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[This is dedicated to my beloved, affectionate and my unborn Elder Brother Shri A.Srinivasan, who is presently working as ivisional Engineer, ! " #ro$ect ata !entre, %yderabad&. Sir, thank you very much for you only suggested this idea of preparing the material for our officers working in #ro$ect !ircles.

1. VCAT is used to provide better data granularity. . 3. !"# is used to $rap t%e data in a &onverged T'( net$or). *CAS is used to dyna+i&ally allo&ate, +anage -.W.

4. *CAS / !"# / VCAT 0 1!S'2. 3. !"# 4S A (EC2A14S( O" (A##41! VARIABLE AND CONSTANT -4T RATE 'ATA 41TO S'2. 5. *CAS STA1'S "OR LINK CAPACITY ADJUSTMENT SCHEME. 6. -and$idt% o7 a (anaged *eased *ine &an be 54 8bps or n 9 54 8bps up to a +a9i+u+ o7 (bps. :. (**1 is &entrally +anaged 7ro+ ROT &onne&ted to t%e 1(S. ;. A '<C is e=uipped $it% several E1 inter7a&es. 1>. A 'igital V(?< is e=uipped $it% several &%annel inter7a&es. 11. T$o types o7 1T?s are CT?-S and CT?-R. 1 . 4n (**1@ it is possible to +anage t%e entire net$or) 7ro+ any single lo&ation. ATR?EB. 13. 1(S auto re&ogoniCes any &%ange o7 &on7iguration o7 any net$or) ele+ent. ATR?EB 14. ROT stands 7or Re+ote Operator Ter+inal. 13. TVAR4T is t%e Sans)rit $ord 7or t%e ter+ D4++ediateE. 15@ To ta)e &are o7 t%e de+and o7 7urt%er in&reased band$idt% t%e &on&ept o7 Con&atenation $as introdu&ed. 16. T%e pay load &apa&ities o7 S'2 +ultiple9es &an be used to transport a single &ontiguous payload &ontainer by e+ploying a +et%od )no$n as Con&atenation. 1:. 1!S'2 ai+s at bringing S'2 and Et%ernet toget%er. 1;. 8ey te&%nologies in 1!S'2 are VCAT@ *CAS and !"#. >. VCAT stands 7or Virtual Con&atenation. 1. VCAT splits S'2 band$idt% into rig%t siCed groups. . AF VCAT provides 7or 7le9ible +apping. -F Enables e77e&tive use o7 band$idt%.

'W'( stands 7or 'ense Wavelengt% 'ivision (ultiple9ing. 33. !"#-" is designed 7or 4#@ Et%ernet and (#*S tra77i&. 34. 3 . An opti&al &ross &onne&t is also )no$n as Wave *engt% Cross Conne&t or a Wavelengt% Router. 'W'( is bit rate and 7or+at independent. E'"A stands 7or Erbiu+ 'oped "ibre A+pli7ier. 3>. *ig%t in one 7ibre &an be +oved to anot%er 7ibre using O<C in 'W'( syste+s. 5. *CAS guarantees t%e &ontinuous availability o7 t%e servi&e $it%out tra77i& interruption $it% redu&ed band$idt%. 3. !"#-T is designed 7or lo$ laten&y appli&ations su&% as Storage Area 1et$or)s.CFSplits S'2 band$idt% into rig%t siCed groups 'F 1one o7 t%e above EF AF -F .. 33. O<C stands 7or Opti&al Cross Conne&t. 'W'( e+ploys +ultiplie $avelengt%s to trans+it data in parallel t%roug% a single 7ibre. 'W'( &an &arry :> $avelengt%s@ ea&% o7 ST( 15 &apa&ity.7ra+ing te&%ni=ue 7or Et%ernet signals into S'2. 4. !"# stands 7or !eneri& "ra+ing #ro&edure. CF Corre&t ans$er is EF 3. . 6. 31. (E(S stands 7or (i&ro Ele&tro (e&%ani&al Syste+. :. *CAS stands 7or *in) Capa&ity AdGust+ent S&%e+e. 36. 3:. 35. !"# provides a standard +apping. . T%e t$o types o7 !"# proto&ols are !"#-T and !"#-".

