CONTENTS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Introduction Can your fingerprints be changed or stolen? How long do fingerprints last? Pattern of fingerprints and fingerprint characters What is a Latent Fingerprint? Constituents of sweat Chemical techniques of fingerprinting 7.1 Ninhydrin Reagent 7.2 Iodine Fuming 7.3 Iodocamphor 7.4 Cyanoacrylate Fuming Method 7.5 Silver Nitrate 7.6 Eosin-blue dye and Erythrosin-B dye 7.7 Rose Bengal 7.8 Triazine Reagent 7.9 Small Particle Reagent Formation 7.10 Nanoparticles 8. Experiments performed 8.1 Experiment 1 8.2 Experiment 2 8.3 Experiment 3 9. Conclusion 10. Bibliography

But fingerprinting has come a long way from the days when police officers lifted prints from a crime scene and checked them manually against their files. On its side is a smudged . identify accident victims. Today. Clothes are strewn about the floor. They are 100% unique – no two people have the exact fingerprint. If these papillae are damaged. Ever since scientists discovered that every person‟s fingerprints are unique. Some criminals have tried to evade capture by tampering with their own fingerprints. fingerprints are also used to prevent forged signatures.APPLICATIONS OF CHEMISTRY IN FINGERPRINTING 1. Chicago bank robber John Dillinger reportedly burned his fingerprints with acid in the 1930s. Our fingerprints give our fingers the rough surface we need to create the friction that allows us to pick up a baseball or hold onto a pencil to take a test. This scene has been replayed in one crime drama after another. but can also match faces. 2. verify job applicants and provide personalized access to everything from ATMs to computer networks. But each ridge is also connected to the inner skin by small projections called papillae. the house is in shambles. scratch or even burn won‟t affect the structure of the ridges in your fingerprints – new skin reforms in its original pattern as it grows over the wound. Can your fingerprints be changed or stolen? A minor scrape. recently. bloody thumbprint. When the detectives arrive on the scene. lamps are overturned and thers no sign of the assailant. Introduction A woman has been murdered. where its analysed and matched to a recorded set of prints. the ridges are wiped out and the fingerprint destroyed. fingerprints have been an integral part of the law enforcement process. He takes it down to the lab. backgrounds and other identifiable characterstics to each perpetrator. Then one of the detectives picks up a glass. a . Modern fingerprinting techniques can not only check millions of criminal records simultaneously. and police officers realized this singularity could help them catch criminals. The detectives catch their killer.

Mass. robbers in Malaysia cut off a man‟s fingers so they could steal his Mercedes. Ridges give prints. This can be observed easily on an old silver. tried to hide hids identity by cutting and stitching up all ten of his fingertips (fortunately. The fingerprint character modifications are such asTermination. Hook. Ridges are always not parallel. Island. Ridge . How long do fingerprints last? Fingerprints can last for years on an object if it is not cleaned after being touched. 3. law enforcement officials worry that would-be criminals might try to steal entire fingers for the prints. Bifurcation.. 4. In one case. Companies that make biometric security realize the potential dangers of this system. But as fingerprint technology becomes a common form of authentication from bank vaults to luxury cars. and are now creating scanners that detect blood flow to make sure the finger is still alive.man in Lawrence. a police officer recognized his face). etc. Patterns of fingerprints and fingerprint characters Fingers have ridges.

