore" . and the grass has been kept from growing over it. Alfred's soldiers thought they would make some mark which for ever afterwards would remind people of the battle. short green grass. "This year died Alfred.Sthelred. The valley below is called the " Vale of White Horse " up to this very day. both sides.

AN ANGLO-SAXON SHIP.and came up the river Exe as far as Exeter. and destroyed the city of Carthage itself. §ailed away and was safe. Alfred was' not slow to learn the lesson which was thus taught him. found themselves at the mercy of an enemy whom they despised. for the long-ships of the enemy could always move from point to point by sea more rapidly than his own armies could move by land. . They were there defeated but the victorious Saxons could profit Uttle by their victory. neverThe Romans were no sailors. It was plain to Alfred that.) Eleven centuries before. and they altogether refused to be bound by them. It may be that King Alfred remembered the history of the Ron^an but. they were quite powerless to prevent their enemies from taking to sea again and landing at some other point of the coast to burn and pillage. they determined that they would have a fleet. . for the enemy. there was no hope of ending the war. for we have seen that he was a Latin scholar . but whose fleets.England's First Navv. He perceived that as long as the Danes were masters of the sea. Hundreds of galleys were commenced. before war broke out again. the crews. in order to succeed. he must fight the Danes with their own . be that as it fleet.by those of their 63 over the sea cared nothing for the promise which had been made countrymen who were ahready in England. The Carthaginian fleets were driven from the Roman coasts. the Romans. and while the ships were being built. Moreover. but theless. weapons. The Danish fleet sailed down the Channel . if the Saxon troops arrived in time to prevent a landing. practised on land the art of rowing. seated on benches. or to defeat an invading force as they had done at Exeter. and the methods of fighting which they were to put into force as soon as they went to sea. retiring to his ships. It was not long. {From an old drawing. commanded the sea. the Romans pursued the Carthaginians to their own city. defeated them by sea and by land. in the long wars between the Romans and the Carthaginians. Their efforts were rewarded. whose armies were invincible on land. therefore.

from Paris and from Rome. what was even more important. sailors were trained. and that men had reason to speak of him as "Alfred the Great. To him we owe the beginning of what may be called the first history of England. Ships were built. and the Danes for the first time were beaten on the water. tell us even more of his greatness. we have spoken of Alfred's reign as one of war and fighting But it would be a great mistake to suppose that Alfred was nothing more than a great soldier. he began a translation of the Bible. so that those who had to obey them might know what they were. and in every hour. was never finished. he was unwilling to waste the time he found too short for what he had to do. Alfred himself was active in good works. He drew up a code of laws. he translated famous Latin books into English. a work which was commenced at this time. was made in different colours or bands. We know enough of him and his life to be sure that the honour in which he was held by those of his own day was not misplaced. What was true a thousand years ago has. He invited to his Court wise and learned men from other countries. and. still exists. dividing it into equal parts. and of the reasons why he was beloved. he caused a candle to be made to tell him the time in a day when watches and clocks were unknown. It may be indeed said that Alfred was the first ruler of England who learnt and put into practice the truth that tht safety of England depends upon her fleet. and is the source from which we learn most of what is known of the events which took place in the later Anglo-Saxon times. and is true at this day. Dihgent in his work.64 History of England. and that the real protectors of our country are our sailors. For the first time in our history an English ileet was master of the English Channel. which. he caused the laws to be plainly written down. To measure the hours appointed for each task he set himself. or move with greater rapidity than the Saxons. and as long as it remained master of the Channel England was safe from an attack. he wrote poetry. however. He was the author of various books. Such are some of the which have come down to us of this great king. and he used their knowledge for the benefit of his people. he followed the Roman example. perhaps. one such part was burnt away. They could no longer disappear without fear of being followed." Other titles he also bore which. The candle. we are told. happily. may. he never forgot the duties of peace-time. the famous Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. . been true at all times in our history. We still speak of stories . and which. and thus the king noted the passing of the hours. Hitherto only. While it was his first duty to protect his people. and that the title which was given to him in later days was one which truly described him.

Henry Henry Germany. CHAPTER Vri. 955.. son of Edmund. Edward 940. Dunstan made Abbot of Glastonbury. son of I. FAMOUS PERSONS Vv^HO LIVED IN THE PERIOD DESCRIBED IN THIS CHAPTER. d. CbarleS IV. Robert) became d. defeats the Danes. ^76. Death of Edred Banishment of Dunstan. wife of jEthelred. 975. Death of Edward the Elder. 9^5926. A'tiielstan. son of Edward the Elder. 956. Edwy. second wife of Edgar. Emperor DunStan. ^theifleda takes Derby from the Danes. first wife of Kdward. afterwards the kingdom of Prussia. 940. son of Edward the Elder. 937. THE ENGLISH KINGS FROM EDWARD "THE ELDER" TO EDWARD "THE MARTYR. became King of the English 925. jEthelred.' bury. became King of the Eng- Edgar. in the year 901. 959961. d. Murder of Edmund. ("Lady of the Mercians"). King of England 959. d. b e Fowler "). daughter of Alfred. dt^ xhim as " Alfred the Great. 925. 943." Battle of Brunanburgh. King of France. Death qf Edward " the Martyr. 946. Death of Edwy. ft>unded by " Henry the Fowler. Edward the Elder." 901—979. Archbishop of Canterbury. became King of the English 940. brother of Edmund." but his people also spoke of him as "Alfred and "Alfred the Truth-teller." He died at Winchester. 925. became King 975. Edwy. (*' of Normandy 1} (under the title of of Elgiva. son of Edmund.From Edward the Elder England's Comfort. 946. Edgar invades Wales. 917. brother of Athelstan. at the age of 53. The Margravate of Brandenburg." to Edward the Martyr. PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE PERIOD DESCRIBED IN THIS CHAPTER. d. Duke I. became King of the English 955. 959. son of Alfred. wife of Edwy. Dunstan made Archbishop ot Canter. and is baptised at Rouen. 936. 919. lish 946. Edward the Elder. murdered. 979. ("The Simple"). £lfleda. 955. mother of JElfrida. brother of RollO. became King of the English 901. of Mercia." . Death of Athelstan. mother of Edmund Edward ("The ^thelfleda Martyr") son of Edgar. Edred. b. Edgar. d. 979. Landing of the Danes in Ireland. the capital city of his kingdom of Wessex. 963. Rollo becomes Duke of Normandy. d.

King Alfred. with a sword in her hand. Freed for a time from the fear of Danish invasion. began to settle down in the country which they had conquered. iEthelfleda. and what had been formerly the kingdom of Northumbria. and took the title of King. and mounted on a white horse. and Nottingham. which was known as the " Danelagh. was now dead." battle. ^Ethelred. On the death of . and was succeeded by his son Athelstan. . So successful were Edward and his sister in breaking the power of the Danes. Edward the Elder—The Normans . Leicester. ". In 935 Edward died. Edward the Elder proved a worthy successor to his father. The border of the country occupied by the Danes." was marked by the five principal towns or boroughs. Edward known Edward the Elder. Edward the Elder turned his arms against the Welsh. as they were called. ^thelfleda soon became a weU-known figure in the National War. in France. and which are now known as Lincoln. He continued the war against the Danes. which still refused to admit his authority. and so called to distinguish him from another King Edward. and provided regular garrisons. Clad in armour. the Scots. Stamford. . or Over-lord of England. the same forces which merged the Dane in the Englishman'tola even more powerfully on the Dane in France. his son to us as Edward (goi) came is to the throne. and whose history we shall read. Green : "History of the EngUsli People. No race has ever shewn a greater power of absorbing ail the nobler characteristics of the people with whom they came in contact. the Alderman of the Mercians. or of infusing their own energy into them. He received valuable aid from his sister. and against those parts of Strathclyde. for the first time. jEthelfleda had the wisdom to guard against their return when lapse of time and help from across the sea should have made them strong enough to renew the She built a line of castles and fortresses along the northern attack. she herself led the Mercian troops into She was known to her people as " The Lady of the Mercians. and was frequently victorious. Not content with defeating the Danes in battle. that the latter. frontier of her Mercian kingdom. and she bore herself as a worthy daughter of her father. and to give up the thought of further invasion." On is Alfred's death.66 History of England. Derby. ready to take the field in case of war. whose husband.(Ethelfleda he added Meroia to his kingdom. who lived a hundred and fifty years later.

Of those who sailed to the south. passing round the north coast of Scotland. and if we write it "Ralph the Goer. in years to come. : — ." it seems very familiar to our English ears. that when he rode on a horse his feet touched the ground on either side. and we can well imagine Rolf's long legs touching the ground as he bestrode one of these tiny animals. is not that we may learn lessons from the name of " The Ganger. even though it be the name of a fierce Danish chief who lived a thousand years ago. and plunder and burn as they had been accustomed to do." The name of Rolf is still known in our day in its commoner forms of Ralph or Rollo it is familiar to us. . in order to follow the fortunes of those Danes whom Edward's victories and the terror of his arms had driven from our shores. that the horses on which Rolf the Ganger and his comrades rode were very small ones more like ponies than horses. they turned their boats to sea again. or " go on foot. In the second place. reached the east coast of Ireland others. his followers . we may learn that the language which these Northmen talked was not unlike the language which is still talked in some parts of England and Scotland. the Northmen were content to stay in their own country. These small horses are still commonly used in Norway. sailing southward. At the head of these rovers was a. and sailed away to lands where conquest was easier and spoil more plentiful." instead of "go" and "going. 67 And here we must leave the history of England for a space. But the reason why the course of the story of our English history has been interrupted to give an account of Rolf and his followers. and there set to work to rob and plunder. to have a very great effect upon our history and upon the fortunes of England. and he was forced to gang. something must be said here.The Normans in France." From which story we may learn two things in the first place. A Yorkshire man or a Southern Scot still talks of "gang" and "ganging. When they found that they could no longer land in England. No doubt they were like the little Shetland ponies which children ride. Some. The story runs that Rolf the Ganger was so-called on account of his great stature so tall was he. . landed on the north coast of France. chief named Rolf. known to and in history as " Rolf the Ganger." but in order that we may read in its proper place the story of an event which was. The Northmen who sailed with Rolf landed on the French shore of the English Channel. It must not be supposed that because for a time the field of plunder was closed to them in England. We shall hear something more at a later stage of those who saUed to the north." and to them the name of Rolf the Ganger tells its own tale.

and was at length compelled to follow the example of King Alfred. Accustomed to practise all military exercises. They learnt to read and write. They learnt much from the French who surrounded them. The armour that they wore and the weapons with which they fought remain to this day as proofs of their skill. they settled down in the rich land they had made their new home. did his best to drive them out. fortresses. in token that he To have to be true to him and to obey him as his chief.. chair and all. As Duke of Normandy. they became a disciplined people. and with their strong pirates or character and their bright wits they made the best use of what they learnt. Like the Danes in England. As architects and builders. and to the scorn of the Normans. the French king. they soon became a great deal more than either mere conquerors. done so would only have been to follow the common example. as the The portion of price of peace. France which was handed over to Rolf and his followers became known at a later day as " Normandy. But though the Normans first came into France as pirates. exposed him to was ready the ridicule of his own subjects." or the country of the Normans Rolf received the title of Duke of Normandy. and it is to them that France owes many of the splendid churches which are to be seen in Normandy to this day. and in a great part the speech of those whom they had conquered. instead of stooping down to kiss the royal foot. They adopted the religion. but it soon be- came clear that the claim of authority The leader of the made by Charles had little value. and some of them became famous as authors. they learnt that victory was to be ob^ined as much by Above all. and fixed or Northmen. But the proud Norman already looked upon himself as the equal of the King of France. both in peace and in war. as their comrades had so often done in England. They became a Christian people. he caught hold of the King's toes. They learnt to be expert workers in metal. but was unsuccessful. Rolf was his capital in the town of Eouen. their name became famous throughout the world and to this day we speak of " Norman Architecture " to describe the style of building which they chose for their churches and for their . governed by strict laws. Charles the Simple. and conducted themselves as savage conquerors.68 History of England. for to kiss the foot of an Over-lord was an ordinary sign of obedience and submission. Northmen was summoned to Paris. in order to save the remainder (gii). supposed to rule only by leave of the King of France. . . and was bidden to kneel and kiss the foot of the French king. and to hand over to them a certain portion of his kingdom. When he approached the throne. and throwing him backwards. supported by no power except the sword.

suffering from their defeat in fighting Edward. men skilled in all the learning of their day. — And now we must When we remember how return to the course of events in England. settled in written at the time." we speak Our title "Earl" is the . King. But such was the fact. Livelong glory won With edges of swords Near Brumby. law-makers. or Eorls. We have already seen how some of the Northmen had found their way southwards. and England once more had to defend itself. The Victories of Athelstan. uncivilised warriors who landed with Rolf in 876.^ were killed in the battle. as fit to conquer as the followers of Normans again Rolf." 937. both from Norway itself and from Ireland. When we meet in our history. 69 order as by valour and strength. of which the exact locality is unknown. Others. And now. completely the Danes seemed to have been it seems strange was occupied in defending his kingdom from Danish invasion. Athelstan advanced against them. Of heroes the braoelei-giuer And his brother eke.The obedience and these v/ith Victories of Athelstan. and had defeated and subdued by Alfred and Edward the Elder. to find that the greater part of Athelstan's reign founded the Norman State in France. well-trained soldiers. and statesmen. in the reign of King Edward. The story of the fight may still be read in a long poem which was . had sailed round to Ireland. had married English wives. The Welsh. afraid to land in England. Of Earls the Lord. Edmund In battle Etheling. and had planted a colony at Dublin. " Here Athelstan. gained a complete victory. but the emigration from Norway and Denmark was by no means yet over. we shall then find them no longer the fierce. but disciplined. the Danish invaders found allies." " Anglo-Saxcn Chronicle. and learnt the English tongue. joined the Danes and among their countrymen already England. Five of the Danish kings and seven of the great Danish chiefs. Many of the Danes had settled down among the English. there came afresh invasion. and far more fit to rule. and at a great battle at Brunanbiirgh (937). 1 The poem of is not in English such as same as the Danish " Jarl.

victory over the Danes. to Ireland again. now. extract from it : There lay many a warrior Slain by the spear.i * * * On And j)t the roaring ocean O'er the deep water. and of their great It tells us how fierce the fight was. and was sung by the harpers. Since the time when there came here The Angles and From the East. The poem no doubt soldiers it is made up of a number of very short lines. and The poem has been translated into English.70 History of England. * ^ Greater bloodshed In this island Has never been seen Before this day As As the books tell us. or verses. the old writers say. how bravely the English fought. Weary and sad The bands of West Saxons All day long pursued The * hated strangers. and here is an fled. This means that the planks of which their ships were made were fastened together with nails. And there were the Scots . * * departed * The Northmen * In their nailed. which was the language which the people of England talked in the time of King Athelstan. Over the Saxons To ' the broad seas England. There lay the Northmen Shot over the tops of their shields. and how at last the Danes were beaten. Dublin to seek . full With minds ifr of shame. . but it is written in the Anglo-Saxon language.ships. who pleased the king and his by singing to them of their brave deeds.

feet. cut down and killed. Liofa returned. The monks were men who had agreed to live together and to obey certain rules. are still used as churches. was captured by order of the King. After a few years had passed. and was succeeded by his brother Edmund (940). "For Church and State. Some of them. Dunstan was born near Glastonbury in the year he became a priest at a very early age. The man . such as Westminster and Romsey. to expel the intruder. Edred (946) reigned a very short time but his reign is memorable because during it we find the first mention of a very famous name that of Dunstan. His brother Edred was chosen king in his place. others. Unfortunately. Edmund ordered his servants and make him a prisoner. Athelstan died. his reign was cut short in a tragic manner. entered the great banqueting hall where Edmund was feasting. 925 . Tintern. At the time when Dunstan was appointed Abbot of Glastonbury. Indignant at the insult. in England. and sought to defend himself. they promised never to marry. He died at the age of twenty-four. Edmund was only eighteen years of age when he became king. In our own day we are familiar with many of the great abbeys of England.' Three years after the battle of Brunanburgh. and finding his way to the Enghsh court. such as Fountains. but Edmund's wound was mortal. and Glastonbury itself. without doubt. the Danes again renewed their attacks. who spared his life and exiled him from the country. are in ruins. and they undertook to give up their lives to religion and good works. who. But the new king showed himself not less courageous and successful than his brother. he was at the head of a body of monks who Uved in the Monastery surrounding the Abbey. and when only eighteen was made Abbot of Glastonbury. Put the outlaw. and defeated his enemies in several battles. encouraged by his youth. after a short and brilliant reign of six years.71 Dunstan. well-known as an outlaw and a robber. and. He had the boldness to walk up the hall and seat himself at the table. A certain Liofa. Liofa drew a dagger. and the King in a passion caught the robber by the hair and threw him to the ground. plunged his dagger into the King's heart. was for many years the greatest- suddenly leaping to his He was .

Dunstan away from the Court. and certainly had many faults was beyond doubt a wise and honest adviser to those who asked He had two great ambitions the one for his advice and followed it. sent for him and made him his most The reign of Edred lasted for nine years. and he used his power in that high position to do all the good he could to the Church of which he was the head. King Edred.•J History of England. and who were usually under the rule of an abbess. the monasteries were the centre of almost all the learning and education of the country. trusted counsellor. but were occupied by women who bore the name of nuns. and his name has always been justly He was made Archremembered as that of a great Englishman. to make England great and powerful the other to make the Church. and made him his chief adviser in all that he did. . and on account of the great Abbey Church of St. and all those who belonged to the Church. It was not till Edgar (959). He was a stern. came to Edwy had sent the throne. both on account of the pious life and of its bearer. He caused inquiry to be made. . The name of Hilda. the Ahhess of Whitby (657). drove out the evil-doers. doing harm rather than doing good. and the arts of reading and writing were chiefly known and practised Many of the monks devoted themselves by the monks and nuns. know enough of the life of Dunstan to be able to form some Like all other men. he was a idea of what kind of a man he was. hearing of Dunstan and of the knowledge and ability which he showed. and that priests and monks were leading lives that brought shame upon the Church. We but he mixture of good and evil. Hilda. but Edgar recalled him. who succeeded him. to those who disagreed with him. At the time when Dunstan lived. powerful and rich. After his death men called him a saint. to good works. Edwy's brother. and many strange stories were told of the wonderful things he was . Nunneries resembled the Monasteries. and Dunstan made many but he did much that was good. but many among them undoubtedly took a bad advantage of the safety which their religious position gave them and lived bad lives. is good works still remembered. and always anxious to ha'V'e his own way. As Abbot of Glastonbury. and put better men in their places. he was rough and cruel. that Dunstan became really powerful. Such a man was sure to make enemies. and that of his nephew Edwy. of which the ruins are to be seem on the cliff at Whitby to this day. bishop of Canterbury by King Edgar. harsh man. lasted only three years. he had learnt that many of the monasteries were in very bad order. — .

.

The name of Dunstan is found in many places in England. obeyed ONE OF OUR ENGLISH Wn. which shows how powerful he was." after the great man of whom we have been reading. That in the English race Took from him aught The while the noble King Reigned on his throne ! Description of Edgar in the " Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Dunstan's. Edgar became a great king. In the middle of the busy streets of the city of London.D BEASTS— THE BADGEK." still Edgar. for it is called the " Church of St. hi^m. there stands a church with a tall tower. in Fleet Street. and were willing to serve him. and there are no less than nineteen churches which are called " St. All the " Vnder-Kings. to be have done while he was alive. which recalls the name of King Edgar's great Archbishop. and in his time was peace in England. Was no fleet so insolent." there With Dunstan's help.74 said to History of England. No host so strong. There It is is a story told of the kin? said that Edgar was rowed if . Dunstan." or chiefs.

LONDON. DUNSTAN'S church. Dundee.ST.) . {From a photograph by J. fleet street. Valentine &* Sons.

that rid of Edgar determined to get At that time the them. There is another story told of King Edgar and his times which helps us to understand what a change has taken place in our country In his reign there since his day. or a Welsh king who had submitted to the great King of England. when most at all. in to the king a sum of the form of a tribute. but they are even smaller than the badgers. seems strange to think of It these savage animals running wild Now.76 History of England. the largest in our country. long after the days of King Edgar. it is certain that very many . for must have been left alive there were plenty of wolves in Wales. but that. Scottish. is left in England is ONE OF OUR ENGLISH WILD BEASTS THE WEASEL. a boat on the River Dee. of us are in It is bed and asleep. there would soon be no foxes left alive. not many people ever see a badger same kind still There are the foxes left. But though so many were killed. The Welsh obeyed^ and many hundreds of wolves' heads were brought to the King. and in England too. they must send him each year the heads of three hundred wolves. There are also a few true that there are other wild animals of the . Edgar sent to the Welsh and told them that for the future they Welsh paid money need not pay any tribute in money. were thousands of wolves in Wales. but if it were not that foxes were kept for hunting in some parts of the country. wild animal that eats other creatures which . near Chester. and that every one of the eight rowers was himself an English. and at they last were so fierce. — the badger and as there are very few badgers. instead. and as the very few that are left generally take their walks between one and three o'clock in the morning.

who was only a boy of fourteen. was There was division among the people as to which of the young parties princes should succeed to the throne. and two were formed. He had been twice married. 77 and there are weasels and stoats. where his step-mother lived. at the door of Corfe Castle. King Edgax died when he was thirtytwo years old. and soon found means to carry out her plan. The king. One day. he stopped. bishop could easily But though Edward had succeeded in gaining the crown. No doubt he knew that . however. otters. second named EdEdgar's wife called ^Ifrida. refused to enter. which are fierce little creatures. as he rode back from the hunt. and enter the castle. was and she also had a son whose name a ^thelred. Jealous of her step-son. But the day has long gone by when Englishmen have anything to fear from any wild beast. His first wife .Edgar. and whom of the guide. as Edward was out hunting. ^Ifrida plotted against the young king's life. such as the wild boars and the wolves. she came out and begged him to dismount. When ^Ifrida heard that the king was at the door.Slfleda. Dunstan took up the cause Edward. was called and she had a son ward. and longing to see her own boy ^Ethelred made king. his life was but a short one. great ArchTHE MURDER OF KING EDWARD. which were common in every part of the land in the time of King Edgar. and had a tragic ending. in Dorsetshire.

Alphege murdered by the Danes. was jealous of him. The wine was brought. Death of iEthelred. Hugh Capet." land. and 1016. she shut herself in a nunnery. 979-1016. lands in Dorsetshire. The people heard with regret of the murder of the young king. ^thelred marries November too6. . Massacre of the Danes in England. Overcome by remorse. b. King "The Un-redy. iEthelred now. Edmund and "Ironside. 1002. son of ^thelred and Emma. i^lfrida. II. iEthelred returns to England. IN THE PERIOD DESCRIBED of Denmark. 1013. PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE PERIOD DESCRIBED IN THIS CHAPTER. Canute. d. son ^IflSed. Normandy. afterwards. second wife of iEthelred. d. only stop to drink a cup of wine. an English chief. Death of Sweyn. Canute. Alphege). Canterbury taken by the Danes. THE DANISH CONQUEST. As for ^Ifrida. The Danes overrun England. King of Denmark. and passed the rest of her life sorrowing over the wrong she had done. of jEthelred afterwards King of Eng- Emma. Edward the "Confessor. stabbed him in the back. m. Archbishop of Canterbury.Slfrida rejoiced. ion. 1004. 13th St. land. King «f Eng- by the Danes 1012. paid by ^Ifrida to do the deed. FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED IN THIS iEthelred. in an unlucky hour for his country. and wished to do him an injury. 1002. Duke of Normandy. ("The Good"). but . CHAPTER VIII. 10Z3. he said. a man. afterwards King of England. she soon found that her crime had not brought her happiness. Duke of Nor- CHAPTER. became king 979. 1012. but while the king was drinking. Flight of iEthelred to 10x6.'- son of Edgar d. Eichard wife of ^thelred. Edrio Streona. 089.78 his step-mother History of England-. ascended the throne. 1014. King of France. and killed him. Sweyn becomes King of England. Sweyn. sister of Richard. first mandy. because nothing now stood in the way of her own He would son iEthelred. b. 996." jElflaed. 1014. King of the Danes. killed 996. — Emma of Normandy. and then ride on again. Brice's Day . Alphege (St.

very the Danes found out nearly the worst plan he could have chosen . and the two kings sailed together with their fleet into the River Thames. old man saw that the king would bring misfortune Dunstan country."— The reiga of jEthelred (979) was an unhappy one for England." which means " Unready " really meant Mthelred the " counsel. for he quarrelled with the wisest counsellor he had. to escape from his enemies. nine years after jEthelred had come to the throne he was sixty-three years old when he died. "The Un-redy. and without counsel." and iEthelred the Un-redy that is to say." was a great and powerful king. iEthelred was called The " Unready. to join with him.79 ^thelped. died in the year 988. but he could do nothing to stop it. and he had been the friend and adviser of four of them. was Sweyn. who was called by his people "Sweyn of the Forked Beard. Among the persons who saw this The wise his upon . Other people besides Dunstan soon saw that . Sweyn." This name did not mean that the King was unpunctual. The very first thing which ^thelred did when he became king showed that he was indeed without "rede". King of the Danes." "The prince that Proverbs xxviii.lEthelred was a weak man. and he longed to come over to England and win victories over the English. or that he was not ready to do things to be done it really meant something quite There is an Anglo-Saxon word " rede. offered to pay them large sums of money if they would go away and leave England in peace. This wise counsellor was Dunstan. King of Norway. u/anteth understanding is also a great oppressor. when they had — — friends. i6. At last he persuaded Olaf." or "Fork-heard. Seven kings had reigned in England during his life. a man who was not well counselled or well advised in what he did. He thought of a way of getting rid of the He Danes which would save him the trouble of fighting them. . who was soon obliged to leave the king's court and to go and live far away. but ^thelred was less brave than his people. It soon became plain that this was. as so many other Danish kings had done before him. The Enghsh in London fought bravely. who were the young king's different.

^ Naturally enough. King of Denmark. The Danes took the money. for he thought new plan of getting rid of the Danes which was oven worse than that of paying them money to go. St. iooo. and this time he landed near Norwich. When Sweyn heard what had been done. the Danes. ^ The German word for money is still "geld. jEthelred the Un-redy could do nothing to beat back the armies of the Danes. and came to Exeter. one of jEthelred's own generals. lost no time in coming over to get it. as soon as they learnt that the geld was ready for them. of a Dane- And when the English had shown a brave Once more ^thelred showed how " un-redy " he was. was the sister of Sweyn. and then burnt the town they had promised to spare. Brioe's Day. and a great chief among the people." could get . he was terribly angry." or the "Dane Money." a. Every one had been taken by the Danes except London and Canterbury. Danes. for Edric Streona. This tax was called the "Dane-geld. and killed many of the English." •' Anglo-Saxon Clironicle.8o that ^thelred History of England. He took and burnt the city of Exeter. and when they knew that they money by coming over. thus matters became worse than front to their enemies.** . Alphegre. and he vowed that he would come to England and destroy all that he could find there.d. went over and joined the Danes with some of the English ships. which On that night a great many of the is on the 13th of November (1002). was afraid of them. The English were foolish enough to promise to pay the Danes a great sum of money if they would go away and not injure their town. The night which was chosen was that of St. jEthelred now put a tax upon the English each man had to pay so much a year towards the sum which was to be given to the Danes. The next year he came ^o England again. Among those who were killed. — At last jEthelred had scarcely any towns left in his possession. " Then was it in every wise a heavy time because the Northmen nevet ceased from their evil doings. they came again and again. were cruelly put to death. and soon misfortunes multiplied. He gave secret orders that on a certain night all the Danes who were living in England were to be killed. who suspected no harm. He sailed with an army.

Then the Archbishop replied " My people.St. He was made prisoner by the Danes. They had little before you came.. are boor and in distress. The Archbishop of Canterbury at that time was called Alphege. he should be set free. I will never make my people pay tti set me free. city THE DEATH OF ALPHEGE. 8i Soon a strong army of Danes marched to Canterbury. They took the and burned it to the ground. told Alphege that if his people would pay a large sum of money.'' They : . and now you have taken from them the little that they have. Alphege.

but he spent his time in trying to convert to Christianity the Danish soldiers who guarded him. they sent for Alphege. But yEthelred had not learnt wisdom while he was in exile and though he and his son Edmund fought against the Danes. His second was Emma of Normandy. It is not wonderful that the English people were proud of theii" good Archbishop. At first the Danes did not believe him. When Sweyn died. their prisoner. when their chiefs were feasting together. Alphege. and for the first time there was a Danish king upon the English throne. and a coward from his country. Alphege out of the hall. anJr in tons ftere memors d( St. became the King of England (1013). They thought that he would be afraid of death. the English were again beaten and the Danes left masters of the field." a church in the town of Greenwich called the church and in it these words were written up. and that he would ask his friends to pay the money. In their fierce drunken anger they cried out to the Archbishop. rather than a foreigner. " CJiB ffljurcli tuas built to tje (ffilorg of (SoU. Jianes. the people of England sent for ^thelred. and could be read by anyone until a few years ago. even though he were a bad one. But Alphege was as brave as he was good. artfibisjop of CDantn-iuvB. and that they soon learnt to call him " Saint . and made him return to his country. when the church was altered There is of St. sister of Richard " The Good " . and one day. ^thelred was twice married. Alphege. They preferred to have a king of their own. and killed him.82 History of England. /" Give us the gold is your gold? Then the feasters dragged Alphege stood calm and unmoved. King of real Denmark. tecause Je inoulD not ransom W tofiD slain tg tjc life 6b an unrcasonailc gum of moneg. aiylJ^Sf. and tried once more to free the country from them. Duke of Normandy. The Danes now became angry. " Where. The Archbishop fell upon his knees and as iie knelt. one of the Danes struck him to the ground with his axe. He took no trouble to try to get the money. and began to throw at him their drinking cups and the bones which were left from the meat upon which they had been feasting. and had him brought before them. . His first wife was named iElflted. Thereupon S-weyn." At fled last jEthelred like gave up all hope of fighting against the Danes.

1017. Harold Hardrada. chief of the Northmen. became King of England 1016. son of Edmund Margaret. son of Edmund Ir nsideGaiUUte» son of Sweyn. Z042. son of iEthelred and ^Ifiaed. PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE PERIOD DESCRIBED IN THIS CHAPTER. son of Godwin. 1053. Sweyu. King of Norway. wife of Canute.. Haxold. Tostig. 1035. Death of Harold. afterwards King of England. became King of Malcolm King of Scots. daughter of Edward. sot^ of Canute. murdered lorG. Death of Canute. William. of Edward. 1027." Kings. husband of Margaret. son of Godwin. nephew the Confessor. of son of Edward Edgar (known Ironside. son of Godwin. Death of Harthacanute. d. . III. Christina. 1066. Seldom has England been unhappy and so unlucky as it was in the days of ". Exnxnaf widow of i^thelred. Edward. Edward. d. king for thirty-seven years. LeofriC of Mercia. Edward the Confessor becomes King. collects the Anglo-Saxon by 1066. son of Canute. wife of Edmund Edward the Confessor. son of Edmund Ironside. Return of Earl Godwin and his sons. became King of England 1037. son of Edmund Ironside. became King of England 1017.ffithelred the CHAPTER IX. Westminster Abbey commenced. daughter Edward. as " Edgar Atheling "). 1042. IN THE PERIOD DESCRIBED CHAPTER. an English Earl. 1016—1066. son of Emma. T051. d. 1017. and Sweden. 10571065. d. Succeeded Harthacanute. FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED IN THIS (Ironside). Godwin. 1040. King of Denmark. 1035- Murder of Edmund Ironside. Harold. Westminster Abbey dedicated. son of Canute. Edith. 1066. d. became King of England 1040. 1057. Death of Edward. 1049. HarthaiCaUUte. when he was forty-eight years old. 83 ^thelred died in the year 10I6. 1016. England 1042. d. an English Earl. Edward (called jEthelred and "The Confessor"). Banishment of Earl Godwin. Death of Edward the Confessor. Harold becomes King alone. m. Birth of William of Normandy.The Danish He had been so Un-redy. 1052. King Edward laws. Harold and Harthacanute divide England. Edmuild. THE DANISH KINGS AND EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. Sweyn. daughter of Earl Godwin. 1042. d. Duke of Normandy. Norway. Canute becomes King of England. 1037. 1040.

Edgar Atheling. and to the whole nation of the English high and low. nobles. the son of called Edward and Edmund. leaving two little children. He sent away many of the Danes who had come over with him from Denmark. and not the Danish ones. He divided the English kingdom into four great divisions.84 History of England. It is not wonderful that. to and Elfrio. Margaret. or Metropolitan of the Church In England. he proved to be a very good king. But this plan of having two kings did not last long for after he had been king only seven months. and Edmund Ironside was to have the other part. and justly gained the Edmund Ironside. and that equal justice should be done to Danes and English aUke. Edmund was honourable a brave of title man and a good soldier. Metropolitan } After the death of ^thelred. his son Edmund became king (1016). /Ethelnoth. Canute was to have one part. King of England. and part of the Swedes." . his son. We shall see that these before many him. "Canute. the Dane. and to all bishops. Canute. and his daughter. where they found a refuge. Canute and the Danes and at last both sides. Denmark. each of which he put under the government of a " Jarl. agreed to divide England between them. and became famous in their day. and that he would govern the country in the way they wished. health. Edmund died. —The Archbishop of Canterbury the head. For the time they fled to Sweden. Norway. when he Metropolitan. He fought many battles against . Edmund. were both important personages. He made up his mind that he would make friends with the English. 'He married Emma of Normandy. Edmund Ironside and Canute. "—From a Letter of King Canute to the English. Archbishop of York. Although Canute was a foreigner. became king over all England (1017). Harold and Harthacanute. weary of fighting. they should be ready to help him and to obey or Earl. . when the English saw how friendly King Canute was to them. 1 So popular did he become with . We must not forget Edward. and gave the offices which they held to Englishmen. who was the widow of King iEthelred the Unready. his new subjects. for although he himself played no part in our history. for there was now no serious rival to fight against. When King Edmund Ironside died. that. Earls became very important persons years had gone by. He said that the English laws should be observed.

he was violent. Then turning to . great cruelty. which was put down with years. his courtiers began to praise him. his power and authority.'' The king heard with indignation the words of the flatterer. under King Canute. supported Harthacanute. Harold. Willing to flatter him. unjust. Canute had three sons misfortune once more fell upon England. many of the English went with him. but this arrangement did not last long. his courtiers he sternly rebuked them. His attempts his father. Harthacanute. another. Earl Godwin. until the water washed Canute's feet as he sat on his throne. and to speak with awe of " Give the command. for two years later.Edmund. fought against the Swedes. He then solemnly ordered the tide to stop its advance. so the old chronicle tells us. one iu favour of Harold. Harthacanute became King of Denmark . and Harold. and after his death. and turning to his courtiers. Harthacanute Harold became sole king. and defeated them in a great battle. There were two parties. Canute died when he was forty years old (1035). stood on the sea-shore at Southampton. He was a very different man from succeeded him as king (1040). Canute. after a short reign of two it is said that he killed himself through excessive drinking. surrounded by his courtiers. 'But the resistless tide swelled and rose. Leofric of Mercia. however. but the question as to which of the three should be King of England brought about a sharp division. the people of foreign countries learnt to fear and respect England and the name of Canute was well known throughout all Europe. and t3Tannical. Sweyn. and the on-coming tide cease to flow. 85 crossed the sea to fight against his enemies in Sweden. An English army. supported Harold canute. the king. . Fortunately." said one of them. Harthacanute. as the king knew full well it must. which shows that the king was a wise as well as a powerful monarch. " and even the waves of the sea would obey you. he bade them bring his chair of state and place it on the beach in front of the advancing waves. the other of HarthaOne of the great Earls. While Canute was king. It was at length agreed to divide England between the two kings. Harthacanute died. in 1037. to raise taxes from the people led to a revolt. and thereby to win his favour. . to fight as his soldiers. One day. Sweyn became King of Norway. A well-known story is told of Canute. On his death.

and all God's saints. The English nobles soon found that the power had passed from the hands of the Danes only to fall into that of the Normans. but not wise. and there caused to be consecrated the Minster which himself had built to the Glory of God. Peter. Godwin supported the people of Dover. supported by his three sons. Norman and the English parties. who had married King Edward's They charged him with having insulted one of their sister. Sweyn. a Norman noble. Godwin himself sought to increase his power over the king by giving him his come over and occupy Edward accepted the invitation the throne of his father. they were doomed to disappointment. and the Church-hallowing was on Childermass Day (December 28th). and of St. Edward. The English were delighted to have once more an English king. the second' son of yEthelred and Emma.86 History of England. and Eustace barely escaped with his life. A riot followed."— " Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Edward stood by his . Edward the Confessor and the Great Earls. and thought that at last their country would be free from foreign interference. During his long stay at the Norman Court. It was led by Godwin. An English party soon grew up. inviting him to ^(Ethelred. had taken refuge in Normand}' before the reign of Canute. Unluckily. who at this time was the most important person in England." On the death of Harthacanute the English thought that the time had come to rid themselves for ever of Danish rule. Messages were now sent to him. That he should bring over many of his Norman friends to share his good fortunes in England was natural. and It was not long before an open quarrel broke out between the Tostig. The Danes in England were divided among themselves. The people were determined to have an English king once more. Edward had made many friends among the Normans and had acquired the tastes and adopted the manners of those among whom he lived. At first all seemed to go well. daughter Edith in marriage. and Harthacanute had left no son to claim the throne. and there was no difficulty in deciding upon whom the choice should fall. The people of Dover attacked Eustace of Boulogne. "King Edward came to Westminster at midwinter. townsmen. it the more readily because was supported by the powerful influence of Earl Godwin. Harold.

Sweyn. and nothing was left for him but to submit to Godwin and to receive him into his favour. It may seem strange that in this short account which has been given of the reign of King Edward so little should have been said about the It seems all the more strange when we remember that king himself. Edgar." ^ name he will be always remembered. Shortly after his return. and preferred the company of priests and students to that of soldiers and statesmen. At first. and it was clear that on his death there would be a struggle for the throne. without question.by step Harold succeeded in overcoming the other great nobles who might have disputed the mastery with him. 1 " Confessor " meaning one who had suflFered for his religion. the foremost man in the kingdom. and the weakness of Edward served to increase his influence. and the name of Edward the Confessor will always be connected with one great monument By this in English history. . From priests and students. and both sides openly took up arms. the name of this weak and unsuccessful king is. Confessor. and Christina. but it was not long before the earl returned. whole favour was given to the Normans. He was invited over to Margaret. The people refused to support the king. Harold. and though his descendants became kings and queens of England. Harold was the most powerful. The remaining years of Edward's reign are. no doubt. 87 Norman friends. and Tostig. was in Hungary.Edward and the Great Earls. a lover of booTcs. with his three children. perhaps. Edmund Ironside. he himself never sat upon the throne. till at last he was. and as powerful as their father had been before them. indeed. therefore. better known to us than that of any of the Saxon kings. Step . have been another Edward. studious. " The It was not till after his death that Edward received the title of . The true heir would. Godwin died (1052). Edward." But though Edgar Atheling played a great part in English history at a later date. Meanwhile. England. have been chosen king on his uncle's death had he not died within a few days after reaching England. and did little for his country in stormy times but he was pious and . His place should naturally have been taken by his son Edgar. became as great English. fortune favoured the king. The king himself was a man of weak character. and would. a son of the king's elder brother. known as " Edgar Atheling. with the exception of Alfred.. Of the three brothers. whose stronger than ever. and he succeeded in driving Godwin and his three sons out of the country. occupied far more with" the history of Harold than of the king himself. the king lived on but he had no son. lamented by the His sons. no doubt. he received due honour and as in those days the priests .

were the only writers of history. and flowed broad and shallow. until it has become one It is called of the greatest and most famous churches in the world. by the name which King Edward gave to it "The Church of Saint Peter " but all Englishmen know it still better by another name. If we stand on Westminster : Bridge. named Thomey Island. for many English kings and queens have added to the work which Edward began. swift stream which we see now. King of England. and speak of it as "Westminster Abbey. — . in the heart of London.88 History of England. As we stand on Westminster Bridge. the middle of the River Thames a little island. ." It is in Westminster Abbey that many of England's greatest men lie buried. who first built the church of when we Saint Peter on Thorney Island more than eight hundred years ago. It has been said that the name of Edward the it is Confessor will always be connected with one great monument In his day there lay in that in which his own tomb may still be seen. St. we can see two towers rising close to the Houses of Parliament these are the towers of the "Church of . Peter. which was dedicated to St. It was on this island that King Edward built his church. very different from the deep. and the beautiful building which we see in the picture has grown bit by bit. and under its tall Pointed arches we can see the graves IN WINDOW WESTMINSTER ABBEY. It very different from that which Edward built more than eight hundred years ago. of many famous men whose names are known to all the world." On ROSE the opposite page is a is picture of the church. And see them we must not forget to ask which is the grave of Edward the Confessor. On either side of it were the Thames marshes. it was natural that they should have spoken with praise and admiration of one who was friendly to them and to their Church. we look down upon the spot where the Island of Thorney lay eight hundred and fifty years ago. Peter.

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He attacked and defeated . killed at the battle of Stamford Bridge. should have agreed to choose as their king the great and powerful Earl of Wessex. IN THE PERIOD DESCRIBED IN THIS CHAPTER.. "And Chronicle. 1066. he proved successful in all he undertook. Edward PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE PERIOD DESCRIBED IN THIS CHAPTER. October 14th. — Harold becomes King of 1066. Matilda. CHAPTER 1066.go History of England." this year also was Harold consecrated King . September 2Sth— Battle of Stamford Bridge. great-nephew the Confessor. but that Edgar. The Atheling. wife of William the Conqueror. January 6th England. of mandy. King of England. 1066. afterwards William I. or friends. the while that he wielded the Realm. King of England. killed at Hastings. was alive. TOStig. and without It was not unnatural. brother of Harold. Duke of Nor- Harold Hardrada. But at that time the rule that the Kings of England should succeed to the throne by right of birth was not fixed. We have seen that he was not the true heir. . and he with quiet abode therein. Assembly of Councillors. October 14th —Battle of Hastings. that the Witanagemot. FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED Harold. Edgar Atheling. and powerful Edgar was afar off young. Harold was on the spot. William tlie Conqueror. chief of the Northmen. killed at the battle of Stamford Bridge." — "Anglo-Saxon little the death of Edward the Confessor. On — . Harold at once came forward and claimed the throne. therefore. nor always followed. THE NORMAN CONQUERORS. X. Harold showed himself not unworthy of the choice and as long as he had only to contend with enemies within his own kingdom. The Last of the English Kings.

He sent messengers. Duke of Normandy. or he won to his side. in Harold's time there reigned in the city of Rouen a great soldier and a powerful ruler. known as William. Now. and sailing down the Channel. Rolf the Ganger. Five dukes had ruled since the days of Before kings. was to end in a HAROLD TAKEN PRISONER ON THE NORMAN COAST. About two years before the death of Edward the Confessor. to blame for the fate which his people. and Harold himself was partly was so soon to overtake both himself and disaster. and begged him Harold was in his country. William and Harold were no strangers.. who saw in him a brave and wise sovereign of the same race and the same speech as themselves. the reign. .T HE the Welsh. the ship was wrecked. 91 who had made themselves a terror to the English on the banks of the Severn. the great nobles who threatened his throne. and he won the confidence of the people. Last of the English Kings. we recount the last chapter in the history of our Saxon we must go back for a moment to those Northern warriors who had settled on the coast of France. and who had founded the great Duchy of Normandy. The duke heard that Harold was cast ashore on the Norman coast. He defeated. the English earl was A storm arose. Unfortunately. so happily begun.

which. had married King jEthelred. He sent to Norway. we are told. Harold had scarcely ascended the throne. The duke -called upon Harold to swear to fulfil his promise with his hand placed upon a silver casket. a very slight one. gave William a just claim to the crown.92 to History of England. Harold's brother. Normandy. It was soon seen that if William's claim was weak. to Harold Hardrada. and would assist him to make his claim good. or the oath sworn by Harold. and invited him to come over with his army. he would recognise the claim of William to the throne of England. Harpld Hardrada agreed. when the duke demanded a fulfilment of the promises which he declared had been made to him. therefore. so at least the Norman historians a promise. It may well be asked what claim William of Normandy had to the crown of England. was his cousin. joined his forces to those of Tostig. . his power of making other people admit it was strong. was angry because he himself had not been chosen king by the people. and made it a great sin on Harold's part to break it. Tostig. Within the casket. in truth. He immediately set to work to collect an army for the invasion of England. made the oath more solemn and binding than it would otherwise have been. as it was believed at that time. He declared that when on a visit to England he had spoken to King Edward about the succession to the throne. and. for allies in Norman North. It cannot be said that either the promise made by King Edward. But William declared that there was something which gave him a greater claim than the mere fact of his being a relation to King Edward. He found them without difficulty. Nor was this all. Emma of It was. William sought England itself. and Edward the Confessor. He styled himself King of England. come to Rouen. called Harold a usurper. one of the most powerful of the chiefs of the Northmen. He readily promised aid to the Normans.000 soldiers were assembled on the While there declare — Harold — made To make the task of invasion easier. and goo ships and 60. His aunt. and persuaded the Bishops of the Church in Normandy to support his claim. landing in the coast. were contained sacred relics. and that the king had named him as his heir and successor. that on the death of Edward the Confessor.

had dispersed for the purpose of salting the meat which was to form their winter store. It was not for some days that Harold was able to get an army strong enough to meet the enemy his troops. William the Norman. As William stepped on shore." Had Harold been at Pevensey with his army. marched off in haste to the south. As soon as the two armies approached each other. as I hear that he is than most men. The whole of the Normans got safely on shore. unfortunately. Harold. Four days after the battle of Stamford Bridge the Norman army landed at Pevensey. with his victorious army. and both Harold Hardrada and Tostig were killed. Harold answered like a brave EngUshman. The Saxons they after them led the way. he might have prevented the Normans from landing. upon the 14th day of October^ in the year 1066. seven feet. or. a messenger was sent from Tostig to ask whether Harold would make peace and agree to divide the kingdom with his brother. " To my brother Tostig. " The Romans in England they once held sway. It was the last triumph of the English arms. but. and marched to a place about five miles north of Hastings. They tugged with the Danes till an overthrow They both of them got from the Norman bow. but at length the enemy were defeated. At last. I will give him is all the English ground he will have from me. to fight against his second enemy. for he is an Englishman. he fell. it is said. the English and the Norman armies met. and to Harold six feet of taller English ground . The' battle that followed was long and fierce. but this time no victory awaited him. I will give him I will kingdom of Northumberland. But Hardrada. in Yorkshire. " our Duke from the ground. has already taken the soil of England. He started immediately for the North with all the troops he could collect.93 The Battle of Hastings.' King Harold was watching the English Channel." said he " / will give the make peace with him. near Hastings. he came too late. The spot where the battle was fought is known as Stamford Bridge. who is a foreigner and an enemy. but as he rose he picked up a clod of earth " See. on the River Derwent." hope of agreement was now gone." said one of the duke's followers. . but that All . and nothing remained but to fight for the mastery. when he heard his new enemies were marching to York.

and for more than a hundred years England was ruled by foreigners. they fled on every side. and that their king was dead. English soldiers stood with their shields and their axes in a great ring round King Harold. But still the great ring round the king remained unbroken. fall It Soon the battle was over. and it is called to this on the battlefield day " Battle Abbey. on the heads of the English. the Norman horsemen rode among them and cut them down without difficulty. and the rule of the Anglo-Saxon Iiings. " • history of the English people begins among the forests of The last few chapters have been given up to the story of the Saxons in England. so happened that one of these arrows struck King Harold in the eye. At last William ordered the Normans to pretend to run away. A few . Then William thought of another plan— he bade his atchers fire their arrows up into the air. Then those who had stood round him began to give way. and the Normans had won the yictory. William the Norman became King of England (1066). THE STORY OF THE ENGLISH. It was buried under a heap of stones. and was under the power of the Normans. The At first the Normans were beaten back by the English. " The Germany. Then the Enghsh broke their ranks and followed them but as soon as they had broken their ranks. Our Fopefathers in Germany. And so ended for many years the story of our English kings. The king fell to the ground mortally wounded. and each time they were beaten back." in CHAPTER XI. so that they should . in the county of Essex. A great abbey was built memory of the great fight. Again and again the Normans tried to break through the ring. Fifteen thousand of the Norman soldiers had been killed.94 History of England. and when the English saw that the Royal Standard had fallen. and a still greater number of the English. The body of King Harold was found the next day upon the battlefield. but it was afterwards taken away and buried again at Waltham Abbey.

but what manner of men they were. upon the fierce companions of Hengist and Horsa for our accounts. one after another. must acquaint himself with the names of the kings. which. and what were their customs and their laws. therefore. The fact that a particular King of Mercia was named Offa or Penda. it will be well to go back to the If we had to depend earliest account of our ancestors which exists. and the time when Harold. we shall soon see. another power in England— that of the Normans. and of the portions of the various kingdoms. But it is not much use saying that England became an AngloSaxon or an English country unless we know what the Anglo-Saxons or English were like. but it must not be supposed that when the nature and order of these events has been learnt we have made ourselves master of what is really important in the history of Saxon England. Once more. because they explain much story of our country which would otherwise be difficult to in the understand.Our Forefathers in Germany. for. makes very little difference to us who are now we and of the rise of alive. and the laws which we live under at is the present day. that jEthelred was a poor creature. it well to call to mind the fact that the number book does not always represent the number of years in that people's history. we should know very little about the subject. must know something of the battles which were fought. That it did so become. or that Edmund lost his life by treachery. and to ask not only what they did. what language they spoke. became powerful in England. lost his life in 1066. a proper and convenient place to say something more about our Anglo-Saxon forefathers. It is for this reason that a brief account of these matters has been given in the preceding chapters of this book. But there are parts of the history of the Anglo-Saxons which are of the greatest importance to us. the last of the Anglo-Saxon kings. Anyone who desires to learn the history of his country must follow the events which took place. Scarcely seventy pages have been given up in this book to telling the story of the early English. is a space of no les than six hundred. though in later of pages in a history . and seventeen years. pages further on 95 shall read of the fall of the Anglo-Saxon kings. This is. and because to do. the words which them may be traced the things which we see and we use. To learn this. but Horsa if we remember that between the time when Hengist and landed at Ebbsfleet in 449. we shall see that there was plenty of time for England to become a very Anglo-Saxon country. and indeed from that time to this has never really been anything else.

. ruddy hair. the earliest invaders of our shores sword than of the pen. to lay aside the sword and spear. and made no mention 'of those European countries from which the white inhabitants of the United States first came would and in the same way. the same great writer who much of what we know of the ancient Britons has given us Caius Cornelius an account also of our Anglo-Saxon ancestors. the Roman who. This is how he describes them " A fine. Tacitus. or marsh-land. living in little villages scattered throughout a great uninhabited country. Luckily. also wrote another book called " Germania. In the centre of the little settlement was the village." left us an account of Britain. story." They were free men. anyone who be making a great mistake wrote the history of the Anglo-Saxons without enquiring who they were and where they came from would be only half telling the deal to do with that . work to write the history of the people of the United States of America. and to plough their fields and to cultivate their land in peace and quiet. and held them in love and honour. A people which has once settled down to a fixed : — . when the war was over. many famous Anglo-Saxon writers. Their habits and their laws grew naturally out of the life they lived. Fierce and cruel in war. We may be sure that the description which he gives us Tacitus manages of the to tell in a Germans tells us all that he knew or believed with respect to them. and he few words more than many other writers tell in a whole book. the . and all round it for miles lay the uncultivated land. and with whom the Romans. which has happily been preserved down to our own day. were often at war. . both poets and were far greater masters historians. told us In this book an account is given of the German tribes who inhabited the northern part of Central Europe. But it will be asked— what have these German tribes to do with our Anglo-Saxon forefathers ? As a matter of fact. their women. was one of the greatest of the Roman writers. of large and robust frames. and independent race. they were content. . bringing with them their An historian who set to language. barren heath. but with a strength which only appeared when roused to sudden effort." or Germany. forest. unmixed. in the time of Tacitus. unlike any other people with stern blue eyes. their customs and their laws.96 days there were of the History of England. they have a great them for it was from these very German tribes Anglo-Saxon invaders came. .'' Such were the Germans " They would be the slaves of no man they respected in appearance. in his book the " Agrkola. They considered no disgrace equal to that which was the sure reward of a man who showed himself a coward in battle.

To these he often gave lands which were taken in war. chosen from those families of noble birth whose members claimed that they were descended from the gods. This is the bond of honour." because it was given by a charter or '^ Loan" people. came to be looked upon as persons of special distinction. and for a certain purpose in that case.Our Forefathers in Germany. and their bodily strength. The chiefs themselves were." or " Eldermen. and by reason of their friendship with the chief. The pasture- was common to all. to be the greatest of all crimes. land That was his own. who has described the appearance and manners of the Germans. ^ The land which belonged to the first settlers was known as ^* EtkeV Land which was given to newcomers or old settlers out of what belonged to the whole village was called Commonland belonging to all the ^^ book. Tacitus." The land which was let was the " Laen" or land. Each village governed itself. This the Germans did. the only crime for which it was impossible to atone. as a rule. or old settlers who wanted were given to them by the whole to them. " In the field of battle." or People's Council. Sometimes then. in time." he tells us. the most sacred duty. the followers. and has to take to cultivating the soil. has given us a special account of the band who followed their chiefs. as now. " it is disgraceful in the prince to be surpassed in valour All are bound to defend him and to by his companions." and this Low German is really very like the English . Germany a language is still spoken which is called " Piatt -deutsch. but that did not prevent the people of the same tribe or nation joining together for the purposes of war.' The heads of the village were the " Elders. their experience of warfare. or noblemen." or " Low German." or " leased. or folk. who swore to follow him and to serve him. Each chief was surrounded by a band of young warriors. They were chosen for their bravery. it was " let. were led by chiefs who had made themselves famous by their success in war. people wanted land only for a short time. E .''. and which finally reached the shores of England. Newcomers more land could only have it if it village." ^^ Bociand. The head of each family cultivated a plot for himself. and to make even their own actions add to his renown. home soon has 97 to give up hunting as a means of living. as we have seen. Cowardice in the field was considered." The language which these free and warlike Germans spoke did not very greatly differ from that which is spoken at the present day in In many parts of North-western the country from which they came. The expeditions which from time to time advanced against the neighbouring peoples. succour him in the heat of battle. . was the " Folkland. ." and the meeting in which the rules of the village were made was known as the " Folk-Moot.