Advantage o7 is O<C 1..3. 3>. a & and d 44. #oint to point net$or) allo$s t$o-$ay &o++uni&ations bet$een t$o VSATs. ATR?EB (bps.C%annels. S+aller SiCe 3. 31. . 46. Redire&tion o7 lig%t 7ro+ one 7ibre to anot%er. 45. *ess &ost . *eased lines are aF bF &F dF eF 'edi&ated lines S%ared lines 1on e9&%ange lines 1on s$it&% lines a@ &@ and d Corre&t ans$er is eF i.e. 41. 3. (ost advan&ed opti&al s$it&%ing te&%nology is (E(S@ $it% tiny +ovable +irrors. 43. A7ter t%e i+ple+entation o7 C'R proGe&t@ deposits $ill be &o++on 7or all t%e plans and -S1* $ill not be o77ering any OHT or Tat)al 'eposits.-la&) berry servi&e )eeps +obile pro7essionals &onne&ted to people and in7or+ation on t%e go. 4S'1 #R4 supports 3> nos o7 .. 4. S&%e+es. All t%e above Corre&t ans$er is 1 to 3. 4 . 4>. ATrueB 4:. Wit% E-stapling so7t$are@ it is possible to issue a single bill to &usto+er %aving all 4ndia presen&e. (**1 +ainly deals $it% data &ir&uits ranging 7ro+ 54 8bps to 43. -it rate transparen&y 4. VSAT stands 7or Very S+all Aperture Ter+inal. VSAT e=uip+ent &onsists o7 Outdoor ?nit and 4ndoor ?nit. E-stapling so7t$are $ill ta)e &are o7 Corporate &usto+ers %aving all 4ndia presen&e. E-stapling so7t$are %as been installed at 2yderabad.

54. 3. 60. T%e t$o +ost popular 7ile &o+pression utilities are WinCip and Winrar. Windo$s updates utility %elps to prote&t t%e #C 7ro+ di77erent 7or+s o7 intrusion. 55. '1S resolves ?R* to 4# address and vi&e versa. 5 . 4n VSAT net$or)@ &usto+ers &an ta)e 54 8bps or +ultiple o7 it@ 7or t%eir o77i&e &onne&tivity. 33. a b and & . 3:.. '2C# is used toKaF allo&ate 4# address bF &on7igure gate$ay address &F &on7igure '1S address dF Alternate '1S address eF All t%e above Corre&t ans$er is eF -all t%e above 56. 5:.. 33. T%e t%ree &o+ponents o7 a net$or) are 'ata Ter+inal E=uip+ent@ 'ata Co++uni&ation E=uip+ent and (edia. #'" 7ile %as al+ost no &%an&e o7 getting in7e&ted $it% viruses.4.3 .. 'ata Ter+inal E=uip+ents are aF #Cs bF #rinters &F Servers dF 1one o7 t%e above eF a@ b and & Corre&t ans$er is eF i. '2C# stands 7or 'yna+i& 2ost Con7iguration #roto&ol. T%e latest version o7 A&robat Reader is version . 34. #'" stands 7or #ortable 'o&u+ent "or+at. #ro9y Server &ontrols and restri&ts outgoing and in&o+ing tra77i&. -S1*Is 8u band 2ub JEart% StationF is lo&ated at -angalore. Servers are po$er7ul &o+puters t%at run $it% 1et$or) Operating Syste+. Servers are loaded $it% 1et$or) Operating Syste+. 35. 'is) Clean ?p utility enables to 7ree up dis) spa&e on &o+puterIs %ard drive.e. All re+ote VSAT lo&ations are %aving private 4#. 53. 61. 5. 53. #'" 7iles +eet legal do&u+ent re=uire+ents. ATR?EB 36.

. . *A1 is basi&ally a nu+ber o7 'TEs and 'CEs $%i&% are &onne&ted toget%er $it% t%e %elp o7 4ntra 1et$or)ing 'CEs li)e s$it&%es. . T%e a&tive &entral ele+ent o7 a &o++uni&ation net$or) is &alled 2ub. 4n &ase o7 peer to peer +odel@ t%e servi&e provider $ould a&tively parti&ipate in &usto+er routing. (AC stands 7or (edia A&&ess Control. A s$it&% %as a s$it&% table in $%i&% (AC address is available. V#1 i+ple+entation &an be &lassi7ied into t$o +odels na+ely@ Overlay (odel and #eer to #eer (odel. :>. 61. 'es)top OS operates 'es)top Co+puters. T$o types o7 'CEs are 4ntra 1et$or)ing 'evi&es and 4nter 1et$or)ing 'evi&es. 1et$or) Operating Syste+ operates Servers.6>.. 1u+ber o7 *A1s &an be inter&onne&ted using a router. 6. :1. 63. 66. Radio (ode+ lin)s $or) on t%e $ireless prin&iple based on *ine o7 Sig%t Operation. T%e pra&ti&al data rates in Radio (ode+s is 4 (bps. :3. . : .1. (ode@ 2ub@ s$it&% et& are 4ntra 1et$or)ing 'evi&es. :. Wor) stations and servers are lin)ed by 14C. (edia is t%e pat% by $%i&% in7or+ation is 7lo$ing 7ro+ sour&e to t%e destination. 63. :4. 6 . :6. E4R# stands 7or E77e&tive 4sotropi& Radiated #o$er. #VC stands 7or #er+anent Virtual Cir&uit. . :3. (AC is a 4: bit@ uni=ue@ %ard &oded address. T%e 7re=uen&y band o7 Radio (ode+s used in -S1* is ::. ATR?EB !2C J7ree bandF. 64. :5.. Routers and !ate$ays are 4nter 1et$or)ing 'evi&es.>. 65. 6:. T$o types o7 so7t$are are Syste+ So7t$are and Appli&ation So7t$are. 4n7or+ation is inter&%anged bet$een t%e di77erent 'TEs in a *A1 by sending pa&)ets@ $%i&% are &alled Et%ernet #a&)et. 'TEs +ust %ave an inter7a&e li)e 1et$or) 4nter7a&e Card J14CF to be &onne&ted t t%e 'CEs.