Use a mixie to thoroughly mix these components. To investigate its advantages and disadvantages. Manganese Dioxide.11 Powder Method The application of finely divided materials and the subsequent removal of the excess powder by brushing.1 Experiment 1 Aim – To detect fingerprints by conventional powder method and to match the prints with a fingerprint record chart. chalk powder or starch. variety of surfaces Experiment – 1. But it does not work on old prints. Cost effective. 5. Mix it with 1 gram of charcoal or Manganese dioxide. 6. Acts on – Water Fixing Agent – Silica/Charcoal (Charcoal – colourant. Blow off excess powder. Put some powder on the print and lightly spread it with a paint brush. utensil.7. transparent covers. glossy paper. brush. glossy sheets. steel items. etc. . 4. Experiments performed 8. etc. 3. Disadvantages – Not applicable to lod prints Precautions – Do not put excess powder Conclusion – The method works well on lamination sheets. The technique relies on the mechanical adherence of fingerprint powder to the moisture and oily components of skin ridge deposits. blowing or tapping has been the universal method of intensifying fingerprints on nonabsorbent surfaces since the early days of fingerprint technology. Weigh out 3 grams of either of the following: Talcum powder. lamination sheet. Advantages – Works on a variety of surfaces. Put a latent print on an item: paper. Silica – adhesive) 8. or a mixture of these. blender. Prepare 2 compositions and compare the results. Materials Required – Talcum powder. 2.

cost effective. Apply heat on the container. Best used for porous surfaces such as paper.2 Experiment 2 Aim – To carry out Iodine Fuming technique. Observations – Violet Iodine vapours fill the chamber. 4. . 3. etc and paper where fuming with super glue or Ninhydrin treatment doesn‟t work. Choose a fuming chamber (kitchen container) about the size of your specimen. 5. non destructive. The specimen has dark brown fingerprints. Disadvantages – Iodine is volatile. Conclusion – I found that iodine fuming was a really effective method on semiporous materials like glossy cardboard. Experiment – 1. Place the specimen in the chamber.8. Advantages – Simple. On applying starch solution. Take out the specimen 5-10 mins and sprinkle starch solution on it. water bath. I had to apply starch to fix them to make them last longer. paper specimens. Materials Required – Iodine crystals. prints turn blue black in colour. 6. starch. Precautions – Cover your work surface with newspapers as iodine stains anything it comes in contact with. 2. Sprinkle a few pieces of iodine in it. reversible. Cover the chamber with a lid. container. To investigate its advantages and disadvantages. the prints evaporate in a matter of hours/days.

water Experiment – 1. etc. 6. Take out the specimen after 5-10 minutes.3 Experiment 3 Aim – To carry out the Super Glue Fuming technique. Materials Requires – Super Glue. container. . Put a drop or two of super glue on a pad. glass slide. 5. 4. Choose a fuming chamber (kitchen container) the size of your specimen. plastics. cost effective.5 molar Sodium Hydroxide to accelerate the process. metalware. Sodium Hydroxide. Make a small aluminium foil boat to contain the super glue and place that in the fuming chamber. Put a drop or two of 0. Put a microscope slide in the container. Advantages – Simple. 7.8. 2. Observations – Fingerprints are developed as white crystalline traces. Conclusion – I found that Super Glue Fuming was a really effective method on non porous materials like glassware. Put a paper in it and put some water in it to provide humidity. 3.

synthetic fibres. Iodcamphor. Eg – Ninhydrin is a fixative agent. Wikipedia. are chemicals used in fingerprint study. Bombay Hospital Journal 9. Journals by Prof.com 7.wordpress. the free Encyclopedia 3. Fingerprinting. youtube. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Recording Legible Fingerprints 5. Different chemicals are used to detect fingerprints in different media. Rose Bengal. Many dyes are used to study and detect constituents of sweat in fingerprints. explosives. cyanoacrylate. professor of biochemistry and molecular biology and director of Penn State‟s Forensic Sciences Program. fuels. leefofland. Pub Med 10. soap. bleaches. etc. which is a part of forensic science. Onin. pastes. ochemonline.com 6.com . Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences 11. FBI. SGTB College.9. “Lots and lots of processes take advantage of the chemistry of fingerprints”. Chemistry has influenced our lives so much that we don‟t realize that we come across chemicals at every moment. shows extensive use of chemistry. says R obert Shaler. How Stuff Works website 4. etc. DU 2.com 8. GS Sodhi. Conclusion – Application of chemistry to fingerprinting The Principles of Chemistry have been used for the benefit of mankind – medicines. NCBI. detergents.

