E3-E4 (E&WS) DWDM & OXC

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AGENDA
The Challenges of Today's Telecommunications Network Resolving the Capacity Crisis Capacity Expansion and Flexibility Capacity Expansion Potential Optical Layer as the Unifying Layer Optical Cross Connect MEMS
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DWDM Definition Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) is a fiber-optic transmission technique that employs multiple light wavelengths to transmit data in parallel through a single fiber. For internal circulation of BSNL only .

. . STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 ATM IP Tx λ1 λ2 . . MUX W D M DEMUX Rx OFA W D M λ16 TRANSPONDERS For internal circulation of BSNL only .BLOCK SCHEMATIC OPTICAL SIGNALS .

CHALLENGES OF TODAY'S TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORK The forecasts of the amount of bandwidth capacity needed for networks were calculated on the presumption Challenge of deploying and integrating diverse technologies in one physical infrastructure. For internal circulation of BSNL only .

CHALLENGES OF TODAY'S TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORK DWDM provides unique bandwidth management capabilities by offering services such as e-mail. and multimedia carried as IP data over ATM and voice carried over SDH. For internal circulation of BSNL only . video.

RESOLVING THE CAPACITY CRISIS Challenges of increased bandwidth needs as well as of laying new fiber after fiber exhaust. For internal circulation of BSNL only . By increasing the bit rate using time division multiplexing (TDM). service providers purchase more capacity than they initially need and it may remain unutilized in the near future.

etc. each of STM-16 capacity i. DWDM can carry 80 wavelengths. total of 200 Gbps. ATM.CAPACITY EXPANSION AND FLEXIBILITY By combining multiple optical signals and transporting over a single fiber of different rate and of different format (SDH. For internal circulation of BSNL only . data.) i.e.e.

CAPACITY EXPANSION AND FLEXIBILITY High-speed. For internal circulation of BSNL only . high-volume transmission is possible through deployment of optical amplifier. Optical amplifiers operate in a specific band of the frequency spectrum while ultra wideband optical-fiber amplifiers can boost light wave signals carrying over 100 channels (or wavelengths) of light.

CAPACITY EXPANSION POTENTIAL Flexibility to expand capacity in networks. For internal circulation of BSNL only . Using fewer regenerators in long-distance networks results in fewer interruptions and improved efficiency. Compared with repeater-based applications it increases the distances between nodes.

ATM or IP without deploying an overlay network © for BSNL internal circulation only .OPTICAL LAYER AS THE UNIFYING LAYER Optical layer integrates the diverse technologies of their existing networks into one physical infrastructure DWDM is Bit-rate and format independent and can accept any combination of interface rates Optical layer carries signals without any additional multiplexing. i.e.

and system margin.DWDM SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS Well-engineered DWDM systems offer component reliability. For internal circulation of BSNL only . Automatic adjustment of the optical amplifiers when channels are added or removed ensures optimal system performance. system availability.

silica-based optical amplifiers with filters and fluoride-based optical amplifiers perform equally well. However.to 1565-nm range. fluoridebased optical amplifiers are intrinsically more costly to implement For internal circulation of BSNL only .DWDM SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS In the 1530.

WHY OPTICAL (DWDM) NETWORKING Fibre Exhaust : Tapping the unlimited bandwidth on a fibre pair Bit Rate Transparency Format/Protocol Transparency : IP. ATM etc For internal circulation of BSNL only .

ECONOMICS OF DWDM Saving of regeneration costs by multiplexing multiple wavelengths on a single fiber. Cost effective compared to laying new fibers For internal circulation of BSNL only . can decrease the number of amplifiers by a huge factor at each regenerator site.

EDFA Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) Optical fiber that is doped with the element erbium and the amplifier. For internal circulation of BSNL only . When a pump laser is used to energize the erbium with light at a specific wavelength. the erbium acts as a gain medium that amplifies the in coming optical signal.

redirecting the light.OPTICAL CROSS CONNECT Optical cross connects (OXC):Light in one fiber can be moved into a different fiber i. It is an optical device that can route an input wavelength on an input port to an output port.e. For internal circulation of BSNL only . An optical cross-connects (OXCs) is also referred to as a wavelength cross-connect (WXC) or a wavelength router.

They can be arranged on special pivots so that they can be moved in three dimensions.MICRO-ELECTRO-MECHANICAL SYSTEMS (MEMS) MEMS consist tiny moveable mirrors no larger in diameter than a human hair. and several hundred such mirrors can be placed together on mirror arrays no larger than a few centimeters square For internal circulation of BSNL only .

MEMS Mirror MEMS Optical Cross Connect For internal circulation of BSNL only .

This mirror then reflects the light down towards the desired output optical fiber. with tiny moveable mirrors For internal circulation of BSNL only .MEMS OPTICAL CROSS CONNECT Light from an input fiber is put at a mirror. Most advanced optical switching technology is MEMS. which is directed to move the light to another mirror on a facing array.

and bit-rate transparency as it redirects the light from one optical fiber to another. smaller size.SUMMARY Cross connects forward signals to their destination by specific routes Traditional cross connects convert light to electricity then back to light OXC has many advantages including less cost. without electrical conversion © for BSNL internal circulation only .

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