6. 4n &ase o7 overlay V#1@ servi&e provider does not parti&ipate in &usto+er routing. A digital v +u9 is e=uipped $it% several &%annel inter7a&es.:. . 1>3. . -and$idt% o7 a (**1 &ir&uit &ab be 54 8bps or n < 54 8bps upto a +a9i+u+ o7 (bps. ATR?EB . V#1v4 addresses are e9&%anged bet$een #E routers via -!#.4. A digital &ross &onne&t is e=uipped $it% several E1 inter7a&es. . 4!# stands 7or 4nterior !ate$ay #roto&ol..5. 4n &ase o7 overlay V#1@ &usto+er net$or) and servi&e provider net$or) are $ell isolated. ATR?EB . # routers are in t%e &ore o7 t%e #rovider 1et$or).3 ! and 3 !F subs&ribers. "*## stands 7or "i9ed *ine #re-#aid Telep%one.. . 1(S auto re&ogniCes any &%ange o7 &on7iguration o7 any net$or) ele+ent. 1>3. 1>>.3. 1>6. 4S'1 #ri+ary Rate A&&ess e+ploys 3> &%annels o7 54 8bps ea&% 7or spee&% and data and one &%annel o7 54 8bps 7or Signalling.. 1T?s +ust be &apable o7 being +anaged 7ro+ t%e &entraliCed 1(S 7or t%e 7ollo$ing essential para+etersK aF Speed bF *ine *oop Testing &F 'iagnosti& dF All t%e above Corre&t ans$er is dF 1>.4n 3 !@ band$idt%@ +a9i+u+ upto (bps $ould be available to end users. 4n &ase o7 peer to peer +odel@ 4# addressing 7or t%e &usto+er is %andled by t%e servi&e provider. 4S'1 -asi& Rate A&&ess e+ploys t$o &%annels o7 54 8bps ea&% 7or spee&% and data and one &%annel o7 15 8bps 7or Signalling. . 1>1. 1>4. 1>:. 4n (**1@ 1(S supports aF Servi&e #rovisioning bF 1et$or) opti+iCation &F #lanning and servi&e +onitoring dF All t%e above Corre&t ans$er is dF 1>5. D-S1* *4VEE &an be a&&essed by all !S( J .3. 1> ..

T%e 4> ports 'S*A( $ill %ave t$o nu+bers o7 "E inter7a&e. Re-initialiCation o7 t%e net$or) ele+ent s%all be possible 7ro+ 1(S.3L or better e77i&ien&y. 114. 14--44 #roGe&t . ATR?EB 11 . An 4# address is also )no$n as #roto&ol address. T%e servi&e t%at enables private users to a&&ess publi& net$or)s is )no$n as 1et$or) Address Translation.and C are used to represent %ost and net$or) addresses $%ereas &lass ' is used 7or (ulti&asting. 1 . T%e 4#V4 address is 3 bits long.11>. 1 >. 115. 1 :. aF En&ryption Servi&es bF "ire$all Servi&es &F (ulti&ast servi&es dF All t%e above Corre&t ans$er is dF 11. (**1 proposes to o77er S*A 7or . 1(S %as t%e &apability to &on7igure t%e band$idt% on de+and o7 any leased line 7or spe&i7ied ti+e o7 t%e day.. 14--44 #roGe&t . 113. 1 4. --RAS stands 7or -road -and Re+ote A&&ess Server. T%ere $ill be no --RAS at -1 and .44@ t%e 7ollo$ing servi&es are &alled Value Added Servi&es. 14--44 #roGe&t 1 is asso&iated $it% (#*S based 4# in7rastru&ture. 1 . 4n 4#V4@ &lasses A@ . 116.. . 'S*A(s provide last +ile a&&ess to subs&ribers over &opper $ire upto an average span lengt% o7 3 8+s. An 4# address spe&i7ies t%e lo&ation o7 a %ost or &lient in t%e internet. 4n (**1 (ultiple9ers $ill be designated as V+u9es.. 113. 'S*A(s belo$ 4:> ports &apa&ity are aggregated t%roug% "ast Et%ernet 4nter7a&e and 'S*A(s above 4:> ports &apa&ity are aggregated t%roug% !igabit Et%ernet 4nter7a&e.&ities. 1 3. 11:.. TVAR4T #lus +ain server is lo&ated at -angalore and 'R is lo&ated at #une. 1 1. 1 3. is asso&iated $it% -roadband a&&essJ 'S* A&&essF. 'S*A( stands 7or 'igital Subs&riber *ine A&&ess (ultiple9er. 1 6. 1 5. 4n 14. ATR?EB 111.1 is asso&iated $it% 1arro$band A&&ess J'ialup re+ote a&&essF.