King of Wessex. . The language which the German invaders brought to this country has gone through great changes in the fourteen hundred years which have passed since the landing of the Jutes but if we compare it with the English which we which it is — possible to understand very . some member of which was always chosen as king. From them we learn many interesting things about the way in which justice was done. and as land was taken from the Britons it became the property of the new-comers some was kept as the common property of the whole tribe.' if you could make them render up even a small part of their treasure. unless we land. We have already read of the laws of Ine. or Normans. the Saxon invasion brought with them their faithful companions. As the land became more settled. speak now. know something of the life and manners of the Anglo-Saxons. and even whole sentences. we shall see in a moment that it is to the' early German invaders. we must now follow them across the sea and inquire what sort of people they became. "In the two little words. The customs which had been brought from Germany became in time the laws of the new land. . and these and others stiU remain. Britons. what lessons of English " Trench : " On the Stvdy of Words." history are contained ! — have now learnt something about the men whose descendwe have seen them in their English people German homes. without knowing any German. and of Alfred. Our Forefathers in Eng-land. Several sets of Anglo-Saxon laws were drawn up by different kings. and some was given to his followers. because. that many of the words. and may be read in our time. is spoken in Yorkshire and the North of England so like. that we owe the greatest part of our English language. and what were their manners. the custom grew up of choosing the chief or king from the same family and at last there came to be in each kingdom a royal family. 'shire' and 'county.98 History of England. customs and speech when they became masters of EngIt is very important indeed to do this. we cannot hope to understand some of the most important of the inThe chiefs who led stitutions of our own country in our own day. ants We became the . . and not to either Romans. some was taken by the chief.

or Shire Court. of the doings of the Shire-Moots of Eesteven. and tried people for offences. and Lindsey. To this day the decision as to a prisoner's guilt or innocence depends upon the verdict of twelve men of the county or town in which the crime he is charged with is committed and it is the business of these twelve men who . it often had great power. The members were not elected." and in each of these there was a ShireCouncil. but there was in the latter part of the Anglo-Saxon times a great Council known as the "Witanagemot. and to pay the fine which the law imposed. the country was divided up into " Parishes " as well as shires. and a person who was charged with crime had to prove his innocence to his fellow-villagers as they had to pay for his fault. and then to take up a Lincolnshire newspaper of to-day and read about the County Councils of Eesteven. if it be a good one. 99 Each village or settlement was made answerable for the crime that was committed in it it was the business of the village to punish the guilty persons. Jt cannot be said form the "Jury" to "well and We was an English Parliament in exactly the same sense as ParHament now. But it is not only in the parish councils and' the juries of the early English that we find things which remind us of what is very familiar to us at the present day. people were freely discussed at its meetings. there soon came to" be councils of more importance. the trial of a man by his neighbours and equals. or Shire.Our Forefathers in England. but we have a County Court. which decides disputes. Even where a custom has long died out in England. and now we have gone back to the old names and the old things. Not long after the Saxons became Christians. and Lindsey. it was their business to find out whether he were really guilty— and thus we see the beginning of an institution which has lasted down to our own day. The country as it was conquered was divided up into " shares " or " shires. The Shire-Moot both made laws and rules. .Council. There is scarcely a name of a common thing. truly try" the charge. which makes rules and laws for the shire. and we have a Parish Council and a County Council once more. namely. and we have a County Council." or Council of the Wise. Holland. The Village Council governed the village. ." written a thousand years ago. have nothing quite like this at the present day. Holland. It is strange to read in the "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. and questions which interested the that there we speak of . But though the Witanagemot was not elected. Besides the village council. but were chosen by the king from the great families perhaps there were some persons who had the right to attend. or Shire-Moot. EngUsh people are fond of going back to it.

to the new country. all Fethenuuth and so Raggewllh. common custom mentioned in the "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle'' still have DorsetA&y. we shall be able to follow the description given in the Charter almost as easily as if it had been drawn up yesterday. It was in the eastern part of our island "that the invaders first settled down. has come down to us as Stamford. : " This called is the gift from Folles. and from Stanford as the water runs to the aforesaid North Burh. and from Raggewilll Medeshamsted to North Burh. The Great Northern Railway runs through Wisbech and Huntingdon. and so to five miles to the straight river that goes to Aehm Wisbec. after having driven out or put to death the British popuThe names which the followers of Hengist and Horsa gave lation. the Beadle of the County Court might have been an officer under King Alfred. Clive.loo or a History of England. We . Cynate Cross is Great Cross. Dereward. The Abbey of Medeshamsted has now become the Cathedral of Peterborough and if we look at the map of the counties of Northampton and Cambridge." or a "furrow-long" from the County Court to the Parish Church of St. which is twenty miles long. The names of places. the " Share. but there is not one of them that we cannot iind on the map in a form so like that given in the Charter that there can be no mistaking it. Edmund to the Abbey of MedeshamBted. TAroAoM/ioW survives as Throckenholt. are the familiar names in daily use among us at It is a thousand years ago since a gift of land was made this day. also. and so on through all the meres and fens which lie towards Huntendim Port. Aestun is Aston. and so about three miles tu Tbrokonholt. but in its newer form of King's Cliffe is still familiar to us. The Alderman still the Martyr." and to Some of these names do not seem quite familiar to us. and they wrote down the boundaries of the property as carefully as a lawyer would at the present day. to the place which is called on the straight way ten miles on to Cug^edic. takes a high place in the Town Council. is still to be found in the Fens as Dereworth. and Stanford. Aestun. through Welmesford. and so to the place which is the Fen right to Esendic. and so to Cynate Cross. and so . Clive. Stanford. who made the grant. in the Fens. ^e/t>» has given place to Elm. It is a "furlong. or St. remain to teach us our history wherever we go throughout England. in in its old form is forgotten. Here are the words of the gift . have no Raggewilh. careful to see that there should be Those who drew up the Charter were no mistake as to what the gift was. but Rothwell marks its place. which has not got a meaning in our shire. with the change of a letter. Northburgh exists now as it did in the days of Wolfhere. " of the Dorssetas own We . right through all the Fen country to Dereword. Welmesford is Walmsford. Edward the Confessor.

or to the monks who surrounded the Venerable Bede abbey in Northumberland eight hundred years later. Of the Britons themselves we know very Uttle from British writers. it seems. what are the books which they have written. in its effort to reach the heathen to whom it sent its missionaries. and in what language can the story which they told be read ? Happily for the world. but not one was able to come on a leuel with him. the Christian Church. was to a history of the Britons written in Latin. ANEURIN. not from man. to an end of one long chapter in our history. . THE HISTORIANS AND WRITERS OF ENGLAND BEFORE THE NORMAN CONQUEST. or even in the later times of Edgar and Alfred who are the historians that have preserved for us a record of these events. nor from any human source. AND TALIESIN. A .lOI CHAPTER XII. few firagments of the works of writers of the ancient British or Celtic race have. natural to ask how we know anything of the facts which took place in days so long ago as those of the Britons. The name of Nennius is attached Nennius. and. of Celtic race. the great conquests of Rome spread the Latin language over all Europe. clear and certain in its expressions. For he learnt the art of song. We have already seen how two great Roman writers have told us in Latin the story of the Conquest of Britain and the works of Caesar and of Tacitus are books written in the best time of a great literature." Beds. however. come down to us but it is in Ireland that the fullest Celtic records are to be found. describing Cadmon and his Poetry. And thus it came about that for many hundred years almost all the books in the world were written in Latin a language easy to understand. NENNIUS. but he must have lived as late as the eighth or even . and which tells us about the events it Now that we have come is — — which in it records as plainly as it told the story to the friends of Caesar in his Rome. at a later date. but received it as a free gift by Divine grace. preserved the Latin language as the language of the Church. "And in truth after his time there were those among the English race who essayed to write religious poems. GILDAS.

at a time when Oswy was king of Northumbria. loved. " there came one to him and said.I02 History of England. There are the historians and chroniclers. C/EDMON. and may be looked upon as reaUy the first English poem. have really come to us from Saxon or Continental writers of a much later Wales preserves the name Taliesin." Having received which answer. or feared.' I cannot. the heroic king of the Britons. another great writer of whom we shall shortly have to speak. long after the Britons had been driven out of the greater part of Britain. — There are two kinds of writers who tell us the true story of our ancestors. the hero. The great poem entitled "Beowulf" must have been written as far back as the seventh century. and of the chief of the Bards. till we come to Anglo-Saxon times that we find the first traces of a real English literature a literature. Casdmon. so Bede tells us. tells the story of the beginning of Caedmon's great poem. but neither is to us much more than a name. It is written in Saxon. BEOWULF.' replied he.' said the figure in the vision. There are also the poets. we find both historians and poets at a very early date in our history.' But. Of about the same date is a great religious poem written by Csdmon The poem is called '" The Paraphrase. Whenever it was written. and little is reaUy Icnown of him. It contains over six thousand lines. the ninth century. and the life of man. Sing." so writes Bede. Bede. Caedmon. who sailed the northern seas and fought with monsters. and gives an account of the life and adventures of Beowulf. Sing the beginning of creatures. The name of Grildas has come down to us as that of another writer who has given us a gHmpse of the Britons but Gildas himself does not seem to have been a Celt." and it tells part of Whitby. The famous legends of King Arthur. . ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' . AND ALDHELM. " As Casdmon slept.' What ought I to sing ? inquired' the poet. I came hither from the feasting in the hall because I cannot sing. it is to me you should sing. who in their way tell us as much as. whose task it has been to write down a record of what the men of their day said and did. and speaks of the work of God. and more than. the power of evil. which becomes fuller and more splendid from year to year and from century to It is not. indeed. Luckity. and ruled his people with wisdom and mercy. conquered in battle. began immediately to sing in verse the praises of God the Creator century. of the Bible story in verse. . Both these writers are said to have lived in the sixth century. the chroniclers for they tell us what was in the thoughts and the minds of men.' was the reply. what were the things they believed in. the poem was early known in England. of a Celtic writer named Aneurin. period.

His work has not through others." said he. there is still one chapter wanting. It is told here because it is a beautiful story in itself. you have said the truth it is ended. so that all who desire can read them. Paul at Jarrow-on-Tyne. who.. He was then fifty-nine. The story of his death is a well-known. Four years later he was engaged in writing a translation of the Gospel of St. John." Then said the pupil: '^The sentence is now written." Then a little later the pupil spoke once more " Dear master. and we only know of and prose. 103 and when the vision passed away he continued to write verses on the subject which had been sent to him. " There is yet one sentence not written. and to the Holy Ghost. and how men acted and thought in the days before Alfred was king. Do you think it troublesome to be asked to answer any more questions?" " It is no trouble. and in the end completed his great poem " The Paraphrase" We must pass over the name of Aldhelm (b.was a man loved and honoured in his day we have clear proof. make ready. and he wrote well ." said Bede. We must hasten on to speak of the most notable of all Anglo-Saxon writers— of Bede." story of the death of Bede written by his own pupil. and because it shows us that we have now come to a time in English history when we can begin once more to picture men and women to ourselves as real people of whom : : : — . singing " 'Glory be to the Father. afterwards at the monastery of St. but beautiful one." And thus. He wrote much. in the monastery of Malmesbury. wrote much in verse it been preserved. Four years before his death Bede finished his great history.' he breathed Such is the his last. which were written in Latin. the famous author of the "Ecclesiastical History." Born in 673. and write fast. call upon my Father. One of his pupils said to him " Most dear master. and so departed into the heavenly kingdom. for it is a great satisfaction to me to sit facing my holy place. He was at work in his cell at the monastery at Jarrow when his last illness overtook him." He answered " Write quickly. and in his history of the Church he included much that is of the deepest interest to all Englishmen who wish to know what their country was like twelve hundred years ago. The works of Bede. that I may. B56). on the pavement of his little cell. " Take your pen. and to the Son. also sitting.Saxon Writers —Bede. Peter at Wearmouth. That the writer himself . and so simply told that it wiU be well to repeat it here. or History of the English Church." and the master replied: "It is well. where I was wont to pray. Bede was brought up first in the monastery of St. have been preserved. Receive my head into your hands. and have been many times translated into English.

him we owe " The Life of Alfred. This history is known as " The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. for to 1 ihe ins. Norman Conquest. and he also turned into English a famous Latin book by a writer named Boethius. " Hac sunt in fossa Bcedee venerabilis ossa. begins with the history of the early Britons. because so much of what he Wrote has been preserved and may still be read but there are writers before the time of the two other names which must certainly be mentioned in this chapter. though some alterations have no doubt been made. that Bede died. but enough has been said to give an idea of how it is that we know anything of the events which took place in Anglo-Saxon England. and. when ^thelbald was King of Mercia. two hundred and fifty years after the death of Alfred. in 1154." as Asser wrote it. bearing the inscription which tells us that within it lie the bones of the " Venerable Bede. than what Alfred himself wrote was the " History of England. perhaps." may be seen to this day in the venerable cathedral of Durham. and the last event which is mentioned in it is the accession of Henry II. It was continued for many years. a Welsh monk of St. A word must be said of Asser. who wrote many He translated books both in Latin and in Y-w^x^. The book deals with religious subjects.ription runs thus . In the first place there is that of King Alfred himself. ox Anglo-Saxon. but from the time of Alfred "The AngloSaxon Chronicle " becomes a really important record of the history of England.' ALFRED AND ASSER. There is no copy of the " Life." and in it were written down the events in each year as they took place. and is meant to be a help to Christians in leading a good life. know something. and to whom it is that we owe our knowledge." . The tomb.104 ive History of England. There are a few other names which might be mentioned in this chapter if space permitted. much of the old book has been kept. Davids (d. and can read accounts of what happened in the actual words of eye-witnesses. If not the greatest. It ." which was begun by his orders and under his direction. the Church History of Bede from the Latin into a language the people could understand he translated a portion of the Bible. in existence. Not less important. Bede is certainly the most important of English . but copies of the original made at a later date were preserved. 910)." from which most of the information about that great king has been gathered. as those who wrote it had no personal knowledge of the things they described. but what it tells us of events which took place before the reign of King Alfred cannot be depended upon. It was in the year 735.

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1066—1272. habits. NOTE. and thoughts of Englishmen. French ceased to be the language of the nobles.I05 PART TWO. Church on the hand. THE NORMAN CONQUEST TO THE ACCESSION OF EDWARD I. and the power on the one years.. in those days. The second part of our History deals with the period of 206 years which elapsed between the landing of William the Conqueror at Hastings in 1066 and the accession of Edward I. and write in a new language which. At length the distinction between Norman and English passed away altogether. and Becket civil between the great struggle how. the had once The very despised. The Normans who landed on our shores as foreigners and enemies gradually became mixed: with the English whom they had conquered. but whom they soon learnt to respect. and began to rely upon their English subjects whom they While Normanspeech of the people changed. and many last was to Struggle which begun a for people themselves learned to speak — . The Norman kings ceased to be Norman. in 12^2. learn we shall come to the story of Henry II. the had other. though it was English in the main. The time was one of great and far-reaching changes in England. owed much to the tongue of the masterful conquerors. other great changes were taking place in the When we laws. Meanwhile. and the kings of England became English in fact as well as in name.

with various changes and various fortunes. afterwards King of England. VII. a Saxon Noble." Duke of Normandy. son Hereward Gregory (the "Wake"). Count of Blois. d. Battle of Hastings. "William the Conqueror. list of all the lands in England. Lanfranc made Archbishop of Canterbury. 107 ^. FAMOUS PERSONS William the First. and their owners. when we come to the accession of Edward I. 1068. d. afterwards Kins of England. occupied the energies of the country for more — than a hundred years. was country. its own place in the world. 1066-1087. William marches into Scotland. 1066. m. Duke of Normandy. and King of England. William defeats the Danes. we shall learn its power. we find a real English nation. son of William. a and 1087.. Henry. 1069. I—THE NORMAN CONQUEST. d. 1158. d. in its new-found strength. William defeats his brother Robert in France. William (Rufus). daughter of William. plunged into war a war which. son of William. William takes York. Lanfranc. with its own language. Stephen. defeats Hereward. and grandson of Edmund Ironside a Saxou King of England. have a great influence upon the history of our The story of Magna Charta is the story of the. and ready to risk its fortunes in war for the purpose of adding to its territory and strengthening In the chapters that follow. 1086- William defeats Edwin and Morcar. Matilda Edgar Atheling. (of Flanders). THE CONQUEROR. its own laws. 1087 Robert. m.. The life and death of Simon de Montfort carry to us through the first years of our Imperial Parliament and thus. how England. beginning of our laws. 1027. Death of Matilda. and of the foundation of our liberties. 1066. and Death of William. 1071. Archbishop of Canterbury. 1083. son of Edward. wife of William the Conqueror. of William. 108^. 1085. 1053. WILLIAIVI CHAPTER XIII. d. Richard. strong enough to hold its position. PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE REIGN OF WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR. became Kin? of England. completed. called WHO LIVED IN THE REIGN OF WILLIAM Adela. Domesday Book. Siege of Mantes.io6 History op England. b. . 1070. one of the greatest of the Popes.

ever ready to carry war into England and on the west were the Welsh.107 The Norman Conquerors. were the Scots. beyond the river Tweed. We saw how Harold lost his life in the battle. King of England. which William the Norman. and from Welsh. First. No recognise him as their king. 1066. and hoped that the English. indeed. And now. all that was left of the old Britons whom the Saxons had long ago turned out of their country. for long. there was an army of Normans. that William and his army stood sooner had the day been won than the Normans pressed forward to London. now they had been beaten. from Scots. and made themselves masters of the whole of the southern part of England. 266. an account of the great battle of Hastings. It seemed as if what he hoped for were likely to take place. standing as conquerors on the in '^' We — . On the north. and how William and his Normans gained the mastery. and the victory of the Normans. would submit to him. William determined that he would try to put himself in the place of King Harold. The English people themselves were divided into. whom we know of in history as William the Conqueror. ^ defeated Harold. have left any other marks behinitj them in the history of our own country marks which we can see with our own eyes and in our own time. Now we have to inquire whether the battle of Hastings. under their great Duke William." in brackets following The numbers names refer to the genealogical table at p. and It was not still. . still stands to tell us of the victory which was won on October 14th. in addition to all the troubles that came from Danes. shores of Sussex. 'Vce uictls. who had only ceased fighting against each other a short time before. It was poor England. indeed. 1 ^ Many " Woe to the vanquished. At first. Battle Abbey."^ read in Chapter X. Saxons and Danes. we must understand what was the condition of poor England after the defeat at Hastings. Its king had been killed and its best army cut to pieces. near Hastings.

Within the limits of the country there were people Saxons. This language was Anglo-Saxon. came and submitted themselves to him. Here Saxon. Normans. that but the difference be- tween Norman and Engwas one which lish NORMAN AND SAXON ARMS. ! days for Those were dark England. was found ready to crown William King of England. The English whom he had conquered talked and wrote a language from which our English speech really comes.io8 of the English Stigand. When the great crowd of Englishmen who had come together from all parts were asked whether they would accept William them for their king. " Yea. ideas. And here we bes muneches soeng. they cried out. History of "England. and written in Angloa puzzle to readers of *' It is modern English : Merie sungen the muneches binnen Ely ^a Cnut cfiing reu Ser by Rowel cnites noer ^e land. and It having different customs and is different true that the Saxons 'and the last Danes had at become united. and Canute and Harold had reigned over both Saxon and Dane alike. all and dif- Welsh ferent — speaking languages. He and his barons talked and wrote in Norman-French. seemed as if it could never be healed. is a passage taken from an old rhyme. but which was so unlike it that few who read this book could understand it." . yea " that without any further struggle the country And so it seemed was about to fall into the hands of a foreign king and a foreign army. Archbishop of Canterbury. and among An English archbishop. William the Conqueror could not speak a word of English. at Westminster. Aldred of York. of four races — Danes.

familiar : 109 form is more " Merrily sang the As Canute the king monks of Ely was passing by. said the king. and an iron hood or cover had then to be put over the fire by every English householder. Attacks upon the Normans by the English were common. let us hear these Churchmen sing. " couvre-feu. A bell was rung to mark the hour when the fire was to be extinguished. . William was compelled to give great grants of land to his followers." — Here. this gave rise to great ill-feeling." Norman and Saxon. of course. where the old custom is. And of these foreign masters the greatest was William of Normandy. hating each and neither of them understanding what the other said. was for bell. and the curfew still " tolls the knell of parting day. but before he could give the lands to the Normans." J. which was the signal for putting out the fires in the and there are many a long year rung in almost every English town. then. and that they should remain within their houses after nightfall. he had. the fire. who would not rest content until they had received as a reward for their services broad lands and estates in England. and all such attacks were punished with great severity and cruelty. This hood was called the " Curfew. were two peoples living in the same country. R. to whom they belonged. Row And to the land. Naturally." which means. Soon matters were made worse. An order was given that all Englishmen should put out their fires at sundown. for William had brought over with him from Normandy a great number of greedy barons." The curfew house. knights." from a French word. "It is to the stern discipline of our foreign hings that we owe not merely English wealth and English freedom. such as Sandwich and Shrewsbury. many places. to take them away from the English." although the hard law which the curfew bell gave notice of in the time of William the Conqueror has long since ceased to exist. or was till very recently kept up. " Cover other. and still further increased the hatred of the English for the Normans. Green : " History of the English People.Norman and The verse in its English Saxon. but England herself.

Scots. and Danes. Edmund Ironside. between the Normans and the English. Edgar AtheUng does not to have been a man of great bravery NORMAN or SOLDIERS. The earls made war upon William. but his name brought him many supporters. and more than ever loved now that he represented all that was dear to them.no History of E. Edgar himThis was the beginning of many battles fought self iled to Scotland. seerr. They called to their aid Welsh. He was too quick for them. The English fought . and all that had been taken from them by the Norman invaders. The chief among skill. His name was one which was loved by the Enghsh. defeated them. so as to keep the English in check.vol and. and to enable them to hold the lands which they had taken from their enemies. The grandson of last descendant of the English kings was Edgar Atheling. He attacked them before help could come from their allies. But they did not know the man they had to deal with in William. Earls of Mercia and Northumberland. Soon the discontent of the English broke out into open war. them were Edwin and Morcar. in the hope of putting Edgar upon the throne. and destroyed their army. The Normans built strong castles oh the great roads and on the jivers.

but one or two incidents must be recalled. or else thinking that he could no longer do harm. In 1073. he was forced to take refuge in the Fen country around what is now the city of Peterborough. and in which men were not ready to give up their own opinions as to what is best to do. Saxod. he defied the Normans. Protected by the impassable marshes. the king heard with alarm that his brother Robert in Normandy was threatening to take He went over to France in great haste. last. It would be a long story to tell of all the fighting that took place in England. and gave him back his lands. But William was not to be beaten. He had a number of flat-bottomed boats made. fought bravely enough against the enemies of the Norman king. for they were quite without leaders. or in any undertaking which has to be carried out at the risk of life and involves danger " that he who would command must first learn to obey. and continued the war. or piles. With his English army William soon put down all his enemies in Normandy. army which he took with him was very largely made up of English soldiers. but Hereward himself managed to escape. The first shows how skilful William was in making use even of his enemies. But there was still one man who showed himself worthy of Alfred and Edgar. and returned again to fight in England. whom they had so much reason to hate. and restored him to his former honours. landing firom his ships upon the sea-coast and attacking the Norman At towns. who. when they got into a foreign country. and resisted him with success — for a long time.Norman and of their enemies. He took up arms against the Conqueror. the son of an English noble of Danish descent. Now we come to the other incident which it is well to recall. He built a road. prisoners. two miles long through the marshes. At length. and to obey the orders of those who have been put over them. After Edgar Atheling had fled into Scotland it seemed as if the last hope of the English had gone. weary of pursuing his active enemy. This was Hereward. and the his duchy from him. They knew the value of discipline and good order in war. and at last reached the Hereward's small forces were destroyed or taken English camp. by the skill tii bravely. supported on wooden posts. in which he placed his soldiers. however. William made terms with Hereward." No army has ever been successful in which there has not been discipline. . seven years after the battle of Hastings. but time after time they were beaten and strength In one point the Normans had a great advantage over the English. They had learnt the lesson which everybody has to learn before he can be successful in war.

and People. and not only over England. —J.^ England's Darling. Green was : " History of the English People. We shall notice as we read on how these great changes came about." meaning Awake. and how he treated the people whom he had defeated. the Norman power gradually spread over the whole of England. and that in England we have but one people. King". Within five years of the battle of Hastings William was complete master of the whole of England. governed by one law. had fought The English long cherished the memory of the brave soldier who and the name of for their cause after all seemed lost . * ." And now Hastings. But despite the gallantry of Hereward. Marching into Scotland and into Wales.112 History of England. We know that in our own day the differences which existed in William's reign have passed away. lived long in the hearts of his countrymen. It certainly appeared a very gloomy prospect for the English. but really they were already beginning in a way which we can now see and it understand. R. all expecting to be paid for their services. and spread terror wherever his name became known. William defeated first the Scots and then the Welsh. and it that we have seen what happened how William became a king in fact after the battle of as well as in name. At first there seemed very little chance of any of them ever coming about at all. speaking one language. or Watchful. and seems wonderful that such great changes should have taken place since that time. and under one Sovereign. William the Conqueror. '' " There never had been a moment from his boyhood when he not among the greatest of men. saw that William came over from Normandy accompanied by army of barons. and because they had done so much of the fighting under his leadership. they could make what terms they liked with William. Barons. They thought that because in Normandy they were nearly as great lords as their duke. and that they could compel him to give them a great 1 We "The Wake. is had time to inquire what the Conqueror did with the country he conquered. Herewaxd the Wake.

than they were. strong and powerful as he was.King. that if they threatened him or made war upon him. ' It is easy to see that the king himself. the English had been accustomed to make payments to the king and to the nobles for a great many purposes. Barons. having taken their land from the English. This gave him very great sums of money. for they alone could enable him to put down the fierce Norman barons. And lastly. Then. in many ways. the king's orders in case of neeri. and that they should only be broken when it suited him. and it so happened that things made it easy for him to gain greater power in England than he had ever had in Normandy. the king. These English soldiers. he very wisely said that all the laws of England should be kept. This meant. dissatisfied with him. and were always ready to support the king against his barons. and when William had killed their king. . and taken away their land from their nobles. . and thought they ought to have a greater share of land or money. In the first place. But in this they were mistaken. they found they were quite unable to frighten the king into The king was so much stronger giving them what they wanted. gave a great deal of it to his followers. land was to be forfeited. under the English kings there had been rules by which every town and district was compelled to send a certain number of men to iight the king's battles when called upon. however. Thus. he was sure to march against them. Now. hated the Norman barons more. defeat their soldiers and burn their castles. William now said that as he was king these men should be sent to fight his battles and thus he got an army besides the Norman army which he had brought with him. he would b3 a real king in England. When he gave it he made a bargain with everyone who received land from him that he should give some service in return. had to depend a great deal upon the conquered Enghsh. 113 whatever they wanted. and when the Norman barons became. he declared that the payments which had been made to the king and to the English nobles should in the future be made to him only. and People. Harold. as they often did. though they did not love William much. again. that they were to be kept when it was to his advantage that they should be kept. William was determined that whatever he might be in Normandy. and money always gives power to him who has it. and that this service should be the sending of a certain number of armed soldiers to fight under the if this service were not paid. the king got great power into his hands.

to Mantes. his horse. and who did not care what injustice they did. shall find a great deal written about the " Feudal System.114 History of England. CHAPTER XIV. 1087. William was carried to a monastery in sixty-one years of age. a town not far from Paris. The injury proved fatal. started violently. for we should often hear them. But there was a time when feudalism and the feudal system were very important matters in England. and burnt it to who But as he rode through the burning streets. FEUDALISM. the ground." If these words were in common use now. Ana thus it came all thought themselves as good as the king. Whenever we and •' read the history of the English people and the early we are sure to come across the words "Feudal" Feudalism " very often. and though they feared him very much. death. is that the things which they describe are things of the past. and had reigned as King of England twenty- one years. "Hear. they found that greater justice was to be got from him. and there died on the gth of September. and bruised the king. and God help me. than from the savage barons who fought each for himself. What Feudalism Means. my lord : I I earthly regard. and from the judges whom he appointed. He had It was in France that William met with his death. . took the town. and no longer familiar to those who live at the present day. He was Rouen. about that very soon the English began to look to William as their protector. and we cannot possibly understand the past history of our country unless we know something about history of England. We . treading on a hot ember.'' —A will keep faith become liege-man of yours for life and limb and and loyalty to you for life and VassaVs Oath to his Feudal Lord. it would not be necessary to explain what they mean. He marched gone over to make war upon the King of France. and should know what they meant but the reason why many of us do not know what the words mean.

This chapter. A VASSAL DOING HOMAGE TO HIS LOKD. he expects . which is the same way. We saw also how he rewarded his own followers. will be given up to explaining what feudalism means. therefore. when one man lets a house in return a called "rent. We have seen how. when William the Conqueror came over ie> England. he defeated the English and took from them all their lands. But William was a wise man as well as a great soldier. whom he had brought over with him. "5 them. by giving them a great part of the land which he had taken from the English. and what the feudal system was. He had no intention of giving up the lands to his barons without getting back know that nowadays something in return for what he gave." And in to another.What Feudalism Means. he expects to get We payment in money. if one man has land which he "lets" to another. the Norman barons.

." the land which was given was called the ''fief. whenever I go to war.'' Sometimes there were other things." and was said to from the king. receive rent either weekly. " I will give you so much land over which you shall be lord and master but if I do you must always give me In the first place. the land. " There are several things which you must do besides coming When my daughter yourself to fight and bringing your men with you. but you must bring with you a certain number of armed men to fight my battles for me. the vassal knelt before the feudal lord bareheaded and unarmed. is married. and the acceptance by the vassal of his land as a fief from the king as Ais feudal lord. as we know. you must pay a sum of money towards my ransomin order that I may be set free. As a sign that he accepted the land on the conditions laid down. You are to be their chief. They were called the three "Feudal Aids. and then made his promise of obedience in these words " Hear. or yearly. If I am taken prisoner. my lord I become liege man of yours for Ufe and limb and earthly regard. Sometimes." These were the three things which the person to whom the land was given generally had to promise to do. But the king was not the only feudal lord. was called "doing homage." and every vassal was called upon to do homage for the land which he held. son comes of age and puts on his armour and becomes a knight. The king who gave the land was called the feudal lord.u6 to History of England." and '' to the . a landlord lets a piece of land to another man." Then the : — : and the vassal became the owner of and after his death his son succeeded him. monthly. the person hold his fief who received it was called the " vassal. What he did was to say to his barons. quarterly. you must always be certain services in return. . to follow me and to fight for me and not only that." and this tenant again lets it to a third person who feudal lord kissed the vassal. But this was not the kind of agreement which was made between WilHam and those to whom he gave the land. you must also pay me a sum of money. who is called his " tenant. and I will keep faith and loyalty to you for life and death. or upon the help which you have given me up till now. according agreement which is made. you must pay a certain sum of money to me in order that When my I may be able to give her a good dowry or wedding gift. ready. but I am to be your chief and lord. God help me. and placed his hands in the hands of his lord. The making of this promise by the vassal to the feudal lord. but these were the commonest. The number of men whom you are to bring depends upon the size of the piece of land I give you.

very soon saw that if they. brother of William Rufus.allowed their own vassals to have too many vassals under them. and grandson of b dmund Ironside. brother of William Rufus.What becomes tenant J<'e. afterwards of Eneland. Duke of Normandy." and all through the early part of English history it was the way in which nearly all the land of England was held. always made their under-vassals pay homage to them as well as to their feudal lords. and thus the king was able to get together a large army in a short time. In the same way. d 1085. When the king went to war. In the same way it often happened that vassals of the king granted parts of their land to vassals of their own. Edgar Atheling. sent notices to their under-vassals to come with their men. Canterbury. The kings of England. d.vassal. 117 of the first tenant. there would soon grow up a very strong party who would care little for the king. Henry. They. was in their turn. therefore. mother of Stephen. 1100. Lauf^anc* Archbishop 1089. and those who came after him. These vassals had to maks promises to their lord. IN THE REIGN OF WILLIAM of RUFUS. and a great deal for their feudal lords... Gregory VII. Archbishop of Canterbury. KING. Pope. became King 1087. (called " William Rufus "). every man. son of Edward. Pope. just as he had had to make promises before to the king. whether he were a vassal of the king or an under. WILLIAM THE "RED 11. Anaelm. d. Count of Btois. Robert. in their turn. and the vassals.. sometimes as many as sixty thousand men. But King William. CHAPTER XV. io6o. b.udalism Meaks. The chief thing for which the Feudal System was started was to enable the king always to get a sufficient number of soldiers to tight Irs battles. afterwards King of England. sister of William Rufus. Adela. thi'd son of William the Conqueror.' 1087—1100. FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED William II. wife ofStephen. only held their lands as long as they performed the services which they had undertaken to perform. 1088-1090. the Crusant). Peter tbe Hermit (preached . he sent notices to his great vassals bidding them come and bring their soldiers with them. King Urban II. This plan of giving of lands in return for the promise of services called the " Feudal System. bound himself before all things to serve the king.

WilHam succeeded in defeating the army of the barons.'" or "The Red". Of these we may name who became King of England. his strength was exceptionally great. and with William." William the Conqueror had ten children. <''. and when he died. first Cctisade. arose as to who should succeed him as duke and as king. 1^'.ii8 History of England. the question naturally Robert. with ruddy complexion and yellowish hair. '^'. and the English. 1^'. But Robert was in want of money. The PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE REIGN OF WILLIAM RUFUS 1087. . We must remember that William the First was Duhe of Normandy as well as King of Engtand. Westminster Hall built. Robert's younger brother. 1099. became King. especially when angered. and an overhanging brow . but had a marked stutter in his speech. also Adela became King of England. he had a shifting eye somewhat bloodshot. at once took sides against Robert. Z093. . and in forcing them to acknowledge him as king. Nor was he content with being King of England. Willliam 1095. the same rule which would have made liim Duke of Normandy. Death of Lanfranc. and immediately claimed the throne. The Sons of the Conqueror. William II shot in the New Forest. and that despite his moderate stature. who also became King of England and a daughter named Hemr whom we shall hear of again. He found plenty of supporters. "// anyone would fain learn what manner of man the king was.himself declared By that after his death Robert was to become Duke of Normandy. II. and he had sold his right to the duchy to William The king now hastened over to Normandy to take possession of the duchy which he had purchased. let him know that he was of a square-set figure. Normandy had been left by William the Conqueror to his eldest son. With the aid of the English. being the eldest. But the three brothers had very little regard either for their father's wishes or for each other's rights. and William. Eloquence he had none. William of Malmesbury : " Character of William Ruftis. who hated the Norman barons. William. Cumberland taken from the Anselm made Archbishop. came over in all haste to England. he should also have become King of England. Scots. His stomach protruded slightly. and whose son. Robert was the leader of the Norman barons. and William the eldest Robert who is known in English history as 'William Rufus. 1091. Stephen '^°'. would have come first. . HOC. 1089. With the aid of his new English ^ It is said that he got his name from his red complexion.

The Sons of the Conqueror. did little good to the country over which he was king. subjects. the king's game was a crime punishable with death. and the wild boars which the king delighted to hunt." William Rufus. a fierce and cruel man. and Normandy as well as England was compelled to submit to the " Red King. To kill . 119 who were now seen following the banner of a Norman king. STONK MARKING THE SPOT WHEUE WILLIAM KUFUS WAS KILLED. of his time. and his cruel and selfish nature made him think little of ruining others to serve his own pleasure. the Norman rebels were defeated. They were to be given up wholly to the deer. but his strength of will and his bravery soon made him undisputed master of England. the nobles. the man One Like all was wolves. William obtained a complete victory. Great tracts of country were set aside as royal forests. the king was a great lover of the chase. or two things still remain to remind us of his life and death. In them no to live.

and pass through the beautiful country which lies between Lyndhurst and . their houses were destroyed. When we take the train. to call it the " New Forest. Everything has a beginning. in the time of William Rufus. NOW COVERED UP. It was natural enough." and by that name it has been known down to the present day. this great royal forest was new. To make this forest. by William Rufus was in what we now know as the county of Hampshire.120 History of England. and those who lived in them were turned out into the world to live as best they could- ANCIENT BUTTRESSES OF WESTMINSTER HALL. the inhabitants were driven off thousands of acres of land. or perhaps enlarged. and eight hundred years ago. of the best One known of the great forests thus set aside. therefore.

This bad and selfish act had a consequence which the man who did it could not foresee." and as it belongs to . there has been a great change made in this respect.Wjlliam Rufus. Land which belongs to the " Crown " now really belongs to the " People. just as any private person's park belongs to him But in the years now. the crown land of England belonged to the king. and the king could do what he liked with it. WESTMINSTER HALL. in the county of Hampshire. we may remember that we are passing through the New Forest which William Rufus helped to make. In the time of the Norman kings. which have gone by since the time of William Rufus. but the act has been a fortunate one for m who live nowadays. Christchurch.

we maytstill thank him for the fact that. the hall where the eloquence of Strafford had for a moment awed and melted a uictorious party inflamed with Just resentment. and at last it was decided to pull them down and to make a new place for the Law Courts where they now stand. bit of land can be sold in the New Minister appointed by Parliament. These rooms had been built a long time after the rest of the hall. the people alike. — Warren Hastings." One other relic of the reign of William Rufus has come down to us. the hall which had resounded with acclamations at the inauguration of thirty kings. enclosing or keeping people off it. and many striking and memorable scenes are connected with it. and thus. It was in this very forest that the king met his death (iioo). It has never been known for certain whether the king was shot by accident. Forest without the leave of a Westminster Hall. the hall where Oharles had confronted the High Court of Justice with the Macaulay : " Trial of placid courage which has half redeemed his fame. It is the great hall which leads to the Houses of Parliament. from end to end. the hall which had witnessed the Just sentence of Bacon and the just absolution of Somers. He had gone out hunting and did not return. freely throughout the whole of the its New and can enjoy the beauties of we have little enough to thank William Rufus for. Anybody can now go Forest. At last his body was found.122 all History of England. though No scenery. Many important trials have taken place there. But that William Rufus fell by an arrow in the New Forest is certain. . pierced by an arrow. Till a few years ago the Courts of Law used to sit in a number of rooms which were built on the right-hand side of the hall. in London. or whether he was murdered by someone who wished to avenge himself for th? cruelties which had been done to those who had been turned out c/ their homes to make room for the wolves and for the deer. "It was the great hall of William Rufus. lying in the thick of the forest. They were very ugly and very inconvenient. eight hundred years after his death. Everybody who has been in London knows Westminster Hall. they have a right to prevent private persons from it. It is very famous in our English history. we are all able to enjoy a drive or a walk in the New Forest. in the Strand.

brother of Matilda. Stephen of BloiS. 1125. They were therefore strengthened. Rebellion in Wales. 1106. d. 123 When the buildings were pulled down. iiii. 1135. On preceding pages we see pictures of Westminster Hall and of William Rufus' s buttresses. Henry grants a Charter of Liberties. (called " Beauclerc ")> Robert. 1127. 1068. iioi. William. Henry marries Matilda. . King of Scotland.Westminster Hall. Adela. EdgaX Atheling. son of Henry I.. Count of Anjou. underneath the walls were found a number of great buttresses. ussMatilda. Edgar. daughter of Henry 1120. Wreck of the " White Ship. d. m. Death of Henry I. irzs. i HENRY FAMOU& PERSONS WHO LIVED Henry fourth son of William the Conqueror and brother I. "35- Matilda. Battle of Tenchebrai and capture o£ Robert. wife of Henry. Henry acknowledged King of England by Robert. Geofftey of AnjOU. taken prisone J 106. of England.. afterwards Henry 11. sister of Henry. 1094. elder brother of Henry. 1T18. King of Scotland. btcame King iioo. and we can still see them any day if we go down to Westminster. Henry. d. Mattllda. The stone of which the buttresses were made was state so worn that it was not possible to leave them in the which they had been found. nog. drowned I. in CHAPTER XVI. 1107. IN THE REIGN OF HENRY I. d. The buttresses were very old.granc son of Edmund Ironside. 1104.. Death of Queen Matilda. But the shape of the old buttresses was kept. Duke Normandy. son of Stephen and Adela. d. in Pembrokeshire. husband of Adela. Henry marches into Wales. Anselm. 1 1 34. A clever architect was asked when they had been put up. The Kmperor Henry V. Revolt of the Barons. Henry's daughter. of of William Rufus. b. born. 1127. and covered up with fresh stone. d. Death of the Emperor H enry. Queen of England. Stephen of BloiS. and he said that they were part of the old wall which had been built by William Rufus. first husband of husband of Matilda. b. supporting the side of Westminster Hall. IIOO. Archbishop of Canterbury. Marriage of Matilda to Geoffrey (Plart tig^net). Edgar Atheling taken prisoner. pon of Matilda. 1100-1135. Henry V. Henry seizes the Crown of England. 1167. marries the Emperor. and the stone was crumbling. 1 son of Edward and. d. daughter of Malcolm Canmore. afterwards King of England. m. Rebellion of the Barons under Robert. It was plain that they were the very oldest part of the great hall.. PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE REIGN OF HENRY L iioo. and plants a Flemish colony at Haverford-west. second Matilda.

. after the death of their brothers. When his reign It is all the wars which he England and in Normandy. We know well enough that nowadays there is no distinction between Norman and English they are one people. by rights. he must make friends with the English.J 24 History of England Englishmen and Normans. therefore. not necessary to foUow Henry into fought. but Robert's friends were With the aid mostly in Normandy. Normans and English kept apart from each other. and ought. he decided to do a thing was a good one. of his English friends. with one law and one language. saw very plainly that if he wanted to become a strong king. the question arose as to who should succeed him as King of England. It was in the time of Henry the First that this mixing together Henry. and to be able to hold his own against the Norman barons. and the Englishmen hating and fearing the Normans. I William 1. to have become king. and that the king himself was foremost to set an example of friendship between his subjects. Henry seized the crown and proclaimed himself king. on the whole. The two peoples have become so mixed together that they are now really and truly one. 'By easy stages we may trace Our Saxon-Danish-Norman-English race. Robert was the elder. It must be remembered that William the Conqueror had four sons —Robert <->. nor to trouble ourselves about quarrels which are long forgotten. in . and look to them for support. had altogether ten children. and. The chief point we have to notice is that during his reign the mixing together of the Normans and the English really began. In order. the Normans despising the Englishmen. like William the Conof Normans and English first began. to obtain their goodwill." William Rufus was dead. and the defeated English on the other. Kichard. and Henry's were in England. We saw in the last chapter how the Norman Conquest had led to a great division in England— the Norman barons and their French followers on the one hand. queror. He reigned for thirty-five years. William <^\ and Henry <«— Robert and Henry now remained.

Emperor of Germany. Besides his daughter. this little girl was married to Henry the Fifth f*'. Robert himself still kept up the war in Normandy. We . Henry crossed the Channel. of the barons. the niece of their own prince. It was no small thing to have won the goodwill of the English. Matilda. 125 He married this Princess Matilda ? Let us see if we can trace back In Chapter XIII. 'her history. and whom they had so deeply wronged. rose in revolt against the king. shall remember that Henry had married Matilda. he was at last forced to give in to Who was We the Normans. Malcolm and Margaret had a daughter. They only wanted leaders. He died twenty-eight years after the battle of Tenchebrai. to make them some of the best soldiers in Europe. his death and marching against his enemies. of whom he was very fond. who was now to become the bride of the Norman liing. who had married Malcolm. Then Henry called to his aid his English won a complete victory over them. we read of a prince named Edgar Atheling. But while the English rejoiced. and how. despite the bravery of Hereward. Edgar Atheling. . took Robert prisoner. who at last had an opportunity of revenging themselves on their Norman oppressors. Henry had also a son named William. the Norman barons could not hide their anger when they saw their duke take as his wife one of the people whom they despised. should be raised to the throne. and remained in prison for the rest of his life. Edgar Atheling had a sister named Margaret. And this the king's Norman enemies soon found. an English princess. friends of the king's brother Robert. It was. While quite young. His daughter was called " Matilda. It soon became plain that Henry had done wisely in thus choosing his wife. fought gladly under the king's banner. The capture of Robert allowed Henry to make himself master of Normandy. . the grandson of Edmund Ironside. King of Scotland. which at once won the hearts of his English subjects. such as William the Conqueror and Henry. But though Robert's friends were the weaker. of course. a great joy to the English that a true English woman. and defeated his army at the battle of Tenchebrai (1106). The English. Robert was imprisoned by his brother in Cardiff Castle. saw howthe hopes of the English were fixed on him as the last of their royal family.Englishmen and Normans. A number subjects." '" after her mother. He hoped that William would become king after but this was not to be. to their cost. and this daughter was Matilda.

we must not forget that he had who had been married to Henry V. So great was the king's grief. Berauld. The White Ship. but for a long time no one dared to tell Henry of his son's death. Return or aid preventing The waters wild went o'er his child. Anjou was a great province in Frances. and left his young empress a widow.'' Campbell : " Lord Ullin's Daughter. but as he left the side of the " White Ship " he heard tlie cries of his sister Mary. The Emperor Henry soon died. who had been left on board. and Prince WiUiam was placed in it. Soon the news reached the English Court. of which Angers and Tours were the principal towns. but he foresaw that now that he had no longer an heir there would be no peace after his death. alone. Although Henry had no son. And he was left lamenting. the "White Ship" rowers rowed with all their might to overtake the king's vessel. One man . The prince ordered the boatmen to return but no sooner was the boat alongside the sinking ship than those on board the wreck sprang into the little boat. Suddenly the " White Ship " struck on a rock and began to fill rapidly with water. regained the shore. In a moment she was upset.became the bride of GeoflFrey. It seemed as if he were saved. and in a few minutes the whole of the gay company who had started that night from Barfleur was overwhelmed in the waves. In the year 1 The king's ihip started fifty followed.126 History of England." was William. At last the terrible news was broken to him. in another. Her first on her journey. not only did he lament the death of a son whom he dearly loved. The king was overcome with grief. In one ship sailed the king. a daughter. Matilda.of " Broom: vain: the loud waues lashed the shore." and the "Twas Sppig. But she did not remain long unma^rried. called the " White Ship.<* Count of Anjou. a poor butcher. his son." iccompanied by 120 the king was on his way back from Normandy. that it is said that after hearing the fatal news he was never seen to smile again. The prince and his companions made merry on board. with a party of his friends. for she soon. A boat was lowered. . of Germany.

Creeinvich THE PRINCIPAL PROVINCES OF FRANCE. which means the Most of us know the common broom. ." The White Ship" and the Sprig of ''Broom." or the The Emoress Matilda married Geoffrey Wearer of the Broom. John (i«. The word is taken from the Latin Planta plant. From this. with It happened that Geoffrey of Anjou was accustomed to wear in his helmet as a crest or sign a sprig of yellow broom. are spoken of as Plantagenet Kings. people began to call him " Plantagenet." 127 There is not much to be told in this story about Geoffrey of Anjou. King often in English history meet with the word " Plantagenet. or kings of the Plantagenet family." Henry II. and all the kings down to We Henry VII. t'^'. but there is one thing which we may remember him by. '^''. common its " Broom " bright yellow flowers. genista. CW. What is the meaning of Plantagenet ? the accession of 4 E. Richard I.

But England and France were so much bound together at that time that it was not wonderful that many people should have said that the French rule ought to be followed in England. the nephew of Henry I. and this was Stephen of Blois 'i"'. King of England. and so there have been no queens of France. and their son And tlius it is that Henry became Henry II.History of England. As Henry I. were made PLANTA GENISTA.. But in France there was a different rule from that which we have in England. or " The Scholar. were followed. We need not go far to find out what was Stephen's reason If the French rule for believing that the French rule was the best. the times in which he had more power than the pen. King Henry died (1135) at the age of sixty-seven years. — after his death according to the English rule. the great Queen Elizabeth. Plantagenet. and his cousin Matilda would be prevented from coming to the throne. then the daughter shall come to the throne and be It is because of this rule that we have had several Queens of England Queen Mary. but only a daughter. after a reign of thirty-five years.' miserable by the constant quarrels among his relations. A SPRIG OF " BKOOM. and his learning won for him the name of Beauclerc. and the last years of Henry I. This rule was called the " Salic Law. is known in English history as Henry Plantagenet. and that there should be no queen. In England it has always been the rule that the eldest son of the king or his children should come to the throne on the death of the king.'' It prevented a woman from coming to the throne of France. There was one person who was very much in favour of the French rule. Henry II. lived were times in which the sword . after the death of William his daughter Matilda would have come to the throne queen. Soon a fierce quarrel broke out between the friends of Stephen and the friends of Matilda. had no son. and that if the king has no son or grandson. He was a wise king and a learned man. and Queen Victoria." Unluckily. Stephen himself would become King of England.

FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED Stephen. commences.. David. marries Eleanor of France. " On the death of King Henry. Stephen's title to the crown confirmed by Pope Innocent II.. but when he was removed. 1142. who had given peace to the realm and the father of his people. became King 1124. IN THE REIGN OF KING STEPHEN. iniquity prevailed and Thenceforth. During his reign the law was purely administered in the seats of justice . Stephen taken prisoner by the Earl of Gloucester at Lincoln. 1135-1154. b. Quarrel with the Church. Escape of Matilda from Oxford. the habitation of peace. and Adela. Geoffrey Plantagenet. King of Scotland. Henry. about a reign in which the people of England went through great suffering and misery. King of Enaland. his loss threw the whole kingdom into trouble and confusion. 1154. before they became the seed-beds of corruption. daughter of Henry I. 1 1 36. The sacred bonds of mutual concord before and a school of rebellion. were rent asunder . 1094. A was Miserable Reig-n. Innocent II. England. was converted into an abode of malignity. Stephen crowned King in London. 1153. nephew of Henry I. clamoured and became frantic for war. The support of the claim of his niece Matilda. a reign This F .129 CHAPTER XVII. and the mirror of piety. [the city. or Maud. The Londoners diive Matilda out of Henry as his successor. 1154. and the people. Stephen excommunicated by the Archbishop of Canterbury. son of Stephen of Blois. Earl of Gloucester taken prisoner. the and wife of only English Pope.. David of Scotland invades England in 144. Stephen recognises 1152. Death of Stephen." Acts of King Stephen. Matilda lands in England. — is going to be a very short chapter. Henry.. Treaty of Wallingford. a theatre of strife. 1154. Civil war Stephen regains the Crown. the ties of near relationship were dissolved. 1141. Matilda enters London. d.. the resting-place of right. 1 1138. son of Matilda. Matilda besieged at Wincheste'*. son of Matilda. long clothed in the garments of peace. cousin of Stephen. 1153. "35. Adrian IV. KING STEPHEN. and ei^capes. Matilda. reverenced by the nation. PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE REIGN OF STEPHEN. Henry lands in England with an army. Pope nso. Scots defeated in the Battle of the Standard. or Nlclioias Brakespeare. became King IH5. afterwards Henry II.

on Henry of daughter the Matilda. who came whether for good or for to the throne on the death of his uncle. this time. has been given of the state of England at This is what the writer tells us of the cruelties of the savage barons " They hanged up men by their feet.13° which has evil. . {From a plLotogra^k by Chester Vaushafu) but whatever happened. The barons robbing. others by the head. the one side. and burning things were hung on to their feet. . and snakes. HARLECH CASTLE. where they lived safely behind From these castles they sallied forth to rob their strong stone walls." And the barons did many terrible things besides these. in the year 1135. . about all of which the writer of whom we have spoken tells us in his book. the unfortunate people of England built great castles. Some were hanged up by their thumbs. Sometimes one party gained the day.. left History of England. and the Empress the other side. Henry I. and sometimes years.. and smoked them with foul smoke. They put men into prison where adders. At last the great quarrel between Stephen and Matilda came to an end. It is the reign of Stephen'"". and so they tormented them. very little mark behind it. and toads were crawling. and plunder all those who were defenceless and who were worth the other suffered. and who reigned nineteen During nearly the whole of Stephen's reign there was a friends on fierce war going on in England between Stephen and his I. . A treaty was made terrible description : A — .

. 1159. was the granddaughter of William the Conqueror. afterwards King of England. became King 11 54. His mother. HENRY FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED Henry IL (Henry Plantagenet). Frederick Barbarossa. the family of the Plautagenets. 1183. Geoffrey. King of Scotland. 1186. King of Scotland. having reigned eighteen years. IV. d. ri65. 1204. 131 at Wallingfbrd (1153).. should become king.1189. of Matilda. 1154. it must be remembered was the second husband of Matilda. of whom we shall read more in the next chapter.. It was agreed that Stephen should be king as long as he lived. and Henry was the first Plantagenet King. d. There is one more point to be noted with respect to this young Henry. xi6i. d. Malcolm IV. d. wife of Heniy II. Geoflfrey of Anjou and and grandson of Henry I.. 11. Matilda. Archbishop of Canterbury. He was his grandson but when Stephen died his family ended. 1133. but his father was a . William the Lion. IN THE REIGN OF HENRY bury 1162.. 1159. rigo. and another family came in. who was Matilda's son. though Geoffrey of Anjou was not a very important person." He was Geoffrey Plantagenet. son of Henry II. d. son of Henry II. who quarrelled with Pope Alexander Eleanor of m. Count of Anjou. Archbishop of Cantermurdered 1170. . Pope Adrian III.. and who got the name of " Plantagenet. the only Englishman elected Pope. we should hear something more of him in this book. We said that. d.. iiSg. Stephen was of the same family as William the Conqueror.. X152. and his son Henry was Henry Plantagenet. CHAPTER XVni. and the father of the young Henry. d* 120X. of France. So we see that there was to be a change in the family from which the Kings of England came. reigned 3S years. Tliomas A'Becket. wrote the history pf these times. of Howden. and that after his death. ^n Theobald. II. Pope Alexander III. Stephen died in the year 1154. (Nicholas Brakespeare). Geoffrey. afterwards King of Henry. son of Henry II. Aquitaine.A Miserable Reign. England.. It was Geoffrey who carried a Sprig of Broom in his helmet. Ricliard. d. Roger Hoveden. the great Emperor of Germany. Jo&n. formerly wife of Louis VII. Henry. d. son of Henry II. b. in Yorkshin'.

70. 1171. The Welsh defeat an English army at War with King of Fiance. I HENRY II. Cathedral the architect Built his great heart into these sculptured stones. Corwen." Death of Theobald. taken prisoner at Alnwitk. son of the King. Henry II. December 29th. 1161. 1165. Dermott McMurragh. released. ii6z. . and Dover Railway. Death Burning of Canterbury Cathedra!. Archbishop of Canterbury'. rival Popes elected year. Heni-y expresses his anger against Becket. gives Henry leave invade Ireland. from Victoria Station in London. unfortunately for our pride as Englishmen. with its three towers. . and will take tickets by the express train on the London. and look at the wonderful building. re- Two Peace with France. In about an hour and a half the train stops. defeats his brother Geoffrey and resign his claim to Aujou. 1188. Who was he ? Does history tell us built Canterbury Cathedral. in France. PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE REIGN OY ti5t. 1 183. 163. Earl of Pembroke. Cojistitutions Beginning of quarrel between Henry and Becket. Death of Henry II. King of Leinster. certainly it does and. We alight. murder of Becket. . King of Scotland* Richard and John. the Metropolitan Church of England. 1168. its graceful windows. at Waterford. Canterbury ". under the name of " scutage. to Strongbow. Henry lands near Waterford. 1156. King of Scotland dies. and ceives the Princes. son of Henry. 1169. anything about him ? Yes. 1174. John. Expedition into Wales. 1164. Ireland. Malcolm IV.. Let us pause for a moment before we enter. Henry collects a tax from every vassal. of Henry. the King's sons. . We are at Canterbury. lands at Meeting between Henry and Becket 1 1 Henry makes him 57. made Lord of Thomas A'Becket made Archbishop Canterbury. Montmirail. 1155. becomes King. in the Becket returns to England. 1160. submission of the Iri^h same of 1173. Becket excommunicates his enemies. Longfellow : " The Golden LegendJ We will start I WANT my readers to come a short journey with me.132 History of England. 1 William the Lion King_ of Scotland. Chatham. Pope Adrian IV. does homage to King Henry. the Beckei's flight. join his enemies. history tells us that it was no countryman of ours who planned the greater part of the stately church. and a short walk brings us to the door of the great cathedral of Canterbury. 1189. William the Lion. of Clarendon. and It must have been a famous architect who its beaatiful carving.

that William of Sens. If. we should have come. we had gone the on in had crossed over the English Dover. It is plain that either Sens has been copied from Canterbury. north of France. who came from the town of Sens.Canterbury Cathedral. to the town of Sens. indeed. thought the best thing he could . when he was brought over to work in England. it is not the only church of its kind in the world * there is another like it. At last it was decided to employ a Frenchman. we can easily guess that it was Canterbury which was copied from Sens. perhaps. the carvings are the same. after a long journey. rather. and who is generally known as William of Sens. in the North of France. Now that we know who it was that planned the chancel of Canterbury Cathedral. the shape of the windows is the same. are exactly the same as parts of our English cathedral. there had been a great iire. or. we shall be surprised to learn another thing about the cathedral. but still very much like it. The was built in the year 11 74. Canterbury Cathedral is a most beautiful building. Many parts of it. instead of stopat ping Canterbury train to station. It was necessary to find a good architect to do the work. and had taken the train through the CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL. named William. and part of the old building (for Canterbury Cathedral was it old 700 years ago) was burnt to the ground. Channel to Calais. or Canterbury from Sens. as everyone who knows has . not quite so beautiful. There we should see another cathedral. 133 greater part of the cathedral of Canterbury as we now see A short time before. as the one at Canterbury. Now we know who not the architect was and where he came from. seen it but beautiful though it be.

And now let us go inside the doors. The part C C are the " transepts. and taught to the Saxon people of Kent the story of Christ.) little chapel at the side." the part A . by permission of King SXhelbert. walk up the long nave. It is the story of one of the greatest of these archbishops that we are now going to read.' go up a few steps. he built the church which was to become the centre of all the Christian churches of England. and if we have a knowledge of English history. is Before we go inside the cathedral. came into our land. {From a photograph by E. DeutenvUl. It was to Canterbury that Augustine came. to repeat at do was his Canterbury the beautiful work he had done in own country. to the days when Augustine.134 History of England. let us stop to ask whether there must carry our anything else which we already know about it. Let us stop here for a moment. Paris. the Roman bishop. must go back to the very beginning of our history. and turn to the left into a THE CATHEDRAL OF SENS. and especially of that part of English history which has to do with the cathedral We We We c The '"nave" marked B is called 1 oi a church is the ''chancel." marked A. the city of Canterbury has been the home of the archbishops of the English Church. From the time of» Augustine down to our own day. minds back into the history of England even further than the time of William the Conqueror. and it was there that.