Aim of the investigatory project To carry out a scientific investigation involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources on Application of Chemistry in Fingerprinting. . To investigate various chemical techniques of fingerprinting. To carry out fingerprinting exercise using powder method on a variety of media. To perform techniques like Iodine Fuming and Super Glue Fuming in the laboratory.

Mrs. He has always allowed to work in the lab and he was always there to help. support and always kept my spirits high. Digvijay Das XII-A . Dinesh Sir.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT “A good teacher is like a candle – it consumes itself to light the way for others. I would also like to express my gratitude for our Chemistry Lab Assistant – Mr.” A big thanks to Tina Pratap Ma’am for her incessant support and encouragement. Geeta Parashar for being encouraging and supporting. Ma’am is very helpful and has always been there for her help. Big thanks to our Principal Ma’am.

In fingerprinting we compare position of fingerprint characters ( island. What is a latent fingerprint? The term „latent‟. 5. etc.An average fingerprint has 85 such characters (island. A latent fingerprint is form . Many impressions are composed of a thin film of natural secretion and/or foreign material in such a small quantity that they are invisible without some form of enhancement. bifurcation.). ridge pattern. Its interesting to note that not all fingers on a given hand will bear the same pattern. hook. etc. hook.). According to Indian Law at least 8 characters should be same and at the same position. 1/10th of finger‟s print is enough to detect crime. simply means „invisible‟. loop. in the context of fingerprint work.

Chemical techniques of fingerprinting Various chemical reagents.5% (eg. Ammonia and Urea) 7. Constituents of sweat Water – 99% Inorganic ions – 0. Pottasium. Magnesium. Fatty acids. as the terminal amines of lysine residues in peptides and proteins sloughed off in fingerprints react with ninhydrin.when the sweat pores of the papillary ridges leave a deposit of perspiration on a surface with which the finger has been brought into contact. These reagents react with sodium chloride. Sulphate. Ninhydrin is most commonly used to detect fingerprints. such as. The powder technique of developing the latent prints is the most common and most widely used.3-dione) is a chemical used to detect ammonia or primary and secondary amines.2-Dihydroxyindane-1. 6. When reacting with these free amines.1 Ninhydrin Reagent Ninhydrin (2.5% (eg. iodine and ninhydrin are available for rendering visibility to latent prints. fatty acid and amino acid contents. respectively. present in the sweat. Amino acids. Calcium) Organic compounds – 0. . a deep blue or purple colour known as Ruhemann‟s purple is produced. silver nitrate. Advantage – Ninhydrin reagent may be used for developing prints as old as 15 years. 7.

Disadvantages – However the disadvantage of this technique is that ninhydrin has to be dissolved in an organic medium. The iodine fuming is essentially a non-destructive technique. Iodine fumes are sensitive to different latent residues than other methods. 7. unless fixed. Since nowadays oil bases inks are most often used.2 Iodine Fuming The iodine fuming technique has historically been recognized as one of the earliest techniques available to the investigator for developing latent prints. The toxicity of iodine also limits the use of this method. spraying an organic solvent on a document may despoil the calligraphic script. Cost effective. Further ninhydrin gives a background reaction with melamine coated currency notes and its use is therefore precluded. Disadvantages – The prints obtained by iodine fuming are not permanent and tend to fade out with time. Advantages – 1. 3. 7.3 Iodocamphor Method . 2.

7. This image can be photographed directly or after further enhancement. Less common types of super glue include butylcyanoacrylate and isobutylcyanoacrylate. all these types of super glues are nearly identical physically and chemically. Most liquid super glues are really either methylcyanoacrylate or ethylcyanoacrylate.Camphor + Iodine → 2-Iodocamphor It is a modified method of iodine fuming in which the coloured prints do not evaporate. fatty acids and proteins in the latent fingerprint and the moisture in the air to produce a visible. Super glue reacts with the traces of amino acids. sticky white material that forms along the ridges of the fingerprints.4 Cyanoacrylate Fuming Method The cyanoacrylate fuming method (often called as the super glue fuming method) of developing latent fingerprints has proven to be an effective tool for professional investigators and the quality of its results has made it a popular one. Fortunately. Advantages – Can be used to detect fingerprints having SOOT on them. . The final result is an image of the entire latent fingerprint.