'**--Broadcast '(). 13 . What is the function of NIC? NIC is used to allow the computer to communicate on the network.'** --Broadcast +/0.+'/.-e .. Datagram approach 136. What is an IP address? An IP address is a 3 ! "it address that uni#uel$ and universall$ define the connection of a host or a router to the Internet. %he sender must know the IP address of the destination computer "efore sending a packet. Class E is reserved 7or e9peri+ental purpose..++++++++ !lass B address +/0. What are the methods of packet switching? Virtual Circuit approach. Class A Class & Class C . a%# Cla B a##$e e a$e &'(e% )el!* "!$ 135..etwork '().(.. 131. C4'R stands 7or Classless 4nter 'o+ain Routing.++++++++ 133.+'/.!%.(((((((( +/0.(((((((( '().'**. receiving and controlling traffic with other computers on network. 138..'*+....(-.ep. .a%#'%& . 134. Example !" Cla C a##$e +%#e$ . All >s in t%e %ost id indi&ates t%e net$or) itsel7. It supports transmitting.'*+. What are the categories of IP addresses? IP addresses were divided into five categories as follows.((((((((.++++++++.+'/..lea$l/. Class C address '(). 133..13>.'*+. C%opping up a net$or) into a nu+ber o7 s+aller net$or)s is &alled subnetting.'*+.(-.+'/. All 1s in t%e %ost id indi&ates t%e broad&ast address.etwork +/0.

-. d.. e. ". d. * Class D +0./ * Class ' -. Class A ! ( Class & ! )( Class C ! ))( Class D ! )))( Class ' * )))) 1!". e. Netid * portion of the ip address that identifies the network.-( * Class A . )+3.3+.' IP address ).0.1".. &elongs to class C address and .. What is the c ass of each of the fo owing addresses? a.+ * Class A )-/.(). ". Identif% the c ass and defau t su&net mask of the IP address $1'. #ind the c ass of each addresses.Class D Class ' 139. a. c. c. 1ostid * portion of the ip address that identifies the host or router on the networks.. Discuss the c ass fie d in IP address.. If the address is given in "inar$ notation.)(.. 3../..0. What are the fie ds present in IP address? Netid and 1ostid.0. the first few "its can tell us the class of the address./.3... )(()))() ))()))() ())))()) )))()()) ))))()() )((()))) )((()))) )((()))) )((()))) )((()))) ))))))(( ))))))(( ))))))(( ))))))(( ))))))(( ))(()))) * Class & ))(()))) * Class C ))(()))) * Class A ))(()))) * Class D ))(()))) * Class ' 1!1. +. 3 * Class C 1!$.)+.

into IP num"ers 1!9. What is a homepage? A unit of h$perte=t or h$permedia availa"le on the we" is called a page.Default su"net mask is .charulathapu"lication. What is meant &% *irtua path? Virtual path is a set of connections "etween two switches. 1!(. +... %he main page for an organi4ation or an individual is known as a homepage. names :of the form %he protocol that supports email on the Internet is called 5imple <ail %ransfer across a network to another computer and "ack.. 1!'.ocket? %he communication structure needed for socket programming is called socket. 5ocket > IP address ? Port num"er 1)1. . 1!). Define -asking. . 7hat is the Domain Name 5$stem responsi"le for9 %he Domain Name 5$stem converts domain www.. What is +. 1!8. 3. <asking is a process that e=tracts the address of the ph$sical network from an IP address. the transport protocol com"ines them into a single data unit.P. What is concatenation? 7hen the si4e of the data units "elonging to a single session are so small that several can fit together into a single datagram or frame. 1)"..? 2%% is an acron$m for 2ound %rip %ime8 it is a measure of the time it takes for a packet to travel from a computer. What is .. What are the &enefits of su&netting a network? ). . 5<%P is partof the %CP@IP protocol suite.-. A port identifies a single application on a single computer. )++.(. 1)$. .. Define . 2educed network traffic 3ptimi4ed network performance 5implified network management 6acilities spanning large geographical distance. %he com"ining process is called concatenation.