Claim leads to claim and power aduances power. Turned by his nod the stream of honour flows. right submitted. bestows: Still to new heights his restless wishes tower. there followed him on the throne of England a king whose name ought not to be forgotten by those who read the history of England. the realm. and the cousin of Stephen. Through him the rays of regal bounty shine. His reign was one of great difficulty and trial. His smile alone security.'"'. and strength of mind. he had many good. he had great disappointments. left him none to seize. 135 we shall most certainly give a thought to a terrible event which once took place upon the very spot on which we now stand. so we will content ourselves with that part of it which has to do with Canterbury Cathedral and its great archbishop. There is not room in this book to tell the whole story of the long reign of Henry H. .and the Archbishop. of Canterbury. wisdom.. King Stephen died. For here. a man of great courage. This king was Henry II. in the very midst of the great cathedral. and overcame many of his enemies.'' Johnson: " Vanity of Human Wishes' When. He came He was to the throne in the year 1154. he was successful in many things. --•»:. was committed a savage and dreadful murder. to the great joy of all men. which seven hundred years ago startled all Europe. The King. the son of Matilda. To him the Church. and which filled the people of England with wonder and alarm. their powers consign. What is this terrible story ? Whose blood was it that was shed here ? And who were the men who did this violent deed within the walls of the cathedral itself? TJiat is what we are now going to read. Till conquest unresisted ceased to please. 'Law in his voice and fortune in liis liahd. and at the same time many bad. Like most other men.The King and the Archbishop. and died defeated and miserable. And. and though qualities. and reigned thirty-five years.

and rather stout. and solidly built. and came from the town of Bouen.. but he had lived long in England. His face was it. man King Henry first. In was born a child called Thomas Becket. his short reddish A man BISHOP AND BARONS IN THE TIME OF THE NOEMANS. Thomas's father was a Norman by birth. let us try to understand what sort of a Even though he Mved so long ago. king was like. His head was round and well shapen. for those who knew him well have left us an account appearance which tells us almost as truly as a photograph what the was. or Thomas A'Becket. as drawn by those who saw him from day to day.'' as a more polite His eyes were grey. we can picture him to curof his selves. " lion-like. And now we come the year 1118 there to the other great personage of his reign. but was short-necked and square-chested. square. hair sprinkled with grey. and had become so good an Englishman. fiery. Such was Henry II. his hands were coarse and clumsy.136 But History of England. and was so much liked by his neighbours. rather above middle height. that . writer of his time describes He often rather bloodshot. or.

In order to understand how it was that King Henry and Thomas A'Becket quarrelled. in Italy. and in Spain. Archbishop of Canterbury. we must try to understand something of what was going on in England at the time in which Henry and Becket lived. He became a priest. There was. were days in which much violence and by those who were strong against those who The Norman barons. This power was It was. the friendship of Theobald. though he often wished to do well. II. for he was made Chancellor. the bishops. cared little for the sufferings of the poorer and worse-armed people among whom they lived. which we must know something about if we want to understand rightly the history of England. Church was the Pope in Rome. as we should now call Mayor. of his the City of London. The king himself was wiser than the barons. From that day there came a change. but in the power of the Church. and the clergy in all parts of the country. Soon he attracted the attention of the king. keeping hundreds of servants and many horses. in Germany. in many ways to make But laws which should do justice to everybody in the kingdom. It was not long before he received from Henry a great mark of his favour. He lived in great luxury. another great power in England beside the king and the barons. he had been 137 it. not content with making his favourite Chancellor. At the head of the France. and rivalling the king himself in the splendour of his house. which only ended in the : — death of the latter. and in England there were the archbishops. that King Henry. indeed. Many stories are told of Thomas A'Becket and his life at this time. and agreeable character. and did not give himself up altogether to the wishes of the barons. made Port Reeve. therefore. He knew that he would be stronger if he did justice to all. however. and was sent by the archbishop on several important journeys to Rome. The days of Henry cruelty were practised were weak. living in their strong castles and clothed in suits of armour. raised him to the still higher office of Archbishop of Caii. During this time King Henry and Becket agreed together well enough so well.The King and the Archbishop.terbury. it was not always easy even for a good king in such a time to protect the poor and the defenceless. or Keeper of the King's Seal an office of great dignity and importance. and enmity arose between the king and the archbishop. or. and how it was that the archbishop came to lose his life as the result of the quarrel. who was struck by his cleverness and by hiscleverness Thomas soon showed won for him signs that he was a clever boy. . He tried. felt not only in England.

teachers. when there was so much ignorance. in which there lived priests. it was a good thing that there should be men who could teach reading and writing." and had the right to be tried in the bishop's Court. soon got very priest or clergyman. were called " Churchmen. and set an example of a holy life. All over England there were great abbeys and monasteries. Monks. it was a good thing that in the midst of so much violence and cruelty there should be men and women who tried to teach the difference between right and wrong. When it protected the poor. In these abbeys and monasteries books were to ' be found and teaching was to be got. taughL those who were ignorant. it did harm.138 History of England. therefore. the Church of England did both harm and good. And and many of the abbeys and monasteries had lands of great extent. and often the servants of a church or monastery. But. and. And last of all. and in which he was safe from harm. 1 It should be understood that in the time of Henry II. between good and evil. all It is not wonderful. it did good. too. The fact that a man could read and write was often held to be proof that he was a Churchman. and in which they could be safe. that when the Churchmen did these things. but clerks. In many called a Sanctuary. At a time when so much injustice was done. monks. there were very few except the clergy who could read or write at all. We must remember these things in order that we may understand what is said in this chapter. it was a great thing to have places to which those who were persecuted could go. and when so many cruel men used their power to injure the weak and defenceless. who taught people how to read and write. and thus it happened that in the time of Henry II. of the churches there was a place anyone who was in danger of his life might fly. It was the Churchmen who alone opened schools. they should be looked upon with favour and treated with honour. or when it tried to get power for itself. spoils it often happens that too much good fortune men. a " . In many ways the Church was very different then from what it is now. unluckily. to which land. indeed. Churchman" meant not only a anyone who was in any way in the service of the Church. but most important of all. became so great and so powerful that many was their duty to help and protect the poor not only did the clergy get strong. and who could prevent the learning of all the wise men who had gone before from being forgptten. In an age. When it joined with the king and the barons to try to get riches and power. The clergy it of them forgot that rich. and who kept England a Christian Nor was this all. and nuns. but they against the strong.

' .139 The QuarreL " Ye take too much upon you. should only be tried. in case they committed offences. And so also when two persons who had a dispute came before the king's Courts to have their case tried. and refused to allow Churchmen to go of Justice in England. and put him at the head of the Church we have been talking about." Numbers xvi.with him in all his sports. ought to be equal in the king's Courts and obey the order of the judges. in which persons who had committed crimes were usually tried. But from the very day on which Becket was made Archbishop of Canterbury it seemed as if a change had come over him. We have seen that while he was Chancellor. _ It was not long before the new archbishop and the king found cause for a quarrel. The Church at that time claimed that all clergymen. made Thomas A'Becket Archbishop of Canterbury. saw that Henry was doing his best to improve the Courts and to appoint Judges who would do justice to all alike. and that Now. ye sons of Levi. From that day he gave up all his time to trying to strengthen the Church. and +0 have its own courts of justice. They said that the king's Courts. would not give way. they were able to punish him. a friend of the king. When the king's Courts decided against any man who was accused of a crime. the one who was declared to be in the right was able to make the other give up his claim. it is easy the king's judges had no right to try Churchmen. 7. Churchman or not. . We into the king's Courts. and ready to share . on the part either of the king or of the barons. had no power over those who belonged to the Church. But when King Henry found that Becket would not allow Churchmen to be tried by the judges. to give it more power. and do what the Court said was just. to see that there was sure to be a quarrel before long over this claim made by the Church to set up its own judges. on his side. rich or poor. by judges belonging to the Church. And now we come back to the day on which Henry II. Becket was gay and fond of pleasure. and everybody who was connected with the Church in any way. Becket. and to make it free from all interference. he was angry for he said that every man.

In those days things were very different from what they are now. We read in Chapter XIV.140 History of England.' Many . no doubt. The judges whom the king appointed were not always just. Sometimes. and he made a set of rules or laws. that in feudal times every man who had land had to " do homage. It is not easy now. A B1SH0I''S COURT IN NORMAN TIMES. which the meeting of the barons was held was called Clarendon. meeting of the barons. Churchmen should do homage to the king Another for their lands. The place There was the archbishop. so long after these things happened. for it." Henry said that the Becket Churchmen ought to do " homage " to him for their land Then Henry called together a said that they should not do so. and the rules that were made there were known as " The Constitutions of Clarendon" (1164). also another cause of quarrel between the king and of the bishops and other clergy had great quantities of land. justice was better done in the courts in which . nor did they always know the law. to say whether Hienry or Becket was in the right. One of these rules was that Churchmen should be at tried in the king's Courts was that all when they had committed crimes.

. In his anger. and rebuilt a great part of the cathedral of Cantet bury. and in every country Churchmen had the right to be tried and condemned only by in our own time it would be quite wrong for Churchmen be judged in the same courts as other people. for at the time in which he lived the courts held by the Church were to be found in every country in Europe. came over to England. His eyes flamed and his face grew pale with passion. In our own time. The archbishop fled to the town of Sens. hasty words. leaving Henry behijid in France. When Henry heard of the way in which Becket had been welcomed back. in imitation of his we saw. ''what cowards have I brought up in my Court. when others have done the harm — — We We * It was here that Becket met with William of Sens. dares insult the king and the whole royal family. He could not bear that a man who had been his enemy. and tramples on the whole kingdom a fellow that came to Court on a lame horse.' " What / " cried he. should be so beloved. and who had dared to disobey him. and that is that the king and the archbishop soon quarrelled with one another. thousands of people came out to welcome him bade. people equal before the law. own cathedral at Sens. who care nothing for their duty Not one will deliver me from 'this low-born priest!" to their master! cannot tell whether the king really wished that someone should sometimes make hasty speeches and say take him at his word. rich or poor. and no man interferes? What sluggard wretches/" he cried. sits on the throne itself. the judges are just they know the law. Henry broke out into wild.The Quarrel. and then. things which we hope others will act upon. one thing is certain. If we can find excuses for Thomas A' Becket. But though it may be doubtful whether Henry or Becket was most in the right. the king banished Becket from the land. in Normandy.' After a time Henry and Becket became friends again. who. Besides. it must be remembered that it was no new thing for which . looked upon him as their friend and protector against the barons. we certainly ought not to blame Henry because he tried to make al to refuse to . Churchmen. Of course. When the archbishop came to Canterbury. and they do justice equally to all men. In his anger. 141 the bishops were the judges than -in the king's Courts. with a cloak for a saddle. Becket crossed over. he flew into a great rage. happily. though we dare not act upon them ourselves. '' a fellow that has eaten my bread has lifted up his heel against me a fellow that I loaded with benefits. whether they be Churchmen or whether they be not.Becket fought. The poor people. and Henry gave Becket leave to return to England.

'' a name which well suited the savage Norman knight to The English home of the Fitzurses is called to this day Bear-ham. but were afraid to do. we try to pretend to ourAnd so. And so • happened that the hasty words of King Henry had men who wanted no persuading to kill the Mounting their horses. cried out. and they depended upon his favour. village of the Bears. and commit a crime which he was ! ashamed and afraid to commit himself. Mahoameaning and they became tie founders of the well-known family of the MacAIahOUS Macin Irish exactly the same as Fitzurse in Norman viz. they When he had been hated Becket far more than they loved the king. In the second place.142 History of England. Reginald four knights overheard the king's words. they came it fallen into the hearts of within sight of the three great towers of Canterbury Cathedral. and it not long before they had formed a cruel plot to murder Becket. Henry. and on a cold dreary day at the end of December. or the Some of the Fitzurses crossed into Ireland. when Belves that it is not we who are to blame. Bear. and there their name took an Irish form. place. William de Tracy. " Not one will deliver me from this low-born priest " he half hoped that some of those who stood by would take him at his word. and had enjoyed the favour of the king." The was and reasons joined together to urge them to commit this crime.i courtiers four Bret. which we wished. for he was their lord. 1170. no doubt they loved the king a little. Eichard le Fitzui-se. and he had often helped those whom the barons had Two In the first oppressed. Thomas had despised the fierce barons. 1 Fitzurse it means "Son of the whom belonged. Chancellor. speed to the sea-coast. thus to "deliver " the king from the " low-born priest. We now come to the story of the terrible deed which they did on that wintry day within the walls of the great cathedral. perhaps. There they took ship across the Channel.. in his anger. **Mtf Son of the Bear" : — . the four knights rode off at full king's enemy. Since he became archbishop he had made many of the barons give up the lands which they had taken from the Church. stood among the king's It happened that there knights— Hugh de Morville.

which was always carried before the archbishop. and who were seeking to find their way into the cathedral. and he was left alone with but three faithful friends Robert of Merton. knights and their friends. however. Primate of England. those When who were : . At la:'st.the wooden door of the orchard outside was brolcen down. great as the danger was. . of which we read at the beginning of this chapter. in order that those who were in danger might escape from the fury of the knights. and there the four murderers found him. his old teacher William FitzStephen. the frightened monks could no longer bear the slow pace at which the archbishop advanced. but Priest of God. It Many of the approach of danger. who were driving before them the friends of the archbishop. "Where No is the Archbishop. and did all they could to get him to take refuge in the cathedral. and -soon it was known by all' that the archbishop's enemies were outside.143 The Murder. With these three Becket reached the little chapel on the lefthand side of the cathedral. Becket heard the cries of his own friends outside. Becket thought he would be safe. No sooner had the door been thrown open than Fitzurse and his companions rushed in. and they half-dragged and half-carried him into the cathedral. A crash was heard as. he bade with him throw open the door. his chaplain and Edward Grim. . night was late in the evening of the zgth December. when the winter's was aheady setting in. Thomas Bechet?" "Here. longing to get in. What would ye have of me ? " " Your life. They shut the door and It was the four turned the key. Before him walked an attendant bearing the cross. Soon cries were heard outside. a Saxon monk. He walked calmly along the passage which led into the cathedral. scorned to fly. I am he ye see/r. traitor to the King. Then all but the bravest fled from the archbishop's side. Within its walls they But. that the dwellers in the archbishop's palace were suddenly alarmed. monks who surrounded Becket fled like cowards at the Some few stood by their master. and to 'take the Ufe of the man whom they hated. — ^ Tennyson :'" Beckef. But this brave act cost the archbishop his life.

the. him with his s>-. There was a fierce struggle. Another of the knights struck him with the flat of his sword. " / am ready to die for God and the Church. or he was a dead man. undo the harm that he had done. The four knights then began to upbraid Becket. and resisted their eiforts." my hands .king ? is It " WUri traitor to Then bishop " Where ? " the archbishop Becket knew arch- the voice. and wounded the brave . replied the archbishop.i4'i History of England." said he: "no traitor." was the archbishop's answer. why die!" you have received many favours at do you come armed into my church ? " For answer. But Becket was a strong man. at first the knights could not see Becket. mad with passion. "Reginald. was nearly dark. Fitzurse exclaimed. and at last Fitzurse. and is Thomas Becket. Then the knights fell upon him. " / cannot do other than I have done. " cried one of them. who sprang back. " You shall " Reginald. told cried out. "Strike! Strike!" that death at Then Becket saw Tracy aimed a blow was near. saying. and him to fly. but the and the priest of God. for they feared to kill him in the church.vord. Fitzurse placed his axe against Becket's breast. and to bid him KING HENRY BEFORE THE TOMB OF THOMAS A BECKET AT CANTERBURY. here am I. What do you wish ? " As he said these words he advanced towards Fitzurse. and tried to drag him outside. Fitzurse struck off his cap.

he walked to the cathedral. and he fell dying on the floor of the chapel. Such is the story of Henry and Becket. A last blow on the head put an end to Becket's sufferings. Barefooted. and without his royal robes. Kneeling before the tomb of Becket. Archbishop of Canterbury. but now that he was dead the king was overcome with remorse. and that they were never punished for the crime they had committed. Whether or not he really wished that Becket should be killed we do not know. and he received it with every sign of the deepest sorrow. with whom were many of his own courtiers. because it shows how great a power the Church was in the early days of our history. Others say that they all of them died by some walls of his shameful death. he went to do penance at Canterbury. within the own cathedral. and after plundering the archbishop's house rode off unharmed. Thus died Thomas A' Becket. . who strove to defend his master. The news was brought to him in France. he lay there all night without food. and the blood began to flow. he bade each of the bishops scourge him on his bare shoulders. As a sign of his grief. But it seems as if they were really received back into favour again by the king. Some say that they went on a voyage to Jerusalem to do penance for their sins. What became of the murderers is not certain. It is a story which should be remembered. Then the knights attacked him fiercely with their swords. 145 struck The same blow which down Grim wounded Becket. attended by a crowd of bishops and monks. What Henry thought of the cruel murder of his enemy remains to be told. and how even the strongest kings sometimes found their match among the archbishops and bishops of the Church. and the murder was completed. The four murderers ran hastily out of the cathedral.The Murder. Then throwing himself down upon the tomb. Grim.

146 History of England The Pope's Son Gift. who were always fighting one against the other. He found help in a strange quarter. and constantly plundering each other's lands. From that time forward the English power increased in Ireland. His enemies in France took up arms against him. to Henry II. till many years later that the whole island submitted to English rule.at Waterford. " And further also do we strictly charge and require." From the Bull of Pope Adrian IV. The defeat of his army and the treachery of his son broke down the old king's spirit. wrote a paper. the Scottish king. One or two other things which happened in the reign of Henry II. in the year ii8g. dutifulness. his life ended in misery and defeat. Ireland was at this time divided among many kings and chieftains and its people were split up into numberless tribes. receive and accept you as their liege Lord and Sovereign. sendeth greeting and apostolick benediction we do grant that you do enter to possess that land. and he died an unhappy death at Chinon. the servant of the servants of God. John <'". under Strongbow. Earl of Pembroke. . and the Kings of England were known as Lords of Ireland. landed . for even before his time the Kings of England had claimed to be Lords of Ireland. It was not. was taken prisoner while leading an army into England. in which he " gave " Ireland to Henry. The Norman knights. and in Ireland. and honour. ^ Ireland. and the safety of the realm. and though he had been victorious in so many wars. Henry was successful in his wars in Wales. however. in Scotland. Henry thought that the time had come to make himself master of Ireland in fact as well as in name. and the 56th year of his age. and William the Lion.^ and there to execute according to your wisdom whatsoever shall be for the honour of God. to His most dear in Christ. "Adrian the bishop." as it was called. when he hurried over to lead his armies he found that among his enemies was his own son. or " Bull. in France. that all the people of that land do with all humbleness. who at that time was supposed to have the right to give away lands that were not under any regular king. and made themselves masters of a large part of the country near the coast. the noble liing of England. He therefore gave leave to some of the Norman barons to conquer Ireland for him. in the south-east corner of Ireland. He defeated the Soots. The Pope. must not be forgotten. and. Although Henry had been great and powerful during his reign.

Hubert Walter. 1205 Archbishop of Canterbury. daughter of the King of Navarre. who governed England absence. 1193." Shakespeare : " King John. Richard makes peace with the Saracens. d. d. I. I. indeed. 1223. 11^4. Both brothers are remembered in English history.oco. Leopold. Philip Augustus. a leader of the 1194 Hubert Walter. b. Richard relieves Acre. the wife of King Richard. ." The John next two chapters give an account of two brothers Eichard"^' and ("'. IN THE REIGN OF RICHARD Crusade. who Robin Hood. ' And fought Richard. brother of Richard. a great difference in their characters and their lives. and for his bravery in war. no doubt. Roger HOVedeU. iiji. 1 192. LION. aftr-rwards King of England. d. Richard spent nearly all his reign outside England John stayed in England. that robb'd the lion of his heart the holy wars in Palestine. is remembered as a cruel and . also a brave man. in Richard s wrote the history of Berengajla. this time. Richard killed at the siege of Chaluz. iiig. Richard was famous for his generosity. but for : very different reasons. I.147 CHAPTER XIX RICHARD CGEUR DE 1189—1199. d. is supposed to have lived * during this reign. Richard ransomed for ^iqo. PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE REIGN OF RICHARD Richard I. the famous outlaw of Sherwcod F. 1192.. Justiciar. rest. becomes King of England. though. FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED Bicliard ("Cceur de Lion") second s-^n of Henry II. Duke of Austria. for the victories which he won over foreign enemies. m. 1230. Richard Austria. 1157. 1201. The Crescent and the Cross. King of France. d. Kichard marries Bereng^ria. d. Jolm. became King 1189. imprisoned by Leopold of 1191. John. and Eleanor of Aquitaine. son qf Henry II. Richard starts on a Crusade. There was. 1199.

and they probably talked French much more easily than they talked English. clad in armour. and swinging his battle-axe round his head. and brought little profit to our country. He is also known by another name. We a French name. and he lived at a time when everyone who was fond of fighting could easily get as much as he wanted. and by which he is still called to this day. It will be remembered how the Dukes of Normandy became Kings of England. and how after the time of Stephen the Princes of Anjou reigned in their stead. and castles in France as well as in England. " Cceur " is the French word for " heart. both Normandy and Anjou are in France." man of very great strength. We can " therefore understand why Richard came to be called " Coeur de Lion ' Lion-hearted. and a terrible enemy to meet in battle as he rode on his great warhorse._ He loved nothing so much as war and fighting. and made those they conquered declare that they believed in Mahomed instead of instead of " The Richard was a 1 " Angevin " means " of or belonging to Anjou. and the Norman and Angevin kings were They had lands really quite as much French as they were English. bold as a lion. How was it that a King of England came to be fighting so far away from his own land ? This is how it befell. His friends and enemies were agreed in calling him Richard Caur de Lion. they fought against them. But most of the fighting which Richard did was done far away from England. The Turks were not Christians. but believed in a man called Mahomed.'' . liis own country by his own people. as we all know. Wherever they met the Christians. who was defeated in And yet it is true to say that John's defeats than to Richard's victories. but we shall cease to wonder when we understand that Richard was really just as much a Frenchman as he was an Englishman. who they said' was the Prophet From the name of Mahomed they took the name of of God. Mahomedans. and at the time of which we are speaking they were a very great and warlike people. Now." or "The may ask why a King of England should have Lion-hearted." and Richard Cceur de Lion means "Richard of the Lion Heart. Richard was the first King of England of that name he is therefore known as Richard I. and when they were victorious they took the lands of the Christians. the country which we know as Palestine. had been invaded and taken by the Turks." .148 History of England. came to the ihrone. we who are alive now owe more to unwise king. It happened that two years before Richard I. or the Holy Land. which those who lived in his time gave him.

as know. and. It is not hard to understand that Christian people were sorry when they saw the city of Jerusalem fall into the hands of the Turks. of. and that the Christians should be put back there again. and if need be their lives." Scott — the year king. the city built by David. and in which Jesus Christ was crucified. he lived apart from all men in a solitary dwelling. and for a long time it seemed more likely that they would conquer the Christian people of Europe than that the Christians would conquer them. known as "Hermits" .The Crusade. For this reason he is known in history as " Peter the Hermit. and gave himself up to prayer and reflection. to the task of beating the Turks and defending Jerusalem. The Cross upon his shoulder borne. But this was more easily said than done. The name of this person deserves to be remembered. the capital of Palestine is Jerusalem. there appeared in Europe a man who not only had made up his mind that the Turks should be turned out of the Holy Land. King of England. Tiiose wlio refused they either put to death or made slaves have learnt that the Turks had taken Palestine. In his hand he bore a cross. Each dint upon his battered shield Was token of a foughten field. In 1094. but that he himself would be the first to lead on the Christians to the fight." It was in the year 1095. in the reign of William Rufus. He went about from place to place. preaching and exhorting the people to follow him. "High deeds achieved of hnightly fame. and he bade all those whom he addressed prepare to leave . We all we The Crusade. for the Turks were a brave and warlike people. Battle and blast hath dimmed and torn. that is to say. From Palestine the champion came. Already the Christians had tried their best to beat the Turks. He was He was one of those priests who at that time were called Peter. that Peter the Hermit first called upon the kings and princes and peoples of Christian Europe to give up all their work and all their pleasure. in 149 Christ. and there were many of them who were determined that the Turks should be turned out of it if possible. nearly one hundred years before Richard became and long before the Moslems had re-taken Jerusalem.

to fight for the cause of the Cross and that to say. Richard's wife. and for the first time. of Kenneth of Scotland. Perhaps the pleasantest way of learning something about them is to take It is a most up Sir Walter Scott's great novel. and of the crafty Duke of Austria. others went in the hope of obtaining power or plunder. In all parts of Europe the people responded to the call of Peter the Hermit. armed themselves. doubt the reasons which moved the minds of the Crusaders were very various.the King of France and the Archduke of Austria. sometimes spoken of as the ''Wars of the Crescent and the Cross. of Saladin the Sultan of the Turks. The wars of the Crusade are. there were very fighting against the and doing a right for whether we think they took a 'wise course or not in thus going forth to fight on behalf of the cause in which they believed. ' many who truly beUeved that in thu^ Turk they were serving the cause of Christianity. Of such we must speak with respect. sign the Crescent. fought in a strange country against an Eastern enemy. may be read in any history of England." delightful book. or on their hreast. history of Richard's valiant deeds in Palestine. of his attack upon Jerusalem. and made ready to sail eastwards to the Holy Land. princes who had' been engaged in long rivalry at home were seen fighting side by side against a common enemy. It is for this first reason that we speak of Peter the Hermit as being the it. for the recapture of the No and lastly. and rich and poor. such as . and of his quarrels with his companions. which was the sign of the Christian religion. n. high and low. and no one can read the stories of Richard. of Berengaria.." The Cross wao their flag.150 all History of England. war on behalf of the Cross. they had and fight for the cause of the Cross. none was more famous or more active than Richard of England. The kings and princes of Europe were foremost to join the ranks of the Crusaders. therefore. action. we must at least admit that they risked their lives and their fortunes and gave up their comfort to fight for what they believed to be right. to preach a "Cross-ode. and all who went on the Crusade wore a cross on on their shield. But we need not give up much time to following Richard ^ in his the sign of the Christians. the Mahomednns had for their we can see nowadays up-n the flag of Turkey. " The Tallstnan. The adventure and the danger which accompanied this war. battle The without pleasure. 1 Holy Land." or. of Edith Plantagenet. of the great which he fought at Jaffa. Among the kings who came forward as leaders of the Crusade. were just what his bold spirit loved. as is we usually call a "Crusade". Some went because they foved adventure and fighting. On the other hand.

.KING RICHARD SETTING OUT ON THE CRUSADE.

and touching his harp. did really make a great difference to the history of England. are not of much importance to the history What is really important to and progress of the EngUsh people. to understand what it was. and we shall then have no difficulty in understanding how it was that King Richard's love of adventure. but what those whom he had left behind in England did during his absence. He started off again to France to fight against Philip. play". It seems at first sight as if the battles fought by Richard Coeur de Lion under the walls of Jerusalem have little to do with the lives of those who read this book at the present day but when we come to read the story of Magna Charta. The story is that his whereabouts were discovered by his old friend and companion. roaming through Europe in search of his master. notice is not what Richard did when he was away from England. who threatened It '•' will . sang a tune which he remembered as being a favourite one with his royal master. of his enemy. On his way back from Palestine Richard passed through the country By an act of treachery. that the time which he spent in England was very short indeed.s news back with him to England. and Richard was restored to his country and his throne. from his prison. the nobles and barons whom he had left behind found a good opportunity for strengthening themselves and We shall see preparing for a struggle against the king himself. the musician B16ndel. Richard. and it was long before his friends in England even knew where he was. and in course of time a ransom was paid. But his restless spirit would not allow him to remain long at ease. For twelve months he lay in prison. Blondel took tl'. and to us who now live in the country. Leopold. for the victories which he won and ttie courage which he showed. Richard was seized by order of the duke and thrown into prison. . recognised his friend and played an answering note. So occupied was the liing with the Crusades. we shall then see that the two things have more to do with one another than we supposed. hearing the familiar air. who. sat down under the wall of an unknown castle. and so frequently was he engaged in fighting battles in France to preserve his French dominions. Eastern battles. which even in those rough times was condemned by all men. Archduke of Austria. When the cat's away the mice is an old proverb which says. .152 far-off History of England. in the next chapter what use the nobles and barons made of the power which they got into their bands. and how it was obtained. and there is no doubt that when the strong hand of the king was taken away. and his distant expeditions.

1204. Langton recognised as Archbishop. d.. Destruction of John's the Wash. June 15. Death of Hubert. King of France. Expedition of the King into Wales. d. 1215. 1226. John appoints John de Grey. Archbishop cf Canter- 1211. born. Archbishop Pandulph. John. son of William the Lion. Stephen Langton. While besieging the castle of Chaluz he was struck by an arrow from the bow of a soldier named Bertrand. 1216. Hubert Walter. John does homage to the Pope as King of England and of Ireland.ArtllUr. Bishop of Norwich. As he lay in his tent dying. Stephen Langton made Archbishop by Pope Innocent. Defeat of an English and a Flemish army at Bouvines by the French. Magna Charta sealed. John quarrels with the Pope. 1205. Loss of Normandy. b. to the same post. [the Pope. d. daughter of King John.03. the second wife of John. Pope Innocent declares John deposed John attacks Louis of France and the hostile Barons with success. to the Pope. afterwards King Henry III . [bury. Henry.. War between the King and the barons. PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURI NG THE REIGN OF JOHN. Death of Arthur. offer the The Barons son of the in Crown to Louis. those who served the king were not as kind as their master. King of France. with France. CHAPTER XX. England laid under an interdict by establishes and lands at Dublin. FAMOUS PEOPLE WHO LIVED IN THE REIGN OF JOHN. and brother of Richard 1 . Death of King John. I?26. and ordered that his life should be spared. Louis. Unfortunately. murdered 1203. John English law in Ireland. 210. 1S23. 1200. 1166. 1223. John renews his illegal exactions in England. The unhappy archer was brought before the king. d. as one that does credit to the king. and Eleanor of Aquitaine.The Crusade. 1213. married Joan. Tioi. King of England. Duke of Brittany. John marries Isabella of Angouleme. War John makes submission to the Pope. and nephew of John. son of Fhihp. Pope 1198-1216. married 1200. became King 1199. Capture of Arthur. youngest S'^n of Henry H. Langton summons a council of the 1214. 1208. his 153 Norman possessions there. . 1207. son of John and Isabella. Barons. Archbishop of Canterbury. . Isaella of Angouleme. wtio excommunicates ihe Barons. d. 1205. 1199. son of Geoffrey Plantagenet. b. 1199—1216. d. The Barons refuse to follow John to France. and Bertrand was cruelly put to death. trembling for his hfe. Philip Augustus. d. afterwards became Henry III. Iimocent III. JOHN -THE HISTORY OF THE CHARTERS. with the generosity which was perhaps the best part of his nature. who lands army In crossing England. but Richard. and that Bertrand had been taken prisoner. forgave the man to whom he owed his death. John exacts money from the monasteries and from the Jews. 1249. But the incident should be remembered. Alexander IL. and Eleanor of Aquitaine. King of England. of Gaiterbury. J jhn becomes King. who j'uned the English B irons agamst John. grandson of Henry II. Henry. 1. the king was informed that the castla had fallen. The Baron*: assemble at Brackley. the Pope's Legate in England. King of Scotland. John appeals 1216.

. Henry ('^* the eldest. had four sons. then his children if he had any. But we saw that Henry II. — When the news of King Richard's death reached England there were There were two claimants confusion and disorder on every side. but. to be attended By slaves. then the second son succeeded. Right to the throne. Duke of Brittany. there were all the makings of a quarrel. hard. when the news of Richard's death reached England. named Arthur'"'. at the time of Richard's death. After the second son and his children came the third son. Might was on the side of the wrong. was dead and had left no children. Shakespeare : " King Jolm. The third was Geoffrey. He Richard. and he made up his mind that. he also left no children. One was strong and the other was weak. The youngest of these John. was the father of Richard I. On the one hand were the friends of Arthur. Kmo John—" Why seek'at thou to possess Why me with these fears ? urgest thou so oft young Arthur's death ? Thy hand hath murder'd him : I had a mighty cause To wish him dead. who could not bear to see the throne of England go to a boy. who.^''' a cruel. Henry II. who was king by "right. Richard I. So it is not hard to see how. Hubert— No had. By the law and custom of England. as too often happens. clever man. If the eldest son had no children. was on the side of the weak. my lord! Why. that boy should never sit on the throne of England.154 HisTOEY OF England. Now let us remember how things stood at this time. and the second son's children. that take their humours for a warrant. did you not prouolte me? King Johh It is the curse of kings. Henry had four sons. if he could prevent it.'i" of whom we read in Chapter XVIII. John and Arthur. was only a boy of eleven. The law by which the Kings of England succeeded to the throne was the same then as it is now the eldest son came first.'"' who had married too was dead.. Arthur should have become King of England on the death of his uncle Constance ("^' of Brittany. "^"^ was the second he had become king and was now dead : . but had left a son. but thou had'st none to liill him. It was only when neither the eldest nor the second nor the third son had children that the fourth son could lawfully come to the throne." was .

in order to fill his own coffers. From the barons and nobles he took large sums of money. and there. fearing the anger of the English. in which one side or the other must be beaten. King John. now appeared in arms against the king. and shut him up in a French prison. had strengthened themselves. touched by the boy's pleadings. made enemies both among the rich and among the poor. The great event I speak of is the granting of Magna Most of us have heard the words " Magna Charta. John's violence and lawlessness had made him many enemies. John thus . and those who had money he robbed without mercy. Those of us who have read Shakespeare's great play of King John will re- member how John. against him the hatred of all classes among the people. The poor he treated with cruel injustice. and How They were Won. to burn out the boy's eyes. what is the thing which they describe. and when murder was common. Many of the barons. during Richard's long absence. should be king by " mi^ht. and secondly. and how Hubert." but to (Jharta. Hubert by name. 'Litera scripta manet. had built strong castles. refused to obey the cruel order of the king."^ King John was. it is time our attention to the great event which happened in his reign. united What Charters were. and on account of which the name of King John will always be remembered. threw his nephew into prison. Nor were the barons without friends among the people. first. what the words mean. There is a proverb that " Ill-gotten gains never prosper " and even at a time when fighting never ceased.What Charters were. and had got together small armies of followers. and when he lived. and How They were Won." . hear words used is not always the same thing as to understand what they mean. who were determined that he. as it was believed. and not Arthur. 155 on the other were the Iriends of John." The story of the death of Arthur is a melancholy one. who. therefore. and tried to deprive them of their lands and their rights. "The written word endureth. How John. Let us inquire. Now that we know who to turn 1 A Latin maxim meaning. and it soon became clear that there was to be a trial of strength between him and his many enemies. slew him with his own hand. took Arthur away. a cruel and rapacious man. how he sent one of his followers. the cruel uncle.

that at the time by King John. he called upon the conquered English to help him against the barons. and thus make themselves understood in any country. and how he gave part of it to his own followers as a reward for their services. we must go back even further than the time of King John. how it came to be granted in the time of King John. Italians. written Carta") means a '^ " Charter. It will be remembered that in an earlier portion of this book. and why it is that Englishmen have always given it . and fought battles against the French. so important a place in the history of their country. with the aid of the English. The Bible used all important writings were in Latin. how. We may is ask.^ the king had the right to call upon his nobles to to the story of ' we must go back Seepage 1x4. to the reigns of the kings who preceded him. in order to keep down the powerful nobles. and by what was called the Feudal law. and Germans. Frenchmen. who were quite unable to understand each other's languages. and the Welsh. the Scots." 3. and became master of the barons. this one is the greatest and most important. By the custom of the time. that the king." because. too. " Magna" and " Charta " are both of them Latin words. by the clergy was in Latin the histories and chronicles which were written by the monks were in Latin and all the laws of the country were in Latin. Very few people in the time of King John could read or write This at all. and in turn all the other kings who came after them. The particular Charta of which we are speaking is called the " Great Charter. by whom his authority was threatened.t\^" Charta" (sometimes. but those who could read and write all learnt Latin. was a great convenience in some ways. . In order that they might fight these battles. we learnt how William the Conqueror made himself master of all the land of England." or written statement of rights. though there were many other charters in English history. . Now that we know what the words Magna Charta mean. or granted. and so strong were the king and the people together. then William Rufus. " Magna" means "great. two things were needed money and soldiers. The next thing we saw was that first WilUam the Conqueror. We saw. led their armies into France or Scotland or Wales. it is time to ask what the Charta was. soon got the upper hand. for Englishmen. indeed. these things To . understand King John and. could always talk or write in Latin. his son.156 History of England. The English did help him. why should a Latin name be used? The answer when the Great Charter was made.

especially as The king wanted money or men. certain number of soldiers with demand the payment of iixed sums same way he -had the right to talce to call upon each town But it is not hard to understand that at a time when laws and customs were often disregarded. and then he had to bargain. the king had to make some promise of future favours to induce his unruly subject to do what he desired. and then the king had to find a way of getting more. of He and had the money by the barons. and the Crusades in Palestine. through their mayors or sheriffs. and take. 157 him to war. " Your loyal citizens will be quite ready to give you the aid you desire. there were many disagreements between the king and those who were called . and might was often more powerful than right. and the nobles or the citizens from whom he wished to get men or money were weak. One of the commonest ways in which the barons took advantage of the king's needs was as follows. they grew rich and populous. and to hold his castle against the king's troops. " and then the citizens. was kept as a proof to all people that the rights which were mentioned in it had really been granted. a toll from all the king's subjects who crossed over it or if the king would allow them for ever afterwards to appoint their own judges and try their own disputes without any interference from the king and his successors. If the king were very strong. knd the Charter. used but generally to say that if the king would be pleased to give them the right to huilA u. the citizens. For instance. for daring to try to make a bargain . Perhaps. or written record of his promise. and to send a fixed number of soldiers. But sometimes it happened that the king was not strong enough to take what he wanted by force. The same thing happened in the cities and towns. the town had both money and men. The wars in France.upon to furnish men and money. but was in no hurry to give them away. •he marched a troop of soldiers into the town. threw the mayor and the chief citizens into prison. if the king were strong enough to take what he required. bridge. then they. . would be very happy to give the king what he wanted. soon swallowed up all the men and all the money. The king said what he wanted. if he demanded men and money from some powerful baron who was strong enough to keep what he had got. and if it were not given to him he took it. In the money from the citizens of the towns. and punished those who dared to refuse him." wrote the king. and to bring a right to How They were Won. " I want the aid of my loyal citizens.What Charters follow were. then the plan was simple enough. also them. . The king's promise was written down on parchment.

Thus in the time of King John. were written down on parchment and sealed with the king's seal. and these very parchments are still kept among the charters of Nottingham. and kept them in prison till the money was paid and the men were provided. But there were often reasons why the king thought a bargain the shortest way of getting what he wanted. as a rule. with him. and kept among the city records. what really belonged to someone else. those who ha. And so in many cases the bargain was struck. and John. But it is easy to understand that in such troubled and warlike times as the days of William the Conqueror. It was easy to make promises for the future so long as he got what he wanted at the moment and.is8 History of England. and which were written down in the charters. was not always a certain protection. and they may be seen in the great public libraries in London. the town of Nottingham agreed to pay a large sum of money every year for the right to appoint and elect its own Port-Reeve or Mayor. The City of London became at a very early date in our history the most powerful and important of English cities.d goods to sell in a market were made to pay a tax or toll before they were allowed to sell anything. which was duly signed and sealed. for. Henry IL. and did not want to make more. and enabled them to get better terms from each king in turn. This was a great advantage. and in the time of Henry H. Time after time we find that and failed to keep the promises whicji they had made. and other places and also in the British Museum in London. . and the terms of the bargain were written down in a charter. And so it often befell. the town paid some more money to the king. Oxford. The promises which were made to the people of Nottingham by William the Conqueror and Henry H. There are many of these ancient charters preserved to the present day. Then the kings broke faith. who promised that in return all the citizens of Nottingham should be free to buy and sell in any market in England. It was easy for kings to make promises when they were weak it was almost equally easy for them to break them when they became . however carefully signed and sealed. many enemies. and the citizens of London were among the first to use their power and their riches to obtain charters from the king. Each new charter which they received made them stronger than before. perhaps. He had already. it was always easy to make a present of . and its own magistrates. . strong agaic. a parchment writing. besides.

The Sealing of the Great Charter.. As long as they fought only for themselves and for their own advantage. they would be able to win success. have already seen that Henry II. the barons became strong and the king weak. was a great and powerful king. When. The Sealing. we read of a charter being given by the king to the barons and people. Which Henry the Third put his sea/ upon. Indeed. King Stephen was also obliged to grant a charter which was full of promises which he had very little intention of ever performing. Old Rhyme. saw how the Norman kings with the help of the conquered English. It was in the reign of King John that the barons thought the time had come for standing up once for all for their rights. When the barons were weak. and must get the people to join with them. they gave what they were asked for.successfuUy. But they soon saw that. early as the reign of Henry I. and be continued until the king was compelled to " confirm " the charter. had got the better of the barons. John was a violent and cruel man. he soon became more than a match for the barons. the king had by that time become so powerful that neither the barons nor the people alone could We We resist his will. 159 the struggle had to begin over again. and they were at the mercy of the king. who came after Stephen. no one was likely to help them. .. or to grant a new one in its stead. In the first place. " Magna Charta was signed by John.of the Great Charter. always ready to take by force what he At all. No sooner had they done so than they began to demand from the barons men and money beyond what the feudal laws and customs allowed them to take. last the barons saw that if they were to stand against the king at they must follow the example which William the Conqueror had been the first to set. It was not wonderful that they should think so. by joining their own cause with that of all the people. they either refused the aid altogether. in their turn. or gave it on condition of their receiving something in return. and. having the English on his side. As. as in the time of William the Conqueror and William Rufus.

and.i6o could not obtain History of England. In the second place. to and because he brought in foreign priests whom he set over the heads of the English clergy. and brought . John was engaged abroad. It is easy to understand why John made many enemies. At home he had quarrelled with the clergy. iFrotn a pfiotografih by the Pictorial Agency. fairly. paying no attention to the rights of his subjects.) took by force. he had made great demands upon the barons. and upon the people. nor the promises which had been made by his father and his greatgrandfather. for money and men. What he could not get as a gift he in quarrels both at home and RUNHYMEDE. in order to carry on his wars. broke the promises made in their charters. The Clergy hated him because he refused to obey the orders of the Church. The Barons hated him because he took their lands. Abroad he had begun a war against the King of France.

It has a name which is very famous in English history it is It was at Runnymede that the Great Charter was called Bunnymede. or driven from their purpose. They threatened that. (June 15. and he therefore agreed to meet the barons. Why has this long chapter beet . "And why do they not demand my crown " / will not. and told him plainly that they would no longer allow him to break the law and to overlook their rights. our arms shall do us justice. They sent a message to the king." said they.) And now it may be asked. and why is it so a . Archbishop of Canterbury. unless he would give a solemn promise in writing to observe their rights in the future. The barons were wise enough to get all the help they could against Many nobles from all parts of England joined them. and they joined together in arms to fight against him. The king came from Windsor. the the citizens of London sent word to them to say that Londoners were on their side. If we take a boat and row down the river from Windsor. Then John saw that. 1215. The meeting took place in a field by the side ot the river Thames. not far from Windsor. William Marshall. The People hated him because he robbed them of their money. The barons met at Brackley in Northamptonshire (12 15). The messengers found John at they came before him and told him what were the demands Oxford " These arc our claims. they would make war upon him and drive him from the throne. and the king. " and if they are not instantly granted. Mayor and . First there came a message in reply from London. given lip to the story of it ? Magna which went before famous ? What is this Charta. for the time at any rate. and broke the laws. It is said that only seven knights remained with the king. about three miles from Windsor Bridge. They at once declared themselves to be " the army of God and His Holy Church. with a great oath. and of the other charters Great Charter. he could not resist. we shall come to a broad meadow." The fury of the king was terrible. they had been ordered to make. At their head were FitzWalter. and friends of every degree. agreed to by King John in the presence of the barons. in foreigners i6i to whom he gave some of the richest lands in the kingdom. treated them with cruelty." he continued. and Stephen Langton. saying that the Mayor and citizens were on the side of the barons> and then from all parts there poured in lords and knights." But the barons were not to be terrified. also ? " cried he. " / will not grant them liberties which will make me a slave. the barons from Staines." and sent to -all parts of the kingdom to call people to their aid. the wisest and most famous of them all. At last the king's enemies would submit no longer.The Sealing of the Great Charter.

A great many of these laws and customs had to do with things which nowadays." Afterwards increased to sixty-three."^— Goethe. as almost all laws and charters were at that time. as we have already learnt. 1215. What the Great Charter was. forty-nine clauses or paragraphs. for we can actually see a copy of it at thi» very day at the British Museum. we shall understand how most of the laws and liberties of England were obtained in the early part of our history. Magna Charta. It contained. There were probably several copies made. is a long paper or parchment containing Forty-nine Articles or divisions. CHAPTER XXI.^ At the foot of the parchment are the seals of the king and of the barons. The barons who made King John grant the Charter did not pretend to be making a set of new laws. WHAT THE GREAT CHARTER An DID FOR ENGLISHMEN. Eng-lishman's Rights. We know exactly what Magna Charta was like. we shall see in The answer carefully read the next chapter. and which they wished to make him keep and observe in the future. "Only law can give us freedom. Of these to us forty-nine clauses. The reason for this is 1 '•' " Das Gesetz nur kann uns Freiheit geben. The Charter was written in Latin. to the first part of the question is. What they did was to write down clearly the laws and customs which they declared the king had broken.i62 History of England. that if we have and properly understood all that has been said in this chapter. and this is one of them. . only a very few are of much interest easy to understand. and why it is so famous. which was sealed by King John and the Barons at Eunnymede on the ISth June.

" "No Freeman. fined for ." of Article 17. to none will we : f The delay. but which have ceased to be im- own days. Merchant.. For these reasons we can leave out those parts of the Charter which are no longer important. or outlawed. . and to carry on their business without interference.^ shall be excessively a small offence the first shall not be deprived of his means of the third of his implements of livelihood the second of his merchandise Article 20." Article 18. that the clauses no longer matter very much to us who live nearly seven hundred years after the time of King John. It is the same with many other clauses. or Articles.(." Article 39. or Villein. or imprisoned. live under the same just laws. for the "Feudal law " was the law under which the barons lived." It would not be a bad plan 1 •! ' to learn these Articles the king. at the time.. which we ought specially to remember Article 40. shall send four times a year into each County. "We. or in unless legal judgment . husbandry. ^ or if we axe absent from the kingdom. For instance. " To none will we sell. husbandman. or dispossessed of his tenement. or any wise proceeded against. to none will we refuse. so there is little need for those parts of the Charter which have to do with the towns. Nowadays all the people of England. or exiled. of the Charter. "The Court Common Fleas shall not follow the King's - : but shall be held in a certain fixed place. So many things have changed in England.An portant in our Englishman's Mights.. Others had to do with the rights of the towns. and can turn our attention to the parts which are best known. by heart. as they are called. by the shall hold the Assizes at the time and place appointed in the said County. our Chief Justiciary. All these things mattered very much. VUltin. 163 were very important at the time. . circuit. " No Freeman shall be arrested. of his Peers. and some had to do with less important matters.. it ^g " means (. two Judges who . and is nearly forgotten. The feudal law has now been done away with. Bight and Justice. and which really make a difference even in the present day. At that time the people in the towns had often hard work to protect themselves against the king or against the nobles. by the Law of the Land. a great many of the clauses of the Charter speak of the feudal rights of the nobles. • following are the clauses. some clauses gave permission to merchants to travel freely. whether in town or country.

" So. and who had right on his side. It is true that justice is still sometimes delayed. to give judgments in favour of those who paid money for them in other words. Let us take them in order." John on behalf of himself. to be refused. and see what they mean and how concern us. . and to fight for. that it is never denied to any man. and if they had been faithfully carried out. Unfortunately. . too. and of those who were to. . This is not difficult. John himself was the very first to break these solemn promises which he had made. to " sell justice. and to be delayed to their subjects. happily. and those who lived in it. was kept out of his rights all his life. high or low. knew that he was doing wrong. Without justice to all alike. and to make it possible for every man to have a judgment on his case in a short time. But. and many of the kings who came after him forgot or neglected the 40th Article of the Great Charter.164 History of England. a country can never prosper. Article 40. so that the person who sought justice. and breaking the law which he had promised to keep. come after bim. And now. These were great promises to make. rich or poor. every king who acted thus. justice should never be "delayed. to none will we refuse. far they as it is still the practice of rulers in some parts of the world. justice is never sold. we have very nearly got all that King John promised. to none Such is the promise made by King will we delay. he promised that it should never be "refused" to those who asked for it. for they are most of them written in plain language. " To none will we sell. for it can truly be said that in England. and that it often takes a man a long time to get a judgment as to what are his rights but every year more is being done to make going to law easier. thanks to the Charter. it would have been much better for England. King John promised that for the future. It had been the practice of King John. It was a great thing to have this right rule always there to point to. and allowed justice to be sold. would be well worth while and we ought to try to understand clearly what they mean. right and justice. It is well that such a promise should have been solemnly made to the people of England so long ago." Sometimes the judgment was delayed for : months and years. in our own time.

Wherever the Icing went. five doors. sometimes in Scotland. In order that justice shall be done there must be judges." few years ago. which is known as Westminster Hall. of course. — It /s But it was no use promising to give justice to all men. shall who ... for the king was constantly travelling about. or. sometimes huntThe consequence was ing." and there sat the judges hearing cases brought before them from all parts of They sat just as they were commanded to sit in the kingdom." These were the doors of the Courts of Law. hall close to the Houses of Parliament. very inconvenient. in London. that It many was people never got justice done to them at little all. ." " Lords Justices. and above them written in order. he had not time to try all the cases that arose. in which the judges sat-. shall send four times a year into each County. two Judges. To provide the judges." "Lord Chancellor. The second door was that of the " Common Pleas. hold the Assizes at the time and place appointed in the said County. and in which the rights and wrongs in any case could be heard. In the time of King John all justice was supposed to be done by the king himself. Article 17 of Magna Charta.. for these reasons that Articles 17 and 18 were put into the Article 17 says. and as.i6s The Judges of Assize." " Exchequer. Articles 17 and 18 were put into the Charter." " Common Pleas. our Chief Justiciary. community together. and ever since the time of King John. Charter. " The Court of Common Pleas shall not follow the King's Court. sometimes amusing himseK in other ways. This W3. and though there were judges they were of use.s. during the law terms. would have seen on one side of the Hall as he went up. the Judges of the Common Pleas sat all the year rounS at Westminster. he used to appoint judges for the purpose. anyone who went to Westminster." Article 18 says " We. if we are absent from the kingdom. "In the first class I the public Justice that holds the place the judges as of the first Importance. of course." Burke. if there were no way in which justice could be done. the judges followed him. but shall be held in a certain fixed place. sometimes in France. down to the time of Quean Victoria. A and entered the great " Queen's Bench.

shall send four times a year into each county. Two Courts are opened.. or near. the Court of Exchequer. there would be very little justice done. Article 18 was written in the year 1215. The Court of Common Pleas. ' Or King's Bench Division of the High Court of Justice. the thing is t"ne same.a certain fixed place. who . the Court of Common Pleas at Westminster.i66 to hear cases History of England." All the prisoners who are in rcbe. and the Courts which sit at the Royal Courts of Justice in London are really the same Courts which are spoken of in Article 17 of Magna Charta. and when it took weeks to get from York to new ones having been opened two years plain. therefore. It did not matter where the king or queen might be. and the Court of King's Bench are now all joined together. County Town knows what is Everyone who has lived in. travelling is so easy and rapid. a meant by the A&nzts. and to some of the small ones. and sometimes soldiers are sent to form a guard of honour for the judges. the judges must go to them. The two judges generally come into the town in state. to Manchester.." namely." Here we see it is provided that the judges shall go into every county. earlier in the great building which stands in the Strand. our Chief Justiciary. Article 18 was put into the Charter. if we are absent from the kingdom. and all the judges who sit in them are called Judges of the King's Bench. and to give judgment. two judges. thanks to railways. in London. everyone knew that the judges were to be found " in . shall hold the Assizes at the time and place appointed in the said County. The High Sheriff of the county goes to meet them in a grand carriage. to Exeter. and shall hold the Assizes at some appointed place. Trumpeters ride before and blow upon their trumpets.. when there were scarcely any roads. and which is called the Royal Courts of Justice. when. It was — down in it is carried out. It would have been much more true in the time of King John. and Lewes in Sussex. to Leeds. To provide for this. In the one sits a judge clothed in a scarlet He is called the " Crown Judge. to Norwich. In the year 1884 the old Courts at Westminster were pulled down. But if everyone had to come to London to get justice.^ But though the name is changed. that when those who wanted justice could not come to the judges. . Once or twice every year the Judges of Assize come to York. to all the big towns in the country. or. This would be true even nowadays. but to this very day the rule which is laid : London. It runs as follows " We. such as Bodmin in Cornwall.