If any latent fingerprints exist anywhere inside the tank. Calcium content of sweat is fixed with the help of a phase transfer catalyst. insoluble. on eosin-blue dye and erythrosine-B dye.6 Eosin-blue dye and Erythrosin-B dye Technique – Two formulations based. These reagents offered many advantages. the cyanoacrylate must be in its gaseous form. respectively. The effectiveness of silver nitrate results from its reaction with chlorides present in sweat by forming silver chloride which rapidly turns black on exposure to light. . salts as adhesive materials in place of costly. Moreover. They are fluorescent in nature and therefore. They persist over prolonged periods of time.To enable such a reaction to take place. They are absolute non-toxic and are used in cosmetics and as dyes. glass and plastic. can detect weak prints under ultraviolet light. Advantage – The formulations are non-toxic and cost-effective. Advantages – The super glue technique produces outstanding results on all non-porous surfaces like metal. 7.5 Silver Nitrate Silver nitrate has been used to reveal fingerprints on non-porous materials and paper. they will eventually be exposed to the gaseous cyanoacrylate. clear and visible to the naked eye. 7. which most conventional powders incorporate. resinous polymers. Latent fingerprints developed by using the aforementioned two formulations are sharp. They can develop fingerprints on a wide range of surfaces by fixing the inorganic ions and proteins of the human sweat deposit. The formulations use cheap. they are known to form coloured complexes with inorganic proteins and proteins present in human sweat. have been prepared for detecting latent fingerprints.

8 Triazine Reagent Triazine Reagent is Iron-(pyridyliphenyltriazine) complex. If you hold any substance made of iron.4‟. It is a phase transfer catalyst. small nanoparticles of iron dissolve in our sweat.5.5‟. etc. .6.7 Rose Bengal Rose Bengal (4. 7. duct tapes. It is a t-Tetrabutylammonium iodide.7‟-tetraiodofluorescein) is a stain. adhesive tapes. 7. It can work on calcium ions. When triazine reagent is sprinkled red colouration is obtained. It is an anylatical reagent.Advantage – Eosin-blue is a non toxic fluorescent dye.7-Tetrachloro-2‟. It is used for laminated surfaces.

9 Small Particle Reagent Formulation A suspension of Eosin Y coated on ZnCO3 in a detergent solution may be used as a Small Particle Reagent on metallic surfaces. Advantages – Safe. Antibodies bound to nanoparticles can bind to amino acids in fingerprints that are over 12 months old. A technique using gold nanoparticles in combination with antibodies has shown promising results for enhancing fingerprints that are over a week old. Nanoparticles of Alumina are also used. they used red flouroscent secondary antibodies that would stick to the nanoparticle-bound antibodies. To develop and image the prints. They linked amino acid-binding antibodies to gold nanoparticles and applied them to fingerprints. Nanoparticles have excellent adsorption power. which then when we put the dye on would mean a much higher dye response.7.10 Nanoparticles Criminal investigations may benefit from new forensic methods based on nanoparticles. 7. Xanthe Spindler at the University of Technology Sydney in Australia and colleagues now report a technique that targets amino acids – present ubiquitously in sweat and thus in most fingerprints. . simple and not costly. Advantages – They give sharp detail and we get lots of antibodies across the surface of the fingerprint.

Disadvantage – The new nanoparticle-based method performed well for prints made more than a week previously. conventional fingerprint enhancing techniques still work better for fresh prints. . However.

Tina Pratap PGT. in the academic session 2012-2013. has successfully completed his investigatory project on Applications of Chemistry in Fingerprinting. 9.CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Digvijay Das of class xii-B. Roll no. Modern Convent School. Chemistry Modern Convent School .