/i*e the components of data communication.:%eleprinter. 1)8.0C01. Define topo og% and mention the t%pes of topo ogies. %elephone. Define Network. to a digital signal. Bine coding is the process of converting "inar$ data. +. Define 1ine coding. What is C. a se#uence of "its. 1ist the a%ers of 0. 1(1. A node can "e a computer. or an$ other devices capa"le of sending and @ or receiving data generated "$ other nodes on the network. <orse. .1)3.. A protocol is a set of rules :conventions. Define transmission mode and its t%pes. 2eceiver * the receiver is the device that receives the message. . ! 1alf duple= : Police 2adio. 3. %ransmission modes are of three t$pes. ! 6ull duple=. 1)).-25CD Carrier 5ense <ultiple Access with collision detection is a protocol used to sense . %opolog$ defines the ph$sical or logical arrangement of links in a network %$pes of topolog$ A ! <esh ! 5tar ! %ree ! &us ! 2ing 1)'.-2? Carrier 5ense <ultiple Access is a protocol used to sense whether a medium is "us$ "efore attempting to transmit. ! 5imple= :'g. 5ender * the sender is the device that sends the data message. ). %ransmission mode defines the direction of signal flow "etween two linked devices. <essage * the message is the information to "e communicated. that govern all aspects of data communication. <edium * the transmission medium is the ph$sical path "$ which a message travels from sender to receiver. 1)(. Protocol * A protocol is a set of rules that govern data communication 1)!. Printer. ! Ph$sical ! Data Bink ! Network ! %ransport ! 5ession ! Presentation ! Application. 1(". 34p ain C. connected "$ media links. Define P+0.I mode . printer. 1)9. . A network is a set of devices :nodes.

7hat is a hostid and netid9 Netid * %he portion of the IP address that identifies the network called the netid. -ention different random access techni8ues? ). &it stuffing is needed to handle data transparenc$. What is &it stuffing and wh% it is needed in 7D1C? &it stuffing is the process of adding one e=tra ( whenever there are five consecutive )s in the data so that the receiver does not mistake the data for a flag. 1(3. 1(). %he )( specifies a &andwidth of )( <"ps. . What is fast 3thernet? It is the high speed version of 'thernet that supports data transfer rates of )(( <"ps. 1(!. and the indicates a ma=imum segment length for this ca"le t$pe of (( meters. Class & * ) / to )-) Class C * ). 1'". If the address is gi*en in &inar% notation9 the first few &its can te us the c ass of the address. Catewa$ operates at all seven la$ers of 35I model.. 2 gatewa% operates at which a%er. 1($.whether a medium is "us$ "efore transmission "ut is has the a"ilit$ to detect whether a transmission has collided with another. AB31A .. Class A ! ( Class & ! )( Class C ! ))( Class D ! )))( Class ' ! )))) When the address is gi*en in dotted decima notation9 then ook at the first &%te to determine the c ass of the address. 1(8. 1ostid * %he portion of the IP address that identifies the host or router on the network is called the hostid. C5<A@CD 1(9. C5<A 3. Discuss the c ass fie d in IP address. What is co ision detection? It is the a"ilit$ of a station to determine when a collision has occurred. What is the main function of gatewa%. Class A ! ( to ) . What is the meaning of 1"62.3$? /( . 1((.3 'thernet is thin co a=ial ca"le. the &ase specifies that its a "ase"and transmission. A gatewa$ is a protocol converter 1('.to 3 Class D * + to 3Class ' * +( to .

34p ain how the . 2etransmission +. . ). ). 5implified network management +. 1'9. What is f ow contro ? 1ow to keep a fast sender from swamping a slow receiver with data is called flow control. 5FN and 6IN. . 2educed network traffic . 3ptimi4ed network performance 3. <ultiple=ing 1'(. 1'8. What is address reso ution? Address resolution is a process of o"taining the ph$sical address of a computer "ased on its IP address. What are the &enefits of su&netting a network? ). Do . %imers .CP pro*ides the re ia&i it%? A num"er of mechanisms provide the relia"ilit$. %he$ are D2C. 25%.CP9:DP or &oth compute +. 1'). sec. 2elia"le deliver$ d. 5e#uencing . Addressing c. All the a"ove Correct answer is ). . 7hat is the time to live field in IP header9 %ime to live field is counter used to limit packet lifetimes counts in second and default value is .. 1'!. ACE. P51. 1ist the f ag used in . 6acilities spanning large geographical distance. Checksum . Duplicate data detection 3.. What are the ser*ices pro*ided &% transport a%er protoco ? a. in order to "e a"le to finall$ actuall$ transmit the frame or datagrams over the network to which the node "elongs. What is a port? Applications running on different hosts communicate with %CP with the help of a concept called as ports... 1'3.CP header? %CP header contains si= flags. 6low control e. 'nd to 'nd deliver$ ". A port is a )0 "it uni#ue num"er allocated to a particular application.1'1.? %CP does8 DDP does not 1''.