167 gaol waiting their trial are brought before him. doing justice to the . people in the name of the king or of the queen. He and before him are brought all sorts of disputes between persons who have "gone to law" with each other sits In the other Court called the " Civil Judge. For iiearly 700 years the Judges of Assize have taken their journeys through England. we shall do well to remember that we owe Chafta. and gives his judgment accordingly. 1 their coming to Article 18 of Magna Sortletimes with a jury. to be tried by him and by a Jury." or the next time we see the judges with their trumpeters coming into a town. and decides which is right and which is wrong." THE JUDGES ENTERING AN ASSIZE TOWN- He hears both sides. is the second judge in a black robe. to be punished if they be guilty.^ Thus we see that the rule laid down in the i8th Article of Magna Charta is still observed. . ftnd sometimes without. The next time we read in the paper the words "Assize News. and to be let free if they be innocent.The Judges of Assize.

every Englishman is concerned in the rule contained in the article. there . or in anywise proceeded* against. If." and who. that persons have been put into prison by powerful enemies." notice that Article 39 talks of " Freemen. or by the In the first place we must weie something very like it. though not unless by the legal judgment of his Peers. Personal Liberty and Trial by Jury. that we hardly understand how men We who first got them acknowledged as part of the laws of England. and their liberty off against their will. We shall see what that something was when we read Article 39. or exiled. : — of his tenement.'" Nowadays all men in England are free. there were many Englishmen who were actually slaves. To such as these the 39th Article of the Charter did not apply. it was as easy for him to injure them through the judges as to do the harm himself. that no man shall be punished in any way except by Law. Article 39 was as follows " No freeman shall be arrested. or dispossessed king. — Bat we must not forget that the judges were appointed by the and that an unjust king might easily appoint unjust judges and that if the king wished to harm any of his subjects. the right to put them into prison were left to those whom they had injured. Magna Charta had stopped at Article i8 it would have been very incomplete. and it is often quite just that they should be put in prison but if valuable they seemed to those . Something more had to be done. or to any person who was powerful enough to carry them would soon be no peace in the land. Over and over again it has happened in our history. In those days. But as everybody slaves. and they were compelled to do a large amount of work for their " Lord " without payment. or outlawed." i68 History op England. Those who do wrong must be punished. " You shall well and truly try and true deliuerance make between our Sovereign Lord the King and the Prisoner at the Bar. he shall have the right to be tried before a jury of his countrybefore he is found guilty. . and for many years afterwards. They were prevented from leaving the land on which they lived. Law of the Land. and that whenever he be charged with any crime. but in the time of King John this was not so. therefore. What the rule says shortly is this. in England is now a free man. and a true The Oath So help you God ! verdict give according to the evidence. or imprisoned. have got so accustomed to the enjoyment of there rights now. administerei to the Jury in « Criminal Case. while there were others who were known as " Serfs.

and so on. It may be asked. or in anywise proceeded against (which means that no steps shall be taken to punish or to injure him). Article 39 of the Charter has been broken and set aside. Now that there is only one law for all. that a Churchman should be tried by other churchmen. The jury If Peers. it is not necessary to make any distinction between the juries by which different people are tried. There we shall see a Jury of twelve men chosen by lot from a long list of persons unkpown to the prisoner. . for the nobles." of the crime which is laid to his charge. or a farmer. be tried by those who were in the same rank of life as himself." or " Not Guilty. because. This was the more important. there were different laws for the churchmen. or impriEoned. If they say that he be " not guilty. or dispossessed of his tenement (this means turned out of his house or land). except by the legal judgment — of his Peers. and for the merchants and farmers. in the same way. But whenever this has been done. What is the meaning of the word " Peers " ? Peers here means " Equals. It was thought by those who drew up Magna Charta that it was only fair to a man that he should be tried by those of his own rank. and that a merchant. and it is they will have to say whether he be " Guilty." nothing more can be done to him." we want to know what is meant by " The legal Judgment of his we have only to go into any court where prisoners are being tried at the Assizes." hear the whole of the case against the prisoner. The words of the Charter are very plain " No man shall be arrested.Personal Liberty and Trial by Jury. should. For instance. and in his own way of life. at the time when Magna Charta was granted. for then there was always a danger that a jury of barons would be unfair to a churchman or to a merchant. they meant that a Baron should be tried by other barons. They thought that injustice would be done if those in one class were allowed to try those of another. and no one can touch will who him. 169 taken away from them by force. that a jury of merchants would be unfair to a baron or a churchman." or persons in the same class of life.

or was said . illegal It We was long before Charles could be punished for his ' deeds. as. and put him to death.rles I. and drove him from his throne. At that time no one was allowed to give an account of what The House of Commons sent a messenger in Parliament. named Wheble. But it was not the king only who broke the law and disobeyed the rules of Magna Charta. In the reign of George HI.170 History of England. but at last. But the House of Commons would not let the king take the Members prisoners. the king himself did many things which were contrary to the law. Charles II.. Thus we see that Magna Charta has been a protection for the people and Parliament of England against the king. prisoner. Among other things. indeed. The very first thing that his son. The law no respecter of persons. But Wheble had never been tried according to the law. or by order of the House of Commons. when the king became too strong. It is not so long ago.. to take one of these men. since men were put into prison and their property taken from them in England by order of the king. must not suppose that because we are so accustomed to the idea of every man being judged according to law only. the Parliament and the people rose against him. we know. he tried to take prisoners five Members of Parliament in the House of Commons itself. contrary to the law of the land. In the reign of Cha. and in the other laws of England. How the Law is Protects the Weak. and that he would obey the rules which had been laid down in Magna Charta. that even in our time the danger against which Article 39 of Magna Charta was intended to guard us is unknown. the House of Commons ordered some men who had written down the speeches made in Parliament to be put into prison. which says that no man shall be imprisoned unless he has been tried and found guilty by a jury.. was made to do when he was put back upon the throne was to sign a solemn promise that he would always act according to the law.

tried to break the law. high or low. so also the very people for whom the law was made have sometimes tried to break it. will often use their power to injure those who are weaker than themselves. So the Lord Mayor sent the messenger of the House of Commons to prison. and had the messenger himself made a prisoner. And thus we see that even House of Commons has to obey the law. And just as the king. or whether they be Members of Parliament. and their land and their property taken away from them. They tried to frighten the men who did not belong to the union. The messenger was brought before the Lord Mayor of London to be tried. but it ended in the Wheble being allowed to go free. from being unjust to others. in our own time. Then those who had broken the law were told that if ever they dared to offend in the same way again they would be severely punished. and who showed how the law had been broken. A Trades Union had been formed among the workmen who ground saws in Sheffield. And even now. and is not allowed to break the rules laid down in Magna Charta. or People^ It is a very good thing that the law is so strong and so clear. Wheble turned the tables on him. but those non-union men. whether he be All these things were contrary to law to . there are many parts of the world in which people have been violently and unjustly put in prison. 171 according to law. when he was very powerful. when there were great trouble and alarm in the town of Sheffield. without any . had rich or poor. tried to break the law. There was a time. Thus it will be seen that the Law is strong enough to punish King or ParUament. They broke their grindstones. or whether they be working men. and so at last Parliament put a stop to this cruel work. not very long ago. for he had sought to imprison a man who had never been tried and found guilty. when it became very strong.How THE Law Protects the Weak. and the Lord Mayor said that it was plain that he had broken the law. for history teaches us that those who have great power. whether they be king. So when the messenger of the House of Commons came to take Wheble prisoner. They sent down men who made inquiry about all that had taken place. and just as Parliament.'" All the saw grinders in Sheffield did who belonged to it thought they were strong enough to make the others join. and they even killed some of the not join the union. and it is a good thing to have a law which will stop any man. Then there was a great quarrel between the House of Commons and the Lord Mayor. they stole their tools. It was called the " Saw Grinders' Union.

may not be taken away from him. it happened that a woman in London owed money to a man. The man to whom she owed the money. whether he be rich or poor. and a man's tools with which he gets his living. or Villein ' which is as follows : No Freeman. without a fuU and fair trial. The woman in her turn went to the magistrate and told him what ^ Husbandman. it says. It is a most happy thing for us in England to know that no man." This is a very important Article. can be punished in any way.172 History op England. and earned her living by her sewing machine. and who is called the " Debtor" enough of her property to pay the debt. poor. not long ago. a small not be deprived of his means of livelihood the second of his merchandise the third of his implements of husbandry. This was against the law. and they had no right to do it. Merchant. he shall never be deprived of those things which are necessary to enable him to get a living. — And now we come " offence . and a very interesting one. high or low. Now. but the law still says that a man's bed.''' as he is called. went to law and got an order from the judge which enabled him to take from the woman who owed him the money. or deprived of his property. Among other things the bailiffs took the sewing machine. to Article 20 of the Charter. Shortly put. Mag-na Charta and the Seamstress. defend the children of the Psalm Ixxii. shall be excessively fined for . and punish the wrong-doer. that however much one man may owe to another. " He shall keep the simple folk by their right . the first shall . and without those who were thus unjustly treated receiving a fair and open trial. The law nowadays is not exactly the same as that laid down in Article 20. . The creditor sent bailiffs to take a sufficient amount of her property to pay the debt. for in our day a man's merchandise may be taken in payment of his debts. Thus. the " Creditor. regard for the law. the woman was a seamstress.

It is only good sense too for if one man be owed money by another. . it is no use taking from the debtor the very things by which he earns his livelihood. broken. or to take the tools with which he does his work. In the same way the law forbids . we shall see. get their living. a creditor to take the bed on which a man sleeps. This is a wise and reasonable rule. for it is only fair that all men and women should be allowed to keep the means by which they He BAILIFFS BREAKING "MAGNA CHARTA. were first laid down in Article 20 of the Great Charter. and to pay a sum of money as a punishment for having broken the law. 173 The magistrate said at once that the Law had bun ordered the creditor to give back the sewing machine.Magna Charta and the Seamstress had been done. These rules.

174 History op England. The moment we come to think. have to do with our own and from this we may learn a lesson. and for making certain people answerable for finding soldiers to defend the castles." CarlyU. the keeping up of Castles on the border between England and Scotland. it must be old-fashioned or unreasonable. and if they did they would receive no worse punishment than being laughed at. must be bad ones. which were drawn up and agreed to nearly seven hundred years ago. Then there for such castles. for everybody thought that the way to become fashionable was to wear a "raff" a little higher than his neighbour. laws were made at one time providing for them. we shall see how foolish such an opinion as this is. stuck up all round the head. because the habits and customs of the people of England have changed so much that there is no longer any sense in the laws or use for For instance. but there is certainly no good in it nowadays. In the time of Queen Elizabeth it became the fashion to wear tall.. perhaps. It is lives at the present day said by some persons who do not think very carefully. Now there is no need ago become useless. or which were made at a time when people did not know things which we have since discovered. when it was made. till all the soul of good that get itself transformed into the practical new. like the one in the picture. The ruffs grew taller and taller." or collars. 'Thing's New and Old. have been some good in the law punished. therefore. At last a law was made which forbade people to wear " ruffs " more than a certain height. starched "ruffs. has long law made in the time of Queen no use nowadays. that old laws . and that because a law has been a law for very many years. and on the border between England and Wales. and those who did so were There may.' it " The old never dies till this happen. — was in Now we have gone through the most important Articles of the Charter. many laws were made was also a very strange Elizabeth which is of . For instance. . and to remember what we have just learnt about Magna Charta. Some laws which were made a long time ago are useless now. and have seen how much these rules. Nobody now wants to wear " ruffs " high. There are also laws which were bad laws when they were made. and the law.

which were never wise.') any Act of Parliament that was passed last year.P/u>it> : IN HER " I Law of the Land just as much as Emery Walker. Hen. but was signed again by it was afterwards altered several times.* and so we have to thank those ancestors of ours who lived in the time of King John because they were wise enough to make laws in their own time which were so just and so useful that the need for them is stiU felt. made . and all the laws against theni' therefore. But there are some things which were right and true nearly 700 years ago. the son of King John. IX. Ever since thai of the statutes passed in the time of and it is time Magna Charta has been part of the law of England.' It was right 700 years ago that no one should be punished except by law. have long ago ceased to be part We of the law of the land. after the death of Oliver Cromwell. Charles when that remember interesting to upon the throne. and terrible punishments were inflicted upon those now know that witchcraft who were suspected of being Witches.. It was right nearly 700 years ago ihat justice should be done to all men. Magna Charta was first granted by King John. near the there." Things New and Old. And we must Magna Charta is still not forget that a part of the QUEEN ELIZABETH (. it is also right now.. we the ninth chapter the lawyers call " Ca^. and it Henry III. and which are as right and true now as they were then. and was put back Magna to promise that he would observe the rules of he was Charta. III. iind shall of England. and it is right now. the statutes or laws If we look in the law books which contain a statute which beginning." which means King Henry III.. and witches are foolish inventions. England to back came 11." i7S against Witchcraft.

d. became King 1216.. another monk of St. won the great In 1715 took place the "Jacobite when the Pretender tried to lead his Scottish army into England. 1236. Edward. Simon de wontfort. d. Paris. chosen Roger WendOVer. son of King John and Isabella of Angoulfime. FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED HENRY III. daughter of Henry III. 1239.. Archbishop of Canterbury. King of Scotland. " Among the high tides in the halendar 7 Shakespeare : it dons " King John. King of France. . killed at Earl of Leicester. 1207. Stephen Langton. 1265. Here are 'Fifteen. and Eleanor of Provence. Margaret. Eebellion._ grandfather of Isabella. Albans.iy6 History of England. (St. wife of Henry ill.. Louis IX." sealed. 1236. (the ancestor of the Austria). became King i27o. Matthew Hubert de Burgh. CHAPTER XXII. We of saw that the charter was granted interesting to observe how many England have happened In 1215 Magna Charta was It is in the year 1215of the important things in the history in a year ending in the number " 15. Philip )XX. and monk.— THE PARLIAMENT OF ENGLAND." ' What hath this day deseru'd ? What hath That it in golden letters should be set. Roger Bacon. became King 1226. who married Edward II. afterwards King of England. m. 1216-1272. d. who is an Oxford student said to have first Evesham used gunpowder in England. victory of Aginoourt over the French. King of France. 1272. 1715. Eleanor of Provence. The Famous "Fifteens. Rudolph of Hapsburg present Emperor of Emperor 1273. son of Henry III. Albans. a rebellion which is generally known in history as "The In 1815 was fought the great battle of Waterloo. King of England.. 1415. who wrote part of the history of this time. XXL. and 1815. Louis). Alexander 111." In 1415 Henry V. HENRY III.. b. who continued the history tfter the death of Roger Wendover. b. b." four famous dates which we shall find it very easy to remember— 1215. IN THE REIGN OF Henry m. d. b. 1228. justiciar. 1259. d. 1208. and Eleanor of Provence. King of England. and Henry's most important Minister till 1232. a monk of St." Act III. 1270. 1214. d.

. and widow of William Marshall. I. Dante. the barons. 1272. III Henry becomes fleet. make terms with the Quarrel between King Henry and De Montfort. and by which we may remember him. The 1219. was first built in the reign of Roger Bacon.177 PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE REIGN OF HETMRY 1216. It is said part of Westminster Abbey. Death of the Earl of Pembroke. Louis returns to France. 1217. Hubert de Burgh 1228. 12611264. Montfort puts himself at the head of Justiciar. ^^^^ Hent'y was a boy of nine years of age when he became king. that It this reign. the King's chief Minister. marries Eleanor of Provenc* Large numbers of foreigners come to England with the Queen. battle of Evesham. and Queen Victoria. Montfort summons a Parliament. — "fs't possible. . I would pray our monsieurs To think an English courtier may be wise." Henry 1238. The barons refuse to give Henry money for the war. Discontent with the foreigners and the foreign clergy. 12 2.. Henry summons a Parliament. 1239. he did which was a good thing. War in Poitou with France. Nay. Simon de Montfort marries E'eanor." "Henry VIIIJ' Act Scene 3 When John died he was succeeded by his son Henry. Men the spells of France shoufd Juggle into such strange mysteries ? SAitDs— Though they be never so ridiculous. becomes 1353. Hubert de Burgh destroys the French 1239. born. Death of Henry IIL it The greater Henry HI. Earl of Pembroke. Earl Marshal. But the reign of Henry was one of misery and disturbance for the people of England. was the person in England to was during this leign that the great Italian poet. One things Little good was done for this country by the king. yet are follow'd. whi lived during describe Gunpowder an i to explain its use. Edward. 1265. It was Henry 111. Hubert de Burgh dismissed bytbe kinr. King of France. who was afterwards King of England. who rebuilt the beautiful Abbey . let 'em be unmanly. . Death of Montfort. Mad Parliament. Death of Louis IX. barons' party king. as we know now. son of Henry and Eleanor. king. now. He reigned longer than any English sovereign except King George III. was born (1265). Beginning of the " Barons' War. in which members for the Towns appear for the first lime. . And never see the Louure. Henry IIL and Chamberlain his Foreigrn Friends. The 1270. sister of King Henry. Chamberlain — ***** customs. New . i2j6.'' Montfort defeats Henry at Lewes. known as the " Death of Stephen Langton. however.

" we often see the words "Imperial and underneath them an account of the speeches which are made. We saw how in the time of King John there were injustice and cruelty throughout the land. but the chief part of the story can be told in a few pages. must try to understand how it was that this came about. in^the time of Henry III. We saw also how this very injustice and cruelty led to King John being forced to grant shall see We Magna Charta. has come down to us from the stormy we take up a newspaper reign of Henry III. of course. When we go through the reigns of the different kings and queens of England. But if Henry did little that was good or worthy.y55 History of England.. something about nowadays. and a great deal of the Abbey as now stands dates from the time of Henry III. which everybody knows the House of Conunons. and that is. is the name of a very great man. and try to put down what is the chief thing to be remembered in each of them. and Eleanor was. a foreigner. how often good comes out of evil. shall find. Englishmen ought always to think of when they speak of the first Parliament. some things happened during his reign which were of great importance. And now again. that the chief thing to be remembered is that the first English Parliament sat in the reign of If Henry lit Parliament. there has always been one great man whose name is remembered because of the part he took in helping to bring The name which about that change. and which have made a great difference to the people of England. Provence is in the south of France. It things would have gone on smoothly after the death of seemed at first King John.. John had made promises of good behaviojir in Magna Charta. as a rule. One thing we can hardly help noticing. Earl told here. we shall see when we come to the reign of Henry HI. it at Westminster. on behalf of himself and of his son. Simon de Moutfort. But it was soon seen that there were many difficulties to be overcome. we how troubles and disturbances led to the founding of the Parliament of which we are so proud. he took as his wife Eleanor of Provence. And so it is in this case. And now as for if let us go back to the history itself. and all her friends were foreigners . that whenever a great change is made in the history of a country. As soon as the king grew old enough to be married. and the Acts which are passed in the House of Lords and This great Parliament. We of Leicester. The whole story cannot really be told so shortly as it must be A great deal must be left out which can be read in larger books.

THE BARONS ASKING HENRY III. . TO KEEP HIS PROMISES.

We can easily understand that the English. The king broke the promises which had been made by his father in Magna Charta. as follows : — a very important time in the history of England. by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal. and the Two Houses. party of barons formed themselves together. They. called the House of Lords and the House of Commons. and they all expected to receive from King Henry some of the riches of England. Earl of Leicester. and were cruel and insolent to them. and made him swear once more that he would keep to the Charter. In order that the barons and the people might have some way of making the kipg keep his promise in the futi^re. These friends came over in numbers to England. either in money or in lands. be told in this chapter is the story of the beWe all know pretty well what Parliament ginning of Faxliament. Quarrels soon brolie out between the king and the barons. Some were given castles and lands. both rich and poor. on their side. Simon was the son Simon. Parliament is made up is. others were made archbishops or bishops. and Law-makers "Be it enacted by the King's most excellent Majesty. and by the authority of the same. Every law that is made has to be agreed to by the House of Commons. and he soon learnt to share the feelings of the English barons and the English people. of the King or Queen. who treated At the head of them was Simon de Montfort. Nor had these strangers the good sense to use their fortune wisely. of a Frenchman who had become famous as a great soldier. A them so badly. as the barons had done against John. too.I So History of England. true and brave. Simon de Montfort declared that there must be a Council called to help the king in the government of the country. and by the House of Lords. for they saw that he was a strong man. " From the commencement of a modern Act of Parliament. Laws. and we know something about what it does. the younger. and Commons. in this present Parliament assembled. at his father's death. soon began to hate these ill-mannered foreigners. who took their land and their money. learnt to trust him. and too. came over to England when he became Earl of Leicester. They despised the English people. Simon de Montfort and the barons took up arms against him. and then to We now come story which The is to .

But if they be made in this way. people will more readily obey those laws which they have had some share in making. . were built by order of the king. by those officers whom he appointed. In the time of Henry. but it was a new thing then.. they who make daily trial of them are best acquainted with them . and will act with an eye to their own peace. the king found that this plan did not always succeed. that is to say. whether the owners liked or not. Scotland. Now let us see how it happened that the people of England iirst began to think of this way of making laws in the time of Henry III. the people of England. such as Westminster Abbey. . and when the English had little power and could do nothing to protect themselves." What was true in the time of King Henry is true now. money was wanted— and often a great deal of money. i8i It is with the House of Commons that we now have to do. gut by-and-by. and a great deal of hard work and hard fighting had to be done before our Parliament could be made such as we now know it. Scotland. The House of Commons is made up of a great number of Members who have been chosen or elected by the people living in the counties and towns of England.Laws. Scotland. and Ireland have nobody to thank but themselves. or indeed any. One of these rules was that the king should only take a "fair " amount of money from the barons and the people whenever he It was very easy to say that the king wanted money to spend. and Ireland. as it was said by those who wrote about Parliament so long ago as the time of Simon de Montfort and Henry III. Armies were got together by order of the . as we have seen. and whether they be good laws or bad laws depends upon those who make them. when William the Conqueror came over. In this way the people of England. To do all. Those who have to obey the laws are most likely to know whether the laws injure them or not and. it was not hard for the king to ask for whatever he wanted. king the king himself often led his soldiers in battle. and to keep to the rules laid down in Magna Charta. they are more likely to be good laws than if they are made in any other way for. If the laws be bad. " They who are ruled by the laws know those laws best . nearly all the government of the country was carried on by the king and the king's Ministers . At first. to speak on behalf of those who have elected them. and Laiv-makers. and since it is their own affairs which are at stake. We read in another chapter how the barons forced King John to promise to do justice. Great buildings. as a rule. they will take more care. by the King or Queen. It seems simple enough in these days. and Ireland make their own laws. of these things. and to take it.

then what he asks will be given to him." and. There were also a hundred and twenty Churchmen." If the king were weak. but who was to decide what was fair? If the king were strong. and some thought they would offend the king by coming others were afraid to come.1 82 History of England. could be put an end to. Neither way was a very good way. ." Those who are sent to Parliament to speak on behalf of the towns were called " Burgesses. we generally call them " County Members. and after King Henry had been beaten at the battle of Lewes (1264). who was always in want of money. indeed. that is what they are called to this day. notices are sent to the Sheriff of each County Division. was only to take a fair amount. Little RxxtXanA. and took what he chose.shire has only one. Simon de Montfort and his friends advised the king to call together a Parliament. telling him to send to Parliament a " Knight of the Shire " for that part of the country." as we now call them. and both sides soon found this out. for the first time. than to give it because they are commanded to do so. and the barons and people. and will have given it of their own free will. There ax. " that they are easier to lead than to drive " they are often more ready to give a thing because they are asked to give. then will be for the barons and the people to and what he wants say how much money they will give. When a new Parhament is called together. chosen from each county and town. and it let for. The county members were called " Knights of the Shire." With this thought in his mind. then the barons or the citizens of the towns decided for themselves what they thought fair. and the king did not get what he wanted. It has often been said of EngHshmen. a real Parliament was called There sat in the Parliament only twenty-three barons. We ." which is very much the same thing. who had got to pay the money. and YoA-shire has no less than twenty-seven. Simon formed a plan by which he thought that the quarrel between the king. If the king asks what is right and just. " Let the king. .. And now. him and tell them hoia much money it that he wants." now call them " Borough Members.c. But when we talk about Knights of the Shire. eight knights of the shire for Devou-s/ji. " call together the it is barons and the citizens. Some of the barons were enemies of Montfort. Simon de Montfort knew this very well. and it will be given all the more willingly because those who have to pay it will know for what purpose it is to be used. for " might was right. and besides these there were the "Members. the king decided. and in what way it shall be collected. to help him to govern the country." said Simon.

But money is wanted now just as much as it was wanted in the time of King Henry. In the time of King George V. It was feared that when the people of England were asked to give money. That the great body of our state may go In equal rank with the best-gouern'd nation. But this fear has not turned out to be well founded.. and what money they wished to pay. and Parliaments were not then as strong as they are now. "Now And we our High Court of Parliament." Part II. Act call let V. that the Post Office may be carried on. did not in their pockets as possible. and the reason is had good sense. Parliament. that the Judges and the Police may be paid. They know a great deal of money must be spent in order that a great country such as England may be properly governed. some good. or King William I. we know very well that it was not the last. It was thought when Parliaments first began." ••Henry IV. nearly always been willing to give very large sums of that English people have generally well that money out country. they would always say " No. and every year Parliament is asked to give many millions of pounds. The country was still divided into two parties. which have to be paid by the people of England in order that the Army and Navy may be kept up. The king was glad enough to get rid of the Parliament. Through them the people of England have been able to speak. used to do." and would keep as much of their money first This ago. us choose such limbs of noble counsel. of their pockets to enable the king to govern their Nowadays the king or queen does not govern the country in the same way as King Henry II.. and to say by what laws they wished to be governed. and Montfort had many enemies. that it would be very hard for the king ever to get enough money to do what was needed for the country. .i83 The First Parliament. some bad. therefore. One thing we ought to notice. But though it was the first. Scene 2. it is Parliament which really decides who shall govern the country. and for many other purposes. and so this iirst Parliament very soon came to an end. which was called together six hundred ysars do very much. and they have. and from that time to this there has been a long chain of Parliaments..

Many who had been his friends left him. and his enemies were always ready to do him harm. Before long King Henry thought himself strong enough to take up arms a second time against De Montfort. and the party of the barons and the people on the other and But it that these two parties were always at war with each other." from Percy's "Rcliques. and arranged with great art^ he knew at once who must be the general who ." " Sir Simon de Montfort. worst of all. would be a great mistake to think that this was always the case in the history of England. "At length. And ofttimes he made their enemies flee. that they used their right to refuse to give him the money for which he asked. in the battle on Euesham Plain. who had fought bravely by his father's side at the battle of Lewes. When he saw it drawn up in good order. Montfort. " Vlhen the Barons in arms did King Henry oppose. England seemed for a time to be split up into two parties the party of the liing on 'the one hand. The Barons' were routed. the Parliaments of England gladly gave the money that they were asked to give. Simon rode out in front of his troops to look at the army of the enemy. It IS true that in the reign of Henry III. and went out to meet the king. or doing some unjust act. His army was small. whom Montfort himself had long ago instructed in the duties of a soldier and a general. It seemed as if from that time good-fortune had forsaken him. the king's army was under the command of Prince Edward. At last the armies came face to face with each other near Evesham. like a brave old soldier. put himself at the head of his troops. and see what happened to him after he had persuaded the king to call together a Parliament. Over and over again." And now we must go back for a short time to Simon de Montfort. It was only when they thought the king was breaking the law. A leader of courage undaunted was he. and Montfort was slain.184 History of England. In Worcestershire (1265). and that of King Henry was large and. — — The Fall of Montfort. . But this time everything seemed against him. Sir Simon de Montfort their leader they chose. He was soon joined by his son Edward.

fighting bravely. " they come on in wise fashion . for right. and in order to keep his head he soon gave up his castles. and greater and stronger castles. William of Valence was wise enough to know that what Simon de Montfort said he meant. was leading this great army against him. one of the greatest men of whom we read in the history of England. A story is told of Simon which shows us what kind of a man he was. hut it was from me that they learnt it. and many of his castles. whether the king ordered it or no. and yet King Henry was always ready to desert him. arm of St. had displayed so much skill. James/" he cried." said he." He knew that his pupil. but he had learnt to become as English as the English themselves. he was determined that others should do . and soon the small band with Simon were cut down or forced to fly. Perhaps the most noble thing to be remembered about Simon de Montfort is the way in which he was always true to England and to his friends. the young Prince Edward. His enemy. and. . and to honour and reward the enemies of England. Earl of Pembroke. and held the two great castles of Kenilworth and Odiham. Simon received from the King of France the offer of a much larger sum of money. if he would serve Louis instead of King Henry for throughout all Europe the name of Simon de Montfort was known as : . Simon de Montfort was a foreigner by birth.so too. The battle began. at last. vowed that. The king promised that all the foreign barons should be made to give up their castles. he at any rate would not give up his castles. rather than the man who was the friend of England. No man fought harder for King Henry. they were angry with the man who stood up for what many enemies. Once when Henry had treated him with great injustice. perhaps because he was so true and just. 185 "By the. Everywhere the. and. Simon turned fiercely upon him " You shall either give up your castles or your head. But Simon was not going to be the first to break a law which he had helped to make. he made many men had unjustly taken that to which they and when they were made to give up that which did not belong to them. Now Simon himself was a foreigner. or did better service to the king than Simon. William of Valence. and taken from him a large sum of money. was killed upon the field of battle. He gave up his two castles at once. had no wasright. Very different was the conduct of Simon. But if he was to obey the rule. He was true and just in all his dealings.The Fall of Montfort. Simon himself was struck from his horse. Thus died Simon de Montfort.victory rested with the young prince.

because he honoured and rewarded the enemies of England. that of a great leader offer of the Henry III. and hated and ill-treated those who were true to England.i86 History of England. died in the year 1272 in his sixty-sixth year. . But Simon refused the King of France with scorn. and a wise counsellor. and would never consent to serve any other country than England. The memory of King Henry should be held in scorn by every Englishman. His name deserves a much higher place in the history of England than that of his sovereign.

KINGS. added Wales to his dominions. on Bosworth field. The Third Part of our history deals with the period of two hundred and thirteen years which elapsed between the accession of Edward I. we see how the destruction of the great nobles led to the growth of a new aristocracy. and in which English kings and English soldiers first won and then lost the fair kingdom of France. begins the story of the terrible Hundred Years' War. We shall read first how under our kings.. the man to whom we owe the fixing of our language in forms which have become possessions for ever. while the crown obtained a power and influence in the country which even our greatest kings had never ' hitherto secured. the creator of our modern speech. ENGLAND UNDER ENGLISH 1272-1485.i87 PART THREE. now real Englishmen. a war in which brilliant triumphs were succeeded by melancholy failures. of Chaucer. NOTE. With Edward III. The period is one of chequered fortunes. ." and of the sordid quarrels which followed in its course . of Wycliffe. and the death of the last of the great line of Plantagenet kings. and of Caxton the printer. Lastly we come to the history of the civil conflict known as the " Wars of the Roses. Something is said of the social life of the country . the limits of the kingdom as it was to exist for more than three centuries were decided : how the great soldier Edward I. and how his feeble son lost Scotland. which drained the resources of England and France. the great English poet. the great religious teacher . Richard III.

. reaches England. English law introduced into Wales. b 1265.. "The Maid of 12951296. Eleanor of Castile (Spain). (the Italian P^et). Edward decides in favour of Balliol. but are defeated in North Wales. Dante d. Edward "751282. and declare war against England. Bruce becomes King of Scotland. Regent 1305- of Scotland. sister of Philip. Edward invades South Wales.. 1294. EDWARD I. IN THE REIGN OF EDWARD I. The Scots make an alliance with France. Castile. fourth Edward I. Great Writers— Roger Bacon. Edward marches north. destroys the Scottish army at Falkirk. 1292. 1272-1307. William Wallace. d. King of France. Prince Edward presen*ed to the Welsh at Carnarvon Castle. Death of Margaret. Balliol. King of Scotland. King of Scotland. Edward invades Wales. 1284. 1290. 1254. sister of Edward I. 1282... Edward Norway. granddaughter of Alexander and Margaret and great-niece of Edward I. Edward I. b. Robert the Bruce. 1285. became King 1272. King of Castile.. Llewelyn. aged 6g. sometimes called "Edwani Longshanks/' son of Henry HI. I. Prince of Wales. King of France. and joins the Edward to Edward as his Scots. Robert the Bruce 1306.. 1290. William Wallace heads a Scottish at insurrection. d. Alexander Margaret.x88 History of England. feudal lord. afterwards King of Scotland. Resigned the crown before his dea'h.. marries Margaret. present Margare* ("The Maid of Norway"). Regent of Scotland. 1307. Robert the Bruce murders Comyn. m." and Queen of Scotland. proclaimed King. 1274. Edward puts down asecond insurrection Wales. d. Death of Edward at Burgh-by. grandfather of Robert the Bruce. and Eleanor of Provence. Margaret. Comyn. King of Scotland 1292. King of Scotland. Baron Slcehon Lord of Annandale. wife of Alexander III. Edward captures Berwick. executed b. Robert Bruce. d. 1239. d. chosen Emperor 1273. Balliol and Bruce claim the Scottish throne. afterwards King of England. The_ English defeated by Wallace Stirling Bridge. King of England. tegins war with the French in Flanders. 1295. wife of Edward b.. murdeied by Scottish patriot. Death of Llewelyn. sister of Alfonso IV. m. 1298. AND "THE BREAKING OF wales.. a Crusade. Roger Bacon dies. then in Palestineon EDWARD I. Emperor of Austria. The English capture Anglesey." Edward 1285 1290. Wallace taken and executed. . Alexander III. dies. Welsh Prince of Wales. Balliol submits in '305ijo6. The Scots defeated at Dunbar. ancestor of the Rudolph of Fapshurg. sister of Philip 1 1 1. PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE REIGN OF Edward. 1299. Edward marches into Scotland. FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED Edwaxd I. Peisecution of the Jews in England. T^e barons refuse to give aid until Edward had confirmed the " Charters. recognised as Queen of Scotland. 1294. and Eleanor of second wife of son of 1306. 1284. CHAPTER XXIII. the last d. became King Jobn Edward. guest (Jf Con- Scotland.Sands. III.

and that what happens during many years of peace is often far more important than what happens during a few years of war. and grandson Edward I. Edward III. for from the day when Edward I.''* Switzerland dent. the first who. pleted.England at War. "« Edward II. that they were unimportant. China and Japan during this reign. came to the throne. and that they made no real difference to the history of England. — portant. William Tell.'-*^ and Edward III...remember." —Freeman.. It is not always that the wars which take place during any part of a country's history are the most important things to read about and to. known as the " Sicilian Vespers. followed a purely English policy. . we shall see they made We . sometimes give up too much time to reading about battles and fighting just because they are interesting and exciting. the this year.»» These three reigns cover a long period in the history of England. the hero of Switzerland. died. But we cannot say about the wars of King Edward I. is no less than one hundred and five years. visits Gesler. On the contrary. THIS REIGN. " In the person of the great Eduuard. declares itself indepen- 1306. in traveller. and of his son and grandson. the work of reconciliation is comNorman and Englishmen haue become one under the best and greatest of our later l<ings. These one hundred and five years are full of interest much happened in them that Englishmen ought to know and care about. . but we have not room here to follow every subject in detail and we must therefore try to choose those which are the most im: . son. England at War. and forget that the battles sometimes make really very little difference to tlie country. suppostd to Marco Polo. The reigns of the three Edwards must always be remembered as times of war. . since the Norman entered our land. to the day on which his grandson. the great Venetian have levolted against Austrian Governor. 189 OTHER EVENTS OF IMPORTANCE WHICH HAPPENED DURING Massacre of the Normans m Sicily. 1282. We now come to the reign of three kings father.

and some we have corrected." From tlie Preamble to "The — Statutes of Wales. The Saxons landed on the south and east coasts of England. which.. With each of these countries England. George " ' was seen on the Severn. broke down bit by bit the power of the Britons. . they drove before them the British tribes who refused to submit. desiring that the people of those lands who have submitted themselves to our will should be protected in security.. Three countries touched or lay very close to the borders of England. a very great difference indeed.. under fixed laws and customs. see frontispiece^ . wholly transferred to our dominion the land of Wales. and ended. and tliat England would not have been what it is if these wars had not been fought. 1 The English Flag. what is the meaning of these and how far it is true to say that the wars of the Edwards Walesr " made " Scotland. and France were in turn invaded." and " the Ruin of France. at the death of his grandson. 1284. Breaking of Wales. have caused to be rehearsed before us and the nobles of our realm. "The Breaking: of Wales. Scotland. we therefore . during the reign of the Edwards." " the Making of Scotland. It may be said that the one hundred and five years which passed between 1272 and 1377 saw " the. abolished some of them. Edward III. all obstacles ceasing. of its favour. had very different results for the three countries in which they were carried on. and who ^were lucky enough to escape from the swords of their pursuers. or rather ceased for a time. with its inhabitants. and the Seine. The Saxons in the long wars that followed the landing of Hengist and Horsa. The wars which began with the accession of Edward I." passed by the Parliament held at RImidlan in Flintshire. heretofore subject to us in feudal right. we have. "The DIVINE PROVIDENCE having now. the laws and customs in those parts hitherto in use. and we have commanded and ordained certain others to be added thereto. was at war. some we have allowed. Wales." We " broke " shall learn in the next chapters three sayings. and " ruined " France. and as they marched on towards the west. .. the Forth.iQo History of England. by the advice of the said nobles. and the red cross of " St. having fully understood. and having annexed and united the same unto the crown of the aforesaid realm as a member of the same body ..

or be utterly destroyed by their lierce enemies. and so it is now." such as "Poftimore." Now Tre. Cornwall had become a part of the Kingdom of England. ^ Saltash is the first Vestetn Railway. and at Plymouth. and step by step the Britons retreated before them.^' The rhyme means that if a man has a name which begins with " Tre. and Penzance without fear of being interrupted by the British tribes on land. : . and which we know to be Cornwall and Wales. The Saxons reached the sea at Carlisle. language than English and even so long ago as the time of Edward I. "Pol" means a pool. such as " Pmrose. Pol. no broad river like the Severn flows between them. ." or with "Pen. we shall see that to the west of this line there lie two great pieces of country which form the most western parts of England. and Carlisle. and that the Saxons and Britons had already begun to mix together in the west. and " Pen " means the top of a hill so even now we can see marks of Cornwall being more British than Saxon. and Plymouth to sail down to the Land's End and into the harbours of Fowey. Bristol. Between Devonshire and Cornwall there is no great natural division. But if we take a map of England and draw a Une joining Plymouth. You may know Cormshinen. It was in Cornwall and Wales. Besides. It is true that Cornwall was more British than any other part of England. But nowadays wf may go from Saltash' to Penzance without hearing a word of any othei. nor are there in Cornwall high mountains like Snowdou and Cader Idris. But it was not long before the Saxons made their way into Cornwall. at Bristol. therefore. " Trs " means a village. Cornwall was fast becoming an English county. and it is in Cornwall and Wales that their descendants are to be found to this day. There is a well-known rhyme which says that "By Tre. at Chester. Chester. Falmouth. Portsmouth. that the Britons at last settled. town we reach on entering Cornwall from Devonshire by the Great Penzance is the last town in Cornwall before we reach the Land's End. In these distant corners the retreating Britons at last found refuge. Pol." The Breaking of Wales!' 191 Step by step the Saxons advanced. and Pen are all British words. It seemed as if the unhappy Britons must either be pushed into the Irish Channel. and in Wales the steep mountains and thick forests formed a protection against the Saxon armies. the border between England and Wales." or with "Pol. And so it happened that before the time of Edward I. and Pen." he is most likely a Cornishman. Cornwall was very far off." such as " Trevenen. it was easy for the sailors of Dover.

and on steep mountain sides. In the reigns of John and Henry III. there had been a great deal of . we go through village after village where all the old people. is But the history of Wales altogether different. in spite of their own bravery. These people are the descendants of the Britons who held their own against the Saxons a thousand years ago. Sometimes the English and the Normans had gained a victory. submit Armies had often been sent across the Severn into the mountains of Montgomery and Breck nockshire. and in which there are still some people who can talk no language but Welsh. and nearly all the young ones. the Welsh were forced to admit that they had found a driven out. and who have kept own language that to from this. though conquered for a time.192 History op England. had always got back what had been lost. and the . and in spite of the protection which their mountains and their forests afforded. but the bravery of of fighting valleys the Welsh. and who have lived their in the land. Edward the Kings of England had never been able to make the to Welsh them. time to Up of the time I. BRITISH DISTRICTS IN ENGLAND. If we travel from Baagor to Barmouth. and the difficulty in pathless MAP SHOWING THE the end. had always been too much for the invaders in Welsh princes. They had been master. talk Welsh instead of English. But now they had to deal with a man who was both a great soldier and a wise king and at last.

the last Welsh Prince of Wales. Prince of Wales. it seemed as if victory were to be on the side of the the English were defeated in North Wales. neither their own courage nor the made to them by the Bards. The king used his victory wisely and well. or sometimes beyond it. Under their Prince Llewelyn they joined together to take back from the EngMsh all that they had lost. Llewelyn bidding him do homage to him as Llewelyn refused to obey." as they were called. But ere long the fortune of war changed. to do. The built strong castles on the border. while the long war between Henry and the barons was going on. The Welsh have always been lovers of music and song. He ! for the sent a message to King of Wales. 195 is a picture of one of them. was killed in battle in South (1282). fighting along the 193 border-land between England and Wales. came forward to lead his people against the English. were enough to save Weary of the attacks made upon the English King Edward at last determined to march into Wales." at which poems and songs which have been written on purpose are read and sung. and for their land. border. came from all parts of the country to fight for him. who sang his praises. and the Welsh. the Welsh had become more powerful than befqre. and poets. Each year there is held in Wales a great meeting called an " Eisteddfod. from Bangor on the north to Pembroke on the south. Llewelyn. Strong castles were On page built throughout the country to guard against another rising. which is standing to this day. Norman barons had At first Llewelyn was victorious. and which Wales H . harpers. To this day some of the best and most sweetvoiced choirs in the kingdom are those which come from Wales. Welsh. But. and at which prizes are given to those who have done best. and Edward was soon master of the whole country. in lands which they had taken from the Welsh. Six hundred years ago the Welsh were the same song-loving. or " Bards." pronounced " Eistethvode. And the Welsh on their side often crossed the border into England to rob and plunder the English. and when it seemed as if he were going at last to lead his countrymen to victory. first Welsh . there came from all parts. and foretold the great deeds which he was .The Breaking of Wales. and even made an attack upon the English town of Shrewsbury. In the reign of Henry III. proud of the bravery of their prince. and the Welsh were everywhere beaten.. and the English army marched At into his country. musical people that they are now and when Llewelyn. alas promises of victory them from defeat.

that day to England has borne as of Wales. describing the Parliament of Lincoln. English laws took the place of the old Welsh laws. From this the eldest Son of the king or queen of the his first From the time of separate country comes to old language. and of now come how they ended." Before we can understand how these wars began. be seen by anyone who pays a visit to North Wales. and the king's son. At In the Longtoft. We reigns to the second set of wars which was fought during the the three Edwards. erie ivas he that day. "Over the Border. it is the bishop's towne: And other lords came. Thus we how Edwards ended ih the " Breaking of Wales.194 History of England. like England and France." and in joining together ouce more all the people of England who had been Separated for a time by the fight between Saxon and Briton. their old customs." St. The King lay at Middleham . but they see gave up their old laws and their old princes. the little Prince Edward^'-"'. The people of Wales kept their and highest title. . The good King Edward. Catherine's house the Earl Marshal lay. and the first name of Prince Edward I. and which ended in the " Making of Scotland. Broadgate lay The Bruae. The country was divided into twelve counties. their old history. we must turn our attention for a short time to the history of Scotland. We been in old times are accustomed to think of England and Scotland as having two quite distinct countries. the history of Wales as a an end. in the countrie up and downe. was made Prince may of Wales (1301). at Lincoln his citie. who was born in Camatvbn Castle (1284).' 'At the park afterward his parliament set he. of the three War CHAPTER XXIV SCOTLAND.

.

.tg6 History of England. It is called " Gaelic" and the Highlanders. and beyond state of things. and makes a clear line between the two countries but further to the west there is scarcely anything to shov/ where England ends and Scotland begins. If we take the train from Carlisle to Dumfries. Gretna Green is in Scotland. each governed by its own king and having its own separate Government. there was distinction. Indeed. The division between England and Scotland is very different from the division between England and Wales. before he finds himself among the steep mountains and narrow valleys in which the Welsh armies were accustomed to take refuge. there runs the broad water of the Bristol Channel and the traveller has scarcely crossed the border between England and Wales. There was no reason why those who had made their way into what is now Yorkshire. we shall stop first at a little station called Gretna Green. for they are all But Stirling. The Welsh which is spoken in Carnarvonshire is quite a different language from the English which is spoken in Shropshire. but which is more like Welsh. but one must keep a very sharp look-out from the carriage window to know at what moment the train crosses the little stream of the Gretna which here divides the We no such . When the Saxons came into England. there is no reason why there should be much difference. they did not stop either at the Tweed or the Gretna. even in our own day. and begins to climb the steep sides or thread his way through the narrow passes of the Highland mountains. if really part of the same people. and drove the Britons back before them. and Northumberland should not . at any place between Chester and Cardiff. we find a people speaking a language which is not English. It is true that a time came when the two countries were really divided in this way. we go further north. Here the behind him the fertile fields and broad plains of the Lowlands. think of the English living on the south side of the " Border" and the Scots on the north side as people of two different nations. Cumberland. It is true that at the eastern end the valley of the Tweed is deep. two countries. Nor is talk in the there any very great difference between the way people North of England and in the South of Scotland. but there is really wexy little difference between the talk of Cumberland-men and Peebles-men. across the we shall find a very different Firth of Forth. But it is quite possible to go from England into Scotland and never know when the border has been crossed. Here. Durham. are quite a different people from the EngUsh-speaking traveller leaves Lowlanders. who talk Gaelic. Between Somersetshire and Glamorganshire. But up to the time of Edward I.

1 See page 114 . people. too much to do near home to allow of their taking much trouble to make good their claim to Scotland. for a long time before the reign of Edward I. Norman baronsj who spoke French. He was proud and wilful. Berwick. His soldiers loved him for his courage.. and strong. In the same way. and English armies had sometimes marched far into Scotland. therefore." Ors/e find their THE Border}' 197 way into what we now call the Scottish counties of Peebles. and either drove out the Soots and Picts whom they found there. seeking to do what was just and honest. as a rule. learnt to love him. The . many of whom talked English and were as ready to fight for England as they had formerly been to fight against England. The kings of England. spread far and wide throughout the Lowlands of Scotland. The Saxons. the Norman barons who had followed him passed on quite as a matter of course into the south of Scotland. when William the Conqueror had made himself master of England. indeed. and who were looked upon by the English as foreigners and enemies. though they often feared him. and for his readiness to share in all their hardships. The south of Scotland became nearly as Saxon as the north of England. but at the same time they kept their lands in England. The people of Scotland had not at that time become one people we shall see in this chapter how they became so. and looked to William and the kings of England as their lealfetidal lords. Nor was Edward beloved for this reason only. But the English kings had. a great change had come The long wars between Henry and the barons were over England. The king himself was beloved by all the people. that the EngUsh to the English people. The English hailed him as the first really " EngUsh " king since the death of Harold. They held these lands from the Scottish king. he seemed to the English to be a real Englishman. over.' Scotland itself was divided among many tribes and clans. Selkirk. Lands were given to them in Scotland as well as in England. a religious man. He was people looked upon him as their protector against the nobles. but he was a true lover of his people. or became mixed up with them. handsome. and was always true to England and It is not wonderful. Tall. a hard worker. and the early Kings of Scotland had but little power over the whole country. had now become the barons of England. had claimed to be kings of Scotland. and were ready to follow him. Edward himself was a true English king. But when Edward L came to the throne. with golden hair. and The Lothians. The Normans and The the Saxons had learnt to live together without quarrelling.

On the death of Alexander III. Edward's anger was roused. and so Balliol became King of Scotland." * Wha dare meddle wi' me ? " have seen how E4ward led his armies into Wales how he defeated and killed Llewelyn. who held lands in both . EaUiol was for. and died ere the ship reached Scotland. 1 He summoned the " thistle. but not incorrectly translated in the famous " Wha dare meddle wi' me ? . marching at the head of an English army into Scotland. and daughter of Eric. not strange that when he had thus conquered one part Llewelyn was of our island. As no agreement could be come to as to who should become king of Scotland. and at last he had to send a message to Edward . and she started from her home to become Queen of Scotland.. No fewer than thirteen persons claimed the crown of Scotland. Balliol was willing to do this. "Nemo me impune " lacessit. but the Scots would not allow him to yield. he should turn his attention to another. and the other was Robert Bruce. perhaps. " The Fair Mnid of Norway. Then there came a terrible dispute. and was also Lord of Annaiidale and Carrick in Scotland. Foremost among the claimants were two Norman barons. grand-daughter of the Margaret. Robert Bruce was Lord of Skelton in Yorkshire. the last of the Welsh princes. his army and marched The Latin motto which accompanies one can touch " No me with impunity. Lord of Galloway in Scotland." motto of the great Scottish family of the C^mpbf Us " emblem of Scotland. the next heir to the throne was a little girl named Margaret. and how he added the twelve Welsh counties to the kingdom of England. or late king. Edward heard the case and decided in favour of John Balliol. and to ask him to decide. or fourteen years later. Edward now thought that a good time had come for making the Scottish king admit once for all the right of the King of England to be the feudal lord of the King of Scotland and he commanded Balliol to do homage to him. It was. Edward was killed in the year 1282. The Fight for the Scottish Crown. as she was sometimes called." was sent We .Scotland and EnglandOne was John of Balliol.jqS History of ^ngiand." the It is freely. It ii>eans. In 1296. refusing to admit his claim. King of Scotland (1285). King of Norway. it was at last decided to bring the matter before King Edward. But the child fell sick on the long voyage from Norway.

and thousands of the enemy were put It was to death. and so it be- came the custom. Ireland. Ireland. and Edward attacked it with fury. and the town of Berwick-upon. when speaking of of the dominions the King of England. the grandson of Robert Bruce.The Fight for the Scottish Crown: 199 northwards.' could never make themselves masters of Scotland. Soon the royal army ' oame to Berwiok-on-TVaed. uponEnglish The kings would have liked that to say they were Kings of England. and the only bit of Scottish land which they were able to keep was the town of Berwick-uponTweed. and the town of Berwick Tweed. Scotland. It has always been remembered. And so it was that instead of saying that they were kings of England. Berwick was talcen (i2q6). Ireland. England. and Scotland. and trom that time to this it has formed part of England. which was then a Scottish town. decided that the city should for the future belong to England. they and but THE CORONATION CHAIR AND "THE STONE OF DESTINY. Ireland. The townsmen refused to give up the city. that it once was a part of Scotland. however. Among the barons who followed him was Robert the Bruce. Lord of Slselton. and Carriok.Tweed. they had to content themselves with saying that they were Kings of England. Ansandale. to say. . who had claimed the Scottish throne.

and all Scotsmen began to join together against the English enemy. and his fierce hatred of the English. for their country. England and the it was written that the law was to be obeyed in town of Bermck-upon-Twud But we must get back to King Edward and his army. and reached a little place named Burghon-Sands. and there we may see it to this day if we pay a visit to Westminster Abbey. though he had now grown old and feeble. A great Scotsman has written a wonderful book which contains the story of the adventures of William Wallace. till the kings of England land also. marched with a great army towards Scotland determined to put down the Scots once more. but over and over again he surprised and defeated the English troops. Everyone should read this book. It was at this time that a great leader arose among the Lowland Scots. He had the most wonderful adventures. . Their quarrels were for a time put aside. The king was everywhere victorious. his skill. It is called " The Tales of a Grandfather. and took thence the famous Stone. where it was placed under the Coronation Chair built by his order. He was carried in a litter as far as Cumberland. He But despite the bravery of Wallace. that and Ireland could call themselves kings of ScotUntil a few years ago. He beat the Scots in the great battle at Falkirk (1298). were made and not with Scotland. He put courage and he made them feel that it was a right and good thing to fight.200 It History of England. Sir Walter Scott. called " The Stone of Destiny " upon which the Kings of Scotland had always been crowned. was even more important than this. But here ended his journey and his life. all helped to make him a great hero in the eyes of the Scots. Edward brought the stone to Westminster. from which he could see Scotland. where the English archers. The English army got as far as Scone. He died before he could cross the border (1307). broke the ranks of the Scots with their flights of arrows. Wallace himself was taken prisoner. and Edward. and which had to do with England alone. sent to London. But the old man's strength was fast failing.''' and it is written by did what into the hearts of his countrymen. his life was often in danger. who afterwards became so famous. at the beginning of the laws which by Parliament. This leader was William Wallace. for the King of England. and if necessary to die. But defeat taught the Scots a good lesson which they were not slow to learn. was not four hundred years after the death of Edward I. and for all. was alive. and put to death (1305). there seemed little chance for Scotland as long as Edward I. His courage. a man whose name is justly famous throughout Scotland to this day.

II. son of Edward afterwards King of England. Earl of March. becomes king. War between the King and the Barons. fought under Robert the Bruce at Bannockburn. Thomas. and form a Council. 13251326. when a child. the leader of the Barons against the King. d. favourite of Edward II. fourth son of Edward I. Skelton. for his son who came after him was as weak and unfortunate as his father was strong and successful. Gaveston banished by directed Edward and makes I318. Bruce.self King Return of Gaveston from Ireland. Dante (the Italian poet). of Lancaster^ cousin to Edward II. a Gascon knight. d. Overthrow of the Barons. 1314. favourite 1326. I3ij^. 1311. Earl died Edward beheaded by Roger Mortimer. I32I. King of France. 1318. Roger Mortimer escapes from prison. Joan. and King of Scotland b. Edward Bruce. 201 The first Edward was a great and wise king. 1309. and declares by Thomas Parliament.. Edward Bruce. Edward makes Desijencer his favourite. Peace concluded with Scotland." FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED EDWARD of THE REIGN OF II. Edward undertakes an expedition for the relief of Stirling. Hugh Despencer. of Lancaster. d." Gaveston again banishedWar between the King and the Barons. of Cornwall. CHAPTER XXV.. 1274. daughter of Edward I[. 1327. married David Bruce. brother of Robert Bruce. 1321. Robert the Bruce. and takes up arms against the King. M H* . executed by the Barons 1112. of Wales. b. urder of Edwaxd. 1307.— "THE MAKING 1307-1327.. 1284. daughter France. Queen Defeat and Great defeat of the English by Robert Bruce at Bannockburn. 1329. Edward n.. invades Ireland. James Douglas. d. 1312. iss^J. Edward Bruce kdledin Ireland. John.. Baron Earl of Annandale. Edward.. 1310. and had he lived Scotland would hardly have escaped conquest. EDWARD II. him. 1327. 1303. called "The Lords Ordaine>-s. d. King II. Gaveston his favourite. OF IN SCOTLAND. daughter of Edward II. II. The Barons' unite against the King. King of England. Philip IV. brother of Robert Bruce.The Fight for the Scottish Crown. son of executed 1322. The King deposed and imprisoned Isabella joins the rebel Barons. of King Edward after the death of Gaveston. b.. and wife of Edward 1308. became King Isabella. in Berkeley Castle. But his death saved Scotland. Earl m. killed in Soain 1330. son of Robert the King of Scotland. PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE REIGN OF 1307. and uncle to Queen Isabella. of Philiij IV. II. EDWARD of Ireland. d. Capture and execution of Thomas of Lancaster. and Eleanor of Castile.. Prince 1312. Gaveston beheaded. Piers Gaveston. Eleanor. became 1306.. flight of the King.

" " The an Mailing of Scotland. lived long enough to lead his army into the country a second Edward was a brave and skilful soldier. The for an and violence and It was a long that might be told about from 1307 to 1327. Edward II. and Robert Bruce./'«' is not a pleasing one Englishman to read about. "it is not easy to imagine a man more innocent and inoffensive than this unhappy tiing. Among them were John Balliol. we earlier chapter that during the reigns of the three should find the story of " The Breaking of Wales. and had neither the power nor the wish to lead armies in battle. fierce and turbuient peopie subjected to his authority. It is impossible to say what might have happened to Scotland had Edward I. We said in Edwards. that the Making of Scotland took place. reign. also saw how. saw how Edward died intending once more to subdue themj We We within sight of Scotland." and " The Ruin of France. and how that country v/as freed from fear of an attack by its greatest and most powerful enemy. time. when Balliol had offended King Edward."— reign of Edward 11./™' son of Edward !. was strong. when Wallace came forward to fight for his country. lasting it.. no fewer than thirteen persons came forward to claim the throne of Scotland. . he in turn We 1 Edward II.^ nor a prince less fitted for governing that Hume.HiSTORV OF England. But there was another thing which was even more fortunate for Scotland than the death of Edward I. the English king marched against him and drove him from his throne. We saw how. It was a great gain to Scotland that the king against whom her people had now to fight was so different from the great King Edward. He was no soldier. the " Fair Maid of Norway. We shall remember that when Margaret. had marched northward with a great army." died." It was in the reign of Edward II. and there is muchbut we have only space here to speak at length of one great event for which it must be remembered. saw at the end of the last chapter how Edward I. . and had already won great victories both in Wales and Scotland but the man who came after him was as weak as Edward I. whom Edward had made king. It is a story of bad government defeat. angered at the resistance of the Scots.

and soon placed himself at the head of the Scots who had followed the brave WilUam Wallace. 203 Nor should we have forgotten Robert the Bruce. and who fought against the Scots under his banner. and of all those who were ready to fight for Scotland against the English. than the hopes of Scotland began to brighten. There is no name of which Scotsmen are more proud than that of Robert the Bruce. Balliol had been driven from the throne. At first secretly. and Wallace had been defeated and put to death. He had also learnt how to win the love and trust of the Scottish people. The tirne had come when Bruce could hope to claim the crown of Scotland. and then openly. Bruce was a man of great strength and courage. the grandson of Robert Bruce of whom we read just above. and from the power of the English king. the days of the great king. by his bravery and success. The history of Scotland is full of stories of the bravery and adventures of Robert the Bruce and both Robert and Bruce have been favourite names in Scotland ever since : . and rightly so for he was indeed the man who did more than any other to free their country and to defeat their enemies. II. When. and the idea of freeing their country altogether from the English. No sooner had Eobert Bruce put himself at the head of the Scottish how army. there came a change. William Wallace. he deserted the English party.Edu^ard was attacked and defeated by Edward. tall and handsome. was one of the barons who rode with the EngUsh king. had grown quickly among them. however. and he determined to do so. and skilled in all the arts of war. . had put courage into the hearts of the Scots.

He soon showed himself unfit to rule. named He loaded Gaveston with favours. A long quarrel followed.. they feared lest the English army which lay upon the border should continue its march upon Edinburgh but the new King of England." — — Thus we see that. who cared little for success in war. Oft may thine annals Justly boast Of battles stern by Scotland lost. "And the best in Claim'd names that England knew the death-prayer dismal due. the government of England was going from bad to worse. gave up the task which his father had begun. Some of the fiercest of the barons. were fighting against each other. which ended at last in the death of Gaveston. and by force compelled the king to dismiss his favourite from all his offices. Men ceased to fear the king or to obey his orders.. seized Gaveston themselves and put him to death (1312). on the death of Edward I. He took as his friend and favourite an unworthy man. led by the Earl of Warwick. To none so dear as thee!" Scott: " Rokeby. and who saw with anger the riches and the power which were being given to an upstart stranger. Yet mourn not. Instead of fighting against the enemies of the country. matters looked more At first hopeful for the Scots than they had done for a long time past. He allowed Gaveston to insult the proud barons who had been faithful servants to Edward I. and Robert Bruce was now fighting ^ 1 he " Leopards "or " Lions " in the coat of arms of England.204 History of England Bannockburn. When for her free-born rights she strove Rights dear to all who freedom hue. Piers Gaveston. the best soldiers in England . nor was this all. land of fame Though ne'er the leopards^ on thy shield Retreated from so sad a field Since Norman William came. The barons joined together. and the barons on the other. Nor were they content with this. Nothing was done to help the English soldiers in Scotland. and returned to London. But while the king and the barons were thus quarrelling between themselves. between the king and Gaveston on the one side. Grudge not her victory. .

000 men.Bannockbvrn. On the English side there were not less than 100. came from all parts to follow the king." said he. (From a photograph by Cro-we and Rogers Stirling. and it would have been better for England if he had stayed behind. Soon the two armies came face to face. a brave soldier. till at last only the strong fortress of Stirling town was taken from was left to them." message to King Edward.) ^ something to save his last fortress in Scotland. had won.e to try Then at last and do STIRLING CASTLE AT THE PRESENT DAY. Town the EngUsh. where the brave Sir Philip Mowbray was shut up. " I must give up your castle King Edward was forced for very sham. But between the English border and Stirling Castle lay Robert the Bruce with his army. but he was not a general like his father. and the barons. The Governor of Stirling Castle. eager to regain what Edward I. " If you do not come and before midsummer. of whom 3.000 were clad in armour. sent a help me to the Scottish king. The first thing to do was to reach Stirling. . King Edward himself was at the head of the army. Sir Philip Mowbray. He raised a great army. fiercely against 205 after them in every part. Among them were the greatest nobles in England.

easily to bear him down to the ground. that the great A story battle which has made Bannockburn so famous was fought. who thought this would be a good opportunity to gain great fame to himself. and dispersed them. He was dead place at which the two armies met The bum. At their head were Robert the Bruce. the 24th of June. and put an end to the war. " I have broken my good battle-axe.9o6 History of England. the battle began. is told of an adventure which befell Bruce the night before the battle. who thought Bruce ought not to have exposed himself to so much danger. The king only kept looking at his weapon. ' ' Part of the account on this page is taken from Sir Walter Scott's " Tales of a Gtandfalher. but the Scottish horsemen rode in among their ranks. and struck Sir Henry so terrible a blow on the head with his battle-axe that it broke to pieces his iron helmet as if it had been a nutshell. with his long spear. and having no lance. or caltrops. thinking. when the safety of the whole army depended on him." . cut them down.000 men. in the year 13 14. so that Sir Henry missed him with the lance-point. and they. but we must not forget for we shall find them very often when we come to read the history of Scotland. This gallant action was blamed by the Scottish leaders. the Scottish king had given orders that steel spikes. and Randolph. and those whom they led were ready to follow them to their names. There was a knight among the English. by killing King Robert. There is no space here to tell the story of Douglas or Randolph. called Sir Henry de Bohun. and which shows us what kind of man he was. and his tall powerful horse. The army of the Scots numbered 40. Then the English horsemen came on at the charge. too. and they fell headlong into the pits which had been prepared. As the heavily-armed English horse came on at full speed. and said. soon fell into confusion. and hurled him from his saddle. The king being poorly mounted. It before he reached the ground. But as he passed. and that pits should be dug. which was injured by the force of the blow. The night before the battle. their feet were pierced by the caltrops. They were three brave and practised generals." The next day. King Robert saw him. and permitted him to come very near then suddenly turned his pony a little to one side. The English archers rained arrows upon the enemy. as they were called. the death. King Robert rose up in his stirrups. should be scattered about on the grass. was the village of Bannocli:was on the 24th of June. and was in the act of being carried past him by the career of his horse. Bohun galloped on him suddenly and furiously. James Douglas.

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d. 1329. was as unfortunate for the king himself as He quarrelled again and again with the barons it was for his country. From that time forward Robert Bruce was hailed by all as King of Scotland and from his time down to the reign of James VI. son of Edward John of Glaunt. .. and Queen Isabella. 111. King of England. 1360. hanged 1330. b. d. became III.2o8 History of England. Edilrard. Duke ' Prince.. and soon it was clear that the battle was lost for the English. Duke of York. Roger Mortimer. 1312. III. d. 1358.i. Duke King 1^27. of Edward Edward the Black Edward Lionel. the two countries have been but one not because one country had beaten the other in war. of Scotland became James of Great Britain and Ireland the year jfic. deprived of his crown. Thirty thousand of the English were killed. of Scotland. Isahella." ^ The reign of Edward II. b. left Scotland it was only to go to England. 1341. d. of Clarence. 1330. Eohert Bruce. EDWARD III. and a great victory for Scotland. 1368. 1355. and two other sons and four daughters. and at last he was taken prisoner by them. — ." 1327-1377. there to reign as King of England as well as of Scotland and ever since the happy day when England and Scotland became united together under one king. 1377. eldest son of of Gloucester. d. . of Scotland (three hundred years) the kingdom of Scotland held its own against all enemies. wi''e m. . 1338. Nor did Scotland ever again come under a foreign king. b. friend of Queen Isabella. While the troops were in confusion. widow of Edward II. d. There he was cruelly murdered but there were few among his subjects who regretted that this weak and unwise king had been driven from his throne. . and shut up in Berkeley Castle (1327). in James VI. With great difficulty lie reached the sea at Dunbar.— CHAPTER XXVI. b. 1325. b. When King James VI.. after riding sixty miles at full speed. It was a great defeat for England. FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED IN EDWARD II. 1376. Thomas. "THE RUIN OF FRANCE. and all the waggons of provisions belonging to the English army fell into the hands of the Scots. ehilippa of Hainault. The king himself turned and fled. but because the people in both were agreed that " in union there is strength. THE REIGN OF b. the Scots fell upon them. Edmund Langley. . King I. 1340.

. 13671376- Capture of Calais. grandson of David B. 1362. and Mortimer exeEalliol against Edward David land. one of the six burghers of Calais who submitted to Edward III.. But though the story tells us of the ruin of France. the root of happy life. Pierre. taken prisoner at Poitiers. crowned King of Scotland 1332." written about 1596.d. Commencement Years* War. 1364. Edward's ful general. how thousands were killed in battle. . King David of Scotland taken prisoner at the battle of Neville's Cross. Battle of Najara. it tells us also of one very good thing that happened to the "French people during these through . became King of Scotland 1371. unrestrairi'd make havoc as they pass.uce. and Edward III. d. Ruin of France" because it tells us war which lasted for one hundred years. Truce with France. 1372. Death of Edward III. supported by Edward III. War with France renewed. EDWARD III. a great French historian. how their houses were burned down.. King of France. took Bertrand du Guesclin prisoner at the battle of Najara. d. The English fleet defeats the French fleet at Sluys. 1369. Isabella and Roger Isabella imprisoned cuted.King of France. of the Hundred 1377- The Beg-inning: of the ' Great War. The " Good " Parliament." Lived long in England. assists Edward and with France. d. most successgreat BaUiol. Eustace de St. Fly. Is quite abandon'd and expuls'd the land Instead of whom ransach-constraining war Sits rauen like upon your houses' tops : Slaughter and mischief walk within your streets. Treaty of Bretigny. d. Rohert Stuart. Death of the B:ack Prince. d. 1337- Second Expedition into Scotland. Mortimer regents. War Bruce. The first of the.209 David Bruce. And. 13591360. a erreat English soldier. K ing. a French Charles V. becomes 13421346. countrymen and citizens of France ! Sweet-flow'ring peace. and which brought ruin and desolation to France. claimant to the crown of Scotland. 1336. Sir John ChandOS. wife of David Bruce. Jean FroiSSart. 137 1. King of France. Victory of Poitiers. Those who lived at the time tell us of the misery which the French people went This chapter is entitled " Tlie of the beginning of the great how their fields were laid waste. Victory of Crecy. son of Robert Bruce. PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE REIGN OF February ist. John II . in Spain. Joaima. resigned the crown 1356 Philip the Fortunate. who wrote " Froissart's Chronicles.i35o. 1410. Second Invasion of France. the Scots at Halidon proclaimed King of Scotland. sister of Sir Walter Manny. Edward Bertrand dU GueSClin. and how many thousands more died of the famine which followed the laying waste of the fields. defeats Balliol invades Scot- Edward Hill." From the Play of "Richard III. 1367. d. Stuart kings. 13471356. Edward III. general.

and by the time Edward III. there can be little doubt that if England had only had to fight Scotland at this time. as we know. the duke had been not only an enemy the King of France. had done much to strengthen and unite France but much more had to be done before France became a really united nation. Indeed. Edward Balliol. The Scots could not forgive him for this. was King of England. . again crossed the border it seemed as if he were going to repeat the victories of his grandfather. David fled and Balliol was He was unwise enough to promise to do homage to Edward III. had won at Bannockbum.. yet a great piece of the south .. and the kingdom of France had been divided up into a number of small divisions kingdoms. who. '"' how they did at last put aside all their quarrels. long years of war and suffering. Normandy no longer formed part the dominion of the English king. or count. and so it was in this case. was king before Robert Bruce. duchies. and did succeed in turning the English out of France. the time of Edward II. had come to the throne they were ready and willing once more to march into Scotland. Robert Bruce was dead (1329). whose death took place in 1270. In the case of Normandy. learn this lesson in the reign of Edward III. as we may remember. and when Edward III. made his way into Scotland and attacked David Bruce. The dukes Burgundy and Berry were rivals of the King of France and though. '"'* and Henry V. For many years before the reign of Edward III.210 History of England. when we come to the reign of Henry VI. But he did not long remain king. We shall see. that they really began to understand that all quarrels at home must be set aside until the foreign enemies had been driven out of France. All these quarrels and misfortunes in Scotland had given a great advantage to the English. Now we must see how it came about that the French began to . Scotland would soon have lost all that it declared king. It often happens that out of evil there comes good. called Gulenne. but was himself King of England. Edward I.'^^ of England. was still claimed by the King of England. and his son David had neither the courage nor the wisdom of his father. or duke. and counties^each under a — separate king. when Henry III./-" the French people had fought amongst themselves. The wise reign of Louis IX. The reign of Edward II. son of John Balliol. was taken up. and he in his tum was driven from the throne. The English barons had never forgiven the Scots for the defeat at Bannockbum. with the Scottish war. to of at of of France. 's death. It was only when the French people were obliged to fight for their lives and their liberties against the foreign armies of Edward III.

King Edward replied that the Scots were his enemies. large army. first time English sailors beat the French at sea. and Edward had to turn his attention to a more dangerous enemy than David Bruce. bend your bows. and landed at La Hogue. When they came . At last he reached a little village called Crecy. mounted on a white It was the 26th of August. and that he was bound to help them. Both sides were ready to quarrel.000 men. who were about 20. horse. French ships toolc English merchantmen in the Channel. rode through the ranks early in the morning. they would soon have found another. Archers.ught to be King of France. and if one excuse had not been enough. and not Philip. Crecy. It matters little nowadays what were the rights or the wrongs of the quarrel. Edward sent out an English fleet. 211 But fortune favoured Scotland. At the head of no less than 120. 1346. George for England " The war beg^n. Here he halted his army. . which we shall see marked on the map on page 234.000 men. where he hoped to find his allies. he himself o. and so it was not hard to find an excuse. he marched rapidly from Abbeville towards Crecy. one of which was in command of Edward. he said that if right were done. It was at this time that a quarrel broke out between England and France. By this time the French were getting nearer. ! ' cry. They f^=" were in three divisions. cheering up his men. The King of France declared that the Scots were his allies. Then Edward crossed over to France with an army of 30. He intended to march into Flanders. Aduance banners. but he was only able to advance with great difficulty. who then sat upon the French throne.000 in number. The English soldiers. hoping to But the King ot France was close by with a receive help from his allies. The king. and he lost many men from sickness or in battle. were drawn up in order by the king. they were his enemies too and what was more. sixteen years old. "Lances ' in test. St. and for the. and telling them how great would be the glory if they gained the victory over this great French army. and that if the French helped them. Both sides were ready for the fight.The Beginning of the Great War. time only this was at who Prince of Wales (eldest son of the king).

PhWip commanded his army to halt. the bows were drawn The English and they shot as strong and as true as ever. to wait a day and let the French soldiers rest too.212 History of England. The officer came back and said that the English were in good order. It is said that just before the battle. It was soon seen that on this day. the strings ENGLISH .\ECHER ARMED WITH THE " LOMG BOW. but the French soldiers. It would be better. and the bow would no longer shoot as hard and as straight as it did bearchers. he thought. who had fast been marching as they could to get the field of battle. The French had with them 15." fore. On the Genoese. became slack. pressed on to the attack. The battle began between the archers.000 Italian soldiers from Genoa. had kept their long-bows dry in their cases. the archers were armed with the long-bow. got wetted with the rain. with crossthe English side. who believed that they would easily beat the small army before them. the long-bow was a better weapon than the cross-bow. at any rate. and had had time to rest. and that the bows of armed bows. forth. on the other hand. Philip sent on an officer to iind out where the English army was. within a few miles of Crecy. . After the storm was over. and how it was arranged. a great thunderstorm took place. When they were thus wetted.

" It seemed to snow. The story of the battle of Crecy has been told at some length for several reasons. that the Earl of Warwick sent a messenger to King Edward begging him for " 75 my son dead ? " said the king. and all was confusion. 213 English archers shot so fast that. That villainous saltpetre should be digg'd Out of the bowels of the harmless earth. A " Telling Chapter of Victories. Which many a good tall fellow had destroy'd So cowardly .'' " Nay.'' said the king and almost alone. In the first place. threw away their bows. but for these vile guns. so it was. " he has no aid from me. The warder on the castle walls called out into the darkness. as an ItaMan . He fought bravely.'' said the king. for at last he and those who were with him succeeded in putting to flight the French and making victory certain.. Shakespeare : " King Henry IV. and many of them fell pierced even through their armour. then. they broke in amongst the French horsemen. and show help. and turned to fly. the Cornish men and Welshmen who were with King Edward stabbed them on the ground.'' replied the messenger. he ordered his knights to charge. King Philip himself rode full speed from the field of battle. me — it was great pity. In the middle of this fight was the Black Prince." The prince did indeed show himself worthy of his knighthood. So great was his danger. Tell him that I know that he will bear him like a man. " Who comes there on such a night?" "It is the Fortune of France. As they fled." The Genoese could bear it no longer they cut their bow-strings.A The Chapter of Victories. When the French king saw that his archers had given way. escaped with bare life from the field of Creoy. and was in great danger of his life. . He would himself haue been a soldier. himself worthy of his knighthood." for so men had called him. It was dark when he reached the castle of Broye." Part I. He blew with his horn at the castle gate. Then the French cavalry came under the storm of arrows. and a great battle took place between the knights and men in armour on both sides. Crecy was a very great and . who wrote an account of the battle says. " Not so. and. As they fell from their horses. " but he needs help. " Philip the Fortunate.

And. an English monk. 1. — . . The balls which they threw were scarcely larger than a cricketball.000 men. until at last in report. first showed English people the use of. heard for the first time in any battle in which English soldiers were engaged. was used in cannon. But from that day onwards the power of gunpowder began to grow greater than that of the long-bow and the broad-sword. What was this sound ? It was the thunder of the Camion. nor yet that of the clash of steel. deep We which came from neither man nor horse. there is one other thing which makes Cr^cy very memorable among the many battles of which history tells us. should have heard a loud.200 Icnights.214 History of England. made of wood. 80 bannerets. If we had been upon the battle-field of Crdcy we should have heard all the fierce and the terrible noises which are always to be heard upon a battle-field shouts of those who are fighting. the gunpowder which some say Eoger Bacon. But all at Crecy we should have heard another sound. and 30. CANNON OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. second place. at the battle of Cr6cy. at Bannockburn. and which was certainly quite new to the world. For the first time. hooped with iron. of which EngUshmen have a real right to be proud. The French lost on that day two kings— the Kings of Majorca and Bohemia In the II princes. nor at any of the great battles which had already taken place in the history of England. and the clash of arms. a sound which was not heard at Hastings. memorable fight. weak affairs. the cries and groans of the wounded. the success which Edward won on the field of Crecy no doubt encouraged him to go on with the cruel war which for a hundred years made England and France bitter enemies. the trampling of the horses. different from these other noises. It was not the sound of charging cavaky. The cannons were small. lastly. and no doubt the long-bow and the broad-sword killed many hundreds more at the battle of Crecy than did the cannon.

In 1347. in which John. was taken prisoner. was a very splendid one. 2IS the arrow is forgotten. off the coast of Flanders. In 1360 peace was at last made with France at Bretigny. however. and the small now— : equal to the great. Edward and the war went on. after a siege which lasted twelve months and in 1356 a great victory was won by the EngUsh over the French at Poitiers. or Belgium as we now call it. from the time of the battle of small and a when it is We Crecy. In 1340. shoot quite and a will it as hard be held by a weak man as held by a giant. the knights in armour. Crecy. shall see. . an EngUsh fleet defeated a French fleet at Sluys. as we read our English history. it is probable that quite as many men were killed in the old battles as in the battles which are fought but that gunpowder did this it made the weak equal to the strong. who had been masters of all the world up to that time. how. after the battle of Cr6cy. seven years later. if we think only . The great thing to remember about the use of gunpowder is not that more people have been killed in battle since gunpowder was used— for own day indeed. King Edward took the town of Calais. King of France.A our Chapter of Victories. was not the only great victory which was won during the by the reign III. and the sword has become little more than an ornament. will protect rifle No amount of a man bullet or rifle if strength against a a cannon shot. gradually lost their their tect power as their strength and armour ceased to prothem. but the terms of the peace were not kept to by either side. English of King In the year GUNPOWDER PUTS THE WEAK AND THE STRONG ON EQUAL TERMS. The reign of Edward III. 1333 King Edward defeated the Scottish army at Halidon Hill.

CHAPTER XXVII. or "Ihe Well-Beloved"). It is quite right to be proud of these victories. 1387. in France. Alderman of London. 11. a great poet. of the victories which were won by English armies under his command. WyclifFe condemned by the Pope. 132 1.. Richard's Henry Bolingbroke. Michael de la Pole. Tartar. But while we regret the war. first wife of Richard II. 1340.. and every Englishman should be proud that he belongs to the Poitiers. b. same race that won We.. 1402. leader killed 1381. 1399. Richard's Minister. 1397.. of Kingdom. June 22nd.. was certainly one of the greatest of our kings.peror CharJes IV. John Wyolifle. impeached. we can still admire the courage and skill of King Edward and of his warlike son. defeats the Spanish and French. ^-parish force lands in the of 1382. d. War collects a fleet at his own cost. deposed 1399. Anne of Bohemia. . PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE REIGN OF RICHARD Richard I \. becomes King. II. John of Gaunt. I38o^Xfl22. Isabella. King of France. son of Edwai d the Black Prince. 13^1. 1380. Duke of Lancaster. b. i . and grandson ol Edward III. Edward and uncle Richard. Michael de la Pole. Wight.. John of Gaunt makes himself Regent.2l6 History of England. 1384-5 War in Scotland and in Ireland. of tire Wat Sir" Tyler. 1382. for they were won by our forefathers against great odds. and uncle of the King. Gregory XI. the Black Prince. Lord Mayor London. reigned 22 years. A very large part of France was ruined and and England too was much weakened by the loss of men and money. 1366. of Germany. IN THE REIGN OF RICHARD Minister. II. 1400. 1366. Aing Tamerlane. Earl of Suffolk. 1396. 1389. laid waste. son of Edward 111. of William Walworth. m. 1394. and a Spanish and French fleet sails up the Thames to Grave se nd. an Oxford preacher. Charles VI. RICHARD 1377—1399. d. Regent 1377. d.tunt and couiin of King Richard. Kentish insurgents. d. A Wyclifle preaches against the priests. Thomas. however. Geoffl-ey Chaucer. Timour the son of of III. Edmund of Langley. Wat Tyler's rebellion. son of Edward 111. The king died in the year 1377. 13*6. John Philpot. d. daughter of the En. afterwards King of England. daughter of Charles Vi. d. became King II. Duke of Gloucester..70. d. King of France (called Blen- aim^. second wife of Richard II. b. in the fifty-first year of his reign. Isle 1381. sometimes called b.. Duke of York. Pope. d. and uncle of King Richard. d. FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED Richard King of England.. son of John of G. and Richard marries Anne of Bohemia. King Edward III. must not forget that the the victories of Crecy and war was a cruel and perhaps a useless one. m. r384.

daughter of the King of France. . Richa-'d marries Isabella. The Duke of York. The most powerful man in the country was the king's uncle. Richard was only eleven years old when he came to the throne. The king had two other uncles. <-^> Duke of Lancaster. and puts 139. We shall remember that during the reign of Edward III. one gentleman : Spare none but such as go in clouted shoon. there had been much fighting between England and France. Bolingbroke returns and defeats the King. There is not room here to tell the story of his reign at great length.' Richard II. John of Gaunt.'^'' and The Duke of Gloucester. and between These long wars had cost much money. that Tyler. We will not leaue one lord." " Chevy Battle of Otterburre.000 persons to death. (-W The three brothers. taken prisoner. imprisoned at Pontefract Casil?. England and Scotland. For they are thrifty honest men. and they found these taxes very burdensome. and Thomas of Gloucester. of the most remarkable events which took place in the reign of Richard II. captures Delhi. One. who died before his father. the fourth son of King Edward III. and his life ended in misery and disgrace. (^' came to the throne after the death of Edward III. The King deposed. and such As would (but that they dare not) take our parts. Death of Queen Anne. The King causes John of Gaunt to be The "Wonderful" 1398. Wat 'And you. or Chase. Richard banishes them both. played a great part in the story of Richard's reign. King Richard was an unfortunate and an unwise king. was the rebellion which was got up by Wat Tyler (1381). Death of John of Gaunt. or Timour the Tartar. Quarrel between Bolingbroke and the Duke of Norfolk. Richard takes the government into his own hands. and son of Edward the Black Prince. and (probably) murdered. Now show hue the Commons.?I7 1388. Edmund of York.. 100. The people One were poor. 1304. follow me." " King Henry VI. Tamerlane. or " Merciless Parliament." between the English and Scots.. invades India. Pari II. and heavy taxes had to be raised to pay for them.— yourselues men : 'tis for liberty. 1389. but there were one or two \-ery important things that happened in it which cannot be left out. He was the grandson of Edward III. 1396. John of Gaunt.

2l8 tax History of Englakd. of age. were greatly alarmed. which was a tax of twelve pence upon every head or "poll" in the country that is to sg. they set off to march to London. who lived in the town of Dart- He asked Tyler to pay a heavy tax. 60. One day lector the came to the house of a man named Walter the Tiler.000 men gathered together. from all the southern and eastern counties of England the people began to gather together. and at last in a great body. Wat insulting his daughter. twelve pence was worth years as much as eighteen shillings in our time. or " Wat Tyler " as he was called. and soon the news of it spread far RICHARD From II. and he led them to Blackheath. down and killed The townspeople approved the deed.y. it had to be paid by every person over fiftefen . The . rise to great discon- and at last led to tax-col- open rebellion. and all those were discontented praised the Tiler of Dartford for what he had done. By this time there were no less the portrait in Wesijninstcr Ahhey. and at the same time added to Wat's anger by ford in Kent. Twelve pence does not seem very much nowadays. This was the Poll Tax. Wat Tyler was put at the head of the people's army. The collection of the Poll Tax gave tent. Soon. In the a fury Wat knocked man him. who and wide. and all the wealthy people of London. in particular was most unpopular. but in the time of Richard II. especially when they 100. which is close to London.000 strong. than king and his court.

to do work as payment for their rent. take all they wanted from the rich. That the rent of the land they liyed upon should be paid in money. That none pf them should be punished for what they had done since the rebellion really were honest men who began.^ IV^T TVLER. for I am your aileth you ? I will be your leader and captain. 3. They asked for four things. and they bent their bows." The people." As Wat Tyler was speaking to the king. we will lead him with us all about England. Most of them were content with the promise. darest thou speak such words in the king's presence?" Tyler made a sharp answer. " Sirs. as the people of London thought they were many of them . There were 20. Although the followers of Wat Tyler had much to complain of. did what he bade them. They marched to London they got possession of the Tower of London they threatened the ki^g's mother. Mayor of London. saying." they cried. and gladly promised to grant these things they would go home. i. and soon dispersed again to their own homes. and Tyler was at the head of them. 2. Wat . as they often were. and he cried out. bidding his followers stay till he gave them a sign they were then to come forward and kill aU but the king. and so shall we be lords of the kingdom without doubt. nor be compelled to give their work without paym. and divide what they took among the poor. with twelve horsemen. there came up Sir William He was angry Walworth. " He is young" said Wat Tyler " we can do with him as we please . The king met the people. 219 heard that Wat Tyler and his friends had declared that they would upset the Government. and some of the worst men among them.000 men.ent. and many went home . the crowd would avenge the death of their leader. 4. they were not all robbers and plunderers. Wat Tyler went up to the king. They frequently found that the work which they were made to do was really worth much more than the rent which they owed. That they should be free to buy and sell where they liked. and that they should no longer be compelled. king. And thus came St. " Ha ! thou knave . bqt Wat Tyler and Jack Straw. . wanted to get right done to them. with Wat Tyler. . He found them in front of if . and they believed that the king was on their side and would help them. Bartholomew's Church in Smithfield. and At first it seemed as if Walworth at once killed him with his sword. with great courage and readiness rode forward. Richard himself rode out to meet them. and to take their goods freely to market. That they should no longer be made slaves tp any man. and they did some violent things. what Follow me. another leader. " They have killed Then Richard our captain. pleased with Richard's courage. would not go home.

He was a mere child when he came to the throne. while governing in the king's name. and during his early years he had submitted to be ruled by his uncle. The chief of the new ministers was Michael de la Pole. Thomas Mowbray. On pain to be found false and recreant. it was Thomas. -"* Thomas. was compelled to take refuge in flight. Duke of Gloucester. unfortunately. •• Herald. and its leaders were . his king. daughter of the emperor. But after Wat Tyler's rebellion had been put down. some were fulfilled.2 20 History of England. an end what seemed at one time to be a very dangerous rebellion. Duke of Lancaster. Stands here for God. John of Gaunt. Duke of Gloucester. who it will be remembered was the youngest son of King Edward III. were broken and forgotten. The end of Richard's reign was less happy than the beginning. To prove the Duke of Norfolk. A traitor to his God. But the departure of the Duke of Lancaster had really only left the field open to his brother Thomas. Richard further strengthened his own position by his marriage with Anne of Bohemia. and him And dares him to set forward Slialiespeare to the fight " King Richard II. commonly known as John of Gaunt. who received the title of Earl of Suffolk. who had reached the age of manhood. deprived of Richard's favour. and Derby. The king appointed new ministers chosen from among his own friends. John. but most of them. and Thomas was easily able to persuade his friends among the nobility that their rights and their power were likely to be endangered if such persons as the Earl of Suffolk were allowed to hold the highest offices in the kingdom. De la Pole had been a merchant and did not belong to one of the great families of the nobles. his soueieign. Lancaster. for John of Gaunt. determined to take the reins of government in his own hands.— Harry of Hereford. to the promises which the king had made. had made himself unpopular in the country. He found little difficulty in carrying out his resolves.(-« was greatly to As f-''' offended at the king's choosing De la Pole as his minister. The Banishment of Boling'broke." : It At the head of was not long before a party was formed among the nobles. Richard. and himself. and the king seemed for the time to be master of the situation.

It was not long. for your past services. daughter of King Charles VI. Queen Anne had died To charge them with being guilty of high treason. of France (1396). but in reality he was only waiting until he should be strong enough to punish the man who had so grievously offended him. Warwick was banished. or miaor. I thank you. For a time it seemed as if Bolingbroke and Nottingham would escape. The first step taken by the new party was to " appeal " the king's ministers of treason. 221 the Earls of Warwick. for the time at any rate. but it proved an advantage to the king because it insured. peace with France and left the King free to deal with his enemies at home. The Duke and the other Lords Appellant were dismissed from their offices. In the year 1387 he reached the age of twentyone. and made the one Duke of 1 '' own friends. and Warwick were charged with plotting a new rebellion. He was content to wait ten years until his opportunity came. and he soon showed that he was determined to prove to all the world that he had come of age and could act for himself. " I surely am old enough to second year" manage my own concerns. One day as he sat in his great Council he turned to his uncle the Duke of Gloucester. I have been longer under the control of guardians than any ward^ in my dominions. broke. I am?" " Then" said the king. Arundel. Ward." Richard was not long in giving effect to his words. The Earl of Suffolk fled from the country. with these words. and called together a Parliament.' and hence they came to be called " Lords Appellant':' They took up arms to enforce their claims. The marriage was not popular among the English people. and Richard now further strengthened his position by a marriage with Isabella. and the king was compelled for a time to bow to the storm which he could not resist. several of the ministers were put to death. before he found an opportunity of avenging the insult which had been put upon him." replied the duke. Arundel was beheaded. For a time Richard seemed content with the victory he had won. but I require them no longer. a person under twenty-one. and Henry of Boling(=-' son of John of Gaunt. . my Lords. the members of which they knew would be favourable to their cause. Gloucester was thrown into prison and murdered while there. Arundel. however.The Banishment of Bolingbroke. and a king once more chose his own ministers from among of Gloucester his in the year 1394. and Nottingham. "you are in your twenty. seized the king. " How old do you think " Your Highness. but irf the year 1397 he struck the blow he had so long intended. The king even showed them special favour. Gloucester.

the king threw down his staff between This done. as events showed. The news of this ffesh rebellion reached Richatd in Ireland arid he hastened to return. and Hereford to banishment his grudge. yielding to the threats of his enemies. It seemed at length as if the king had freed himself from all his enemies. At the last moment. for ten years. and the estates from which his father. and his enemies were his standard in England. But in those days a voyage to Ireland was often a matter of many days. Henry Bolingbroke. but. While Richard was still in Ireland. but Bolingbrok6. and the other DuU of Norfolk. he gave himself up to the Earl of Northumberland. Before long a favourable opportunity arose. landed at liaveilspuT in Yorkshire. Duke of At first he declared that Hereford. and by his Son Henry Percy." soon surrounded by a considerable army. and matiy days passed before he was able to set up It was then too late. and to proclaim ' . and just as the two combatants had entered the lists.222 Hereford. and ordered the heralds to stop the fight. but success soon taught him to claim a still greater prize. was still alive and eager to regain the power he had lost. Bolingbroke to the crown of England was a good one. The Duke of Gloucester and the Earl of Arundel were dead. once on the other side of the Irish Channel. too powerful to be resisted. and " dead men tell no tales " and do no mischief. and the king determined to go over himself to restore ofder. History of England. In the year 1399 Richard started at the head of an expedition to Ireland. he consented to abdicate the crown in the hope of saving his oWti Parliament was persuaded to declare that the claim of Henry life. But he had not forgottefi and he skilfully contrived a quarrel between the twO dukes. It was decided tha. John of Gaunt. English rule in that country was threatened by an armed rebellion. Despairing of success.t after the custom of the times the qUatrel should be settled by a fight between the two patties^ and arrangements were made for a tournamCht to be held in the presence of the king at which the Dukes of Hereford and Norfolk were to taeet in single combat. His enemies at ohce saw that the time had come when they might safely return and claim their own again. He was joined by the Earl of Northumberland. however. sentenced Norfolk to banishment for life. and shortly after. But the wind was contrary. and the king. soon lost his power over the government in London. he them. and he had been driven. though banished from the country. knOWri on account He was of his hasty and impetuous character as " Harry Hotspur. this was far from being the case. he sought nothing but the restoration of his father's estates.

Geoffrey Chaucer. because we learn from them just how people lived. anxious to prove to all men that his rival was no longer to be feared. The other reason for which he must be remembefSd is that he name — — . for they are all of great importance in English history. well of English undefyled. whose best known poem " The Canter" bury Tales is still read with pleasure by thousands of Englishmen. a Student. For a long time after his death many people beUeved that he was still. Geoflfpey Chaucer. The of Chaucer will always be remembered. caused the body of Richard to be brought up from Pontefract and publicly exhibited to the people of London. there was born Greoffirey Chaucer. We see that there is every reason for remembering Chaucer. a Priest. for two reasons. ' tian Chaucer.. ing. We can learn a great deal more history from the stories in Chaucer's " Can^ terbury Tales "than we can from many history books. But aS time passed on. and many Their stories are very amusing. There are a Sailor." Spenser: " Faerie Queene. that we must bear in mind when we read of the reign of Richard II. he was a real and great poet. a Fanner. 223 him King. the fact of Richard's death ceased to be disputed. and that he would one day teturn and take the crown. Not were all doUhtS removed when the new king. how they tndde their money. There were still some who said that the body was not that of the king. and as they ride along the road together they tell each other stories. but of some person ^ho resembled him. First. aUve. He ceased to reign in the twenty-third year after his accession to the crown. the first great EngUsh poet. and how they spent their money iive hundred years ago. On Fame's eternal bead l-oll Worthie to be fyled. how they dressed. the Landlord of the inn. They met at an inn. Richard was cottfined a close prisoner in Pontefract Castle. a Soldier or Knight. nearly forty years before Richard came to the throne. what they thought and talked about. About the year 1340. and there can indeed be no doubt that he was put to death shortly after his imprisonment in Pontefract Castle. In the poem we read how a number of travellers met on their way to the tomb of Thomas A' Becket at Canterbury. and give an account of their adventures. and they are also very interestothers. and there he was murdered. because he was a great poet." There are three things.

got mixed up together. This language was really the English Language which we talk now." Wordswortli : " To Wyeliffe. was great writer it. and as they got mixed up. But gradually those who spoke French. and wrote in the same way. The third thing to be remembered is the life and death of Joim Wyeliffe. Severn to the narrow seas. "As thou these ashes. who talked French. which we should find it very difficult to understand at the present time. which we now speak The Black Death— John Wyeliffe. talked English. When it was once written down. the language they spoke also got mixed.'' We said that there were three special things to be remembered about the reign of Richard II. they wrote in Anglo-Saxon. and those who spoke AngloSaxon. and a still greater number of Saxon words. but which was made up of both. or a language very like French. and the courtiers. . the barons. but he was the first person to write it down in the form of poetry. and when they wrote. This new language was spoken before Chaucer's time. and in which there are very many Norman and French words. and thus began the writing of all those tens of thousands of English books which have been written and read in England since the time of Chaucer. which was neither French nor Anglo-Saxon. this deed accurst An emblem yields to friends and enemies How By the bold teacher's doctrine." The Black Death was a terrible sickness which spread over England and Ireland between the years 1348 and 1407. and most of the merchants and tradesmen.224 History of England. the second is the " Black Death. It is said that over a million persons died of this terrible disease in England alone. Auon to the tide Of Severn. little brook! wilt bear Into the Auon. chiefly the rich. but English very different from what we speak now. sanctified truths shall spread throughout the world dispersed. Into main ocean they. really the first who wrote English in the way in Before his time there were a great many people. Thousands of people died of it in a very short time. The poorer people. and soon a new language came to be used. One is the life and writings of Geoffrey Chaucer. other people followed the example. who were of Saxon families.

son of Robert. Harry Hotspur. and grandson of Edward III. CHAPTER HENRY FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED IV. Wycliffe died in 1384. 225 John Wycliffe was born in Yorlishire in the year 1334. the Severn to the Sea. and the Sea to the Wide World so has his name been carried down in English history. d. 1437. Joanna. Henry Edmund Mortimer. and two daughters.. Chief Justice of the King's Bench. But we must not forget that Wycliffe was the first English translator of the Bible. Archibald Douglas. IN THE REIGN OF HENRY IV. first wife of Henry IV. Thomas. and his ashes were thrown into the little river " Swift " which runs past Lutterworth.. d. He had many followers. Many of the priests at that time were bad and ignorant. Charles VI. King of Scotland. 1381. Henry. This Bible was not the same as that which we use now. and that many of the things which the priests taught were untrue. King of Owen Glendower. . saying that men should live better lives. for in the time of Wycliffe nobody in England knew how to print books. Sir William Gascoigne. 1406. I . Bohun. 1392. d. King of Navarre. 1403. the work he had done was not forgotten. became king 1399. in Leicestershire. After his death his bones were dug up and burnt by order of the Pope. Duke of Clarence.John Wycliffe. daughter of Charles. son ol John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster. 1388. (James I. son of the Robert Earl of Northum- John. afterwards King of England. and was buried at Lutterworth. leader of the Scottish father of The Earl of Nortbumherland. 1408. d. son of Henry IV. the Swift bore them into the Avon. But though Wycliffe was dead. 1413. Duke of Bedford. 1366. reigned 14 years. He was a great preacher and teacher of the people. and he preached against them. son of Henry XXVIII.. d. Duke of Clarence. d. 1403. the Avon to the Severn. d. second wife of Henry IV. 1399—1413. and very few copies of it were made. who were known as " Lollards'' The great work for which Wycliffe is known is his translation of the Bible into English. His ashes were thrown into the Swift. m. III. and his bones burnt. - IV. m. (The Well-Beloved). berland. Humphrey. Harry Hotspur. army. Duke of Gloucester.. third son of Edward III. b. till it has become one which all readers ot English history throughout the world now know and are proud of. IV.. of Scotland). b. James Stuart France. J394. great- Mary grandson of Lionel. and the true heir to the throne on the death of Richard. leader of the Welsh insurrection. b... son of Henry IV. Earl of March. 1415.

ought to have succeeded to the crown. Death of Henry IV. Shakespeare : " Henry IV. and it was for this reason that he made haste to call together a Parliament. Richard II.. Henry . Expedition into Scotland. said by some to have been murdered at Pontefract Castle in this year. Henry defeats the rebels at Shrewsbury. and for place it must be remembered that Henry was not the true heir to the throne. King Richard II. Hotspur 1408. he was not the true heir to the crown. Henry knew well that his own claim was not a good one. Henry crowned King. by the law and custom of England. in Yorkshire. which he granted because he knew that his power depended not upon his own good title. Final defeat of Owen Glendower. Over and over again during King Henry's reign Parliament made demands upon the king. and that he had by force dethroned and imprisoned Richard. In tlie first . Uneasy lies an interesting and important one. His name was Edmund Mortimer. But he was nevei: free from reign of Henry IV. at Homildon Hilt. The reign of Henry IV. is interesting for another reason. Duke of Clarence. A ' Troubled Reigrn. and indeed after Richard's death it was not Henry but the descendants of Lionel. and was able to hand on the crown to his son.'^"' Earl of March.'^) who. and Parliament gained more power during his reign than it had possessed for many years past. is The several reasons. the head that wears a crown. but it could do much to strengthen the hands of the new king by giving him its support. Parliament could not indeed alter the fact. and he lived in constant fear of losing in war what he had won by war. He thus did many things which he would certainly never have done had he felt himself quite firm upon his throne. By his skill and bravery he gained a victory over his various enemies at home. who was the great-grandson of Lionel. Wales.sets aside the claim of the Earl of March. under Archibald Douglas. the rightful king. but upon the support of Parliament. Insurrection by the friends of King Alliance of Percy and Douglas in support of the cause of the Earl of March. But Parliament did not give its support for nothing. PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE REIGN OF September 30th. the true heir to the throne. Insurrection of Owen Glendower in 1409. joins Owen Glendower. Henry joins in the quarrel between the King of France and the Duke of Burgundy. As we have just read. 1411." Part II. One of these descendants was living. Duke of Clarence. Harry Percy (Hotspur) destroys the Scottish army. The Earl of Northumberland and Owen Glendower in revolt agaiost the Kiiig are defeated at Bramham Moor. HENRY IV.226 History of England. and to get from it a declaration that he was the true heir.

and Henry. now found himself attacked in turn in more than one Within a few months of his coronation a rising took place on quarter. 227 the fear of civil war. There seems little doubt that the long war with France. . was in a great part owing to the uncertain his crown. and we shall see that in the end this fear of war at led his son to begin a war abroad which he thought would turn people's minds away from the questions which had led to so much quarrelUng at home. which began in the reign of Henry's son. title by which King Henry held It was indeed not long before civil war broke out again in England. who had attacked and defeated Richard the lawful king.A home Troubled Reign.

Duke of York. the royal cause seemed Fortunately for Henry. Fortunately. where a Welsh gentleman named Owen Glendower. His title came to him through Philippa." met the Scots and totally defeated them at the battle of Homildon Hill in Northumberland (1402). and prepared Mortimer. the widow of Richard II. who. Henry ordered Hotspur to band over his prisoner Douglas to him. Roger Mortimer. If . uncle of the Earl of March. was the third son of Edward II [. having been killed in the year 1-398. who had now become an ally of the Welsh leader. The next rebellion was a more serious one. With all these enemies arrayed against it. also. His title was clearly a better one than that of the descendants of John of Gaunt. or "Hotspur. But out of the victory grew yet another trouble for the king.support the party which had among its leaders a Welsh chief and a Scottish earl both long known as bitter enemies of England. although Glendower proved himself a formidable leader. to be the true king. and sufficient money was found to put an army into the field.228 History of ENCLArtD. in their turn. a former follower of King Richard. An English force under the Earl of Northumberland. and the quarrel between the king and the great house of Northumberland soon became so bitter that at last the Percies. his enemies were to be in great danger. and made common cause with Owen Glendower and with Edmund Mortimer. the daughter of Lionel. his father. The king advanced against the rebels. Luckily the English ParHament was still in humour with the Idng. It began in Wales. divided in their councils. or of Edmund. but Henry easily put it down. who were the rebel leaders. and the famous Earl of Douglas was taken a prisoner declared. and had not really all the same end in view. and his son Harry Percy. and which received help from France. With the Welsh alone it would not have been difficult to deal. Duke of Clarence. 1 Edmund years of age. the people of England were not very eager to. they was still alive. who at once declared Edmund Mortimer. were taken and executed." But matters became much more serious when the Scots. and the Earls of Kent and Huntingdon. was at this time only a boy of eleven we look at the table on page 266. sent by Queen Isabella. we shall see that he was the true heir to the crown. and had given him his daughter in marriage. and the skill with which he escaped pursuit earned for him among the English soldiers the name of " The Magician. put himself at the head of an army.*S5a) the young Earl of March. openly joined a party of rebels. a good by Hotspur. behalf of King Richard. and declared himself Prince of Wales and crossed the English border. with their prisoner Douglas. rose on behalf of King Richard who. as we have seen. but this Hotspur refused to do.' the young Earl of March.

He attacked the army of the Percies at Shrewsbury (1403) before Glendower with his Welsh troops could come up. Jersey and Guernsey were taken by them. but not for long. . where he was kept till the end of Henry's reign. made fierce attacks upon the coast. But even sides was very great. He was attacked by . The loss on both many gentlemen of name. sailing into Milford Haven. The French continued to attack England. had by He escaped to Wales from no means forgotten his old quarrel. in the war that followed. and a French fleet. Not that the civil war was by any means over. Henry managed to meet his enemies before they could unite their forces. A French expedition landed in Plymouth Sound and burnt the town of Plymouth. met by the royal troops at the head of an army. brought aid For a time this strange alliance to the Welsh under Glendower. near Arthington. The English in their turn sent out ships to attack the French coast. however. but the rest he had so hardly won he was not able to enjoy. made prisoner (1405) by order of King Henry and brought to London. Like a good general. The French were no longer able to do mischief. means The In the year 1409 the struggle ended. The young prince was on his way to France when the ship which bore him stopped off Flamborough Head. in Yorkshire (1408). <^°' who showed. and shortly afterwards reappeared in the north of England He was. taking full advantage of the disturbed state of England. Scotland.the Welsh were defeated. and defeated at Bramham Moor. Northumberland. It seemed as if at last Henry had obtained rest and peace. Hotspur was killed and Douglas was taken prisoner. The battle ended in the entire defeat of the rebel arm^. and the country compelled to submit to the English rule. Another expedition landed in the Isle of Wight. and was killed in the battle.A Troubled Reign: 229 to maintain their cause in battle. the bravery and some of the military skill which afterwards made him famous as a victor in the great battle of Agincourt. The command of the army in Wales was given to the king's eldest son. and included very after this success the troubles of King Henry were by no Earl of Northumberland was pardoned. young Henry of Monmouth. He was taken from the ship. between Welshmen and Frenchmen baffled the royal troops. and there was fierce fighting all down the Channel. The Scots were still threatening. over. From this time forward the dangers which threatened the king grew less. but the danger from that quarter was diminished by the capture of James. for France itself was distracted by civil war and had no time for interfering with the affairs of other countries. the heir to the crown of Scotland. but both the Scots and the Welsh remained in arms and the French. though he had been pardoned and received into favour.

. It is doubtful. before he came to the throne. must be remembered. which represents Henry of Monmouth. On the 20th of March. daughter of Charles. King of Navarre. Thy wish was I Harry. and there was a large party in the country who refused to believe all was told them by the priests. it is certain. had won by force.' They soon aroused the enmity of the bishops. daughter of the Earl of Hereford. keeping bad company and following lawless courses. he died Jerusalem Chamber.few years of his life were passed as a bedridden cripple. passed on to his son without difficulty. who survived her husband. Dost thou so hunger That thou wilt weary thee. and the last. the terrible disease of leprosy. is still The prince. Act iv. . They believed that the Church had become corrupt. Scene 5. starting at finding that his father " I alive. But the king still lived. Henry IV. She died in 1394. needs invest thee with mine honours for ? Before thy hour be ripe O foolish youth ! Thou seek'st the greatness that will overwhelm thee. mine empty chair. in 1403." Then the king answers " him thus father. and with the full agreement of the people of England. 1413. says never thought to hear yoU speak again. Henry married Joanna. which contains the famous scene of young Harry of Monmouth sitting by his father's bedside under the behef that the life of the old king had passed away. It was in his day that persecution for religion received special encouragement from the law. as Shakespeare records them.230 History of England." is Whether or not this strange scene really took place not certain. Nine years later. to that thought I stay too long by thee. and placing on his own head the golden crown. however. Westminster Abbey. of the Second Part. are so in a fit. as a wild young man. and. and had fought so hard to keep. One very evil thing in the reign of Henry IV. and rebuked him in the words which. moments is told in Shakespeare's play of Henry IV. whether the story be true. in the The story of his last dignified and touching. who declaring that ^ Lollards. was twice married. The teaching of Wycliffe had borne fruit. too. His first wife was Mary Bohun. who gave them their name. and that great changes were needed. that the crown which Henry IV. and with returning consciousness saw the act of his son. Those who held these views were known as Lollards. from the Dutch hllardt a mumbler of prayers..

The Burning of Heretics,

231

that they were "tares " in the wheatfield, and must be rooted out, set to work to persecute them. At the request of the bishops,

Parliament passed an Act punishing the heretics, as the Lollards were called, with the penalty of death.
1

CHAPTER XXIX

HENRY

V,

1413-1422.

FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED
Henry
V., eldest

IN

THE REIGN OF HENRY
ally of the English.

V.

son

of

Henry IV. and
of England, b. therefore

Mary Bohun, King
1388
at

Charles VI., King of France, d. 1422. Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, an

Monmouth, and

sometimes called Henry of Monmouth, became king 1413, d. 1422, leigned
g years.

The Duke of Bedford,
Henry,

brother to of

King

Edmund
The

Mortimer,

Earl

March,

Catlierme, daughter of Charles VI., King of France, wife of Henry V., m. 1420, afterwards wife of Owen Tudor, m.
1423.

great grandson of Lionel, third son of Edward III., and the true heir to tlie throne, d. 1424. Earl of Suflfolk, killed at Agincourt
1415-

Henry, fon

of Henry V. and Catherine, afterwards King of England, b. 1421.

PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE REIGN OF HENRY
1413. 1414,

V.

1415-

the crown of France. Parliament votes money for a war with France. Henry land'i in France. The Duke of of Bedford made Regent of England.
Sept. 23. Henry takes Harfleur. Oct. 25 (St. Crispin's Day), battle of

Henry V. crowned king. Henry lays claim to

1413/ Siege of Rouen. Capture of Kouen. 7419.

The French make
1420.

friends with the Burgundians, their former enemies,

and join them against the English.

Henry marries Catherine

of

France.

1421.

Agincourt.

John Huss, the great Bohemian Re1416.

An

14 1 7.

former, burnt at Prague. English fleet under the Duke of Bedford defeats the French fleet off Harfleur. Second expedition of Henry into

-

Peace with France. Henry and Catherine return to England. The French with the aid of Scottish mercenaries, defeat an English army at Beaug^. Henry's third expedition into. France. Successful campaign in France. Birth of Henry VI. of England.

1422.

Death

of

Henry

at

Vincennes,

in

France,

France.

Heretico Comhurendo, or " Concerning the Burning of Heretics." From that day many years, the wicked and cruel practice of burning men to death on account of their religious opinions was practised in England.
^

De

forward, and for

232

History op England

Agrineourt.

"Upon

St. Crispin's day Fought was this noble fray, Which Fame did not delay To England to carry; when shall English men, With such acts fill a pen. Or England breed again " Such a King Harry ?

Michael Drayton (1563-1631)

:

••Ballad of Agincourt.'

V. stands out as an heroic figure in tlie history of England. During his lifetime he won the praise which is always accorded to the His brilliant victory over the young, the successful, and the brave. French made him a popular hero in his lifetime, and the misfortunes which overtook England after his death, under the feeble rule of his son, made men look back with regret to the " brave days of King Harry," and contrast the splendour of his rule with the humiliation and disaster of their own time. There was much in Henry's character He was brave, open, and to justify the admiration of his people. straightforward, and, above all, successful in war, but there can be little doubt that the country paid a great price for the glory which he won. In the fifteenth century England was a small and poor country compared with France, and the opportunity which enabled Henry to take ad\antage of the divisions among Frenchmen, and to make himself master for a time of half the kingdom of France, left England drained of men and money, and utterly unable to retain the prize which her soldiers had won. But that Henry was popular, and indeed beloved, during his lifetime can scarcely be doubted, and he had no sooner ascended the throne than he gave ample proof of his desire to reign justly, and to put an end to those internal quarrels which during his father's lifetime had divided the kingdom. A story is told of Henry when he was still a young man, before he became king, which deserves to be remembered. It is said that one of the prince's gay companions was one day arrested for some brawl, and brought before G-ascoigne, the Lord Chief Justice. The young prince, angry at his friend's capture, and believing that, as a son of the king and heir to the throne, he would be able to terrify the Chief Justice, appeared in the court,

Henry

Agincourt.
and, with threatening words, laid his hand ordered the judge to release the prisoner.
persons.

233

upon

his

sword, and

But Gascoigne remembered that the law is no respecter of So far from releasing the prisoner, he gave orders that Henry himself should be sent to gaol for daring to insult one of

the king's judges. To prison, therefore, the prince went, according to the story, and to his credit it is said that, instead of blaming the act of the judge, he recognised the courage and wisdom which

Gascoigne had shown. had happened, he said,

King Henry IV. was told of what is the king who possesses a judge so resolute in the discharge of his duty, and a son so willing to yield to
"

When

Happy

the authority of the law." One of the first acts of the new king on ascending the throne was to send for the Chief Justice, to assure him that he bore no ill-will towards him and to receive him into his favour. Nor was this the only proof that he gave of his respect for the law. Unluckily, he extended his favour equally to bad as well as to good laws. have seen how in the two previous reigns a sect known

We

as the

" Lollards "

had

fixed itself in

had grown up, and how the teaching of Wycliffe the minds of many men. The archbishops and

bishops fearing lest the teaching of the Lollards should diminish the power of the Pope and draw people away from the Church, had persuaded Henry IV. and his Parliament to pass a savage law by which " heretics " might be burned to death for their opinions. It was not long before Henry V. was persuaded in his turn to attack the Lollards, who soon found themselves the object of terrible persecutions. Sir John Oldoastle, afterwards known as Lord Cobham, was a man of distinction and a personal friend of the king's, but he was a Lollard, and had not hesitated to attack the Pope and the clergy, and to declare himself a follower of Wycliffe. He was tried and condemned, and imprisoned in the Tower, whence he managed to escape, but was at length recaptured, and was put to death, with many of his followers (1417). There were, however, greater difficulties to be encountered at home than the enmity of the Lollards, and Henry well knew that the only way of escaping from the endless civil wars which had distracted the kingdom during his father's reign was to turn the thoughts and the weapons of Englishmen against a foreign enemy. From the outset he had determined upon a war with France. It was not hard to find a pretext, and whether the pretext were a good one or a bad one mattered little. As the heir to Edward III. he boldly claimed the crown of France. The French at that time, divided by internal
'

X*

234

History of England.

quanels, sought to avoid war, and offered him the hand of a French princess, the French province of- Aquitaine, and a large sum of money
in satisfaction of his claim.

But Henry would have all or none. He refused the offer and declared war. ParUament was summoned and voted money, and the

THE ENGLISH DOMINIONS

IN

FRANCE

IN

THE TIME OF HENRY

V.

Church, grateful for Henry's punishment ci the Lollards, gave large Whatever may be thought of the cause sums towards the war. of the quarrel or of the consequences of the war, there can be no doubt that the campaign which now took place was one of which Englishmen may well be proud. An English army under an English king successfully invaded the kingdom of France, and though illsupplied, moving in an enemy's country, and confronted by great odds, achieved a victory which startled all Europe.

Agincourt.
It

235

battle

1415,1 that the two armies met in the which decided the campaign. The English army, exhausted with constant marching, ill-fed, and reduced in numbers, came upon the enemy close to the castle of Agincourt. The records of what took place upon that day are clear and certain, and they tell us of a victory more complete and more surprising than any which had ever been won by an English army over a civilised enemy. The two armies were most unequal in numbers. The French had 50,000, the English 15,000; and yet, rather than have cowards or unwilling men in his ranks, Henry bade all those who feared to risk their lives to go home before the fight began. The French loss amounted to 10,000 killed and

was on the 25th October,

14,000 prisoners, that of the English to 1,500. Some of the finest lines in Shakespeare are about King

Henry and

the battle of Agincourt.

The poet tells us how, the morning before the battle, the Earl of Westmoreland, seeing how small the English army was, exclaimed
"
'

O

!

that
'

we now had
in

here

But one ten thousand of those men That do no work to-day
!

England,

Then King Henry

replies
'

My
If

What's he, that wishes so ? Westmoreland ? No, my fair cousin we are marlted to die, we are enough
cousin

:

To

The

and if to live, do our country loss fewer men, the greater share of honour. God's will I pray thee, wish not one man more.
; !

By
It

Jove,

I
I

am

not covetous for gold

;

Nor

care

who
not

doth feed upon
if

my
in

cost

yearns
if it

me

men my garments wear

Such outward things dwell not
But,
I

my

desires:

be a sin to covet honour,

am

the most offending soul alive.

No,

my coz, wish not a man from England I would not lose so great an honour. God's peace As one man more, methinks, would share from me, For the best hope I have. O do not wish one more Rather proclaim it, Westmoreland, through my host. That he that hath no stomach to this fight. his passport shall be made. Let hin^ depart And crowns for convoy put into his purse would not die in that man's company.
"faith,
!
!

!

;

We

That

fears his fellowship to die with us.

'

St, Crispin's

Day.

*^3''

History of England.
This day
is

call'd the feast of Crispiaii

He He
And

that outlives this day, and
a-tip-toe

Will stand

And

rouse him at

comes safe home when this day is named. the name of Crispian.
and see old age,
Crispian
vigil feast his friends,
is

that shall live this day,

Will yearly on the
say,
will
'

To-morrow

St.

'

;

Then

he strip his sleeve and shf.w his scars.

And say, 'These wounds I had on Crispian*s day. Old men forget; yet all shall be forgot, But he'll remember, with advantages,

What

feats

he did that day.

Then

shall

our names,

mouths as household words, Harry the king, Bedford and Exeter, Warwick and Talbot, Salisbury and Gloster, Be in their flowing cups freshly remembered TMs story shall the good man teach his son, And Crispin Crispian shall ne'er go by, From this day to the ending of the world. But we in it shall be remembered We few, we happy few, we band of brothers* For he today that sheds his blood with me
Familiaf
in their
:
:

Shall be

my

brother

;

be he ne'er so
;

vile.

This day

shall gentle his condition
in

And And

gentlemen

England, now a-bed.

Shall think themselves accursed they

were not

here.

hold their manhoods cheap, while any speaks
Crispin's day,"

That fought with us upon Saint

In the city of Oxford there stands the famous College of All Souls, in the chapel of the college there is a lofty screen covered with lifesized statues. The college and the chapel alike are memorials of the battle of Agincourt. It was in memory of those who fell on that famous field that the chapel was built, in order that perpetual prayers might be made, after the fashion of that time, for the souls of those who had fallen fighting for England. The stone figures which were put up in the time of Henry V. have been broken and destroyed, but in later days new statues have been erected in their places, and to this day the chapel of All Souls' College, Oxford, remains to commemorate the victory won on St. Crispin's day so many centuries ago. A second campaign still further strengthened Henry's hold upon France. Normandy was taken, and in 1420 Henr.y married Catherine, daughter of the King of France, receiving -a promise at the same time that he should succeed to the throne of France on the death ot Charles VI. But a great nation like the French can never be long kept down under foreign conquerors, however powerful and however able.

and

Agincourt,

237

sooner had Henry returned to England than the war broke out and a third expedition had to be undertaken. To the last the king's good fortune stood him in good stead, and once more victoryattended his arms but the strain and exposure of his warlike life told upon the king's health. He fell sick, and on the 31st August, 1422, he died at the castle of Vincennes, close to Paris. From the day of his death the English power in France, which his genius had maintained, steadily declined. The great kingdom which he had claimed and won melted away in the feeble grasp of his successor, till nothing remained to bear witness to his splendid military genius save the suffering of a wasted land, and the poverty of an exhausted people. Englishmen bad yet to learn the lesson that it was as impossible for England to keep down and govern France, as it would be for Frenchmen to keep down and govern England.
again,
;

No

CHAPTER XXX.