75 1:5.. M+m)a' ).166.e JbF 4+proving Colle&tion E77i&ien&y 0..1 2e%e$a.'. P+%e d.a%#$a)a# b.0.0. #ri+ary 1OC o7 (#*S is lo&ated at a.'%& Ne* Re(e%+e S.1 145.'!% b.166. 10. 71 #.. All !S( 3! Conne&tions only . M+m)a' #.7316 .!m Se$('. 145.)/(. #roGe&t 8uber is related $it%K 0a1 Imp$!(eme%. C4-E4-44-A3->A->3 1:3. ).16. All 2SM 52 C!%%e..a . -angalore . 578A58978C7897 d.$eam 0#1 PCO 1: . In multicasting .#1 N!%e 1:3. 59 b. N-S1* *iveI &a+ be a&&essed t%roug% a.0. CentraliCed 1OC 7or VSAT Servi&e is atO a.0315 .'%& )1 U%'. 3> .0.10.a .'%& . 2oute update protocol in 2IP 181. !" Tele. 1u+ber o7 telep%one &%annels supported by #R4 isK a. -angalore 1::.036 )1 1:5. Cive some e=amples of application where DDP is preferred over %CP. C-e%%a' .1 B!. N!%e !" a)!(e 1:6.1316 ).W%i&% o7 t%ese is reserved 7or #rivate 1et$or)sM a1 10.5.. W%i&% o7 t%ese &an be a valid (AC addressK a.0. Class N'I 4# address is reserved 7or a1 M+l.0316 #1 all o7 t%ese 1:4. S'.

T!# packeti4es& ...... Optical Cross Connection.Multi Protocol Label Switching........ 4F VAS . 69 K)p ). #re-paid 4nternet A&&ess Card ).e Ca$# ....Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing FO<C ..... B!.. 1.. Label Distribution Protocol.e$%e.. +1'.. Value Added Services.......1. [True] +1)..<2 a%# 72 .. T!#23# stands for Transmission !ontrol #rotocol23nternet #rotocol...... [5alse.. B$!a#)a%# Da. ...!%%e...a...... :F VSAT ..'!% 164..!%%e. Max'm+m pee# !""e$e# )/ BSNL V8SAT ' a.. A.F (**1 ... 72 #a...$eneric %ra!ing Procedure. NSan&%arnet CardI is a...a$#...Managed Leased Line Service 1>F!"# . O%l/ CDMA . 3F *'# ......... Write 7ull 7or+ o7 t%e 7ollo$ingsK 1F 'W'(..Ver" S!all Aperture #er!inal.Networ Manage!ent S"ste! 5F S1(# Si!ple Networ Manage!ent Protocol 6F (#*S ..... 5 M)p d. <15 K)p ...>.a$# #...'!% #... P! .8pa'# I%....... The 3# portion of T!#23# performs a packeti4ing function...........a ..2SM 5.. 3F 1(S... 4 (bps 1......

a type o !uality o Service protocol. any portion o t%e &P address can be designated as a subnet] '(*. The T!# portion of T!#23# performs a data presentation2formatting function. [$alse. 8. 3!A. [5alse.'* is primarily used in local area networks. Connectionless routing sets up a TCP connection. [True& '(). The network layer address for 3# is ten bytes long when using 3#v6. [True] '(+. Subnet masks tell computers what part of an 3# address is to be used to determine whether a destination is in the same subnet or in a different subnet. [True] '(/. The newer version of 3# increases the address si4e from )' bits to +'0 bits. wit% &Pv'..+16. 3#v6 addresses offer unlimited opportunity for e9pansion and growth on the 3nternet. [5alse. T!# includes a se7uence number so that the packets can be reassembled at the destination in the correct order. [True& '(. can be used or audio"video strea#ing applications.. t%e &nternet is (uic)ly running out o addresses] '(6. ynamic routing re7uires less processing by each computer in the network. #artial bytes cannot be used as subnets. [5alse. it is a wide area network standard ] +11. [True] +1/. that is done with connection-oriented routing& 200. [True& +10. or virtual circuit between a sender and receiver. [$alse. RSVP. it packeti4es] +1*. The T!# header contains the source and destination port identifiers. [$alse. it re(uires #ore processing] . it is four bytes long& '('. [True& +1. [5alse. is the acronym for the organi4ation that manages the assignment of 3# addresses and application layer addresses.. Two standards for dynamic addressing for T!#23# networks are: Bootstrap #rotocol and ynamic %ost !ontrol #rotocol.