HENRY

VI.— "THE

FREEING OF FRANCE.'
IN

1422-1445.

FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED
Henry
VI., son of

THE REIGN OF HENRY

VI.

Henry V. and Catherine of

Fiance, sometimes called "Henry of Wi'dsjr," b. 1421, became king (at the age of nine months) 1422, d.
1471.

Cardinal~Beaufort, one of the Regents with Bedford and Gloncester, d. 1447. Ricbaxd, Duke of York, grandson of Kdmiind
Langley, great-grandson of Edward
III., leader of the Yorkists, killed at

Margaret of Anjou,

daughter of in Italy, m. 1445. Edward, Prince of Wales, son of Henry VI. and Margaret-, killed 1471.
.

Henry VI., R^n6, King of Naples
wife of

Wakefield 1460. Edward, son of Richard,
b. 1442,

BiClia.rd,

Catherine, widow of Henry v., and mother of Henry VL,d. 143S. Owen Tudor, a Welsh gentleman, second husband of Catherine, widow of Henry
v., m. 1423, d. 1461.

Duke of York, afterwards King of England. Gloucester, son of of York, and brother of Edward, afterwards King of EngDuke of Richard, Duke
land, b. 1452-

Tudor, Earl of Richmond, son Owen Tudor, and father of Henry VU., King of England. Charles VIL, King of France, 1422-1461. Joan of Arc, "The Maid of Orleans," b.

Edmund

of

1412. burnt 1431. of Bedford, uncle of Henry VI.. and general of the English troops in France, d. 1435. Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (" the Good Duke Humphrey"), uncle of Henry VI., Regent of England together

John,

Duke

of Warwick, a leader ofthe Yorkists sometimes called "The King Maker," and " The Last of the Barons," b. 1428, killed i47i,atBarnet. Jack Cade, leader of "Cades Rebellion," when the rioters marched to London, taken and killed 1450. Jolin Fust and Jolin Gutenberg, of Mentz, in Germany, who set up the first pHnting press, and made the first metal types for printing, 1442 -1450. William CaXton, first English printer, b.

Richard Neville, Earl

1421.

Christopher Columbus, who discovered America, b. in Genoa 1436.

with Bedford,

d. S447-

Mahomet II., Sultan of the Turks 1451-1453.

238

History op England,

PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE REIGN OF
1422. 1423.

HENRY

VI.

Henry VI. becomes

king.
1461.

Richard,
field.

Duke

of York, killed at

Wake-

Charles VII. becomes King of France. James, King of Scotland released by

Henry. Marriage of Queen Catherine Tudor.
1424. 1428. T429.

to

Owen

Defeat of the Yorkists at St. Albans. Prince Edward, son of Richard, Duke of York, defeats the Lancastrians at Mortimer's Cross, near Hereford, and

War

France. Bedford Regent in France. The Earl of Salisbury besieges Orleans. Joan of Arc visits the King of France.
in

marches

to

London.

Edward
King

declares

Henry

to
is

have

for-

feited the

Crown, and

proclaimed

1430. 1431.

Joan of Arc leads the French troops and relieves Orlean";. Charles crowned at Rheims. Capture of Joan of Arc. Trial and execution of Joan of Arc.
Further disasters to the English arrny in France.

as Edward IV. Defeat of (he Lancastrians at Towton.

Edward crowned
1464.

in London. Margaret seeis aid in France. Margaret takes up arms again.

Lan-

castrians defeated at

Hexham.

Edward widow
1470.

143*?.

1445. 1450. 1451. 1453.

Death of Queen Catherine. Marriage of Henry VI. and Margaret
of Anjou.

marries Elizabeth Woodville, of Sir John Grey. Insurrection against Edward. Edward taken prisoner by the Earl of Warwick, and imprisoned in Middli ham
Castle.

Jack Cade's Rebellion. Quarrel between the Duke of Somerset and the Duke of York.
Loss of all the English dominions in France except Calais. Birth of Edward, Prince of Wales. King Henry becomes imbecile. The Turks under Mahomet II. take
Constantinople, May 29th. Beginning of the Wars of the Roses. Victory of the Yorkists at St. Albans. Truce between York and Lancaster. The Yorkists take up arms but are dispersed.
1471.

Edward
throne.

released

and replaced on the

Edward

Warwick defeats Warwick. offers his help to Queen Margaret.
raises

Warwick

an

aimy

(or

King

1455.

1460.

Henrj'. Flight of Edward to Holland, and entry of Warwick into London. Return of Edward, battle of Barnet, and death of Warwick. Victory of the Yorkists at Tewkesbury. Death of Edward, son of H^nry and

Defeat and capture of Henry at Northampton. Margaret raises an army, and defeats
the Yorkists at Wakefield.

Margaret. Imprisonment Tower.

of

Margaret

in

the

Deathof Henry VI.

The " Maid of Orleans."
"/
for
to

haijQ

come

to

ask that
I

I

may
wear

be taken to the King; he cares not

me
him.

or

my words ;
For no one

nevertheless, ere mid-Lent

comes

I

must be before

the King, even though
Princess,^ nor

have

to

my

legs to the knees in journeying

in

the world, neither King, nor Duke, nor Scottish

Kingdom of France; nor is there xny succour for it save me alone, though rather would I stay at home and spin by my poor mother's side .... but go I must, because such is the wish of the Lord." Chronicle of Joan of Arc.
any
other, can recover the

When Henry V.

died he was master of France. covered the whole of the great piece which

The English dominion
is

marked on the map

* A marriage between the Dauphin Louis and the daughter of the King of Scotland was then under discussion. The Scottish king had promised to send aid to Charles VII.

The
(p. 234),

"Maw

of Orleans."

239

and after the battle of Agincourt it was no idle boast for a King of England to call himself King of France. But what Henry V. won, Henry VI. lost. Henry VI., <"'' who came to the throne on his father's death, was but a child nine months old, his little head, too small to wear the crown of England, was crowned with his mother's bracelet. While the little Henry was king in name, his uncles, the Dukes of Bedford and Gloucester, together with Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester, really had the kingly power, and were made " Regents " of the kingdom. Henry's life was long and unhappy, a time of war and suffering. In the story of English history it will always be remembered as the reign in which we lost France. In the history of France it is remembered as the time of victory, a glorious time for the French people. The most interesting person we have to do with in the reign of Henry VI. is neither the King of England nor the King of France, but a young French girl who was born and brought up far away from courts and palaces. In one of the chief streets of the great city of Paris there She is seated on a powerful war-horse, is a statue of this young girl. she is dressed in armour, and in her hand she holds a sword. Her name is one of the most honoured names in the whole of France. It is Joan of Arc, the peasant girl of Domremy, who saved her country. The story of Joan can only be told very shortly here. Her father was a labourer, and Joan was employed during the day in looking after Like many another young Frenchwoman of her time, she his sheep. thought with sorrow of the misfortunes of her country, and longed to see it freed from its English enemies. As she thought and dreamed of a better time, she fancied that an angel brought her a message that the happier time was coming, and She told the neighthat she was to take a part in bringing it about. bours, and the neighbours laughed at her, but the neighbours were wrong and Joan was right for, after all, her own heart had spoken to her truly, and she, the little shepherdess, was really going to do a great
;

work for France. She made up her mind that she would go straight to Charles, the King of France. The king was at Chinon. It was a long journey to get there, and many were the dangers which Joan had to encounter on the road but at last she reached the king's court. She told him that she had come to save France "and you," said she, "shall be crowned King of France in your own city of Rheims." Now of this there seemed but little chance, for Rheims and its great
;
:

Cathedral, in which the Kings of France were crowned, were in the hands of the English. The king smiled to see so strange a champion,

240

History of Englaxd.

but at last he was moved by Joan's earnest manner, and he ordered the learned men_ of his Court to n ask her questions and to find out all about her, and about the wonderful message which [A she said had come to her from the angel. The learned men soon found out that Joan, at any .0\

A

rate,

was

full

of courage
lost so

and

/^fS'ft
//

hope,

diers,

who had

many

il^Ji,

battles,

and the French solneeded courage and

JOAN OF ARC.
[From
the Statue in Paris.)

at that time. And so Joan was sent by order of the king to join the royal army, which was trying to raise the siege of the town of Orleans. She rode forth in full armour, mounted on a white horse. When she came among the soldiers, every man Was moved by her courage and by her example, for she did not fear

hope more than anything

342

History of England,

during the thickest part of the fight. Soon men began to believe that she was indeed specially sent by God to free the kingdom of France from its enemies. The spirits of the French rose whenever they saw her, while the English, on their side, were alarmed and perplexed. Under Joan's leadership, the French army soon raised the siege of Orleans, defeated the English, and set free the French garrison of the town, who had long given up all hope of being rescued. From that time forward the fortunes of the English in France began to fail. In Rheims was retaken, and Joan's battle after battle they were defeated. promise came true. Charles was crowned King of France in the Cathedral (1429). But though Joan had saved her country, she did not save herself. In the year 1430 she was taken prisoner in&. skirmish
outside the town of Compifegne by the soldiers of the The Enghsh paid 10,000 francs for the prisoner.

Duke of Burgundy. And now a terrible event took place. Joan was accused of witchcraft, and it was said that she had used wicked arts to bewitch her enemies. She was thrown Once she gave way into prison, and was urged to confess her crime. to her tormentors, and confessed but her courage soon came back to She was sentenced to be her, and she withdrew what she had said.
;

imprisoned for life but this did not satisfy her enemies, and they soon found an excuse for putting her on her trial once more. She was brought before the French Bishop of Beauvais, and was condemned by him to be burnt alive. This terrible punishment was carried out on the 30th of May, 1431, and poor Joan was burnt to death in the market-place at Rouen, in Normandy. The square in which she was burnt is still known as " The. Maiden's Square " (Place de la Pucelle), and Joan still lives in the memory of Frenchmen as " The Maid of Orleans " (La Pucelle d'Orleans). But though Joan's death was sorrowful, her great work had really been done. The English power in France had been broken for ever, and the long war of a hundred years, which had begun in the reign of Edward III., died out at last in the reign of Henry VI. All English men and women should admire Joan of Arc, although she was the enemy of England, and helped to defeat its armies for she was a brave and good woman, who set an example of love of country, which any Englishman or Englishwoman may be proud to
; ;

follow.

forget that though Henry VI., and those who lived in thought that it was a great disgrace to be defeated, and lamented the loss of France, it was really and truly a most fortunate thing for England that ^he was at last freed from the necessity of trying to keep down the great French people. It was neither right

Nor must we

his time,

The Loss of pRAhCE.

243

nor possible that England should go on governing France. Just as Frenchmen could never really keep down Englishmen in their own
country, so
also
it

was impossible

for

Englishmen to keep down

Frenchmen

in France.

The Loss of France.
'Montjoie
St.

Denis!

But the failure of the English in France did not end with the death of Joan. Quarrels arose between the English and their French Burgundian allies. The Duke of Bedford, the best of the English generals, died in 1435. Paris, which it is strange to think had been long held by English troops and governed by an English governor, was lost. The gates were thrown open to Charles VII., and the King of France once more ruled in his own capital. Maine, the Duchy of Normandy, and Guienne alone remained under the banner of " St. George," but even these had now to be abandoned. Maine was given up by treaty in 1444, a condition of the surrender being that the young EngHsh king should receive the hand of Margaret of Anjou in marriage. The truce that followed this settlement was but a short one, and five years later (1449) war broke out again. Disaster once more overtook the English armies, and after an overwhelming defeat at Formigny (1450) Normandy itself, the duchy from which the Kings of England had themselves sprung, and which had so long been an undisputed possession of the English crown, fell into the hands of
the enemy.
It may easily be supposed that the loss of Normandy and the weakness which had led to it proved an encouragement to the forces of disorder in England, and the loss which the war had inflicted upon the people made it easy for an active man to stir up revolt in England itself. In 1450, the same year as the battle which decided the fate of Normandy, Jack Cade, a soldier of fortune, who had fought in the French wars, following the example of Wat Tyler in the days of Richard II., placed himself at the head of a force composed of discontented men, and marched with arms, followed by thousands from Kent and Sussex, against the City of London. Several of the king's officers were killed, and for They had a time it seemed as if the rebels would command the city.
^

The

battle-cry of the

Kings of France.

344

History of England.

no common cause except that of the common suffering, and as their leader promised them the redress of all their grievances and hinted that they might also become masters of their neighbours' property, they were naturally eager to support so promising a cause.
But even the weak government of Henry VI. was strong enough to put down the rebellion of Jack Cade. Cade himself was taken and executed (1450) and his followers dispersed, but the fact that so formidable a movement came so near success shows how disturbed the country was, and how easy it would be for better known men than
Jack Cade to light the fire of civil war. Though a gleam of good fortune seemed to shine on King Henry when he succeeded in putting down Cade's rebellion, the dark cloud soon closed in again. In the year 1453 was lost the last of the great possessions of England across the Channel. After much fierce fighting, Bordeaux was taken, and the Province of Guienne fell into the hands of the French. Thus it came about that within the short space of thirty-one years the power of England in France had melted away, and of all the great possessions in that country over wliich Henry V. had ruled there remained to England only Calais and a few small towns in the neighbourhood. The Channel Islands, part of the Duchy of Normandy, from which William the Conqueror came, fortunately retained their connection with England, and they remain to this day among the brightest ornaments of that crown with which their ruler, the Norman William, endowed the sovereigns of England, and which now adorns the brow of our British monarchs, who have no more loyal subjects than those who live in the Channel Islands.

245

CHAPTER

XXXI.

YORK AND LANCASTER.
1445—1455.

The Rival Houses.
"In a word, he^ would have adorned a cloister, though he disgraced a ; and was rather respectable for those vices he wanted than for those virtues he possessed. He founded the colleges of Eton and Windsor, and King's College in Cambridge for those scholars who had begun their studies at Eton." Smollett.

crown

misfortunes which happened in France were not the only ones befell our country in the reign of Henry VI. Unhappily, no sooner had war with a foreign enemy come to an end, than there began a " civil" war at home, in which Englishmen fought on both sides. In order to understand this war, we must be quite clear about one King Henry VI. '"^ or two things which helped to bring it about. was the son of Henry V.f "> and of his wife Catherine.!^'' Henry, as we shall remember, was descended from John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, He was therefore spoken of as belongthe fourth son of Edward III. P^' ing to The House of Lancaster. His mother, Catherine, who became a widow on the death of Henry V., wished to remain at Court and take care of the little king her son. But the king's uncles, the Dukes of Bedford and Gloucester, took so much power into their hands, that the queen found that she could very seldom get her own way, and could do very little. She therefore left the Court, and married a Welsh

The

which

gentleman named Owen Tudor. (^^

must not forget the name of this Welsh gentleman for though little about him, and though he never became very famous, the name of " Tudor " did become very famous in the history of England, and some of the greatest Sovereigns that England ever had were descended from this Owen Tudor. When his mother, Catherine, went away, Henry was left in the power of his uncles. He was a dreamy, weak-minded boy, easily guided by others. His uncles thought that it would be a good thing to
;

We

history tells us

1

Henry VI.

246
find

History of England.

him a clever and strong-minded wife, and they therefore arranged marry Margaret of Anjou Margaret, indeed, turned out to be as strong-minded and ambitious as anyone could wish.
that he should
;

understand about three of the people who come into this There is Catherine, the, mother of Henry VI., who first married Henry V., and then married Owen Tudor. Then there is Henry VI. himself, a king of the House of Lancaster. And lastly we have Henry's
story.
wife,

Now we

Margaret of Anjou.

But there is another person about whom we must say something, namely, Biohard, Duke of York'''"). Richard, Duke of York, was, like Henryj himself a Plantagenet, and descended from both Lionel, Duke of Clarence, l^'l the second son of Edward III., '^'' and from Edmund Langley, Duke of York, '^^1 fifth son of Edward III. He was spoken of as belonging to the House of York. All these relationships may seem rather puzzling^ but they will become clearer if we look at the table on page 266. We ought to know something about them if we want to understand the
story of these times.
It will be seen, therefore, that among the great families who claimed descent from Edward III. there were two parties, one represented by King Henry, the head of the House of Lancaster, the other by Richard, Duke of York, head of the House of York. Both sides, therefore, had a claim to the crown, and if an3rthing the claim of Richard, Duke of York, was the better of the two but at that time, as at so many other times in the world's history, " might " seemed at least as powerful as " right," and the supporters of Richard were so many and so strong that, as we shall see, they were able to make good their title by force quite apart from the question of right. How that war came about it is now easy to see. The country was indeed full of the materials which, if once a light be set to them, are sure to kindle into the fierce flames of civil war. In the first place, there was the king, a young man of feeble character, whose weak mind occasionallj' gave way altogether. His wife, Margaret of Anjou, possessed all the courage, the ambition, and the energy which her husband lacked. The early years of the king's reign had been years of foreign war, and in that war the country had suffered a great and, as many thought, a disgraceful defeat. The soldiers who had so long fought in France had returned in thousands to England, where they became a burden to the peaceful inhabitants from their turbulence unfit for peaceful occupations, they were ready to take the first opportunity of serving under any leader who would promise them
;

fighting

and plunder.

The Rival Houses.
Around the king there stood a number of
anxious to

247

great, nobles, ambitious use of the king's name to further their own interests. Of these great noblemen the chief were the families of the Beauforts, the Tudors, the Percies of Northumberland, the Nevilles of Westmoreland, the Staffords of Buckingham. Meanwhile, as we

men

make

friends,

have seen, there was another party opposed to the king and his a party composed, like that which surrounded Henry, of great and ambitious nobles, each with his retinue of armed men. Such were the Earls of Salisbury and Warwick, of the family of Neville, and John Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk. It was to Richard,

Duke of York, that members of this party looked as their head. It was not long before the rivalry between the two great factions passed from mere quarrelling into open war and it is of this war that something must be said in this chapter. It is not easy, and it is not necessary, to follow carefully all the ups and downs, and the various changes of fortune, which marked the Wars of the Roses, but a word must be said about the character of the war itself. The Wars of the Roses, which began in 1455 and lasted for thirty years, were in some ways very unlike other wars from which our country has suffered. It was not the people of England who were fighting against a foreign enemy, nor was it even the people of England divided into two parties engaged in civil war. It was the White Rose against the Red Rose, the House of York against the House of Lancaster, the friends of the House of York against the friends of the House of Lancaster. The chief men on either side fought for power and riches. They
;

fought because they hated each other, they fought because they loved fighting. They always found plenty of friends who loved power, riches, and fighting, ready to join them. But, strange as it may seem, these terrible wars, which lasted so long, and in which so many fierce battles were fought, did not do much harm to the common people of England. Great battles were fought in

and many of the great lords and their followers were on both sides. But even quite close to places where the battles were fought, work went on, and people lived quietly, peaceably, without caring much what happened in the battle, or which side won. There is a famous -collection of letters which were written by members of the family of Paston to one another at this time. They have been put together in a book, and we can read them now. It is strange to notice how little those who were not actually concerned in the fighting seemed to think about the war that was going on. la
different places,
killed

many

of the letters, nothing

is

said about the

Wars

of the Roses, 01

SoKERSET : Warwick : Suffolk : " Let him that is no coward. and ended thirty years later at the battle of Bosworth Field describe it as the " Wars of (1485). such as the King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry (51st and 105th) we soldier he bears on his collar a Rose. The rose is one of the crests or signs of Yorkshire.248 HisTony of England. we shall see that it is a White Rose. I love no colours. it would be a Red Rose. nor no flatterer Pluck a red rose from off this thorn with me. such for instance P-IRLIAMENT. do in many places. about the House of Lancaster or the House of York and when we read them. . has on his goUar a Rose. as we may the two. and it is also one of the crests or signs of Lancashire. and without all colour Of base insinuating flattery I pluck this white rose with Plantagenet.. but if we saw it painted up in Lancashire." Shakespeare : "Henry VI. a soldier of one of the Lancashire regiments. White Rose and Red Rose. but there is a difference between If we see the rose painted up in Yorkshire." much a part of our history that it is worth while to say a few words as to We what used. it means. Every reader of English history is familiar with the name which has been given to the long struggle which began in the reign of Henry VI. shall see that If ROSE FEOM THE DECORATrONS OF THE HOUSES OF we look at . They are great rivals in many things. 'Parti. too.. we might think that there had been perfect peace in the country at the time when they were written. though they are happily not enemies. as the Royal North Lancashire (47th and 8ist) we shall see that he. and how it came to be The two most important counties in England are Yorkshire and Lancashire. I pluck this red rose with young Somerset And say withal I think he held the right. If we look at a who belongs to one of the Yorkshire regiments. The phrase has become so the Roses.

The great block of is called The Temple. some four hundred years ago. of buildings where lawyers live. and that their friends took up the quarrel on either side. 249 If we go into the Houses of Parliament in Westminster.White Rose and Red Rose. were walking in the Temple Gardens with their friends. There are gardens in front of the buildings which come nearly down to the river. How was it that these two roses ever came to be divided ? How was it that they ever came together again ? That is what we shall learn in the next few chapters. a summer's day. Duke of York''"" and John Eeaufort. '^'^ Earl of Somerset. " Let those who are of my party wear my flower. who was of the House of Lancaster. On the Thames Embankment in London there is a great block THE QUARREL IN THE TEMPLE GARDENS. buildings On . Then Beaufort plucked a Red Rose from a bush hard by. but in the terrible war which followed it. we can see in some of the coloured glass windows the White Rose of York and the Red Rose of Lancaster joined together. And so it came about that the Red Rose stood for the House of Lancaster." Then the Duke of York plucked a White Rose for his badge. and the White Rose for the House of York. not only in this first quarrel. Richard. and the gardens are the Temple Gardens. and said to his friends. The story says that the two quarrelled.

and Cicely Neville. wife of Edward IV. Lord Rivers and Lord Grey. Louis Xr. RiCbardt Duke of Gloucester. Duke of York and four other daughters. King of England.. near Ludlow. What is most astonishing in the life of this prince^ is his which seemed to be prodigious. the Duke of Clarence. m. Burgundy. Edward IV. of Clarence. 1461— 1483. . the king's friends. King of France. d. 1464. brother of Edward IV. 1450. the king's chief minister. fon of Richard. Death of Henry VI. Duke of York.. Eliza"beth. * Edward accuses 1483. 1478. widow of Sir John Grey. b. introduced the art of printing into England. 1455—1483. and Duke of Somerset. Woodvllle. Duke of York. CHAPTER XXXII... Duke IV. his brother. in 1459. William Caxton. who were routed at Ludford. reigned 22 years. afterwards Kingof Eng: 1442. XI. IV. and.. him to be Death of Edward. The Chances of War—Wakefield— St. 23rd) at It was in 1455 that fighting first began. Albans— TowtonBarnet—Tewkesbury.. EDWARD IV. Eicliard.afterwardswifeof King Henry VII. as might have been the > Edward IV. Albans. brother of 1478. his wife was free. Edward Edward claims the crown of France and lands with an army at Calais. collects money for the French war in the form of " Benevolences. good fortune. and this time the fortunes of war turned against the Yorkists. in which the Yorkist party were the victors. But though the l<ing was a prisoner. became King 1461. and determined She succeeded in stirring up at any cost to destroy her enemies.) 1475. Edward Caxton. V. of treason. sister of of Duchess Margaret. EDWARD FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED Edward IV. and causes murdered in the Tower. members Louis the Queen's family. 1483. IN THE REIGN OF EDWARD land. b. It was one of the most unfortunate features in this unhappy war that as each party gained the upper hand it sought by cruelty and oppression to destroy its opponents. was killed. Henry himself was taken prisoner by Richard. murdered PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE REIGN OF (After the 1475. who Edward. IV. afterwards Edward .250 History of England. who befriended William George. of Elizabeth. of France persuades Edward to give up his claims and to leave France." or taxes levied from the people without the consent of Parliament. A battle was fought (May King St. — Raf in.

however. was slain on the field. Towton. the King-Maker. for the first time we have the strange spectacle of two kings of England demanding the allegiance of the people. London. an event of some importance took place. But Queen Margaret. but it was probably from the support which he received from the great Earl of Warwick. 'but as yet he did not dare to enforce his claim. 251 only drove the defeated party into fiercer they have nothing to lose are always dangerous enemies. In the short interval of peace which now followed. had succeeded once more in rallying the Lancastrian forces. A second battle at St. the resistance. 1^60). 1461. that he owed his So great was the power of Warwick. character as a skilful and courageous commander in battle. The Duke — priving the Prince of Wales. was one of the fiercest in all the war. Ke demanded. near Tadcaster. and proclaimed himself King of England as Edward IV. the young son of Richard of York. and on the 29th of March.000 men were slain. And now. A second time the king was taken attempt Men who feel that and a second time the queen escaped to carry on the war. while many of the most powerful Lancastrian nobles were slain on the Henry f 'd to Scotland. the most powerful of the Yorkist nobles. His strength lay partly in his own undisputed King of England. and for a time Edward reigned as field. expected. the Yorkists suffered a terrible defeat. He soon He advanced against the proved himself worthy of his position. Lancastrians. the crown of England. who arrived with his troops in time to protect the City. This was the marriage of Edward to Elizabeth .The Chances of War. for King Henry was in his power. Richard. and thus on the present occasion the defeated Yorkists. of his rights. At the battle of Wakefield (December 31st. was only saved by the valour of Edward. 1461) gave another victory to the Lancastrians and restored the king to his friends. ever courageous and determined." and indeed it seemed as if the gift of the crown of England lay in his strong hands. of York seemed now to have within his reach the prize for which he longed namely. that he should succeed King Henry. 1460. engaged them at The battle. for Edward with the consent of his followers. boldly claimed the crown. His army was defeated and almost destroyed. Albans (February 17th. Duke of York. Henry's eldest son. that he came to be called " Warwick. tant was his aid to the party which he supported. again appeared in arms. united by the violence of the king's party. the Earl of Warwick defeated the Lancastrians at Northampton. which throughout stood by the Yorkists. so imporsuccess at this time. and once more fortune deserted the cause of Henry. in which 60. On the loth of July. thus deprisoner.

and Warwick. Warwick now openly turned traitor and joined Henry and Queen Margaret. Edward found himself in undisputed possession of the crown. widow of Sir Jolin Grey. Edward escaped from his prison and took the field. a May. whoever he was. The Yorkists were victorious. the Henry. it is said by the hand. When the House of Lords was called together after the Wars of the Roses. one of the Lancasirian party. and to secure the execution of Earl Rivers. One more attempt to retrieve their fallen was made by the Lancastrians. Yorkists. a fog covered the field of battle. who in 1470 made one last attempt to recover the crown. who desired to see the king married to a French princess. Edward IV. lost their lives on both sides. in the year 1471. At Tewkesbury. must expect to see himself within a very short time in the position of the vanquished. he was slain. now reigned as King of England. and who dislilted From that the Woodvilles and feared their influence over the king.5 2 '2 History of England. there were less than forty lords left to obey by the order. and Edward was again completely Margaret herself was taken prisoner. The marriage was made contrary to the advice of Warwiclc. and Margaret. courageous to last. Edward himself was entrapped by a party of Lancastrians and imprisoned. the call. led her battle took place (4th victorious. the head of the Woodville family (1469). together with his brother and his principal fortunes the followers (14th April. Many men had his right. as we have read. time forward the " King-Maker " set himself to injure Edward and Woodville. at last. need be devoted to the reign of Edward IV. That battle was fought. once more in the hands of enemies was murdered in his prison. He secretly entered into an agreement with the Lancastrians. but the greatest loss had been among the nobles. And thus. 1471). and for a time at least the House of York was supreme. But again Edward proved himself an unrivalled general in the field. and her son Edward was his killed. fated that in this strange civil war the victor. army against Edward. after the Tewkesbury. with no one to dispute The war had been long and disastrous. 1471). " the King-Maker " and traitor. or at any Duke of Gloucester. and for a short time Warwick was sufficiently powerful to wreak his vengeance upon the hated family to help the fallen of Woodville. a few miles north of London. however. and for twelve years King Edward reigned as undisputed Little space battle of . It seemed. The two armies met at Bamet. A rate few days later the feeble King Henry. arrived only Falling into the hands of the victorious in time to find the battle lost. losing his way. brother of the king. however. of Richard.

Elizabeth by name. for Parliament having once given up or ceased to exercise its right to vote money. Unluckily. for he allowed his subjects to enjoy for the first time for many years the blessings of peace. Meanwhile. Hatred and distrust still divided parties. Richard. and it is from this period that we must date the beginning of the growth of wealth in England which became so marked a hundred years later. His subjects were not slow to take advantage of the opportunity given to them. and Richard aged nine. found it difficult to regain that right when it desired to do so. or " benevolences. They were content that others should be called upon to pay as long as they themselves went free. and in the year 1478 Edward. and they did not care to ask whether it were legal or not. won king. Duke of Gloucester. i ' the great nobles with their turbulent following many had been slain.The Chances of War. enjoying the ease wliicli his previous activity in the field for him. the bitter enmities which had been raised during the Wars of the Roses had not as yet been exhausted. leaving two sons. Duke of Clarence. was plotting against him. and caused him to be put to death. convinced that his own brother. having learnt from King Edward how to govern without a Parliament. On the gth of April. improved the lesson and reduced Parliament for many years to a condition in which it was almost powerless either for good or evil. 1483. Edward aged twelve. and five daughters." and the proverb receives its illustration in this case. It has been said with truth that " the price of liberty is eternal vigilance. but his trust was terribly misplaced. had been growing up. trouble Parliament for " supplies. who at the time of her father's death was eighteen years of age. His younger brother. It cannot be said that he was a good king." many who were . but he 253 had was undoubtedly a popular one and deserved to be so. Of who cared nothing for the disputes Trade with foreign countries had increased. of whom we must remember the eldest." than to This plan found favour with the not asked to contribute. We shall learn in a later chapter how our English Sovereigns. Nor did Edward run the risk of losing his popularity by making excessive demands upon Parliament. George. and even families. a class of wealthy merchants. He preferred rather to compel a small number of rich men to pay him money under the form of forced loans. others had been ruined or banished from the country. and the war which had ruined the nobility had left the country but little the worse. he trusted. of the nobles. Edward died. threw him into prison.

the sister of King Edward IV. but there had been no printing press set up in England. in Belgium. and the Duke of Burgundy had married Margaret. a change which ended in making his name very famous in English history. of England. though they are not part of the political history of the time.— that is to say. something must be said of certain events which took place in our history during the reign of Edward IV. for few things have made more difference to our country than the invention of printing. he came up to London from Kent. most of the wool which was used in England was bought and sold at the great markets which were held at the town of Bruges. The fifteenth century will and had a great influence upon always be memorable as that in which the art of printing was introduced into England. Before passing to the history of the next reign. He got on very well. It was not till he was fifty years old that Caxton made a great change in his business. He stayed in Bruges for many years working at his trade. THE INVENTION OF PRINTING. CHAPTER XXXIII. William Caxton and the Compositor's Case. The name of the to England ought . 1843. Before the time of Edward IV. or more potent than those jjuhich belong to the art of the printer. are of very great importance. before the year 1470 The art of Printing had been ^printing was unknown in England. first man who brought the printing press into be remembered. and became rich and much respected. " There are no tools more ingeniously wrought. and got employment in the shop of a man who dealt in wool and woollen goods. the life of our nation. which.254 History of England. The name of the man of whom I speak was William Caxton. When he was quite a young man. known and practised for some time abroad.." — The Common School Journal. The town of Bruges was under the government of the DuJse of Burgundy. At that time.

and worked much more slowly than those which are used now. When he had finished the whole work. he was able during his life to print no less than Ninety-nine books.William Caxton." she sent for him and asked him to read it to her. But to copy out a poem which fills a whole book is a long and tiresome task. He got so tired of it that at last he decided to go to some Dutch printers who were living in Bruges. We must not forget that it was to William Caxton that the credit the art of printing into England. From these printers he learnt how to print himself. who was her countryman." Margaret was very friendly to Caxton. the princess asked him to give her a copy of it to send to her friends in England. p=f ' and before very long was able to print a copy of his poem for the princess. Margaret sent the book over to her CAXTON PRESENTING HIS BOOK TO EDWAKD IV. 255 lating happened that Caxton had been amusing himself by transEnglish a French poem called "The History of Troy. and though his press was a very small one.was in the year 1477 that Caxton first set up England. . and when she heard that he was translating the " Siege of Troy. his printing press in It. who saw it in England were astonished and delighted with the work. and now millions of books are printed each year. and who were among the first persons who books in printed Europe. and {From Ike MS. is due of having been the first to bring historical lesson may be learnt amusing rather An instructive and from an article which is in daily use in every printing office at the ' present day. There he soon set to work to print books. those brother. and fi-om that time the number of printing presses has increased very quickly. his printing press. in the Libta->y 0/ Lambeth PaLce). At last Caxton made up his mind to He brought with him leave Bruges and to come over to England. and Caxton soon became very tired it Now into of the work. and set it up near Westminster Abbey in London.

B. A. sets up or " composes " the different types or letters book such as that which we are now reading. There is no place here for the letter J. the " I " was used instead of letters J and U were never used in writing. find the It . O. . or. until and so on. Q. and after we have finished all the other boxes." He has before him. seems at first as if the order in which a compositor's case is arranged could have very little to do with the history of King Edward IV. and so on. C. divided into a number of little boxes or compartments. is called a " compositor. Then we go on in the proper order. . is out of its place. He takes them out and arranges them in the proper order to spell the words which have to be printed. JE and CE. The trays which hold the type are called " oases. D." The little boxes in which the capital letters are The man who for a : ." All the capital letters.. like the letter J. C. as printers call it. D.i>^ +in^ LINES FKOM A BOOK PRINTED BY CAXTON. we shall two compartments for J and U. kept. brother Richard of York. " the upper case. N. but we shall see that the arrangement of the letters in the compositor's case does after all tell us a little story of its own. until we come to the letter U. and it was made to hold all the letters which people used at tnat time. down to X. and did duty for If King V U. Y.<«> had wanted to put a date June 8th. K. But in the time of Edward IV. and does really take us back a great many years in our history. we come to the letter J. M. B. The first compositor's case that was ever used in England was made in the reign of Edward IV. The letter U.256 History of England. and so on. A. are in the top case. We must go on to the end of the alphabet. Edward. and so on. ^pri^tcn (Ci ^^fem^fetc t^^w of our fo^. and Z. The metal types which he uses are kept in these little boxes all the A's in one. the C's in another. L. he would probably have written it with tfae letters IVNE viiith. when he is " composing. are arranged in the order of the alphabet. the B's in another. when writing a letter to his J." two shallow trays made of wood. P.

ic>j And so it was natural enough that when the first compositor's case was made. for it made the Weak equal to the Strong. it became possible for thousands and thousands of people. X. only the . so they decided to stick the two and the compositor's alphabet now ends " W. In our own time there are none so poor that they cannot. before there were printed books. rich could read and learn. to spend even a few pence. learn from books. no place should be found for J and U. From the day when printing was invented. in the schools books cost only a few pence. The compositors had got so used to the old order with the and the U left J out that they never liked to alter letters in at the end. have as good arms and to defend himself as well as a rich man. But if gunpowder made a great change in the world. there are Public Libraries in almost aU towns. and how for the first time gunpowder was used on the field of battle. . Many years afterwards. We may gunpowder that it made all men more equal. and in many villages. in which people can read the best books without any payment." XXVI. Z. we read an account of the battle of Crd(. and for those who are not able.y. The invention of printing made all people more equal than they were before.The Compositor's Case. CE. ^. U. to buy and read books and to acquire the knowledge which the truly say of books contained. and it enabled a poor man to In Chapter we_ learnt "LOWER CASE OR SMALL LETTERS. the invention of Printing made a stiU greater change. and that is Knowledge. Y. who had never before had a chance of learning. J. "UPPER CASE OR CAPITALS. The use of gunpowder made a very great change in the world. it. the two letters came to be used in English printing. There is something else besides strength and courage which gives power. because it raised up those who were poor and ignorant by giving them the chance of reading and learning things which. or who do not care. by making the strong and the proud less powerful than before. Every child is taught how to read if they choose.

were glad to escape with their lives. They all these Latin and Greek scholars were driven out of the city.258 History of England. the great city of Constantiaople had been There is m The Christians who lived in it besieged and taken by the Turks. and all the great libraries and schools in Constantinople had been broken up or destroyed. being learned men. and also taught them to read the Latin and Greek books which were kept in many of the towns of Europe. it is plain that very few people would have been able to read them or to take advantage of the New Learning which had come from Constantinople. at the very hour when the intellectual energy of Middle Ages had sunk into exhaustion. — one thing which ought not to be forgotten when we read the history of the first printing press in England. and. many of them found a welcome in the cities and towns in which they stopped. Greelt scholars to the shores " The capture of Constantinople by the of Italy. of Constantinople. They wandered all over Europe. Caxton's printing In the year 1453. But if there had been no way of adding to the number of books except by writing them out with a pen from beginning to end. Luckily. there were found . Turks. had been put to death or turned out. but we shall see that really the two things had a great deal to do with each other. and with such books as they could carry away with them. had little to do with the setting-up of a printing press in Westminster. • For many hundreds of years. and to read the Greek and Latin books which were kept at the libraries But when Constantinople was taken by the Turks. it was just at this time that the printing press was invented. far away in Turkey. and so it came about that as fast as people were taught to read the Greek and Latin books we have spoken about.' In these cities and towns they began to teach the people how to read the Latin and Greek books which they had brought with them. learned men from all parts of Europe had gone to live at Constantinople to study Greek and Latin. The Fall of Constantinople. At first it seemed as if the taking of Constantinople. press was set up or twenty-four years earlier." J. but which few people at that time were able to read. Green. and the flight of its opened anew the science and literature the of the older world. the year 1477 in Westminster. R.

1470.. 1435. h. eldest son of Edward IV. m. • sister of the young princes. ^ August. murdered ID the Tower 1483. August 22. King of England. wards King Henry VII.). Edward IV. b. b. daughter of the Earl of Warwick. under Buckingham.The Fall of Constantinople. Henry of Riclunona. CHAPTER XXXIV.. and all the great thoughts of famous men who lived in Greece and in Rome in ages past were made known once more to people in every country. and brother of King Edward V. V. German Reformer. after- Ellzabetb. Duke of York. Anne Neville. there happened to be a great number of books which In this way.. in 1485. III. son of Edmnnd Tudor and Margaret Beaufort. who wrote the history of these times. PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE REIGNS OF EDWARD V. afterwards King of England. Richard crowned. and declares himself July 6. the young pnuces murdered the Tower. many books which had been forgotten for more than a thousand years. and to spread them all over Europe. Henry crowned . FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED IN THE REIGNS OF EDWARD AND RICHARD HI. eldest daughter of Edward IV. lyiartin Luther.. Kichard III. became known again. discovered king 1483. the great b. who America.. and mother of the young princes and of Elizabeth. Richard seizes the . October trians 18. d. Thus we see that at the time when the printing presses first made it possible to print a great number of books. the right heir to the crown. insurrection of the King Edward. i4!|. April king. AND RICHARD 1483-1485. Death king. . wife of Richard III. and widow of Edward.young 1483. second son of Edward IV..d. killed at Bosworth 1485. J&icbftTd. became ChliStOpher ColUmhUa. King of England. widow of Edward IV.. Elizabeth. Prince of Wales (son of Henry VI. 1509. Battle of Bosworth. and brother to Philip de Commes. 1450. AND Lancas- RICHARD 1483. reigned two years. 30. EDWARD V. the great French historian. of Richard. printers to 259 make copies of them. Buck' ingham captured and executed. Henry of Richmond lands at Milford. it was necessary to print. . son of Richard. b. 1483.5.. became wife of Henry of Richmond. August. 1472. 1402. Edward V. murdered in the Tower 1483.

forth your standards. whatever obstacles might stand in the way. . There they were smothered as they lay in their beds. . and surely the Journey is ours. and Richard made up his mind to sweep them from his path. Jife ." and that violence and cruelty triumph. and Richard was able to gratify his long-cherished ambition to claim. I assure you this day I will triumph by . and fear not to die together like men. the events which occurred during the reign of the poor boy whose name figures in our history as Edward V."— Address of Ricliard III. trusted his a short time. require but httle It will be remembered that on his death Edward IV. younger brother Richard. fight together like lion?. whom he defeated. both of them children. took prisoner. and the place where their bodies were buried under one of the stone staircases is still pointed out to those who visit the Tower. Edward was unsons. determined that. he compelled the country and in the first year of his reign he to acknowledge his lawless rule even succeeded in putting down a rebellion led by the Duke of Buckingham. Duke of Gloucester. of two kings have been placed at the head of this chapter. if only for It has been mentioned that Edward IV. and a short time only. That Richard was the author of the murder no one really doubted. and with little reason From the day of his brother's death Richard for his confidence. . It is plain that the chief obstacle lay in tlje of his two nephews but these young children were defenceless. indeed. victory. For a short time. to his army before tlie battle of Bosworth. or suffer death for immortal fame. " vie must Hue together like brothers. and everyone give but one sure stroke. of . with the assent of Parliament. and ordered to be executed. advance apparent tokens of triumph and victory.26o History of England. left two record. the crown England should be his. And if you consider and wisely ponder all things in your mind. the place of " right. you shall perceiue that we haue manifest causes and Wherefore. but the Duke of Gloucester was too powerful a man to meddle with. And as for me. the crown of England. and once more the House of Lancaster was to triumph over the House of York. doubtedly the true heir to the crown if the throne were to go to the Yorkists but here again we have proof that sometimes " might " takes The names . and. Edward and Richard. He ordered the little King Edward and his brother to be shut up close prisoners in the Tower of London. But his punishment was not far off. The Last of the Plantag-enets.

In the Name of God and St. Earl of Riclmoni. '^'^ who. pitiful persons against murtherers." as he is called in Shakespeare Henry'^''*^ and it is with this son Henry. the scourges of God against tyrants. Many Welshmen joined him they remembered that he was himself the grandson of a Welshman Yorkists . Catherine. battle of Bosworth. Display my banner with a good courage . for Richard. we must go back to what we read in Chapter XXXI. member. "—Proclamation of Henry. It is clear.000 men. a son. the — Owen Tudor. the (•'^*' We . but that at last she got tired of the continual interference of the king's uncles. . who was called Edmund. Earl — — his cruelty. and married a Welsh gentleman named Owen Tudor.*^ Owen Tudor had Earl of Eichmond. and after a voyage of seven days arrived at Milford Haven. Henry VI.W'') friends among the Lancastrians. that Harry of Richmond was altogether one of the Red Rose party. 1st of August." we have now got to do. therefore. And now advance forward. or " Harry of Richmond. Edmund and Margaret had a son called " Harry of Richmond. to liis army before the (ilie . into England. true men against traitors. "Let us. Henry now marched eastward and was soon joined . let every man courageously advance forth his standard. of Bichmoud. married Margaret daughter of the Duke of Somerset. She went away from the Court. (-" little lived for a time at the Court of her son. and set on our enemies untimorous tigers. It will be remembered that when Henry V. and to him all the Lancastrians now looked as Henry had not only many their champion against Richard III. Lancastrians made up their minds once more to Henry of Richmond was in France. and begin the battle like hardy conquerors. had made himself hated. we must reBeaufort. and banish all fear lilie raging lions. was a Lancastrian. from his throre. in Wales. In order to understand who it was that drove Richard III.. true inheritors against usurpers.z6i The First of the Tudops. fight like invincible giants. '^"' and Edmund. at last. He brought with him a small army of 3. therefore. said that this Welsh gentleman ought to be remembered because the name of Tudor would come in again in English history and now we shall see how it was that the name of Tudor became the name of the kings and queens of England. died. but he had also friends among the Catherine and rSi. On the try the fortune of war. George. march forth like strong and robustious champions. . he sailed from Harfleur in that country. by And so. 1485. Dukes of Bedford and Gloucester. his widow.

was borne to the ground and slain. As soon as the news reached King Richard. but many of these were secret enemies of his cause. discovered lying under a hawthorn bush. and he dealt a J^J^'lix^ 1 F tJ ii^^a^i^^s desperate blow at his rival. It is of Richard. Many hard things have been said of Richard III. So fell Richard X\ : of Gloucester. though much smaller than was composed of men who had all willingly joined him. hailing him no longer as Henry of Richmond. with 5. he put himself at the head of his troops and marched to meet his rival. .. the last of the Plantagenet Kings. On the 2ist of August the king reached Bosworth.262 History uf England. William Brandon. "T reason ! treason ! with his treason!" Sir He own hand. on the field of battle. The royal troops were disheartened. . fighting fiercely. who told was good about him. but the misfortune only encouraged Richard himself to fight more fiercely than before. and who were ready to die for his cause. On the Zand of August was fought the famous battle of Bosworth Field. and BUSH A TUDOE EMBLEM. Richard had ridden into the battle with a golden crown upon his helmet. His hope was to kill Henry of Richmond. Both Richard and Henry fought valiantly in the hottest of the battle. and he dashed forward that of the king. King of England. had hitherto sided with King Richard. but as Henry VII.000 men. Scarcely had the fight begun when Lord Stanley. and there.000 men. the crown rolled away and could not be found. he placed it on the conqueror's head. who Yx ^B'^\ \i was close to Henry. who bore Henry's standard. When he At last it was fell. Qxyva^. killed. The body of the king was stripped of his rich armour. Henry had by this time reached Tamworth. -^^ '-'^'^ down Sir John Cheyner.. THE CKOWN IN THE HAWTHORN Stanley rode up with his followers. But here Sir William his short success ended. He had with him 30. Three times he charged with his horsemen against the centre of the enemy. His army. Richard. twelve miles from Leicester. Sir William Stanley brought the golden circlet to Henry of Richmond. who. and he dared not trust them. by several thousand men. are no doubt well deserved but we must not forget that and many of tbem most of the accounts which we have of all his' life that was bad and little that were written by his enemies. suddenly came over with all his followers to Henry of Richmond.

. AT THE BATTLE OF BOSWDRTH.RICHARD III.

but that he gained the throne by violence and cruelty is undoubted. Edward'*^ and Richard. Whether Richard were in fact as black as he was painted we cannot now with certainty determine. Amen ?" Shakespeare : — " Richard III. the bitter quarrel between Red Rose and White Rose was at last made up by a happy marriage." is we have Richard described as a man of great cruelty. daughter of Edward IV. upon this fair conjunction.264 History of England. he left several children." With Henry VII. W of The year after the battle of Field. Henry VII. We shall remember that when Edward IV. That long hath frown'd upon their enmity ! What traitor hears me. In that play The Union of the Roses. Bosworth Richmond. and there were few in England who were grieved when he in turn lost by violence that which he had so shamefully won. a princess of the House of York. Duke written. the story of the Tudors. and a deformed hunchback. that Shakespeare's great play "Richard III. and says not. Heaven. it is pleasant to think that after all these long wars and this fierce fighting.*"'" who were smothered in the Tower. RED AND WHITE ON THE SAME STALK.. and this must be But though with Richard there ended the line of the Plantagenet Kings. we begin told in another chapter. Elizabeth. includlittle ing the two princes. The eldest girl was A YORK AND LANCASTER ROSE. Henry now King married Elizaheth. "IVe will unite the ivhite rose with the red Smile. of Gloucester. died.'^*' .. and though the battle of Bosworth crushed the power £)f the. House of York.

and the great Houses of Lancaster and York were friends at last. the Red Rose and the White Rose were united. indeed. .The Union of the Rose's. or some flowers red and others white. 265 There is a rose-tree which we sometimes see in old-fashioned gardens which is called the " York and Lancaster rose. This flower might well have become the emblem of the Kings of England after the marriage of Henry VII." for the roses which it bears have their petals streaked with red and white. For now.

M' _s .

The Tudor Sovereigns themselves. seemed to be changed. and it was peculiarly an "English" time. THE TUDORS. The portion of our history which is described in the Fourth Part of this hook is peculiarly full of interest and variety. men could speak of something new with the certainty that the knowledge which they possessed had never been granted to those who came before them. that the latter would have altogether failed to understand the ideas and expressions of the former. their faults. they spoke of a New Learning. and England as part of the world. In England men became aware that there was a New World. NOTE. . and Scotland was still a The story of the foreign and often a hostile kingdom. and in which the genius of the English race may be said to have found its highest expression. the whole world. well fitted for the stirring times in which they lived. we shall be able to understand that for once. In the short space of 118 years. were men and women of strong character. in which men of action and men of thought crowd upon the scene. And yet. and they fought for a New form of Religion. 1485—1603. during which they ruled over the country.267 FABT FOUR. if we remember what a change passed over the world in the closing years of the fourteenth and the beginning of the fifteenth centuries. the help of Irish genius and Irish courage. It is not often in the world's history that the ideas of the grandson are so widely different from those of the grandfather. as we have had in later days. and in the struggle between New and Old the full strength of the nation showed itself. for we had not. at any rate. growth and expansion of England i?i these days is only less marvellous than that which is familiar to us in our own day under a greater queen than Elizabeth. with alj. It was' a splendid time in our history. It is in every sense a brilliant and exciting period.

King of England. 1471. In this reign Columbus discovered the New World . afterwards King of Henry. Michael AngelO (Florentine). wife of Henry VII. Kmpson and Dudley Henry dies. 150Q Elizabetll of York. b. Catharine of Aragon. Wolsey first employed. d.. in office. 1456. James Innocent VIII. Hans Holbei^ (German). 1498. Ferdinand and Isabella. b. of Suffolk. 14B3. d. Henry VII. 1477. THE REIGN OF King of Scotland. Margaret Tudor. Alexander VI.. Emperor. Henry's Chief d. son ot Henry. Great Painters. HENRY VII.. b. Sovereigns of and Aragon. IN IV. . Castile 1512. d. Cardinal Morton. Titian (Venetian). b. Louis XII. eldest son of Henry. 1474. d. Albert Diirer (German). Henry. Mary Tudor. CHAPTER XXXV. afterwards Cardinal Minister. 1503. Julius II. 's Chapel at Westminster Death of Queen Elizabeth (of York). of Scotland. Pope. m.. son of Edmund Tudor and Margaret Beaufort. 1532. James IV. the province of Brlttany_ became part of the kingdom of France . b. 1492. Pope. discoverer of the New Henry World. m. b. and the Moors or Mahomedans were driven out of Spain. Wolsey. d. became king 1485. FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED HENRY VII. Raphael d'Urbino (Roman). 1499.. d. Vasco da Gama sailed round the Cape of Good Hope . 1483. 1503. i486... HENRY VII. poisoned Pius III. Ferdinand d.. Pope. Granada was taken from the Moors by the Spaniards (1492). d. Thomas Wolsey. 1506. 1445. Parliament summoned. b. PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE REIGN OF 1485built.. Henry VII. Duke Charles VIII.. EmpsonandDudley. 1494. Pope. 1471. 1541. 1485-1509. m. daughter of Edward IV. d.— Leonardo da Vinoi(Florentine). King of France. Cliristopher Columbus. Maximilian I. b. 1494. CorregglO (Italian). Prince Arthur dies. King of France. of England.. second eldest daughter of Martin Latber. m.268 History of England. 1534. 1503. second dauehter Charles Brandon. and Elizabeth. Ministers of Henry VII. Arthur. b.

had two husbands..The Tudors. as we know. ''^^' his son the third was Edward VI. when ' .'' and they came to the throne one after another. <^'' the mother of Henry VI. What is meant by calling Henry a Tudor King. Henry II.'"^' the son of Henry VIII. . . 269 hawthorn bush and placed upon the head of Henry of Eiehmond. and Henry VII. died at Bosworth. and what is meant by the Tiidor Period? if It is not understand what difficult to is meant. The battle of Bosworth was fought in the year 1485 so we see that from the year iisi. of course bore the name of his grandfather and father... the second was Henry VIII.W"' was the first of the Tudors. The Plantagenet kings. There are five kings and queens in English history who bore the surname of " Tudor..®* father of King Henry II. in brackets following names refer to the Genealogical Tables on pages a66 and . who won the great victory of Agincourt the second was a Welsh gentleman named Owen Tudor. the fourth was Queen Mary. was a period of three hundred and thirty-one years... but it is in the reign of Henry VI.') Henry VII. '^^ This Owen Tudor was the grandfather of Henry VII. The '''^' . beginning with Henry VII.. first was King Henry V. sixty-two years before.. Henry VII. 1 The numbers 803. to the year 1485.. Plantagenets. . the last the Plantagenet kings."") was thi last of the. and the sister of Edward VI.. who was known from that day forward as Henry VII. King of England. when Richard of III. Queen Catherine. that we meet with the name of Tudor HENRY vn. who married Queen Matilda in the year 1127. And now we to leave the history of the Plantagenet kings and come that of the Tudor Kings. came to the throne. the first of the Plantagenet kings. The first was Henry VII.. It is not in the reign of first Emery Walker.*'^ the daughter of Henry VIII. we remember what we (Pholo : read in the earlier part of our history. Bichaxd III. were the descendants of Geoffrey of Anjou.

had four children. Mary. Henry VII. was dead. and even before the battle of Bosworth he had made up of Lancaster — — — . The "Possession is King-'s Title.. and there were some who had as good or better right to the crown than Henry The king knew well enough that unless he could of Richmond. '"^^ the daughter of Henry VIII. had won the day at Bosworth Field. nine points of the law.. and perhaps. These five— Henry VH." The first thing which King Henry had to do after he came to the throne was to make sure that the same power which had given him The House of Lancaster the crown should not deprive him of it. and he saw clearly that nothing would make him so strong and his position so sure as a marriage with Elizabeth. It is the one hundred and eighteen years between 1485 and 1603. Of these two were boys Edward and Richard the little princes who had been so cruelly murdered in the Tower by their uncle Richard III. Henry VHI. died in the year 1603. and Richard. and Mar)?.iiyo History of England. Queen Elizabeth. the leader of the But though Richard House of York. a way by which the interests of the House and the House of York might be joined.. But though the little princes were dead. King Edward IV. and the time had come when Englishmen were only too glad to put an end to the cruel civil war which had so long raged in their country. and The first Elizabeth are called the Tudor Sovereigns of England. should marry the Princess Elizabeth. and thus unite the Houses of York and Lancaster.. Tudor Period. and the sister of Edward VI. and it is about the events which took place during this period that we are now going to read. the fifth and last wa= Queen Elizabeth. their elder sister Elizabeth'^'"" was still It was the wish of nearly all Englishmen that Henry VII. the last of them. there were other princes of the House of York. win over to his cause some of those who had fought so long for the Yorkists. however. like Richard himself. — came to the throne in 1485. together. which are known as the. lay dead upon the battlefield. Edward VI. of losing it in some disastrous battle. There was. he would always be in danger of having to fight for his crown. Henry was a wise man. of them. alive.

" " There's many There were two great rebellions against King Henry during his reign. and not because he had married the daughter of King Edward IV. If he had once declared that the crown ought to go to the family of Edward IV. op. although his Parliament had declared that he was king and " none other. willing to .. and that he meant to keep it by the same means which had helped him to obtain it. The first thing he did. and that he himself had no right to it. perpetually with the Grace of God so to endure. a slip 'twixt cup and lip. He was a handsome youth with pleasant manners. "he would soon have been in a great difficulty. He wanted everybody to understand that he claimed the crown for himself. and that they would overthrow by force the crown which had been won by force.s kingdom to his wife. therefore. We shall see how great a danger these relations of Edward IV. proved. Lambert Simnel was a first was the rebellion of Lambert Sinmel.. and to get them to pass an Act in which they declared that "the inheritance of the crown should be. was king because he was king. mind to such a marriage. It chanced that this boy— for Lambert Simnel was only fifteen when we first hear about him fell into the The — . and abide in the most royal person of our Sovereign Lord King Henry VII. It was not till the year after the battle of Bosworth that Henry married the Princess Elizabeth of York. . He thought that it would be a very bad thing for him if people were to say that he owed hi." there were people who were quite ready to say that they had a better right than he. and his heirs. and Kitchen Boy.'s family who might claim the throne. and in none other. . Lambert Simnel .Lambert his S/mjvel. the son of a carpenter at Oxford. It was the old story of " Might is Right " but " might is right only so long as the strong man does not meet with a stronger and all through his reign Henry found that. that he had taken what he had got. remain. was to call Parliament together. rest. and how much the king had to fear from them. because he was descended from John of Gaunt'-*' and from King Edward III. for Elizabeth was not the only one of Edward IV. young man. he was not at all admit that he himself had no right to the crown. King-. Carpenter.'' This was really very much the same thing as saying that Henry VH. 2yi At the same time.