/C b. b. a. d. protocols directories re(uencies topologies directions Answer: a. &P1"SP1 d. a. A routing protocol used inside an autonomous system is called an e9terior routing protocol. 1.end delivery o t%e #essage ta)ing #essages ro# t%e application layer routing brea)ing long #essages into s#aller pac)ets inter acing wit% t%e networ) layer Answer: c '+6. ++++++++++ is not an i#portant unction o t%e transport layer. it is an interior routing protocol& '+'. a. "outing is the process of determining the path or route through the network that a particular message will follow from the sender to the recipient. A"alse@ &entraliCed@ stati& routing@ and dyna+i& routing are t%e 3 approa&%es 211.22 0nswer3 d. [True] 1> T%ere are 7our 7unda+ental approa&%es to routingK &entraliCed@ stati& routing@ dyna+i& routing@ and +onitor routing. e. '+*. '+/. c. Trans#ission Control Protocol"&nternet Protocol was developed or ++++++++ in 4*5'. Part o t%e unction o address resolution is translating t%e application layer address o t%e destination into a networ) layer address [True& 20*. +++++++ is t%e do#inant networ) protocol today. S-0 c. e. 0RP0-6T . b. c. a.'(0. [$alse. end. d. A multicast message can be used to send a message to a ma9imum of two other computers. S. [ TCP"&P e. -etwor) +++++++ are i#portant to ensure t%at %ardware and so tware ro# di erent vendors operated by di erent co#panies can co##unicate. it is used to send a #essage to a group o co#puters] '+).

'+. ''(. '+0. is a network standard used in wide area networks c. c. version = >&pv=? is3 a. t%ere ore it is not used by #any organi<ations e. is relatively new. c. 221. . b. 0nswer3 a. S . is not very efficient and is prone to errors d. T%e newer or# o &P. T!#23#: a. d. c.s because it cannot be combined with Ethernet b. e. data lin) layer address port address application layer address networ) address &P address 0nswer3 b. :niversity o 8innesota e. b. refers to Telephone !ontrol #rocedures23nter-e9change #rocedures Answer: b. 0ssu#e t%at #ore t%an one application progra#s t%at are using t%e sa#e co##unications line on a particular co#puter. e.Pac)ard d. is e.A. as well as routing and addressing functions c. 0nswer3 d. d. 1ero. &P3 a. b. 9ewlett. 24*. does not per or# routing unctions b.! e. performs packeti4ing. To be able to decide to w%ic% application progra# a #essage s%ould be delivered on t%is co#puter. is the least commonly used network protocol for . e. running out o address space to support t%e growt% o t%e &nternet %as a 20 byte %eader %as an increased address si<e ro# @2 bits to 42A bits does not include version nu#ber in its %eader does not include %op li#it in its %eader per or#s pac)eti<ing unctions does not %ave a %eader is currently in use wit% only one pac)et or# or structure per or#s routing unctions per or#s error control unctions Answer: c.b. 1..tensively used in -ort% 0#erica by do#estic >non. %as one part t%at %andles addressing and pac)eti<ing 0nswer3 b.223 a. co#panies d. is compatible with only one type of data link protocol. . TCP"&P relies on t%e3 a. &78 c.

222. b. 22'. b. d. 22=. d. Moderate. a. a. a. e. d. c. a. $re(uency division Connection. T%e negotiation by t%e transport layer at t%e sender wit% t%e transport layer at t%e receiver to deter#ine w%at si<e pac)ets s%ould be set up is done via establis%ing a>n? +++++++++++ between t%e sender and receiver. networ) layer address resolution one way %ands%a)e S-0 #essage TCP connection . transport networ) p%ysical data lin) connection 0nswer3 a. c. async%ronous connection. 22@. b. +++++++++++++ routing is a #et%od o routing in w%ic% eac% pac)et #a)es its own way t%roug% t%e networ).oriented PC8C&0 Connectionless 0pplication net 0nswer3 d. c. outing is #ost co##only used w%en t%e application data or #essage can it into one single pac)et. b. c. . e. e. e.oriented routing. 222. t%e +++++++++ layer sets up a virtual circuit between t%e sender and t%e receiver. 4'2 225. T%e transport layer #ust brea) #essages ro# t%e application layer into several +++++ t%at can be sent to t%e data lin) layer.oriented re(uency division application net connectionless 0nswer3 b. p. e. 0 virtual circuit is establis%ed in t%e +++++++++++ routing #et%od. bits bytes ra#es pac)ets strings 0nswer3 d.-S server re(uest 0nswer3 d. &n connection. d. b. c. a. d.

b. 2@2. e. e. 22*. 2@4. %ardware #anu acturers so tware #anu acturers #iddleware #anu acturers networ) #anagers w%o con igure a ile in a co#puterCs networ) layer so tware pac)age e.oriented 7yte. b. a. :ser @ 0nswer3 b. re ers to &nterc%ange Co#puter 0ddressing -etwor)s and -odes 0nswer3 c. ' @2 A 2' 4= 0nswer3 a.00 7uilding '. approves w%ic% networ) layer addresses >usually.uga.5A.byte addresses. c. . &SD Answer: a.uga. d. A 0nswer3 d.a. Roo# 2.A4. developed t%e &P1"SP1 networ) layer protocol userBcba. $ra#e. @2 b.4'. developed 0nswer3 c. ' d. &Pv' uses ++++++++ bytes per &nternet address.oriented Connection. b.0$. d.oriented Connectionless P%ysical. 2' c. c. d. assigns data lin) layer addresses c.00. c. 4= e.22 networ) layer protocol e. e. approved or assigned in groups or classes? can be used by an organi<ation or its co#puters t%at will connect to t%e &nternet d. 22A. 0 client co#puter is assigned a data lin) layer address is by3 a. a. 0n application layer address using TCP"&pv' loo)s li)e3 a. ')(.2 www. &Pv= will be based upon +++++++++ . d. 42A. c. b.4*2. &C0--3 a.