There was no doubt at all that the Duke of Clarence was dead but he had left behind him a son named Edward. and Henry VII. it seems very likely that many people both in England and in Ireland did really. Elizabeth was the daughter of Edward IV. was Governor. a large number of Yorkists joined him. that when Richard been him something about the boy Simnel which. the Usurper. they were quite ready to Lambert Simnel.272 History of England. Duke of a strange one. who took him over At that time Thomas Fitzgerald. the elder brother of the Duke of Clarence. At any rate. friend of the Yorkists. or. therefore. All they wanted was to drive King Henry from the throne make use power for themselves. — . who was known as the Simon told true. At the same time. and Richard. for a time. he said that he believed it. had had two brothers George. was alive. afterwards Richard III. It so happened. In the year 1478. or. what was much the same thing.. the Earl of Kildare. son of the Duke of Clarence. . the Duke of Clarence had quarrelled with his King Edward imprisoned the unhappy duke brother. But now Simon came and told the Earl of Kildare and his Yorkist friends that the handsome boy whom they had brought with them was no other than this same Edward. said Simon. The story which Simon the priest told the Earl of Kildare was Edward IV." of Ireland. ^ It seems very unlikely that those who were the first to come forward to help Lambert Simnel really believed that he was the Earl of Warwick. To do this.''"" who was the younger.. from the Tower. and to fight for him against Henry of Lancaster. There is a story that he was drowned in a butt of Malmsey wine. The Earl of Warwick was still aUve. and to get of 1 As a matter of fact. He had escaped. Earl of Warwick. had taken care to hn^ve him shut up in the Tower and kept there. He was a great as it was called. now the wife of Henry VII. Clarence/*'' who was the elder. the Earl of Kildare readily believed it. and he now came to ask all true friends of the House of York to take up his cause.. if it had would have been a very bad thing for King Henry. believe in the pretender. and therefore came before the son of the Duke of Clarence in the succession to the crown. Irish priest hands of an to Ireland.-irl of Warwick. Earl of Warwick. named Richard Simon. he would have had no right to the crown as long as Elizabeth. in the Tower of London. or of anybody else who would help their cause. Duke of Gloucester. " The Lord Deputy. King Edward. even if it had been true that Lambert Simnel were really the E. and was quite ready to believe an3fthing which was likely to help the cause of the House of York and to injure the cause of King Henry. and there he was secretly put to death.

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a serving-boy came round bearing a wine-cup. they were invited to a great dinner gi

en by the king. for whom they had been fighting. The other wise thing which Henry did was to lose no time in sending an army against his new enemy. and had the poor boy brought out and taken through the streets of London so that everyone could see him. that now Henry had taken the usurper prisoner. He had been the king's enemy but he had fallen so low that the Icing no longer feared him he only despised him. The army landed in Lancashire. who had claimed the crown of England. but must be a false pretender. at a place called Stoke (1487). in Nottinghamshire. It was Lambert Simnel. and on whose account they had lost such large sums of money. When they looked at this serving-boy. Some of them were commanded to come to the king's court in London. It was quite plain that if the real Earl of Warwick were still in the Tower. A battle was fought near Newark. the chief nobles who had helped Lambert Simnel were put to death the rest were compelled to pay large fines to the king. and the victory rested with the royal troops. the young man who had just landed in Lancashire could. should serve as a scullion in the royal kitchen. King Henry did two wise things. . he sent to the Tower. Everyone thought. One or two of time. King Henry had given orders that Lambert Simnel. for had a deep hatred . where the real Earl of Warwick was imprisoned. Meanwhile. . As they sat at dinner. sent over two thousand well-trained German soldiers to help the so-called Earl of Warwick. and the Germans sent by Margaret fought bravely but at last they were overcome.274 History of England who was the sister of Edward IV. When they got there. and who King Henry. It was a fierce fight. he would put him to death without mercy. and marched into England. — first rebellion. In the first place. not be the Earl of Warwick. and would probably send most of the nobles who had helped him to the scaffold at the same But Henry did a much wiser thing than this. they found he had a face which they knew. Lambert Simnel himself was taken prisoner and brought to London. the false Earl of Warwick. Such was the end of the Margaret of Burgundy.

known in our history the The as " elder of these little princes was Edward. but the greater number of the people of England neither helped Perkin Warbeck nor believed in him. Warbeck soon found other and more powerrightful King of England. the people of Cork readily believed what in their hearts they wished to be true namely. helped him because. — live and die at the foot of rebellion which took place in the reign of Five years after the capture of Lambert Simnel (1492). This was Peterkin. He said that the little prince had never been murdered. James rV. in Belgium." "Saue King Richard the Fourth ! save thee. The King of France became his friend for a time. nay. the son of a Jew living at Tournay. Duke of York. It was this tended to be. Warbeck. King of hearts ! The Cornish blades are men of mettle. have proclaimed through Bodnam. found his first friends in Ireland. Tower of London. that James of Scotland late hath entertained Perkin the counterfeit. A few of the great nobles of the House of York helped him because they wanted to get back their estates which Henry had taken from them. Duchess of Burgundy. because she hated Henry VII. but a handsome young man of great courage and ready wit. In the story of Richard HI. that he was Richard of York. "Our intelligence comes swiftly to us. to be smothered in this But was not the only Henry VII. And Edward V.275 Perkin Warbeck. Warbeck was not a boy like Lambert Simnel. helped Simnel. He landed at Cork {149a). like Lambert Simnel. because he thought that he would weaken England by befriending him. Richard. King of Scotland." From the same. pleased with his friendly manners and with his handsome face.. but that he had escaped from the Tower and had taken refuge abroad. the Scots were nearly always ready to fight against England whenever they got a chance. Duke of York." The j'ounger was Richard. with bow and sword. the sons of Edward IV. my sweet prince monarch of England : four thousand tall yeomen." —From Ford's play of "Perkin Warbecli. or Perkin Warbeck.'s reign we read how that cruel king had caused his two nephews. another pretender came forward. with more than common grace and respect. and the whole country. Margaret. and. He pretended to be the Duke of York. in those days. already uow to King Richard. helped him as she had ful friends. whom Perkin pre- — . courts him with rare fauours..

At last he landed in Cornwall. of the kind. and so the poor adventurer had to set sail once more.276 thus History of England. would come to his Indeed. He crossed over to Scotland. and. Henry laid still heavier taxes upon Cornwall. where they were overtaken by the king's army and beaten after a fierce battle. TO THE LOYAL CITY OF EXETER. and here it seemed as if he might have some chance of success. at first. as Exeter but the people of Exeter shut the gates of the city and stood . at length. Henry was. The Cornishmen marched as far as Deptford in Kent. Then he went on "to Ireland. as a punishment for their rebellion. able to overcome . angry with the king. on the people of Northumberland to rise and fight for their king. a lawyer. Not long before. he had littli doubt that the Cornishmen. where he found many friends but few helpers. Joseph and Flammock were executed. and he got as far aid. Perkin Warbeck landed in Cornwall. the men of Cornwall had had a great quarrel with the king. for march with an army into Northumberland. and James had to march back again. but the people of Northumberland did not do anything When he got back. and Thomas Flammock. a farrier of Bodmin. and here he got on better. his new enemy as he had overcome the old one. . he told Perkin that he would rather he left Scotland. James went so far as to Warbeck called SWORD PRESENTED BY HENRY VU. Warbeck first tried to land in Kent but those of his friends who got ashore were taken prisoners and hanged by the men of Kent. therefore. and had at last refused to give any money at all. When. They had complained of the taxes which Henry had made them pay. many thousands joined him.000 Cornishmen started to march to London. headed by Michael Joseph. No less than 16.

But we must not forget that Henry had many enemies. and perhaps his life would have been spared. Spain. defeated. each Power trying to get stronger by now Holland and . had some reason to feel unsafe on his throne. not shin their sheep. he kept England safe and strong throughout the whole of his reign.How fast against the invader. had it not been that a fresh plot was discovered. 277 him. and Warbeck was thought to have been helping him. There were nearly always disputes and quarrels going on between France. . Among the treasures at the Guildhall at Exeter city. the Netherlands (which are — — Belgium). Henry caused both the Earl of Warwick and Perkin to be tried they were both found guilty the earl had his head cut off. tried to escape. THE King Got Rich. and Perkin was hanged (1499). How 'In things the King. but abroad. It included a great part of what is now Germany and Austria. Spain. Determined to have no more plots. in the time of King Henry. but a wise and prudent king could have escaped the dangers which threatened Henry on every side." — Herrick. that part of Europe which was ruled over by The Emperor. But it would not be right to pass over these difficulties altogether. None The two that rebellions about which we have just read show us plainly Henry VII. and parts of Italy. and taken prisoner. and The Empire. a moderation lieep. who was shut up in the Tower. and that he was very teady to deceive others in order to gain an advantage for himself. in the long run. Kings ought to shear.Got Rich. There were many indeed who held that the king's wisdom sometimes took the form of trickery. Perkin Warbeck was for a time kept in prison. The Empire meant. and The Empire. and that. It is only by reading much longer histories than this that we can ever learn to understand all the difficulties that Henry had to fight against and to overcome in Europe. He was still From this time Warbeck's good fortune left overtaken by the King's army near Taunton. The Earl of Warwick. may be seen the sword which king Henry gave to the loyal for shutting its gates against the rebels. But Henry showed himself to be wise and prudent not only at home. At that time there were three great Powers France.

or. and at last crossed with his army into France. and had spent very little upon the war. In the same way. he said "Very well. and the side which did not get it. He had put a very large sum of money into his Treasury. and thus to keep free from trouble. and it was less than fifty years since the last of the English troops had been driven out of France. throughout all his reign. and to be forced to take part in other people's quarrels and Henry spent a great part of his reign in trying to keep out of war. When France went to war with Spain. generally threatened to make war upon England for helping its enemies. whichever Powers were fighting. he had to make promises first to one side and then to the other. he promised help and sent none. It was not a pleasant thing to be threatened in this way.' When Henry found that the people were set upon war. Henry collected very large sums of money from the people. The people of England were more warlike than the king himself. and they were always ready at that time to fight the French. This is not wonderful for we must remember that less than eighty years had passed since Henry V. . and the war came to an end almost as soon as it was begun. Henry managed to hold the balance even. had been king not only of England. you can have the war. 1 Calais and the two little towns of Hammes and Guisnes near France which still belonged to England at this time. to remain quiet. and. But he had very little intention of fighting. at any rate. if . The French thought twice before making war upon England. But this was not all. Not only did King Henry lose nothing by war but he found a way of gaining something from the very danger which threatened him. To do this.'' The people of England liked fighting. but of half of France also. Then those who had paid the taxes found that the king had got the better of them. the King of France at once tried to get the Emperor to help him. above all. lest they should turn an enemy who did them no harm into a real enemy who would fight against them with all the power of England at its back.278 History of England taking something from the other two. He -promised help to Spain . both sides tried to get the help of England. And thus. but they did not like paying taxes and they soon found that under King Henry they would have more paying to do than fighting. of course. to keep out of war. The Spaniards were afraid to lose his friendship they complained too much. while the King of Spain. it were the only parts of . against France. tried to make the King of France and the Emperor come to blows. but you must pay for it.

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new laws. At first the nobles tried to resist. He punished those who broke the paj' very heavy fines. and the earl had to pay a fine of ^f 10.000 as a punishment for trying to honour the king by breaking his laws. These large bands of lawless men had become a real danger and now that so many of the great nobles had been killed. Then he thought of another way. Henry forbad the practice. and to break the law at the order of their chief. one of the greatest of the nobles." purpose. my lord. In the first place. he turned to the earl and said " I thank you.28o History of England. When earl's castle. One day the king paid the Earl of Oxford. and who were ready to fight. but as he was leaving the castle at the close of his visit. Indeed. the king felt himself strong enough to command those who were left to give up the custom of keeping up their liveries. During the Wars of the Roses. There were several ways in which he collected money. who all wore the livtry or uniform of the great noble whom they followed. it had been the custom for great nobles to go about attended by very large numbers of their retainers and friends. Henry also collected large sums of called Bemvolenus. . : . he put heavy fines upon those who were suspected of joining in the rebelhons against him. Henry soon became far richer than any King of England had ever been. and made them a visit to the king was too strong for them. A " Benevolence " money by means of what were means a thing that is given . Long lines of retainers in the earl's livery were drawn up on each side as the king he came to the entered. The King looked at the men in livery and said nothing. but 'ROSE NOBLE OF HENRY VII. My attorney must speak The king's attorney did speak to the earl to some with you. for your good cheer but I cannot endure to have my laws broken in my sight. the king found that great preparations had been made to receive him. at Hedingham in Essex.

a man lived very poorly." said he. the king got his money. they drew up lists of those they thought ought to pay. so pay at once. ." If. If a man escaped one prong. he was certain to fall upon the other. Some of them complained that they were not rich enough to pay what was asked but . There must be few who have not seen some of our soldiers in their scarlet or blue coats. The people called this trap of the cardinal's. " You spend so little. and while they are in the army they serve in whatever part It might seem great sum of ." From the "Mutiny Act'' j>assed — every year by Parliament. is against law. The saving man is the rich man. If a man lived in great state and spent much money. that you must needs have plenty of money in your coffers. and not by compulsion. Generally those who were thus invited gave what they were asked to give. as we shall see. The soldiers in our army join it -for a fixed number of years. the cardinal asked him for a " Benevolence " " for. " The raising or keeping of a standing army within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireiand in time of peace. of the world they are ordered to serve in obedience to the orders Our army is called a Standing Army of the King and Parliament. Cardinal Morton. either way. then the cardinal had an equally ready answer. you are so saving and thrifty. unless it be with the consent of Parliament. so pay at once. the king's minister. Morton's Fork. soon found an excellent way of settling all questions of this kind. which you spend prove that you are a rich man.IVhat the Rich King did with His Money. and "invited him to give of his own free will" what the king asked for. But Henry's Benevolences seem to have had another meaning.did with His Money. When his ministers were in want of money. at first sight as if the fact that Henry collected a money and became very rich. Then the Koyal Commissioner went to each person whose name was upon the list. and making no show. What the Rich King. Most of us know something about the British army. to give. spending but little." And so. on the other hand. of 281 a man's goodwill and pleasure. " the splendour in which you live and the money . for they knew quite well that those who did not wish to give would very soon be made. had but little to do with the history of England in our own day but really it had a good deal to do with it.

Guard. and there we shall see at this very day the Yeomen of the Guard. and in time of peace there was no " Standing Army. when the King made war. all those who had fought in it went back to their homes again. the war was over. They were called the Yeomm of the. . But when to fight during the war. so that it tnay be ready to fight when a war comes. We have seen that the King was often in danger. began to be a change in this matter. Sometimes also soldiers were paid. But there was a time when there was no standing army in England. but is kept up in peace time.. — . he used to send to all the vassals of the Crown to bid them come and join him and fight under his banner. These men were paid by the king. Henry felt that. a guard of armed men whose duty it was to attend him wherever he went. as they are now. protect him against all harm." It was in the reign of first Henry VII. who wear the very same kind of dress which the Yeomen of the Guard wore in the time of King Henry VII.. Before the reign of Henry VII. we need only go as far as the Tower of London. or by some pretender like Lambert Simnel or Perkin the Warbeck. At the same time he sent to all the great nobles and commanded them to bring their vassals also to join the royal army. He therefore made up his mind to have what is called a BodyGuard that is to say. and to A YKOMAN OF THE GUARD. There were at firsi very few of them but they were really the first "Standing Army" whicli England ever had. If we want to know what a Yeoman of the Guard looked like. because it is called together not only in time of war. and that he was threatened with the loss both of his throne and of his life.282 History of England. and whose duty it still is to guard the King or Queen of England when the king or queen goes anywhere in state. he might one day be surprised and killed by some friend of that there House of York. and they served him both in peace and in war. unless he had always somebody to guard him against his enemies.

but it is the people of England who pay the taxes which are voted by Parliament. Nowadays it is not the king who pays the army. because those who appeared before it did not receive a fair trial. the Court of Star Chamber often did very hard things. and to see that the Statutes against " Liveries " were observed.for. for while he had soldiers who would do what he told them. he set up a new court which was called the Court of Star Chamber. 283 is necessary. like . If Parliament were to refuse to vote the money to pay the soldiers. generally friends and were quite willing to help him to get all the money he wanted." and to make people pay . will not serve unless they be paid. there would soon be no army." He wanted his soldiers to obey him. one thing He must have money to pay them for soldiers. He therefore called Parliament together as little as he could help. and came to be hated by the people of England. and he managed to get nearly all the money he wanted without asking Parliament for it. he was really master of the country. and as long as he could get money without asking Parliament for it. and thus the king got money without going to Parliament. or disputed his right to make them pay it. This made him a very powerful king. Henry knevi' this well and it was for this reason that he took so m"ch trouble to save up money. But before anyone can keep up a number of soldiers. him fines. we shall find that the Court of Star Chamber at last became so hated that it was put an end to by Parliament. Those who disobeyed were compelled to pay heavy fines. To get over this difficulty. The judges of the Court of Star Chamber were of the king. other people. but Henry knew very well that ''who pays the piper calls the tune.WfiAT THE Rich King run with His Money.' The first duty of the Court of Star Chamber was to help Henry to put down the great nobles whom he feared. Sometimes Henry found that people refused to pay him the money which he asked. As time went on. and not to obey Parliament. to raise " Benevolences. J It was called the Court of Star Chamber because the which the judges sat was decorated with stars ceiling of the chamber at Westminster in . When we read further on in English history. and the kings of England were forbidden ever to set up such a Court again.

" but I do not think that.""". daughter of Henry VII. . Some Royal "Hail. at a time when England and Scotland were so often at war with each other. who became Queen of Scots. or if they have no children ? Will not the children of the King and Queen of Scotland have a right to the throne ot England. Call't not a match." John OWtam: " On iJie Marriage of the Prince of Orange with tlie Lady Maty.land and Scotland are ever joined together. : . for it is from Princess Margaret. of Scotland on the death of his father at the battle of Flodden. and nations wed.'. You may be sure that if Ens. and he was glad to get the friendship of his neighbour. Marriag-es. some of Henry's friends said to him " What will happen if your sons die.a. James VI. any harm will be done. A league it must be said Where countries thus espouse.' When Margaret and James were married.84 History of England. that King Edward VII. h^ giving him his daughter in marriage. When she was nearly fourteen years old. James. had a daughter.' Margaret/"^' Henry/^^' and The name of Princess Margaret does not often appear in the history of England but it is one that ought not to be forgotten. James and Margaret had a son.'""' who became James V. if it does.." replied kingdom of Scotland ? " Henry. Margaret was married to James IV. Scotland. of Scotland. that an English princess should marry a Scottish king but Henry wanted to make as many friends as he could.. who afterwards became James I. is descended. and v/ill it not be a very bad thing that this great kingdom of England should thus be added to the " What you say may happen. We shall see further on that the marriage between James and Margaret did not prevent England and Scotland from fighting against each other. It seemed a strange thing. James V. But though the marriage did not bring peace at the time. It was her son.'^^ .'-'. King of England and Scotland. Mary. we that low style disdain Nor will degrade it with a term so mean .""' King of Scotland. happy pair ! I<ind Heaven's great hostages ! Sure pledges of a firm and lasting peace. really helped to bring about lasting peace between England and it Mary." King Henry had four children—Arthur/"". the King of Scotland.

the wise So King Henry was right. (^Sec page 2^6. Ferdinand and Isabella MAP SHOWING BRITTANY AND THE NORTHERN AND WESTERN COASTS OF FRANCE. and They had a daughter named Catharine. to Henry hoped another friend by marrying Arthur. But within iive months of the marriage Arthur died. the great and wealthy 28s Kingdom of England will draw the smaller and poorer Kingdom of Scotland to it. The king's eldest son was Prince Arthur. The make King and Queen of Spain at that time were called Ferdinand Isabella.'^=i' and Henry proposed that Arthur should marry Catharine. After waiting a long time while King Henry and her parents were disputing as to how much money should be paid by Spain as a dowry or wedding gift on the marriage of the princess. and Catharine came over to England. and the Parliament of England and Scotland is now held in London and not in Edinburgh. the crown of England went to the King of Scotland. King of England and Scotland." And this is what really took place for when King Henry's grandchildren died.Some Royal Marriages. but the King of Scotland came to London arid was crowned there as . and it will be the King of England who will be King of Scotland. Catharine was married to Arthur.) agreed. . and Henry's plan seemed all undone again.

Duchess of Brittany. . The Christians have regained their heritage — Before the Cross has waned the Crescents ray. 'From the dim landscape roll the clouds away. or Duchy. and have remained part of one country ever since. Up to the reign of Henry VII. the Mahomedans had Mahomedans. Henry VII. after much fierce fighting. and we shall see that this marriage brought many troubles with secure for England the friendship of Spain. After many fierce battles.'==' her brother-in-law. and not under the French king. At one time the whole of Europe had been in danger of being overrun by the Turks. governed by the — — In the reign of Dukes of Brittany. It was in the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella that the Spaniards. despite all the efforts of the Spaniards to turn them out. . at length succeeded in driving the last of .286 History of England. and he got Ferdinand and Isabella to consent to their daughter marrying Prince Heiiry. or. The first was the Expulsion of the Moors from Spain. which cannot be passed over. If we look at the map we shall see a great piece of France marked Brittany. First he offered to marry Catharine himself. Then Henry hit on another plan. who were followers of Mahomed. Scott : " Vision of Don Rodericli. married Philip." Two things bappened durmg Henry's reign. and did very little to Chang-es Abroad.. was only sixteen. it. King of France and thus the kingdom of France and the duchy of Brittany were joined together. The second thing specially to be remembered has to do with another part of Europe. Prince Henry afterwards became King Henry VIII. It is easy to see how important this change was to England. for Anne. Catharine. Brittany for the first time became part of France. the young Princess's mother very friendship of Spain naturally did not like the match. But the king would not so easily give up his hope of winning the by marriage. the Moors for so the Mahomedans who had come into Spain were called out of their country (1499). Brittany had been a separate Province. been driven out of a great part of Europe but they still remained in Spain. in Europe. as we call them. but as the king was forty-five years old and his daughter-inlaw.

w ^ H a. .

executed 1536.. 1516. d. Thomas '<yolsey. England. m. 1512. d. Mary. Elizaheth. Adrian VI. b. of Cleves. d. also reigned as " the Emperor Charles V. Wives of Henry :— Catharine of Aragon. Sollman the Magnificent. daughter of Henry and Anne Boleyn. d. 1530. son of Henry and Jane Seymour. d. FAMOUS PERSONS WHO LIVED Henry VIII. d. Leo X. between St. " Henry the Seventh's Chapel.. from St. Pope. whenever she has gone to war with France. m.. 1516. in the twenty-fourth year of his reign. 1513. 1509-1547. 1537. 1540. i^^is... m. Boleyn. AND ENGLAND AT WAR. Pope. The great naval harbour and fortress of Brest is in Brittany. d. 1532.. Malo to southIt was only the bit of Nantes. the whole of the French coast. 1401. Paul III. 1542. . wife of James IV. of Henry and Catharine of Aragon. King of Scotland. 1533. There is one thing by which he will always be remembered.. executed 1542. 1557. b. Ferdinand King of King of Castile and Aragon. Henry King 11. King of England. was under the Duchy of Brittany. ailerwards • Cardinal Wolsey. 1515. 1547. James V. Anne Charles L. has had an enemy's coast facing her shores for more than 600 miles. 1509. 1543. widow Mary. Pope. b. d. d.. b.288 History of England. m. killed in battle at Flodden. Catharine Howard. of France... afterwards Queen of Scotland. King of Scotland. second son of Henry VII. who was generally the enemy of England. Anne 1509. 1533. afterwards Queen of England. Jane SejTnour. became king VIII. Spain. King of France." CHAPTER HENRY Vlll. The map shows us Calais... Sidtan 1520. Julius II." Maximilian I. m. 1540. 1536. which was built by him. Francis I. IN THE REIGN OF HENRY II. 1522. Margaret Tudor.. James Catharine Parr. daughter of Lord Latimer. Louis XIL. son of Francis L. IS47. Pope. VIII. Ferdinand V. 1519. Pope. in 1509. d. m. 1542. b. 1334. d. which belonged to England. 1536. Edward. d. Clement VII. was for the first time governed by one king. and that is the beautiful chapel at the end of Westminster Abbey. XXXVI. of Turkey. Emperor... 1550. King of France. grandson of Ferdinand V.. and which is called after him. and shows that the whole of the coast of the Channel. afterwards King of England. daughter of James V. 1537. d. from Calais to Bayonne. 1541. IV. Ever since the time of Henry VII. d. d.. Malo and Calais that belonged to France. afterwards Qu^en of England. and Elizabeth of York. But when France and Brittany became united. King Henry died at the age of fifty-three. d.

Parliament confirms surrender of monasteries. Soliman the Magnificent. 1512. executed 1540-. Magellan passed through the Straits 1535. Death of Wolsey. More beheaded. "Defender of Faith" given by Leo X. Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury. a French navigator. Netherlands. K . Reformer." Battle Scottish invasion of England. Parliament declares Henry supreme head on earth of the English Church. Cranmer declares Henry's marriage with Catharine illegal Pope declares Cranmer's proceedings Rome "The 1514. for high Duke of Buckingham executed treason. and Lord House Chancellor. 1 Parliament assembled. Cron well disgraced and executed. the great German d. Henry marries Anne of Cleves. d. papal legate. Sir T. Parliament passes an Act for the suppression of minor monasteries 376 of them granted to the king. Archbishop of Canter- William Tyndale. School founded by Dr. Mary Peace between England and France. of Tynda!. 1524. Elizabeth born at Greenwich. of Flodden. June 3rd. (Florentine). 1531.Venetian). Field of the Cloth of Gold. assassinated 1546- Miles COVerdale. d. 28th. Battle of prohibited by ParHament. 1530. lays : which have since borne 1521. Sultan of Turkey. 1536. Dean of St. 1536. null and void. 1520. 1530. 1510 CardinalBeaton. Sir T. d. Birih of Princess Mary. 1539. 1533- Appeals to 1513. at the age of 59. The title of to Henry 1522. St. Raphael (Roman). First circumnavigation of the globe (in 1.Scriptures ordered to be printed. Henry marries Anne Bolej n. 1534. aged 53- and chancellor. follower of Calvin. Regent of Scotland. Fall of Wolsey. 1538. JaneSeymourdies General suppression of monasteries. Henry divorces Catharine. Oalvin. Andrews. 1 5 16. Earl of Angus. executed 1535. 524. Colet. The Pope excommunicates Henry. 154 days. Jmy Anne of Cleves divorced. (sister of Henry) marries Louis xn. The Turks defeated before Vienna. Cherry-trees brought from Flanders and planted in Kent. Margaret 1515. Catharine Howard beheaded. 1534. " Henry tries to raise money without authority of^arliament. Spurs. War with France and Scotland. " The Pilgrimage of Grace. Tobacco first known in Europe. California discovered by Cortes. 1542. 1526. More A new English version of the. assistant Great Painters :— Leonardo da Vinci 1520* translator of the Bible. d. Septem ber 7 th. English translation of Bible allowed to be freely circulated Cranmer's Bible published. (Florentine). to obtain the opinions of the Universities as to divorce with Catharine. Perugino (Roman). Sir T. Peru discovered Almagro. Parliament settles succession on the children of Henry and Jane. Cranmer advises Henry 1540. d. burned in the Thomas Cromwell. d. 1529." PrinceEdwardborn. 1546. his name. Tyndale and JMiles Coverdale publish a more correct version of the Bible. Henry marries Catharine Howard. Revolt of the Earl of Kildare in Ireland put down. More resigns chancellorship. Scottish army defeated at Solway. by Pizarro and 1525. 7- Henry marries Jane Seymour. Henry invades France. Paul's marries Catharine of Aragon. Canada discovered by Cartier. Tyndale's translation of the New'lestament publicly burned by Tonstalj Bishop of London. 1523. Holbein (German). the great French Reformer. bury. CorreggiO Utalian). Michael Angelo Titian (. d. Wolsey created cardinal. Paul'5. John Colet. Henry declares war against France. July 6ih. Henry VUI. by Magellan's expedition). More Chancellor. and England under an interdict. John Knox. 1536 1537. Mary (Henry's sister) marries Charles Brandon. Wolsey made Archbishop of York.Archbishopof St. 1543. Albert Diirer (German). d. Catharine dies at Kimbolton. takes Hungary. Martin Luther. aged 50. Anne Boleyn beheaded. 1523. (sister of Henry) marries Douglas. VIII. 1532. Speaker of the of Commons.289 Thomas Cranmer. Duke of Suffolk. Speaker. PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE REIGN OF HENRY 1509. 1564. November 28ih. Publication of Tyndale's version of the New Testament. Parliament set ties succession on Henry's second marriage. Sir Thomas More.

Death of Luther. born December 7th. 1544. ! . but are repulsed. Everij inch a King. but those who suffered most from his self. He was not history. King Harry. and as long as King Henry let the people those who — Many of these go their own way. fond of good living.termined. of King of Ireland. and did not tax them too heavily. and he had many.''-' and Henry VIII. He was fond of sport. Fair. and that he was selfish and overbearing. however. Her father. ruddy. and it is true to say that to the day of his death Henry was beloved by far the greater number of his people. fond these were just the of exercise. But.' Whatever may have been his faults. they were always ready to call out " God save his Highness " and to praise a King of England who showed himself so strong and so de. at the ag^of 56. the common people of England were often not sorry to see the great nobles who lived among them lose their heads or their properties. when his father died. dies. to tell the truth. 1546. May Henry 28th. February Henry 1543. strongly- he seemed not only to his English subjects. King quite eighteen years old built. fond of show things to make him popular with the people. James V. there can be no doubt that_by far the greater number of the people in England who lived in his time loved him. and thou^t him a great king. are the names by which he went. but this happened very seldom. 28th. takes Assassination of Cardinal Beaton. Henry marries Catharine Parr. Cardinal Beaton made Regent of 1545. It is true that he was also very fond of having his own way. is a well-known figure in English his long reign. Parliament makes Ireland a kingdom. aged •18th. We shall see.290 History of England. He came to the throne when he was a mere youth. Queen of 'Scots.will were and active. that when King Henry did try to take too much money out of the pockets of the Commons. and many of them lost their fortunes because they did not please him. : stood nearest to him his ministers and the great noblef. title Scotland. were put to death by the king's orders. had a merry mind. French attempt co land in England. Mary. 1547.. 62. The king. Bluff King Hal. the finest-looking man of all the kings of Europe. th-ey were as ready to quarrel with him as any of the nobles. too. dies December 14th. War with Scotland. We now come to the story of Henry VIII. January King" Harry. but to foreigners.

cheeks fat. his was and as he grew older became he somewhat too stout. were and not handto our HENRY i^From the portrait iy Holbei»y in Vni. His were figure large. beyond all doubt. tlie possession of the Earl of Warwick^ very nowadays but there seems no doubt the fashion to flatter kings and great men. His eyes small. It was la his day that one of the first and one of the greatest portrait-painters Hans Eoibeia. gave expression to the general opinion of the time. show the king us just as he appeared in his own sor." KwG Harry:' 291 first Indeed. that though it is . those who saw King Henry and who spoke of him as a dignified and handsome prince. German. royal court of Wind- We often King hear Henry spoken of as the King: Fat and very plump he certainly was. of modern times began to paint pictures in England. the We has left us pic- tures of Henry which. We can see in Holbein's picture the rings half sunk in his fat fingers. he is the know very well what the king was like. King of England whose face is really familiar to us. some way of thinking .

His fourth wife. Catharine Parr. and when . It is the story of this strange king that we are now going to read. and not only that. he divorced his second wife." Bulky : " Htidibras. and King Henry as well. many great men and women were.292 History of England.'^" a Spanish princess. died within two years of her marriage. His last wife. had the good fortune to outlive him." Henry VIII. for she too was beheaded by order of the king. Which he can neuer do that's slain. and during that time he was married no less than six times. His first wife. It is not easy in a short book like this to give a fuU account of all that took The reign of eight years. was put to death by her husband's command because she offended him his third wife. Catharine Howard. stronger man than himself. a Dutch princess. Anne Boleyn. who have become famous in Foreigrn Friends and Foes—The Battle of the "Spurs. a daughter of an English knight. the daughter of an English duke. living the history of our country. The king had many faults. fared no better than his second. Some of the greatest men who ever lived in England were Henry's ministers. ^=^> also an English lady. King Henry reigned thirty-eight years. Nor was it only the king's ministers who found that Henry was a dangerous man to anger. They lost first of all their offices. He did many things which seem very hateful to us now though it is not always easy for us to judge about the right and wrong of things which happened more than three hundred years ago. but he was strong enough to get his will carried out. But one thing is certain about King Henry— he had a very strong will. These men rose to great power. lasting no less than thirtyEvery part of it was marked by events which were of great interest and importance in the history of England. . and then their lives. . Anne of Cleves. Jane Seymour. But when they came to oppose the king. and it seemed as if they could rule all England. " for those that fly may flgh't again. His fifth.'^^' an English lady. Catharine of Aragon. was a long one. each of them in turn found out that he had met with a . It is a story which is the more interesting because it took place at a time when many great changes were going on in England. he divorced.

France. they sent their favourite ministers with secret orders to act for them. At one time France sought the aid of Spain against The Empire. Nor must it be forgotten that the kings and emperors themselves often took the chief part in making bargains and treaties. Henry VII. It is most wearisome to read through all the accounts of the plotting and bargaining which went on between the Kings of Europe in the first years of Henry VIII. and if they did not take part themselves. and which indeed was not yet as powerful as any of them. 293 we must be content to read about the most important and about those which have had most to do with making England what it is. It is hard in our days to understand the way in which arrangements were made between great countries in the days of Henry VIII. These matters are those which concern the deahngs of the king and his ministers with the other Kings of Europe. no deceit. or to prevent her from joining See page its enemies. tried to ruin the other. in those days there was no trick. . however. and each in turn. no stratagem. was not the man to give up anything that his country had won.^ A fourth Power was. there were three great Powers' in Europe France. which the ministers of the great countries of Europe were not ready to practise. and The Empire each wanted to be master of Europe.England. and each nation in turn tried by promises and threats to win England . indeed. which. at another time Spain and The Empire joined forces against France. 's 'reign. Spain. For this reason we must give only a short space to matters which took up a long time. It often happened that while the King of France was promising aid and * 277. and which occupied much but things. and with two or three thousand soldiers who would be hard to beat when they once took to fighting. join in the rivalry between the sovereigns of Europe. and hastened to should : . had done something to show the Emperor and the Kings of France and Spain that England was a country to be reckoned with. attention in the eai'ly years of Henry's reign.Foreign Friends and place. was not thought by any of the other three to be on an equal rank with them. The other nations of Europe /ivere soon to find out that the best of them had found its match in the Island Kingdom but at this time they thought of it only as a useful ally which might help a friend with a round sum of money. to its side. and The Empire. Foes. and Henry VIII. At the time when Henry VIII. matters which we now call questions of Foreign Policy. came to the throne. in order to become master. For. Spain. He eagerly followed in the footsteps of his father.

the falsehoods. as the son-inlaw of Ferdinand of Spain. King of France. Ferdinand the King of Spain. Why is it so important in our history that Henry. there is little doubt that the King of England never lost an opportunity of paying the King of France back in his own coin. as we shall see. assistance to the King of England. it led to great troubles. led to great events in the history of England. which fill the pages of the history of this time. during which a rather odd battle was fought. and is known as The Battle of the Spurs (1513). for the disputes. and of deceiving The him in his turn. the battles. In the first place it led to a short war with France. which afterwards arose as to whether the marriage were legal or not. while. was naturally the friend and ally of the mind King. of Henry with Catharine is a very important thing to re- CATHARINE OF ARAGON.of had married Spain. because they made a great difference to the history and fortunes of our cquntry.. The second reason is a more important one still. who we know was the daughter of Queen The marriage Ejticry ]Valker. It must be borne in that at the beginning of his reign Henry VIII. because. for he his brother Arthur's widow. at the beginning of his reign.294 History of England. plotting. The first reason is that Henry. the peaces. member for two reasons. was an enemy of France ? It is important for two reasons. naturally became for a time the enemy of Louis XII. This battle took place near Terouenne. have been for the most part forgotten but some of them we . on the other hand. • .) and and Isabella. he was secretly making just the same promises to the King of England's enemies. must not forget. Catharine.

ooo Scots lost their lives.'=*' King of Scotland.000 Englishmen and g. it was impossible to stop the flight. who was known throughout France for his bravery and gallantry. Where shivered was fair Scotland's spear. Henry VII. in which the armies of England and Scotland met on the gth of September. managed to pick a quarrel with England. the. had left to Queen Margaret of Scotland. • Flodden Field.Flodden Field. and who earned for himself the title of Bayard.. especially at a time when England was fighting against the French. There was very little really to quarrel The chief matter was a complaint that Henry had refused about. 1513. the Battle of Flodden Field. ? It came about in this way. despite the efforts of their officers to stop them. ''Still from the sire the son shall hear Of the stern strife and carnage drear Of Flodden's fatal field. and in which no less than 6. knight withcmtfear fighting. But James. The whole French army was thrown into confusion. who had so long been the friends of Scotland. namely. James sent a message to King Henry ordering him to leave France and he did more." How was it that the battle of Flodden sprang from the quarrel between Henry and Louis XII. It is called 295 than by this odd name because there was more running away and the Frenchmen used their "spurs" a great deal more than they used their swords. under King Henry. did . a brave but rash man. . And broken was her shield!" Scott: " Marmion. It seems that the French cavalry were seized with a panic and rode off.not need much of an excuse for going to war with the old enemies of his country.. . But out of the enmity between England and France there came a much fiercer and more important battle than the Battle of the Spurs. Among them was the famous Chevalier Bayard. While the English army. The alarm once given. for he sent three thousand Scotsmen to help King Louis. and some of the most famous of the French nobles and soldiers were taken prisoners. in France. James IV. was besieging the town of Terouenne. to give up the jewels which his father. and without reproach.

men on men. A few days later the king himself at the head of a great Scottish army. and soon the Scots. it is certain that Surrey's army was allowed to cross without interference.000 men. with 5. In front of him flowed the River Till. passing by a single narrow bridge. which was saiv to number no less than a hundred thousand men. It was not long before an English army came out to stop his further march. To do this he marched his army across the Till. swe. He saw at once that it was impossible to attack the Scottish army in front. James has been much blamed for not attacking the English while they were crossing the river. soon joined by Lord Thomas Howard. but before the " Standards on standards. Whatever may have been the reason for his failing to do so. saw the English army between them and their own country. which lies on the Cheviot Mountains. In the wonderful account which Sir Walter Scott gives of the battle . and on the 22nd of August. The Eaxl of Surrey called upon the northern counties to arm. High Admiral of England.' . the Scottish troops crossed the Border. marched south from Edinburgh. 1513.000 in all. ping o'er the Gothic arch. crossed the Tweed. He therefore decided to try to draw King James from the position which he had taken up. and a few days later fixed his camp on the side of Flodden Hill. With an army numbering 25.296 History of England. to their dismay. plundering and burning. . King Henry sent the Scottish messenger back with a very flat messenger could reach King James. . His force was refusal. he advanced to Flodden. for the deep waters of the Till would check the advance of the troops. TWISEL BRIDGE.

by hawthorn after troop their tree. And rising from the dim-wood Standards on standards. Where flows the sullen Till. ! That morn. Had then from many an axe its doom. the deep defile soul of ? Since England gains the pass the while And struggles through What checks the fiery Why And sits James ? that champion of the dames Inactive on his steed. Upon Still the eastern bank you pouring down the rocky den. in ceaseless To gain the opposing hill. To give the marching columns room. glen. and haughty. " His host Lord Surrey lead ? The Scots could now no the enemy. By rock. longer resist the temptation to attack King James ordered the camp to be burnt. Saint Helen at thy fountain drank. ! " And why stands Scotland idly now. of the English 297 poem UaYmion. In slow succession still. and under cover of the smoke he swept downwards on Surrey's army. to many a trumpet clang. Troop Troop after troop are disappearing. Twisel thy rocks deep echo rang And maviy a chief of birth and rank. Thy hawthorn glade which now wc sec In spring-tide bloom so lavishly. ! Dark Flodden on thy airy brow. sweeping o'er the Gothic arch. "High They si'ght it is. And heedful watched them as they crossed The Till by Twisel Bridge. Between him and Tweed's southern strand. see. Beneath the castle's airy wall. banners rearing. sees. dive into the deep defile Beneath the caverned cliff they fall. while . men on men. : the march army across the TiJl is thus described " From Flodden ridge The Scots beheld the English host Leave Batmore Wood. their evening post. K* .Flodden in his great Field. And pressing on. "And. between him and his land. by oak. march.

but were content that Scotland was now corppelled to give up helping the French. At times a stifled hum. nor minstrel tone. and among the dead were members of the noblest families of Scotland. Henry gave his beautiful sister Mary Tudorj^'"' then only sixteen years old." foes. *'From the sharp ridges of the All hill. The cloud enveloped Scotlanti's war. Louis lived only a very short time after his marriage.000 Scots fell in the battle. . though friendships were quickly broken.298 History op England. and Mary at once married Charles Brandon. from his mountain-throne King James did rushing come. Told England. King James himself was left dead upon the field. they were quickly again. At made that time. As down the hill thej broke Nor martial shout. No less than 9. surrounded by the bravest of his army. and rolling far. Was wreathed sable smoke. At times one warning trumpet blown. downward to the in banks of Till. Louis. and a peace was made between England and France in August. Scarce could they hear or see their Until at weapon-point they close. whom she had always loved. But the war between France and England did not last long. as a bride to the old King of France. 1514.'*" Duke of Suffolk. King of France. . Volumed and fast. The English did not follow up the victory. Happily. As a condition of the peace. but at last fortune decided in favour of the English. who had given up their lives in the vain attempt to save their' king. soon found means to separate Henry from his ally the Emperor. The battle which followed was long and fierce. . Announced their march their tread alone.

that he raised in you. and breaking made them." — — — It was during this making promises to them as often as he England. This was Cardinal Wolsey. and a ripe and good one. Which was a sin yet in bestowing. Though from a hvmble stock.2 99 CHAPTER XXXVII. and young Wolsey distinguished himself. to those men that sought him. Ipswich and Oxford. became The new king found in king that Wolsey began to rise rapidly. And though he were unsatisfied in getting. His father was a wool merchant. Lofty and sour to them that loued him not. . It time of wars and treaties. madam. He was most princely. But. " This Cardinal. sweet as summer. Exceeding wise. and from one high office he passed on to another. him the most agreeable of companions and the wisest of counsellors. Soon Wolsey became the wealthiest and the most powerful man of the time in which he lived. and must have been well off. when Henry was the other sovereigns of Europe. In 15 15 the Pope made him a Cardmal. who sent him on important business to the Continent. that a great man rose into fame in Thomas Wolsey. for he sent hi? son to college at Oxford. in England next to the king. THE GREAT CARDINAL AND THE Cardinal Wolsey. undoubtedly Was fashioned to much honour from his cradle.. where He entered the Church. fair-spoken. But it was not till Henry VIII. No reward seemed too great for the king's favourite." Shakespeare: •• King Henry VIII. KING'S DIVORCE. and persuading . but throughout Europe. He was born at Ipswich in the year 1471. soon became employed by Henry VII. He luas a scholar. whom we usually speak of as cannot be doubted that Wolsey was one of the greatest men and his greatness was admitted not only in England. Ever witness for him Those twins of learning.

four ' yeomen of the silver scullery.' Then in the hall kitchen. Wolsey accompanied him. besides two grooms.' with two other ' pastelers ' with a chain of gold. ' ' ' ' . and of twelve persons two yeomen of tht under the yeomen.' clerk of the spicery. Then in his prime kitchen a 'master cook.' ' two.' {Front the portrait by Holbein. and sometimes his name was put on treaties by the side of that of the king.' who went daily in velvet or in satin.' pastry. WOLSEY. as if he were indeed king himself. :—" You that understand he had tinually in his hall con- three boards. " Also in his hall kitchen he had of ' master cooks of ' other ' cooks. The most wonderful stories are told of his wealth and of the splendid state in and an account man's household. the great Henry shall VIII. kept with their several principal officers.300 History of England.' a 'surveyor of the dresser.' .' the which together kept also a continual mess ' ' ' ' in the hall. Wherever the king went." And so the list goes on for a whole long page of the Chronicle. including. two CARDINAT. clerks of the kitchen. and not a subject.') a clerk controller. taken from the Chronicle of King is which he Here of lived. it seemed at length as if Wolsey had obtained all that even he could ever wish for. ' labourers. a ' ' which was ' .' and almoners. ' shalls ' .' and ' children the kitchen. ' . that steward always a priest a treasurer a knight and a controller an esquire also a cofferer being a doctor three maris to say. a "yeoman of the . three ' ' yeomen a ' ushers in the hall. Treaties were made by the advice of the Cardinal. among many other officers and servants.

ex .

" " cup-bearers. but there was one thing more he had set his heart on. . Nor his is Hampton Court the only mark of Wolsey's generosity. There are pictures which give us some idea of this famous meeting between the kings of England and France. he was never contented with the success he had won while there was still anything more to win. barge. and to help on education. and afterwards gave it to the king. Chancellor. in the year 1520." ~a " master of the children." and a " clerk of the green cloth." sixteen " stable grooms. At Oxford he built the great and beautiful college first called Cardinal College. v/e have only to take the train from Waterloo Station in London to Hampton Court. He had been made Bishop. He built a splendid palace at Hampton Court.. King Henry met Francis I." twenty-four " waiters." a " keeper of the tents." " singers. In to this day." " carvers. The meeting itself was one that was long remembered. like many another man." When. so splendid . and that was to be made Pope." an " apothecary. he was certainly generous with his money. It is known in history as The Field of the Cloth of Gold." " crossbearers. King of France near Calais. It was this ambition which at last brought about his downfall." a " chaff-wax." a " physician." sixteen " chaplains. The very tents in which the two kings and their followers lived during the whole time of the festivities were of cloth of gold and of embroidery. and both in the pictures and in the written accounts it is always the great Cardinal Wolsey who takes the foremost place after the king." a " herald. It is clear that Wolsey made a wise use of his wealth but. Cardinal. But though Wolsey was rich." four " minstrels. own town of Ipswich he founded a Grammar School. and now known as Christ Church. unhappily for himself. If we want to know what Hampton Court Palace was like. .were the dresses which were Worn by the two kings and by the gorgeous train of nobles who accompanied them. beautiful building. near London. a journey of not more than forty-five minutes and we can see for ourselves the great and ." a " master of the horse. Nor was this all. Wolsey was the foremost figure among the English who accompanied the king. He did much to assist learned men. which exists .302 History of England.

303 The Fall of Wolsey. because it was against the laws of the Church that a man should marry his brother's widow. he could not get rid of Catharine. but when Wolsey got he found himself in a very hard position. was at that time very much afraid of the Emperor Charles V. naturally enough. It must be remembered that Henry had married. They had only one child. daughter of the King and Queen of Spain. and had got the Pope's special leave to do so at the time. without quarrelling. He would not in my age I Had I Have left me naked to my enemies. by leave of the Pope. He decided to send Cardinal Rome to get the consent of the Pope." Shakespeare: " King Henry VIII. and wished to put her away. But now all this seemed to be forgotten. to get a divorce. and could have done much harm to the Pope if he wished. who had a great many soldiers in Italy. The Pope. as we call it. for Catharine had been married to Arthur before she married Henry. Cromwell! but served my God with half the zeal served my king.. "0 Cromwell. It was true that Henry himself had been anxious to marry Catharine. Catharine of Aragon. Now Hetiry himself had married his brother's widow. At that time it was only possible for a man to put away his wife. saying that there was a good reason for a divorce. who was born in 1516. and. or. at any rate. and he was only too glad of ah excuse which would enable him to get what he wanted. grew tired of his queen.'^' They had no son. for he longed for a son to come after him on the throne and as time went on. The king asked the Pope to give him leave. who was named Clement VII. For many years the Icing and queen had lived together in happiness.. or. But Charles was the nephew of Queen Catharine. and unless Henry could get the leave of the Pope. a girl. Henry To understand how to his downfall . and this made Henry discontented." it was that Wolsey's wish to become Pope led we must go back to the history of King Henry himself. one of Queen Catharine's ladies-in-waiting. he was very angry -with King Henry for wishing to divorce Wolsey to to Rome . when he was quite young. and marry in her stead Anne Bolejm. and who was called Mary.

It is true that by the law of England the. but it must not be forgotten that it was Henry himself who had welcomed Wolsey. what his master longed Henry ready to sake him ruin him. . as the Pope's Legate or Ambassador. when he first came. was for- and It was not long before Henry found excuses for CLKMENT yn. feared to offend the Emperor Charles .304 History op England. he was give willing to him power that to and wealth. and he did not therefore like to offend Clement. The Ms and thus it happened that Wolsey had at last to come back to King Henry and to tell him that he had failed in his errand. He charged Wolsey with breaking the law by coming into the kingdom of England as a servant of the Pope. to agree to the divorce. aunt. {From the portrait by Titian. ) showing first his dis- pleasure. but now failed the Cardinal had gain for. and not of the King of England. in his turn. but at the same time he hoped some day to become Pope himself. and that he had been glad enough to make use of his services. As long as Wolsey would serve him and help him to get his way. Wolsey would ha

Related Interests

e been glad to serve his king and to get the Pope's consent. From that day Henry determined that he would be rid of Wolsey. Pope has no authority in our Island. and that the Pope had refused Pope.

on a charge of high treason. and estates. Wolsey received a pardon for the crimes he was declared to have committed." " The majestic lord That broke the bonds of Rome. and he was allowed to live at Richmond. where he was received by the abbot and monks. But the king would show no mercy. who." Thus died this great man (1530). We have now to learn how it was that the king gained the object which he had so much at heart but in order to understand this we shall have to go back a little and to read about things which had . 1529. he reached Leicester Abbey. . and brought charges against him. and soon the king's anger was stirred up against him again. The king withdrew his favour from the Cardinal." Gray: " Installation Ode. and at the point of death. with all his faults. An order was given to the Earl of Northumberland to bring him to London. he was arrested in York. by order of the king. which was the sign of his office as Lord Chancellor of England. At last. Broken down in health and in spirit. But this is the just reward that I must receive for my diligent pains and study. He would not have given me over in my grey hairs. after he had lost nearly all his property. " but served my God as diligently as I have served my king. Parliament joined in the attack upon the fallen minister.id that his dying words were words of loyalty and good advice to the king who had treated him so unjustly. not regarding my service to God. near London." said the dying cardinal. It is sa. In November. but only to my king. But he had many enemies. Worn out. " Had I. or that he was onebit less determined than before to get rid of his wife. and to marry Anne Boleyn. and asking leave go and live in his own bishopric. 1530. In October." 305 Indeed. the charge was only an excuse. for he felt to the last that Henry had been most unjust to him." But it must not be supposed that because King Henry had not got what he wanted by sending Cardinal Wolsey to the Pope he had given up his object. houses." The Defender of the Faith. Wolsey was forced to give up the Great Seal. He sought to win back Henry's favour by . ' The Defender of the Faith. giving up to to him all his wealth. Queen Catharine. he felt that death was approaching. should be remembered as one who loved England well and served her faithfully. but on the way Wolsey fell "sick.

but so did all the kings and queens . so ready we shall think this a very strange title for the king to possess.r as to write a book which was intended to prove to all the world that the Pope was the only true head of the Church.3o6 History of England. alone. which is only long enough to contain a. it At first sight it is not easy to see why this quarrel between the king and the Pope over a question such as that of the king's marriage should be of great importance in the history of England. Henry had gone so fa. the King of England should be known as The Defender of the Faith. In fact. we shall see on it the letters " FID. When we read what happened later in the history of Henry's reign. Henry kept it keep it. on his side." These are the first letters of two Latin words' which mean " Defender of the Faith". that he declared from that day forward. and the Pope had the right to give him leave to put away his wife. If we put our hand in our pocket and are lucky enough to find there a penny or a shilling. wrote in deferce of the Pope nearly four hundred years ago that our present King now has among his titles that of " Defender of the Faith. was so pleased to find the King of England writing a book on his behalf. that not long before Wolsey's journey to Rome. and it is because of the book which Henry VIII. DEF." But though Henry was quite willing to support the Pope while the Pope supported him. The Pope. was he to support the power of the Pope. of England who came after him. he very soon changed his view when he found that neither threats nor entreaties could. nor why it should be put into a book like this. Henry soon made up his mind that if he could not get what he wanted wiih the Pope's help. but having once got the and not only did Henry title. he would get without it.n accoimt of the chief events that took place. been happening not only in England. but in other countries in Europe. So long as Henry believed that he could get the Pope's consent to the divorce. iiTSTORY ON A PENNY. he was quite ready to admit that the Pope. and who certainly could not be called " Defenders of the Faith " in the sense in which Pope Clement used the words. make Clement give his permission for the divorce. But we shall see as we read on that this quarrel had Very important * Fldei De'ensor. .

He thought he could get the learned men in all the Universities to say that the marriage with Catharine was the opinion of the learned that if against the law. after all. most the at Universities no answer sent the all. and to give his consent. And now at last Henry was driven to take a step which in those days was a Up very bold one. THOMAS CROMWELL. As long as Heniry was willing to admit that the Pope had a right his own to interfere in England. As soon as Henry found that Clement would not consent to the divofce. to that time the Pope had claimed to have authority over all the countries Christian of Europe. {From the jtortrait hji Holbein. a King of England were bound to obey the Pope." The Defender of TkE Faith" 307 results. the Pope would 'be obliged to change his opinion. They said marriage that the was according to law. it was plain that he could not get But as he was determined to get his own way. are and led to changes in England of which the consequences by every English man and wotnan who is alive at this day. unnatural that he should soon begin to consider whether. and whether it . and that Henry had no right to divorce Catharine. he sent round to all the great Universities of Europe to ask felt men about the question. of tmlhckily. either sent or very answer which Henry did not wish to receive. It was because he claimed to be Head of the Church in England that he had forbidden Henty to get rid of Catharine. But. it was not way.) and to be Head of the Church in all these countries.

and two men came forward at that very moment to tell him that it was his duty to do exactly what he wanted to do. and of the Government of the country. and that Henry had only got to say that he was Head of the Church just as much as he was Head of the Army. These two men became very famous in later years. and there would be an end of all the difficulty. Both Cranmer and Cromwell were richly rewarded for what they had done. One of them was Thomas Cranmer. who was at this time a tutor in a private family. Nothing pleases a man better than to receive advice which exactly falls in with his own views. wish very much to be told that something they want to do is right. before him. and of the Parliament. a clergyman. . who had been secretary to Cardinal Wolsey. but to ask the opinion of the learned men in the Universities. Thomas Cromwell went farther than Cranmer. Cardinal Wolsey. and only two years later (1533) was raised to the high office of Archbishop of Canterbury. The other was Thomas Cromwell. It This was just the thought that did come into Henry's mind. Cranmer before long was made a bishop. they soon find someone to tell them just what they want He wanted to hear. It was Thomas Cranmer who ad%'ised the king not to trouble any longer about what the Pope said. had done . would not be a good thing to say once for all that the King of England was not bound to obey any foreigner. He went on to say that if Henry wanted an example to follow he had only to look to Germany.3o8 HisfoRY OF England. Cromwell was chosen by the king as his most trusted minister. and for many years held as great a power in England as his master. very often happens that when kings or other people in a high position. and there he would see that other Christian princes had already taken the bold step which he now advised. very much to be told that the time had come when the King of England ought no longer to obey the Pope. for he said that if the king were wise he would be his own master that there was not room for two masters in England. This was what happened in Henry's case.

we can When Thomas in Cromwell told Henry that there were Christian princes Europe who had already declared they would no longer obey the orders of the Pope. Luther said that it ought to be translated into German. It was only allowed to be printed in Greek or in Latin. For some years past a great movement had been going on in Europe."— Luther. Englishmen. too. and French. and they are so important. and Frenchmen. These great changes soon reached England. indeed.' and in France. Luther said that no man could pardon the sins of another ^ Now called Holland and Belgium. and. people. and to be read by the people in languages which they could understand. of many things which were done by the bishops and the priests.309 CHAPTER XXXVIII. so that Germans. and what were the results which followed them. He complained. The Pope had always forbidden the Bible to be freely translated. and it ib to the Protestant Reformation that we owe the fact that England and Scotland are among the great Protestant countries of the world. we have got faith and preach the Gospel of the grace of God. "We have got our open Bible. . and he complained especially that persons were allowed to go about the country telling men that if they gave them a sum of money they would obtain a pardon for their sins. The great movement which has just been mentioned is known in history as the Protestant Beformation. In the year 1517 a German monk named Martin Luther began to attack the Pope and the Church. and have had so much to do with the history of our country and the lives of our countrymen. Martin Luther. he said what was quite true. all other might read the Scriptures in a language which they could understand. THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION. He said that the teaching of the Church was no longer what it ought to be. and that the priests withheld knowledge from the people which they had no right to withhold. English. love. and great changes had been taking place in Germany and in The Netherlands. that the whole of this chapter must be given up to an account of what the changes were.

and tried to bring about this reform. but Luther was a bold man and went about fearlessly preaching and teaching. and that it was a wicked thing to buy and sell these pretended pardons.it was begun in Germany.3IO History of England. the way in which the Church was governed at that time by the Pope. The Pope tried hard to put down the German monk. or indulgences. man. or reformed . though. and he objected to. when . at length reached England. CranacK) the Christian Church ought to be altered. It was because Luther made this protest. as they were called. or protested against. He said that the time had come MARTIN LUTHER. {From the portrait ly L. and that it is to this German monk that we owe largely the Protestant Reformation. that those who agreed with him were called Protestants and Reformers. It was not long before a great quarrel broke out between the Pope on one side and Luther on the other. We shall see that the teaching and preaching of Luther.

or supporters of the Pope." JVowi "Bym-ns Ancient and Modern. on preaching convinced several of the German THE TUNE OF "LUTHER'S HYMN. the other. and princes became members of the Reformed Church. Luther's 3" many people in Germany.Martin Luther. There is not room. and there was war for many years in Germany. and the Netherlands. a picture to ourselves great man was like. Clowes £ Son. and the Roman Catholios. of we what this we leave Martin Luther behind do well to try and make. however. shall . France. We must pass on to the story of the Beformation in England. A fierce struggle began between the Protestants or Reformers on the one side. but before altogether. in this bookjio tell the story of the Reformation in Germany." by permission 0/ Messrs.

o'f The Hath ancient prince hell fell . The description of those who saw him and knew him tells us even more than the picture. however. either in Luther's own land or in this country. For many years Luther's life was in constant danger never for an instant. . Luther wrote many books. full of determination. and quite without fear. : The Lord Sabaoth's Son He and no other one Shall conquer in the battle. and which we owe in part to the work he did. This is the set of verses known as Luther's Hymn. a man who feared nothing. did he hold back from the work he had undertaken on account of the danger which threatened him. There are many things we see and hear around us every day which should remind us of Martin Luther. of which some are now forgotten but there is one thing Luther wrote and which is not forgotten. though perhaps all those who know it are not aware that it had anything to do with the great Reformer. us fights the proper Man. "With But force of arms we nothing can. and weapon . ." Here are two verses " of the hymn in its English form : A safe stronghold our God is still. 'Wht)m Ask God Himself hath bidden ye.312 History of England. : " Ein Feste Burg ist unser Gott. He was a man of good stature and of great strength. His face was rugged and massive it was the face of a man who was honest as the day. who is this same ? is Christ Jesus His name. and whose courage kept him up through all the troubles and dangers through which he passed. There is one thing which we owe to him that many of us' know. Full soon were for we down-ridden ." . We can get some idea of what he was like from the picture on page 310. risen with purpose craft this Strong mail of He weareth in and power hour : On earth is not his fellow. He'll help us clear from all the trusty shield A iU That hath us now o'ertaken. In German the hymn begins like this .

learning what they could from the most famous teachers in each place. nearly all those who could read and write were priests or monks. and thus the writings of Luther and of those who agreed with him were brought over to England. Among those who were . in addition to Luther and his friends. Colet. English students soon brought to England an account of the New Teaching. too. who were not priests or monks. fulfils himself in many ways. the Pope found another set of people who did not admit that he had the right to give orders and to say what was right and what was wrong. And God The old order changeth.313 The "New ' Leapning. And thus it came about that. Nor was the teaching of Luther the only thing which threatened the Roman Catholic Church." By this time. did not like to see so many new books printed and read. and that common people. was the custom at that time for students to go about from one great University to another. But those who loved the new books and longed to find out all that was in them. and they began to It was find out many things that the priests had never told them. All over Europe. Tennyson: "The Passing of Arthur. and in England. and these books were openly sold for money so that anyone who could afford it could buy a copy and learn for himself those things which. men now began to read books and to explain them in their own way. Every year numbers of new books were brought out. belonged to the Church only. It was not wonderful. and the learning that was to be found in books. Before the printing press was invented. . and the priests. people had only been able to learn through the priests and the monks. But when the printing press had once been invented there came a great change. who had so long been accustomed to make people think in their way.' It It was not long before the teaching of Luther reached England. and More. and became known to many persons. had nc business to meddle with books or with book-learning. therefore. hitherto. or " New Learning. even though the Pope and the priests ordered them to do so. that people got to think that books. and the few books which were written were generally kept in the churches or monasteries. refused to stop reading and studying. a new thing for people to think for themselves."—Erasmus. many books were printed. yielding place to new.

or the priest. {/''row tJte portrait by Holbein. and in THOMAS MORE. and not merely to believe things to be true because their fathers before them. In 1529 he was made Lord Chancellor. he became Henry VIH. New Learning " into England were three men. Sir Thomas More. is known in English history. Erasmus was a native of Rotterdam. but as a good and noble Englishman. he spent a great deal of his time in England.) showing them how ready they had been to believe just what they were told without talcing the trouble to find out whether it were true or false. In the reign of a Member of Parliament. and he used to spend much time with More at Oxford and elsewhere. is clever A great deal of and them taken up in laughing at the ignorance of the people who SIR lived in his time. said they were true. John Colet was a great scholar. or what we should now call a Dutchman. and he could not only read Latin easily. He had already become a friend of first life He began as a lawyer. Erasmus. He studied at the University of Oxford. Although Erasmus was a Dutchman. and received many letters from him in return. He was a great student. but he could write most beautiful Latin also. The writings of also wrote Sir He Erasmus are very witty.3U History of England. He wrote many books. or anyone else. came to the throne he was made Speaker of the House of Commons. and fourteen years after . and in 1535 he was beheaded by order of the king. Henry VH. In Paris he made friends with Erasmus. or the Pope. not only as the friend of Erasmus. who afterwards became Sir Thomas More. the foremost to bring the " He was a great friend of Sir Thomas More. Thomas More. The chief thing that he taught in all of them was that men ought to think for themselves. and went abroad to Italy and to Paris to learn Greek. many letters to Thomas More. and Colet. which became very famous in his time. who lived a beautiful life and died a noble death. as we shall read a little farther on.

without anyone on his side. and What It Led to. it is time to go back to the story of Henry VIII. This building was St. and that the king. Dean of St." said Thomas Cromwell. " you cannot do what you want with the Pope's leave. . HENRY AS HEAD OF THE CHURCH. France. We how Thomas Cranmer and Thomas Cromwell had given same advice to King Henry. who founded St. John Colet. but has been moved to another part of London. one of the great public schools of England. and Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England. It was John Colet. " If.'s reign His name is. Dean of St. opposite the Cathedral of St. very well known to many English boys in our day. and about Erasmus and the friends of the New Learning. Paul's. Henry's Quarrel with the Pope. In the twentieth year of King Henry VII. taken from Royal Letters Patent to Sir G. the friend of Erasmus and Sir Thomas More. still remember and honour the name of their founder. "Henri) the Eighth by the Grace of God." This advice fell in with Henry's own wishes but perhaps if he had read also the ." as the boys of St. Paul's. Paul's Churchyard. Cheinie."— Henry's title. the head of the English Church. Paul's School. Paul's. he might have feared to follow Thomas Cromwell's advice for the power . Now that we have read about Luther and the Protestants. Up to a few years ago there stood a great building in St. The school no longer stands in the old place in St. . or ought to bej (1505) he was made Dean of St. Paul's School. and Ireland King. and Ireland. In the previous chapter we read about Henry's quarrel with Pope Clement about the divorce which Henry wanted. CHAPTER XXXIX.Henry's Quarrel with the Pope. Defender of the Faith. but which Clement would not allow him to have. Paul's. Paul's Churchyard. Paul's call themselves. in England. and not the Pope. why not do it without ? orders All you have to do is to say that the Pope has no right to give is at to the King of England. 3^5 More's at Oxford. where there is more space and fresher air but it is to be hoped that the " Paulines. of England. had to fight alone against the Pope.

and to please himself. Fisher. having got Parliament on his side. were among the best friends of the king. must not be supposed that Henry had done all this to please and the Protestants. both in England and on the Continent. he was not going back. to translate the Bible and gave permission for the Bible to be freely read in all it the churches. was determined at any cost to make But either Luther & everyone bow to his will. Parliament was called together. Pope Clement was very angry. In May. and Henry. he determined that he in his turn would show himself a bitter enemy to the Pope. the Faith. The King of England. as we have just read in the last chapter. But. or Protestants. and the Pope had no right to allowed the Protestant preachers. he saM. and they were ready to obey him. who. and declared that neither Henry nor Cranmer had any right to act without his leave. Cranmer declared Catharine to be divorced. and so at last Henry got his way. Sir Thomas Lord Chancellor. They would not do what Among the noblest men in victims of his anger were some of the worthiest and England. was Church of England. were not liked by many of the priests on account of the books they wrote and the ideas they taught. whom the Pope had Head of the interfere. what was more than into English. What then could be more natural than that Henry should become the friend of the Pope's enemies ? And this. and. Those who would not submit were thrown into prison and their property was taken from them. The king.t that he alone was Head of the Church of England. he allowed the Reformers. in the second place there were men like Erasmus and More. of the Pope was very great. indeed. He had done it in order get his own way. was just what happened. But there was one thing they would not do. In the first place there were Luther and his friends the Protestants. They were ready to serve him. though they had not quarrelled with the Pope." the divorce the who but a few years before had been called " Defender of now declared that whether the Pope gave his consent to or not did not matter. 1533. come into England and to remain there unharmed. or Erasmus and the learned men. He to Sir condemned. and. He made all. Bishop of Rochester. The king had already married Anne Boleyn. declared that the king was right and the Pope wrong. and Cranmer declared that the marriage was lawful. the Pope had already made two sets of enemies. He commanded everyone to adm. If the Pope were to be his enemy. and More. But now that Henry had gone so far.3i6 History of England. Thomas More Lord Chancellor. .

July 6th. nor say what they believed to be false. and do yet continue so noted." Letter from the Archbishop of Canterbury to the Abbot of St. Tower. She behind her one child. for not the only victims of the whom Henrj' had not feared to quarrel with the Pope. the crime of selling offices in the for . revenues." "It has come to out ears. of dilapidation and waste of the goods. his fate. he had already found out that by keeping up his dispute with the Pope. and while they were there. and of certain other enormous crimes and excesses hereafter written. Fisher was executed at the Tower on June 22nd. But Fisher and Sir Thomas More were Anne Boleyn. was executed at the . that you. and possessions of the said monastery. being at once publicly notorious. ^ Throughout all England Church at that time there money. and they were condemned to death. declared them guilty of treason. Henry's quarrel with the Pope was not at an end. The king charged her with not being true to him she was tried and condemned to death. left who afterwards The " Hammer of the Monks. Simony. and who was the daughter of Sir John Seymour. and brought before us on the testimony of many witnesses worthy of credit. that More met . to please the king. even though the king bade them. and on May 19th. 1536. the Abbot before mentioned.^' 317 they believed to be wrong. Albans. who.was christened Elizabeth. Parliament. Neither the age of Fisher (for the bishop was seventy-six) nor the goodness and faithful service of More could protect them from the king's fury. It was not till a fortnight later. was among the first to suffer. they both of them refused to do so.^ of usury. his beautiful wife. he had always an easy way of growing rich left open to him. and to make himself Head of the Church and when they were called upon to swear that they would obey Henry as Head of the Church.The '^Hammer of the Monks. king's savage' temper. have been of long time noted and diffamed.'^-' and became very famous in English history as Queen Elizabeth. 1535. But though Anne Boleyn was dead. Indeed. 1489. Neither More nor Fisher believed that the king had any right to disobey the Pope. a Wiltshire gentleman. of simony. The day after Anne Boleyn's execution Henry married Jane Seymour. Tliey were thrown into the Tower. who had been one of Ann^s ladies.

why when Thomas Cromwell " hammered " the monasteries to pieces he should have made many enemies. but were soon put down by the king's friends. and the schools which had been kept by the monks were in many cases shut up. When Henry made up his mind to destroy the monasteries and nunneries. and did good worli in teaching and There were others who helping the poor among whom they lived. It is interesting and amusing ^ to read the answer which King In Latin. were great buildings known as Monasteries and Niumeries. Hammer oj the Monks. and which he could use as an excuse for taking away their property. work. Perhaps. "Malleus Monachorum.^ by which was meant that he had hammered and crushed the greater part of the lands which them to pieces. if this money had been wisely used for the good of the country. and the great wealth which belonged to them was seized by the king. therefore. there would have been little to complain of. and in which monks and nuns used to live." . Many of the most beautiful abbeys and churches were allowed to fall into ruin. but Henry and Cromwell were most extravagant. and who were a disgrace to the Church to which they belonged. and spent their money upon themselves. So bitter was Thomas Cromwell against the_ monks. In Lincolnshire the friends of the monks rose in rebellion. and some of the best land in England belonged to them. It is easy to understand.3i8 History of England. that he earned the name of The. In many places they had helped the poor. Many of these monasteries and nunneries had become very rich. and he soon won Henry's favour by the zeal which he showed. Some of the monies lived -good lives. it is not wonderful that they had friends throughout the country. li

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ed bad lives. But though the monks and nuns had in many cases ceased to do good. and most of what he did not give away he kept for himself. which belonged to the Church. in others they had taught those who had no other teachers. Very large sums of money and had belonged to the monks were given by the king to his favourites. More than 800 monasteries and nunneries were broken up and destroyed. it was not hard for him to find out many bad things which could truly be said of the monies and nuns. But there can be no doubt that what made Henry most anxious to destroy the monasteries and nunneries was the great wealth which It was Thomas Cromwell who was foremost in this they possessed. and they had allies among the great nobles. and so fiercely did he attack the monasteries.

. seemed as if the friends of the king would be beaten. i> Fit. was soon gathered together. and during his reign the number of Protestants in England their It is grew steadily » larger. we begyn and make answere to the foure and them pendeth 1 much of the rest. ' Dependeth Have. This is what the king said to the people of Lincolnshire : "THE KINGES ANSWER TO THE REBELLES. and how little the people of the country had to do with its government. Henry to say. that princes.The " Hammer of the MonksJ' 319 Henry gave to the people of Lincolnshire when they brought their grievances before him. On one thing. If we read it we shall understand how great a person the King of England was in those days. and the priests promised The march their blessing to those who took part in the rebellion. determined. then are ye.'* » A (1536-7). but before long the royal troops succeeded in driving back the rebels. nor that they wer persones mete. and that was that he was the Head of the Church of It soon England. many of whom were taken and put to death. head of everything else in England.3 hard. and of the fiercer rebellion with your Prince .* sixe articles. than that in Lincolnshire broke out in Yorkshire collected from all parts of the North. Concernyng chosyng of " First red. it is fair to King against the will of the king.5 nor of the habilitie^ : and choose mete and sufficient counsailors for a prince how presumpteous . however. he was join openly with the Reformers.nd banners. and indeed. • Heard. At first it of this northern army was called the Pilgrimage of Grace. the rude of the commons of oae shire. because upon counsylors. ' Read. and that one of the most brute and beastly least experience. became clear that nobody was safe who dared to say or to do anythingAt the same time. to fynd faute whole realme. and a large army. The rebels marched with priests at their head carrying crosses a. that he did not interfere with those who did not interfere with him. counsailors and prelates should be appoynted by rude and ignorant to discerne common people. he would not at this time. while the rest returned peaceably to homes. not easy to understand the part which Henry himself played Although he was an enemy of the Pope. I never haue^ nor knowne. « Capable oi.

But when the Queen came to England. This is how the joyful event was spoken of: "THE BIRTH OF EDWARD *' VI. died. one of the Protestant princes of Germany. which departed out of this In Octobre on Saint . 2 Child. and this time the wife whom he chose was a foreigner. his mother.. Farther on in this book we shall read how this little prince became Edward VI. Henry was deUghted at the birth of a son. Jane Se3miour. In 1537 was born Prince Edward. twelve days after the birth of Prince Edward. and the Dulte of Norffollc. quene lane. ^ £)ucceed. The king could . . * Thanksgiving. . which Henry himself could not understand. and Henry saw her with his own eyes.' Part X. It was two years before King Henry married again. ..2 prince Edward whose Godfathers at the Christenyng were the Archbishop of Canterbourie. Edwardes euen 1 was borne at Hampton Courte the noble Impe. but she could not speak a single word of anything but German. the Lady Mary. It was Thomas Cromwell who advised the king to marry Anne of Cleves. Her name was Anne of Cleves." For SO it was. and he thought he would be safe from their anger if he could persuade the king to marry a Protestant wife. he found she was exceeedingly plain and not only that. the only son of Henry's third wife. and the child was at once proclaimed Prince of Wales. Jane Seymour. 6 Crown. "For marriage is a matter of more wortli Than to be dealt in by attorneyship. Duke of Cornwall. and his Godmother. and at the bishopingS was Godfather the Dulce of Suffolk at the birth of this noble prince was great fires made tlirough the whole realme and great loye made with thanks geuying * to ainiightie God whiche hath sent so noble a prince to scced ^ in the crouneS of this Realme. 1 Eve. 3 Christening. Anne of Cleves—The Fall of Thomas Cromwell." Shahespeare : "Henry VI. "^' King of England. daughter of the Duke of Cleves. . It was said that Anne was very beautiful and a picture was shown to the king which seemed to prove that what had been said of her was true. next following . and Earl of Chester. . But Lorde what lamentacion shortly after was made for the death of his noble and gracious mother.320 History of England. life the fourtene day of Octobre. The friends of the Pope were very angry with Cromwell. the Kynges daughter.

the folk. 1542. according to his promise. Parliament. divorced Cleves. the following month. Anne of He treated and and it her to kindly. and now the king de- him as he had deserted Wolsey. gave her a house live in. 321 not refuse to marry Anne. Henry's after . tried for high treason. A month he had got rid of Anne of Cleves. and long after death. Catharine had shared the fate of Anne Boleyn. was ready to undertake any shameful and Catharine was cruel work which the king ordered it to perform. Henry gladly listened to them. quietly to keep She in lived Eng- land for seventeen her years after divorce. Henry married his fifth wife. It was not till the year king married his sixth and last wife. As soon as serted Cromwell was Henry dead . Catharine Howard. L . was arrested. ) Duke of Nor- {Ftcjn the portrait by Holbein In less than eighteen months.The Fall of Cromwell. that the This was Catharine Parr. and executed (1540). but it was not long before he made up his mind to get rid of her. and when Cromwell's enemies brought Cromwejl accusations against him. niece of ANNE "OF CLEVES. condemned by Parliament. and was beheaded in 1543. Meanwhile he could not conceal his anger against Cromwell. money up. as usual. eighteen months later. a widow. January. He had long had few friends save the king. who had led him into the marriage.

in which great cruelties were committed on both sides. Thomas Parr. " Shaliespcarc : Before we leave the reign of Henry VHI. At the same time there were already many Reformers in Scotland who hated Cardinal Beaton. who looked upon King Henry as one of the worst enemies of the Roman CathoHc Church. but his troops declined to follow him into England.322 History of England. the English troops attacked and defeated them. the son of the Earl of Kildare. of Sir and daughter his fifty-third year. However. and while all was confusion. Beaton and all his friends were ready to join in any war against the King of England. altogether. An English army was sent over. and France. for they led to much fighting in Scotland. and died in the reign of Edward VI. They threw down their arms. Some of them also refused to obey the orders of the general whom the king appointed. it was not long before an excuse was found for war between the two countries. Scotland. "There's a saying. to whom Henry was married in This lady had the good fortune to outlive her (1548). In Ireland a rebellion broke out. and France. both . It was while Scotland was suffering from these troubles that an event took place which proved to be of great importance. and who. The authority of England was now fixed more firmly in Ireland than it had ever been before. refused to help him against England. — "Henry V. // that you will France win. and weakened the attack of the Scots upon England. Ireland. At the head of it was Lord Thomas Fitzgerald. and Henry was the first of the English kings to take the title of King of Ireland (1542). husband. The troubles in Scotland were more serious. of Scotland''**' marched southwards at the head of an army. James V. The party which then held power in Scotland had at its head Cardinal Beaton." Then with Scotland first begin. very old and true. Scotland. we must turn our attention for a short time to what took place during the last part of that reign in Ireland. These quarrels between different parties in Scotland proved to be of advantage to England. the revolt was put down. and after a long and fierce campaign.

naturally refused to give her up. For the first time for many a year the French fleet attacked the shores of England. It was said by some that he had been murdered by Henry's wish but though his death was a great blow to the Roman Catholic party in Scotland. James. it was not long before the little princess became a queen.'™' daughter of James V King of Scotland. Nor did Henry meet with much more success in Scotland. Queen of Scots. his queen. Scotland. Charles and Francis before long came to a separate agreement without consulting Henry. The Roman Catholic party in Scotland. . and Mary became from that day the rightful Queen of . under Cardinal Beaton. Both Edward and Mary were still quite young children. The war came to an end in 1546." Henry sent the Duke of Norfolk with an army. but were driven back by the inhabitants. But the expedition was not a success. and all that Henry had gained was the capture of Boulogne. . The emperor found that Henry was much more anxious to take Boulogne for himself than to help him to gain the object he had in view. We shall read much more about this little Princess Mary. who afterwards becaoie famous under the name of Mary. King of France. and the King of England found himself without an ally. and this was agreed to by treaty in 1543. Only seven days after she was born. and he found friends amongst the Protestant party across the Border. Scotland. was born Mary. but little came of the expedition. and of Mary of Guise. On the 7th of December. her father. Henry very soon found himself at war both with Scotland and with France. and to capture the city of Paris. He sent an army into France to help the Emperor Charles against Francis I. died. and though it led to a fierce conflict in that country. In the same year Cardinal Beaton was murdered. it did not make the Scots more willing to give up their queen to King Henry. Indeed. and French troops actually landed in the Isle of Wight. and the English troops were withdrawn without having succeeded in their object.Ireland. Henry required that the Queen should be sent into England for safe keeping. which was taken after a long siege. 1542.. and France. He had demanded that the little Queen of Scots should be given in marriage to his son Edward. to 323 England and to Scotland.

She carried twenty-three great guns. and the red St. Andrew. George's Cross may be seen in the middle of the Union Jack. and Soldiers. which took place in the reign of Henry VIII. and the famous corps of the Royal Marines traces back its history to this time. and that after Mary should come his second daughter. About Ships. George's Cross for their flag. This flag is now carried on every admiral's ship in the British Navy. and for the first time we find that royal ships were built by order of the king for the special purpose of fighting at sea. George. a ships may be . The wars of which we have just spoken were not very important in themselves.. It was Henry also who first ordered that every king's ship should fly. first made a regular payment to soldiers who served in the ships of the Royal Navy. One of the finest of these ships was the "Great Harry. . In the flag which is now carried by all ships in the Royal Navy these two crosses are joined together." of i. Sir Andrew Barton. which is called the Cross of St. at the masthead and at the bowsprit.324 History of England. which is heavier than most of the cannon-balls which were used at the battle Some of the cannon of Trafalgar nearly three hundred years later. the flag with the Red Cross on the white ground. "Saint George he is for England Saint Oenys is for France. and made It in this reign was Henry who Scottish privateer. both with France and with Scotland. Much of the fighting. but for one thing they ought to be remembered. Flags. and led to no great results at the time. There is an old picture of a seafight. if we look at the coloured picture at the beginning of this book. He was fifty-five years of age. In this picture the English seen with the red St. Elizabeth. It was in the year 1547 that Henry died." Old Song. Before his death he had made a will declaring that his son Ed-ward should succeed him on the throne that after Edward should come his elder daughter Mary. between Lord Howard. High Admiral of England. and some of her cannon carried shot weighing thirty pounds. and had reigned over thirty-seven years. and the Scottish ships with the white Cross or Saltire of St. weighed as much as five tons.ooo tons. had been fighting at sea.

SEA FIGHT BETWEEN LORD HOWARD AND SIR ANDREW BARTON. .

goes to Japan. of Somerset. Duke Lord Protector.. Lord Guilford Dudley. The Book of Common Prayer adopted.'Shrewsbury School founded. Francis I. imprisoned In this reign. 1550. b. WHO LIVED IN THE REIGN OF VI. of Spain.. Sir EDWARD VI. Queen [of England. 1548. Edward VI. dies. afterwards Queen of England. CHAPTER XL. Cliarles I. Sultan of Turkey.. Mary. Bishop of London. EDWARD King of England. Duke uncle executed 1552. becomes King Catharine of England. Philip. Paul IIL. daughter of Henry Grey.. Protector. Hertford made Duke Francis Xavier. and Mary. Thomas Cranmer. Parliament fixes the succession on Lady Jane Grey. afterwards Philip II. Parr marries of Thomas of 154B. King of France. FAMOUS PERSONS EdWiird VI. son of Charles V. EDWARD 1547-1553 VI. the great French missionary. 15521553- The Queen Dauphin.. King of Spain. sister of Edward VI. Seymour. Pope. and Jane Seymour. sister of Edward VI. m. dies. Lord to Edward VI. King of Naples and PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE REIGN OF Edward VI.. Lord Guilford Dudley. Solimau the Magnificent. imprisoned in this reign Emperor Charles V. Julius III. King of France. became king 1547. Edmund Bonner. known also as the Edward Seymour. d. . 1537. . 1549- The French land in Scotland. Mary. Battle of Pinkie Cleugh. afterwards Queen of England. Gardiner and Bonner sent to the Tower. and husband of Marv. The Duke of Somerset tried and con- The Earl Somerset and Lord Protector. and great-granddaughter of Henry VII. Stephen Gardiner. IL. of Scots affianced to the tree imported The Duke The orange from China into Portugal. Heniy son of the Duke of Northumberland.326 History of England. of Northumberland... d. Jolm Dudley. Sicily. son of Henry VIII. demned. Pope. husband of Lady [Jane Grey. o' Somerset executed. Bishop of Winchester. John Knox preaches in Scotland. 1553. Lady Jane Grey. Marquis of Dorset. Elizabeth. Queen of Scots. Archbishop of Canterbury.

they all came by his father. Stood the State so ? No. Woe to the land . Edward came to the throne before either of them. We ^hall see that these relations played a very important part In order to show his affection for his in the reign of the new king. We now begin lasting only six years. no. Of all Henry VIII. daughter of Anne Boleyn. but whom he had probably loved the best was Jane Seymour and one of why Henry loved the memory of Jane so much was because she was the mpther of his only son. . Better it were. and had placed them in high offices. Third Citizen.' First Citizen.'® It was a short it has an important place in the history of England." Shakespare : " King Ricltard III. It was this son. Henry had given great rewards to her relations. who now became King of England at the age of eight years. Jane Seymour was dead.that's governed by a child/ So stood the State. the one reign. Third Citizen. Earl of Hertford. As the young king was quite a child. and Elizabeth.32? Lord Protector Somerset. wife. It must not be forgotten that though Henry had only one son he had two daughters. Her eldest brother. was made Earl of Hertford . 's six wives. Now it so happened that though Jane Seymour was not a Protestant herself. God wot: For then this land was famously enrich'd With politic grave counsel : then the King Mad virtuous uncles to protect his grace. which always gave the sons the right to succeed before the daughters. Among these. the daughter of Catharine of Aragon. the reasons Edward Seymour. but she had many relations who were still alive. FiHST Citizen. both by his father and mother. Mary. this. another relation. it was clear that for some . But though Mary and Elizabeth were both older than their brother Edward. who was born on the 12th October. while a third was made Higli Admiral of England. was the most powerful. we must go back a little and recall what we know about the new king. Edward Se3miour. when Henry the Sixth Was crowned in Paris but at nine months old. was made Lord Russell. good friends. most of her relations belonged to the Protestant party. Sir John Russell. according to the law of England. " Thikd CnizEN. so hath the story of the reign of Edward VI. In order to understand the events which took place in these six years. Why. 1537.

Somerset called EDWARD vr. Somerset had no sooner gained the . and to send Mary to England.328 History of England. for it was during the reign VI. But little came of the victory. Nor were they disappointed. They therefore refused point blank to do what Somerset asked. near Edinburgh. The party which was at that time most powerful in Scotland was the Roman Catholic party. and defeated the Scots at Pinkie Cleugh (1547). who now really ruled the kingdom in the king's name. of Scotland. i_From iJie portrait by Holbein. that of Reformed Church really took the place of the Roman Catholic Church in England. It was soon seen that the Earl of Hertford had made up his mind that he would become the chief adviser to his little nephew. The refusal led to war an English army again crossed the Border. and did not at all want to see the Queen of Scotland married to a Protestant king. Edward the But the first work which occupied the Protector was work of war.') upon the King of Scotland to fulfil the promise which had been made. and though the king was only nine years old. and Mary only four.lso a Protestant. was r. King Edward had been brought up as a Protestant and as the Duke of Somerset. and to bestow upon him in the name of the Icing the title of Duke of Somerset. It had been agreed that poor little King Edward should marry Mary Stuart. years at least he would have to be guided and advised by others. He persuaded the king's Council to declare him to be Lord Protector of the l^ing. It is under the name of the Duke of Somerset that we hear about Edward Seymour during King Edward's reign. . the Reformers in England began to hope that their cause would win the day. and the Roman Catholics had no love for Somerset and his Protestant friends.

who afterwards became King Francis II. and killing some hundreds of her best soldiers. Many Somerset had done to gain he was still in great of the nobles hated him. unheard and without trial. not to King Edward. L* . The Fall of Somerset and the Rise of Northumberland. As was usual in those days. In 1 of the old Church looked upon him as many parts of the country the breaking-up of the monasteries jusl as the eldest son of the The eldest sou of the King of France was always called the Dauphin. and beheaded.The Fall of Somerset. and it is not wonderful that Somerset did not succeed in winning Mary of Scotland for his young master. was ready to help. as usual. Parliament. Princess Mary." Tennyson : " Queen Mary. the battle than he 329 came back in haste to London. the elder sister of the king . As soon as Somerset. Admiral of England. but to King Edward's enemy. Francis. The Scots were determined that their young and beautiful queen should. and Thomas was condemned by the House of Commons. the Lord Protector. Those who were the friends their chief enemy. and they rightly thought that the best vyay to protect her from any further claims was to marry her to somebody else." soon became clear that. of France. It was an odd way to try to win a bride. "He has gambled for It his life. Mary was betrothed. and when her sister he found Elizabeth this was impossible. he set to work to strengthen his own power. Still further to strengthen his own power. after for power himself. and were jealous of him. all and to weaken his enemies. just a year after the battle of Pinkie Cleugh. Somerset now sought to marry the . Dauphin' of France. He brought a charge of treason against his own brother. King or Queen of England is always called the Prince qf Wales. Thomas Seymour. by sending an army into her country. got back to London. fearing lest in his absence his enemies there might do him some mischief. he thought the best way to begin was by getting rid of those who were likely to become his enemies or his rivals. he sought the hand of but in this also he was unsuccessful. Accordingly. he might almost have foreseen what really took place. and lost: he hangs. not marry the King of England. danger. Indeed.

written in English. for the people who had been accustomed to receive charity from the monks. Bishop of Winchester. AND MASK. v/ho time in helping cause which they much about. First of all. as so many others had done before him. and Protestant schools were started in many places with the help of the money that had been taken from the monasteries.330 History of England. and who was now getting old enough to take some part himself in settling what should be done. prison. England were Two of them Gardiner. were very angry with the Reformers. THE HEADSMAN'S AXE. Protestant Prayer-Book. as a member of the council. Bishop of London were put into turned out. The who would not the admit that true in Head king was of the THE BLOCK. Among Warwick. Somerset should have done all he could to help and strengthen the Protestants. 's time. In doing this he found a ready helper in the king. Church — and Protestant bishops were put — in their places. and who had found in the mon^ asteries their only teachers. enemies of led the Somerset was Warwick had king's troops Dudley. and Bonner. as they had done before 'in Henry VIII. he accused him of having kept for himself the money which had been . It was not wonderful that when he found that the friends of the monks were everywhere his enemies. and had been very successful in beating them and in restoring He used his power to attack Somerset. In some of the counties the people rose in rebellion. was drawn up to be used in all churches. who had been brought up as a Protestant. The king's council was made up of warm friends of lost the no on the cared so bishops the Reformation. and Somerset found much difficulty in putting them down and in restoring quiet. But the time had at A new and ordered last come when he was the bitterest to fall from power. In all these things Somerset. had caused great discontent. peace. Earl of against the rebels. took a chief part. who were his friends.

last to do. Queen of Scots. about whom we read in Chapter XXXVL Henky Henry VIII. and to see exactly what relation she was to the shall see that she was the great-niece Royal Family of England. read the sorrowful story of poor Lady Jane Grey. i i VII. Mary. Elijabeth. Frances = Henry Grev. But to understand the story rightly we must find out who Lady Jane Grey was. to the Lady Jane Grey. and it seemed that he had at last got all he hoped for. So many people had lost their money and were lamenting over its loss. of Northumberland . Duke of Suffolk. and had been punished for their disloyalty. L^jy jj^^ p„y_ . = | Charles Brandon. Edward VI. was a short delay. was executed on Tower Hill on the 22nd January. Somerset was taken prisoner. belonged to the king.The Rise of Northumbbkland. He said that Somerset had agreed to a disgraceful peace with the King of France. after high treason. strong enough to do what he had long wanted and to take his place as chief councillor of the young king. The first use he made of his power was to marry his son. said Warwick and his friends. hated Somerset. Farther on we shall LorA Guilford Dudley. Duke of Suffolk. and. namely. Then Warwick brought another charge. Dnke. James V. but Somerset had dishonestly kept it. 1552. he openly eharged the Protector with tried. and that he had given up the King of England's rights to those parts of France which he to still claimed. The easiest way to understand who Lady Jane was. Margaret j = I I Tames IV. He persuaded Edward to felt At Warwick make hjm of friends who. who for a few short hours was Queen of England. or which had been paid in fines by the nobles who had risen in rebellion against the king. and having collected a number Uke himself. is to look at the table which is With a little patience vi^e shall be able to given on this page. Charles Brandon. namely. to get rid of Somerset altogether. of Marjl Tudor Scotland. that it was easy enough to find plenty who were ready join in the cry against the Lord Protector. the power to use the name of King Edward for his own purposes. trace out her family. and spent it on himself. 331 taken from the monasteries. Mary. This money. and to the king's treasury. and why the Duke of Northumberland was so anxious that she should become the wife of his son. of Henry VIII. Duke I of Suffolk. and the grand-daughter of his sister Mary and the young We . The Duke of Northumberland now became the most powerful man in England.

and later same year he had small-pox also. indeed. was not the chief person in the history of his time. On the 6th July. and before long the cold went to his lungs. Queen of Scots. Northumberland. was a short one. and he saw too that if he were to make any use of the king's name before he died. that before going on to the next reign it is necessary to say a little more about the great change which had taken place in England while Edward was on the throne. Northumberland saw that the king was dying. an unhappy sufferer..33Z History of England. This was Edward's last act. and he got consumption. therefore.ht to come to the throne and if they did not there would only be one other person when King Edward died who would have a better right than Lady Jane Grey to come to the throne as Queen of England. ailing. 1553. In the Council Chamber he sat on the throne supported by cushions. but the king himself. in the seventh year of his reign. . The poor boy had always been weak and . This one person was Mary. It is impossible to understand the story of the next reign Unless we also understand quite clearly what had gone before it. in . But the reign was a very important one in English history— so important. the poor king died. he liked to be carried to the window to see what was passing in the world outside. weak and in pain. He persuaded the dying king to make a will which he declared that the Lady Jane was the true heir to the throne. had any ri. unlike his father. in the he nmst do so at once. In the year 1553 he was taken ill with measles. The reason why Northumberland wanted his son to marry Jane was a very plain one. Queen of Scots but nobody believed that Mary. The reign of Edward VI. Scarcely able to walk. Parliament had declared that neither Mary nor Elizabeth. He caught cold. would be allowed to become Queen of England. the two daughters of Henry VIII.. And it was already plain to all that in a very few months King Edward would be dead. hoped to see his son become the husband of one who would be queen as soon as King Edward was dead.

of the "Articles " or Rules of the Churcit of England agreed to in Queen Elizabeth's time. goo years before the reign of Henry VIII. and the friends of the Pope. to explain in a short way. . There is not room in this book to set down all the matters about which the two parties could not agree.. WHAT THE REFORMATION MEANT The "Old Religion" and the "New. It was the Christian religion which had been taught ever since the time of Christ. The New Religion was the religion of those who had followed the teachings of Luther and of his friends.333 CHAPTER XLI. therefore. and both in England and in Germany the followers of the New Religion were called Protestants or Eefonuers. Augustine first began to preach at Canterbury. but as to whether the way in which the Christian religion was then taught and practised by the Pope. nor. It be a good thing. 1.500 years before. and those who agreed with the Pope. and which. Edward VI. and what the Reformation and the New Religion were. 1 The Bishop of Rome here means the Pope. what is meant by these words. before we go on any further. and the Protestants. 's time. the priests. had spread to England. the will the story of these times without speaking very New Religion. for some of the things about which people differed greatly at that time are not very important now. It was the Christian religion in which the people of England had believed since the time when St. It is not possible to tell often about The Eeformation. were the right and true way or not. But no one can understand the history of England during the time of Henry VIII. on the one side. indeed. was not as to whether the Christian religion should or should not be the religion of England. is it necessary to do so." — " The Bishop of Rome ^ hath no Frofit one jurisdiotion in this realm of England. in Edward VI. But when we read of the New Religion we must not suppose that the religion of the Protestants was really a new one. The difference between the Reformers. on the other. . We have already read something about the Reformation which was begun by Martin Luther in Germany.

then. He also said that no bishop could be appointed in England without his leave. and the people of England had generally been on the side of the King of England when the king tried to get rid of the right of the affairs of their country.334 History of England. and Elizabeth. This. was one great difference between the two parties. At that time the Pope of Eome claimed to have the right to interfere He said that he was in the affairs of all the countries of Europe. Thus. Mary. Head of the Church in France. in Italy. in order to punish the king. though the Pope lived far away in the city of Rome. or what they thought. believed that the England. and to do them harm when he wished. he really had the power to interfere with the people of England. and then the Pope. in Germany. and had commanded them not to bury or to baptise people. Pope to meddle in the The Reformers now said that the Pope ought no longer to be the Head of the Church in England. Catholics believed that the The Reformers. who does not know what were the most important things about which Protestants and Roman Catholics disagreed. authority in country in Pope had no authority iH Pope had. The kings of England had always

Related Interests

ery much disliked any interference by the Pope. and in England. but he did say that those who belonged in any way to the Church were not under the laws of England. alter the laws of England. The Pope also declared that many offences could only be punished by the Church. therefore. had forbidden the clergy in England to hold services in the churches. The Roman this have. and that he ought to have no power to interfere with Englishmen. and that he alone had the right to say how the Church should be governed in each He did not say that he had the right to make or of those countries. or what they said. . and not by the king's judges. and that the king's judges and the king's courts had no power and no right to judge them if they were accused of doing wrong. but under the laws of the Church. Sometimes it had happened in the past that there had been a quarrel between the Pope and the King of England. and ought to many matters. and that the person who committed these offences must be tried by the bishops. or to punish them for what they did.

said that neither the Pope nor the bishops had any right to say what a man or a woman should believe. The Roman Catholics declared that the Pope and the bishops were the only persons who had a right to say what was the true meaning of the Bible. on the other hand. but for what they thought. and must understand it by the help of his own conscience. and that the many teaching of the priests was not the teaching of the Bible. on the other hand. or to minister the Sacraments. For years the Popes had claimed the right not only to judge men for what they did. The Roman Catholics had always been forbidden by the Pope Both to translate the Bible into English. in a tongue not understanded of the people. '^Primitive Church" The Early Church in the *• — first centuries after the death of Christ. and a man committed a sin if he did not believe exactly what the Church taught him. The Protestants. had a right to choose the form of his rehgion for himself. the bishops. the Bible 1 * Re^t^ani to"— CoTiU^ry Xo. said that a man must read the Bible for himself. and the custom of the PHmitiue Church. . with the help of the Bible and of his own conscience. the Protestants held that each man had a right to judge for himself. and that was the form which was taught by the Fope. and few people except the priests could understand them. for while the Roman Catholics said that the Pope and the Church were the only true judges of what was right and wrong. or to read it for themselves. and to try and find out for himself what was right and true. they said. or to decide what was right and wrong. The Protestants declared that the words of the Bible wete meant for everybody to read and understand. They said that every man ought to think for himself. They said that the true religion was to be found in the Bible.335 Freedom of Opinion and Liberty of Conscience. No man. and the priests. "It is a thing plainly repugnanf^ to the Word of God. — ^- But there was a much more important difference than this. therefore. The Protestants. the Bible and the prayers which were read in the churches were in Latin. And thus we see there was another great difference between the Protestants and the Roman Catholics. They said that there was only one true form of the Christian religion." One of the ••Articles" or Rules of the Church of England agreed to in Queen Elizabeth's time.^ to have publiok Prayer in the Church. and that.

and child who truly sought for it.336 History of England.. Mary. Protestants believed that it was only by prayer to God that they could be guided aright. 1558. or to do what was right. Queen of Scots. ought to be translated into a language which would be understood by the people. Nevertheless no one can doubt. and Catharine of Aragnn. of Northumberiand. woman. It must not. Fbilip of Spain. Fiancis II. 1553-1558. 1558. that is the right to believe what we think right.ised in the churches. CHAPTER XLII. . however. d. we owe much to those Protestants who fought and suffered for freedom of thought in Queen Mary's time. One of the first things the Protestants did when they got the power was to translate into English both the Bible and the prayers which were . that despite their mistakes. John Dudley. b. great-granddaughter of Henry VII. and be enabled to do what was right. IL. f rancls. and that they were able by themAll true seh'es to know what was right. FAMOUS PERSONS Mary. afterwards Queen of England. It was the Protestants who first claimed and won for us two great liberties which all Englishmen now enjoy. so that everybody might read and understand them. huband of QUEEN MARY. husband of Mary. be supposed that the Protestants believed they needed no help to guide them. WHO LIVED IN THE REIGN OF Lord Guilford Dudley. Lady became Queen 1553. Queen of Scots. Queen 1516. executed 1554. MARY. The difference between them and the Roman Catholics in this matter was that the Protestants believed that the guidance and help of God would be given to every man. execut d Henry Lady Jane Grey. Duke 1553- Jane Grey. executed 1554. . and that it was not necessary to go to a priest. King of France. m. daughter oF Henry VIII. sister of Mary. namely. Elizabeth. of England.. that is the right to think what we please and Liberty of Conscience. husband of Maiy. Freedom of Opinion. father of Guilford Dudley. Datiphin of France. We shall see that the Protestants in their turn often refused to others the liberties they had gained for themselves. daughter of the Duke of Suffolk. to a bishop. or to the Pope in order to learn what was God's will. son of Henry II.

the poet. Bishop of London. burned 1555. England reconciled to the Mary.'''-^ At the same time orders were given that Mary should be taken prisoner. each longing for power. re-igns Spain and flependencies to Philip. Pope. whose hopes were fixed upon Princess Mary.<. Queen Jane. also known as the Emperor Charles v. 155S. d. Thomas Wyatt. A friend brought .'' sooner was King Edward dead than there arose confusion and throughout the country. testants.7. Loss of Calais. Christ's Hospital founded. Calais. John Hooper. Bishop Nicholas 1556. There were two great parties in On the one side were the Prothe land. Queen of Scots marries the Dauphin of Frr-nce. and Catharine of Aragon. and to force people to take his side before the friends of Mary had had time to collect.. 1555. Emperor 1556.. Paul IV. The Emperor Charles its ii. But Mary was too quick for the duke. any i5551556. Northumberland wished to be first in the field. Bonner's persecut'on. Lady Jane Grey executed. abdicated iss*]. 1555. King of Spain I. Protestant Bishop of Glou- Pope. leader of "Wyatt's Rebellion." Tennyson: " Queen Mary. Pope. Old Religion. Hush Latimer. burned 1555. Bishop Gardiner dies. claims the Crown. Mary dies. PRINCIPAL EVENTS DURING THE REIGN OF QUEEN MARY. Cranmer burned. Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury. Russian ambassadors conclude a treaty in London. Edmund John Knox. Mary Northumberland claims the Crown on behalf of Lady Jane Grey. took of Winchsster. Mary marries Philip of Spain. burned 1556. d. Pjotestant London. Counsellor discovers a passage round the North Cape. I ' Parliament repeals slatutes of Fdward VI. 1 Philip forbidden to exercise authority in England. Protestant Bishop of Worof burned 1555.. Philip II.. born. husband of Mary. 1558. under the leadership of the conflict No On the other side were the friends of the Duke of Northumberland. the great Scottish Keformer. 1555. _ 1554. the friends of the New Religion. King o' Spain. d. Wyatt's Rebellion. French General. d. He called the Council together. and proclaimed that the true and rightful heir to the throne was his daughter-in-law. Ferdinand Julius III. Stephen Gardiner.'^^* the daughter of Henry VIII.." executed 1554. Edmund Spenser. the Lady Jane Grey. Ridley. Northumberland executed. Bonner. "Seventeen— a rose of grace! Girl never breathed to rival such a rose: Rose never blew that equall'd such a bud. Sir Mary's chief minister. 1558. cester.. Ridley and Latimer buined.337 Charles I. cester. Bishop The Duke of Guise. Thomas Cranmer.

and the daughter of the Duke of Suffolk." An ostler bOy in the crowd alone raised a cry against the new queen. where she knew she was safe from surprise. . Queen of Scots put forward her claim to the throne. She was the great-granddaughter of Henry VII. rights. and Northumberland hoped that the people would support him and Lady Jane Grey. we look at the table on page 331. When the name of Queen Jane was read out by the herald. but both Mary and Elizabeth had been declared by Parliament to be deprived of their Mary. No one had few interfered friends. it was received in silence nobody cheered or cried " God save the Queen. a strongly fortiiied house in Suffolk. Queen of Scots But it was not till after the death of Queen Mary of England that Mary. Oxford. on his behalf. that If We he shall see we mistaken. who was a Protestant. but it was plain that Queen Jane . 331. in London. Meanwhile the Duke of Northumberland had proclaimed Lady Jane Grey to be Que.^ we shall there was another person who had see a that better claim to the crown than Lady Jane Grey. was a friend of the Old Religion. He was seized by the guards. and so also had Elizabeth. LADY JANE GREY. {From the portrait at the Bodleian Libi-ary. Paul's Cross. Without a moment's delay. and that was Mary Stuart. against Mary. Mary If had a better claim to the throne than Lady Jane Grey. too. and his ears were nailed to the pillory. look again at the was table on p. By right of descent. she rode off to her friends in Norfolk.338 History of England. and thence to Framlingham. her word of what was going on in the Council.m of England at St. we shall see in a minute who Lady Jane Grey was and what claim she had to the crown of England.

to fight and die for the Protestant religion. from one end of England to the other." Lady Jane Grey. is not The Death of Lady Jane GFey Liue still to die.QuMejv Jane. and against Mary. As long as King Edward had been on the throne and had chosen to support the Protestants. Jane herself was such a sweet and good woman that we must not altogether forget her or the part which she played in the history of bur countryi She was but seventeen years old in the year which led her to the crown and to her deaths . with Northumberland as their leader. nor did they care very much about the New Religion which he supported. the people kept pretty quiet it was only those who had been injured by the breaking-up of the monasteries who rose in rebellion. most people in England paid no attention at all to what Parliament had decided about the matter. For it friends. had no love at all for Northumberland. too. and the greater part of the people of England also. now ready a little Queen Mary herself. we must give tl>an to to be found in the space to the short sad reign of a queen whose name list of the Kings and Queens of England. Parliament had declared that neither Mary nor Elizabeth had any right to come to the throne. that by death you may purchase eternal life. the people of England soon made up their minds what they is quite plain that though in the time of Henry VIII. that no one did more to make the English people Protestants. But now that they were asked to fight for the New Religion. But before we go on to the reign of Queen Mary. and we shall see. But Little is left to mark the sad history of poor Queen Jane. and that by this time the new Protestant religion had spread very widely through the country. 339 The truth was that the people of London. We shall see later on that such a time did come. and fierce enemies of the Pope and his would do. It was true that Mary belonged to the Old Religion. ^nd everybody except a few friends and supporters of the Duke of Northumberland looked upon Mary as the only right and proper person to be queen. but the time had not yet come when Englishmen were ready. whom they looked upon as the true heir to the crown. whom nearly all England was welcome as queen.

At first it seemed as if their lives would be spared t and perhaps they might have been allowed to live if it had not been that a rising among the Protestants took place in the county of Kent. for every day it became clearer that the people were in favour of Mary and against him. He was sent to the Tower. Northumberland "soon saw that if he were going to keep Mary from the throne he must do something at once. Lord Guilford Dudley. In these few years she had learnt much. Lady Jane Grey and her husband. She had learnt to-be a true Christian. He gave himself up. Everything that is told of her makes us love her as a pure-hearted. but none came. and acknowledged Mary as the rightful queen. and Latin. and was there beheaded on August 22nd. but a believer in the old religion. from all sides the lords and gentlemen of the eastern suffered she suffered for their crimes for her and not came forward to fight for the true queen. counties however. those who had been his friends hated him. He hoped that" many friends would come and join him. learning. and what she own. Thus. She was sure of her own courage. did not save him. He died hated by both parties. had lived. nor the best that could be said of Lady Jane Grey. he deserted them as soon as he felt his own life in danger. and priest. Lady Jane treated the who was an old. with courtesy and kindness. in the Protestant faith. She wrote and begged her husband that she wished to die as she . She was indeed only an instrument in the hands of other not all and could write both persons. His cowardice. even at a time great scholars. that her mind was made up. But this was of the two last-named languages. for in the hope of saving his life he declared that he was no longer a Protestant.34° History of England. A priest was sent by the order of Queen Mary to try to win . It is not wonderful that while his enemies despised him. Alarmed at this new danger. The duke soon saw that his cause was lost. But neither Jane's goodness nor her learning was enough to protect her. but she said that she did not wish to hear him. after ruining his Protestant friends. man. who hoped to use her for their own ends. On the contrary. and that those who took part in it declared that they were fighting for Queen Jane. He set off with a small army to attack Mary in Suffolk. She was a wonder of when young ladies of liigh rank were often She knew and could read Hebrew. brave. and good Englishwoman. 1553. were both imprisoned in the Tower. Mary and her councillors decided that Jane should be put to death. under Sir Thomas Wyatt. Lady Jane to the Roman Catholic religion. but she was not so sure about that of others who were dear to her. Greek.

LADV JANE GKEY ON IIEK WAY TO THE SCAFFOLD. .

the Governor of the Tower. Guilford Dudley. she laid ' down her hands I head upon the block." This is how the rest of the story is told in the Chronicle of Queen to write a : : Mary " : The hangman kneeled down and asked her forgiveness. and said that she had broken the law in accepting the crown but as to any guilt of intention she wrung her hands. she sprang up the steps. she gave a small book of English prayers. as u. Then she said." "The blood of martyrs is the seed of the Church. Sir John asked his prisoner few words in it. madam. friend desire you. Wyatt hoped that the Londoners would rise to help . good master lieutenant." Her husband.'' The rising which had taken place.' ' • ' ' She tied a kercher about her eyes is . which doing. therefore I shall. and stretched forth her body. saying. not to follow the bad example which had been set him by the Diilce of Northumberland and not to forsake his religion under the fear of death. was put down after some difficulty. she said. and whidh led to the death of" Lady Jane Grey. The book can still be seen.' And so ended. then feeling for the tlock. These are the words which Queen Jane wrote " Forasmuch as you have desired so simple » woman to write in so worthy a book. No if it would proiit either of them she would see him otherwise she would wait for her death alone. No. under Sir Thomas Wyatt. that by death you may purchase eternal life. and not to take the truth utterly out of your mouth. When she came to the foot of the scafl'old. to quicken you in His way. Shp said.' Then she kneeled down. Live still to die. which she forgave most willingly. Will you take it off before I lay me down ? and the hangman answered. to call upon God and incline your heart to His laws. got as far as London. Then he willed her to stand upon the straw. The rebels." "In Time of Persecution. and said she washed them clean of it in innocency before God and man. To Sir John Brydges. ' What Thy shall I do? where it?' One of the by-standers guiding her thereunto. Her sweetness won the heart even of her gaolers. She " died a true Christian woman. said. was to be executed before her. I pray you despatch me quickly. and actually reached the walls of the city. she saw the block. and Lord.342 History of England. into commend my spirit. She was asked if she would like to see him. and as a Christian require you.

portrait by Lucas D" Hee7-e^ iu ihe ^oisfissioTt of ike Society of Antiquaries^ .QUliliM (Pro»i i/'^ MARY.

and who were determined. But although the greater part of the people of England were at this time content to accept what the king or queen might choose. that the very worst way to make people give up their opinions about what they believe to be right. there were on both sides men who were not at all of this way of thinking. The only thing which they wanted was not to be too We much interfered with themselves. Indeed. believed that the religion to which they belonged was the only true one. they were for the most part content to let their kings and queens settle what should be the religion of the country very much ai they pleased.t they believed to be right. at this time ready to fight for or against the old religion or the new. On both sides there were men and women who were ready to give up their own lives readily for the sake of what they believed to be right and. in the vain hope that by persecution they could make men change their views and give up what they believed to be right. but were wicked people who ought to be put down for the good of the country and for the sake of true religion. to win a victory for On both sides there were men and women who their own pa. and that those who did not agree with them were not only in the wrong. is to persecute them and to make them suffer. The Londoners were true to the queen. . and Wyatt was taken prisoner and executed (1554). tlie causes which had led him and his Mends to take up arms were very serious. Happily. we understand much more clearly nowadays than men did in the reign of Queen Mary. We have learnt . whatever it might cost. and to attack the Pope and the Pope's party. alas there were also men and women on both sides equally ready to take the lives of others who did not agree with them. But though Wyatt had not succeeded. the Reformers never ceased to teach and to preach the reformed doctrines. that the very sight of men and women suffering and thinking what they honestly believe to be right. for saying too.rty. often makes people sorry for those who suffer and angry with those who We have learnt. but in this he was disappointed. and were soon felt to be serious not only in the county of Kent but throughout the have seen that the people of England were not whole of England. and in declaring that nothing could be worse or more wicked than to listen to or believe in the new doctrines. and their duty. On the one side. him.344 History of England. On the other side. the friends of the Pope and of the old religion were as earnest in teaching and preaching wh9. I that persecution is English people — cling much more to likely to what they think than make people — especially to make them give up their opinions.

for though the king's wife was always called The Queen. and not for the good of England. Sir The causes which had Thomas Wyatt were led to the rebellion of the Kentish men under twofold. or an Englishwoman like Jane Seymour. men from teaching and tliinlcing as they please. cause the suffering. Spain irt our ships. The Spanish Marriag-e. King of England. and it is must be remembered that Mary was queen' who had ever reigned of her own right over England. have over the government of the country ? Was he to be called The King ? And if so. " For ever amorous and bi'iing. brings them friends whom they would never have had if they had been left alone. a had never arisen difficulty arose which It had been easy 10 find a wife before. The sovereign of the country was a woman. his slaves. and it was necessary to find a husband for Who was the queen's husband to be.ing of philip and maky. '-'^%^i/"^ Beaumont and Fletcher. and the queen. "// this man marry our queen. Spain in all the great offices of State. Spain in the pulpit and on the law-bench. my What ? masters . shall we have Spain on the throne and in the Parliament . were a foreigner like Catharine of Aragon. and the people. and what power was he to her. for the King of England. '^'"^ °" " But now a very different question arose.The Spanish Marriage." — necessary to understand what they were. and mal<es men sorry for them who would have taken no notice of them if they had not been persecuted. for if he were a foreigner there -^sls no knowing what power he might not get over t