e. c. a.-S server. con iguration listing . b.222.222.222. b.22 pac)et Answer: b.0. c. Routing 0ddressing &nter acing 7roadcasting Pac)eti<ing 0nswer3 a. Easy. E%en TCP"&P translates an application layer address into an &P address. e. 235.222 0nswer3 d.2@@.0 222. e. d.0.0. b. a. a. d. a. &Pv= group subnet data lin) group TCP group application net 0nswer3 b. 237. 422 2@A. b. e.0 222. Easy. 0 subnet #as) o +++++++++++ #eans t%at all co#puters wit% only t%e sa#e irst two bytes in t%eir &Pv' addresses are on t%e sa#e subnet. a. c.-S re(uest pac)et S-0 pac)et &P1 #essage 1. broadcast #essage . 0>n? ++++++++ re ers to a group o co#puters t%at are logically grouped toget%er by &P nu#ber. 44444444. +++++++++++ is t%e process o deter#ining t%e pat% t%at a #essage will travel ro# sending co#puter to receiving co#puter. 234.0. p. p.0 222. d. b. c. +++++++++++ is t%e translation o application layer addresses into &P addresses. 4'A 2@=.0 222. c. a. routing table b.222. -etwor) inter ace card reversal &Pv= Server na#e resolution Subnet #as)ing -a#e service coding 0nswer3 c.0. it sends a special ++++++++++ to t%e nearest . e. T%e +++++++++++++ is used by a co#puter to deter#ine %ow #essages will travel t%roug% t%e networ).222. d. d.

and dyna#ic routing 0nswer3 e. 7order Fateway Protocol &nternet Control 8essage Protocol Routing &n or#ation Protocol 6n%anced &nterior Fateway Routing Protocol Dpen S%ortest Pat% $irst 0nswer3 b. 2@*. w%ic% is t%e3 a. or until a new co#puter is selected to per or# t%e unction c. 42=. c.oriented subordinate. c. unicast #essage b. lin)ing loader d. i t%ey are destined or t%e co#puter in t%e irst colu#n. lat. ile allocation table 0nswer3 a. routing decisions are si#ple d. b. c. t%e ++++++++++ %as two colu#ns3 t%e irst colu#n lists every co#puter and device in t%e networ). 241. b. t%e routing tables are stored at all co#puters in t%e networ) e. circuitous. 2'2.ed. t%e routing tables cannot be c%anged until t%at co#puter is i. d. and insubordinate routing %ost. and connection. static. static routing.c. i anyt%ing %appens to t%e co#puter developing t%e routing table. bus %eader assign#ent list e. d. lin)ing loader routing table con iguration listing bus %eader assign#ent list ile allocation table 0nswer3 b 2'0. e. a. Easy. 0 type o #essage t%at is used w%en sending a #essage ro# one co#puter to anot%er co#puter is called a3 a. b. T%e ping co##and uses t%e #ost basic interior routing protocol on t%e &nternet. routing does re lect c%anging networ) conditions. broadcast #essage . #ulticast #essage c. #aster. e. suc% as co#puters t%at are overloaded by #any #essages b. 0n advantage o centrali<ed routing is3 a. p. and client. e. client. w%ile t%e second colu#n lists t%e co#puter or device to w%ic% t%at co#puter s%ould send #essages.server routing centrali<ed.42A 2'@. &n its si#plest or#. d. T%e t%ree unda#ental approac%es to routing are3 a. it re(uires #ore processing by eac% co#puter or router in t%e networ) t%an dyna#ic routing 0nswer3 c. and direct routing connectionless.

&nternet Figa 8e#ory Para#eters &nterc%ange Froup 8anage#ent Para#eters &nternet Fuided 8eta Protocol &nternet Froup 8anage#ent Protocol &nterc%ange Fuided 8eta Protocol 0nswer3 d. d. b. 2'=.d. radiated #essage 0nswer3 a. e. GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG E&S9 HD: 0// 76ST D$ /:CIGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG . unicast #essage multicast message broadcast #essage guided #essage radiated #essage 0nswer3 b. 0 special type o #essage t%at is used w%en sending t%e sa#e #essage to a speci ic group o co#puters is called a3 a. d.or subnet is called a3 a. e. c. unicast #essage #ulticast #essage broadcast #essage guided #essage radiated #essage 0nswer3 c. b. 244. c. 2'2. c. 0 special type o #essage t%at is used w%en sending t%e sa#e #essage to all co#puters on a speci ic /0. &F8P re ers to3 a. d. b. guided #essage e. e.