# APHY  601/PHY  601:  Problem  set  #  2

Due  Feb.  18  (Monday)

Notation  used:

1
( 00 ± 11 )
2
1
=
( 01 ± 10 )
2

ψ± =
φ±

Problem  1

Due  to  power  failure,  components  of  two  states ψ1 = 0 , ψ 2 = +  became  mixed,  where

1
( 0 ± 1 ) .     You   are   given   a   box   containing   both   the   components   and   two
2
detectors  as  described  by  operators
2
E1 =
1 1
1+ 2

2
E2 =
− −
1+ 2

(a)  Can  you  separate  the  two  components?
(b)  Does  E1  and  E2  form  a  POVM?  If  so,  can  you  conclude  from  the  detection  of  E1?  If
not,  can  you  construct  a  POVM  using  E1  and  E2?
(c)  What  can  you  from  the  detection  in  each  of  the  detectors  using  POVM?

± =

Problem  2

Perform  the  Schmidt  decomposition  for,
a)  a  pure  state  given  by,
1
φ ' AB =
( 00 AB + 01 AB + 11 AB )
3

1
b)  A  pure  state  of  qutrits  given  by,   ρ =
( 00 + 01 − 02 + 10 − 11 − 12 )
6

Note:   Schmidt   decomposition   is   essentially   a   restatement   of   singular   value
decomposition(SVD).   The   SVD   of   a   nxm   matrix   (assume   n>m)   is   a   factorization   of   the
"Σ%
form   M = U \$ 'V + ,where   U   is   a   nxn   matrix,   V   is   a   mxm   matrix   and   Σ  is   a   rectangular
#0 &
mxm   positive   semi   definite   diagonal   matrix.   SVD   can   be   calculated   using

1 GHZ 123..MATLAB/MATHEMATICA  or  a  similar  software.   (2|1.…N)   .  then  explain  why?     e)  Suppose.   .3)   to   Bob...N)..   (1. N−1.…N-­‐1|N)   for   both   these   states.3.  then  give  the  scheme.   we   distribute   qubit   (1)   to   Alice   and   qubits   (2.2.   how   many   classical   bits   can   be   transferred   from   Alice   to   Bob   with   superdense   coding?   Suppose.3. N−1.       b)  Suppose..  Design  a  quantum  circuit  that  will  show  the  deterministic   teleportation   of   an   arbitrary   and   unknown   single   qubit   state   from   Alice   to   Bob   using   CNOT  and  Hadamard  gates.   (3|1.N N   a)   Calculate   the   number   of   entangled   bits   (given   by   Von-­‐Neumann   entropy)   between   the   subsystems   (1|2..   then   we   can   write M = U1ΣV + ..       Problem  3       a)  Explain  why  the  BB84  protocol  is  not  used  for  the  secure  transmission  of  a  message                directly  but  for  establishing  a  random  secret  key  between  Alice  and  Bob?   b)  Suppose  Alice  prepares  a  large  number  of  pairs  of  entangled  qubits  each  in  the  state   1             ψ ' AB = ( 01 AB − 10 AB )  and  sends  half  of  the  qubits  to  Bob.2..0 12. N + 11.2)  to  Alice  and  3  to  Bob  from  the  three-­‐qubit  GHZ   state..10 1.... 1. N−1.3..  Can  you  think  of  a     2        way  in  which  Alice  and  Bob  use  these  Bell  pairs  to  produce  a  secret  random  shared            key?     Problem  4       Two  prominent  classes  of  entangled  states  according  to  LOCC  for  N-­‐qubits  are  the  GHZ   and  the  W  states  which  are  given  by...   how   many   classical  bits  can  be  transferred  from  Alice  to  Bob  with  superdense  coding?       d)   Can   the   three   qubit   W-­‐state   be   used   for   the   deterministic   teleportation   of   an   arbitrary   single   qubit   state   if   we   distribute   qubits   one   and   two   to   Alice   and   three   to   Bob?  If  yes..N + 0.. N ) 2   1 W 123.  where   U1   is   a   nxm   matrix.…N)   ..N +.    Suppose..  we  write  U  =  [U1  U2].  if  no.  we  consider  the  “asymmetric  W  state”  given  by           ( ) .  we  distribute  qubits  (1...       c)  Suppose... N = ( 00. N = 0.  we  consider  a  three  qubit  GHZ  state  and  distribute  qubits  one  and  two  to   Alice  and  qubit  three  to  Bob.01 1..1 12..00 1..   ..     Try   to   construct   the   Schmidt   decomposition  using  the  first  m  column  vectors  of  U1  and  V  and  the  diagonal  elements   of   Σ ..

b   and   c   are   complex   numbers   satisfying   |a|2+|b|2+|c|2=1.   where   a.  c)  for  which  there  is  one  entangled  bit  between  subsystems  (12|3)?       Problem  5       a)   Suppose.   where  F’  is  given  by     2 (1− F ) F2 +   9 F '= 1 F2 + 2 2 5 F (1− F ) + (1− F ) 3 9 c)   One   can   carry   out   the  above  purification   process  N  times  and  obtain  the  new  fidelity   FN ' .  b.     .   show   explicitly   how   one   can    by  using  entanglement  swapping.           Bonus  problem  (Additional  points  will  be  rewarded)   Consider  the  following  four-­‐qubit  entangled  state   1 χ 1234 = ( 0000 − 0011 − 0101 + 0110 + 1001 + 1010 + 1100 + 1111 )   2 2 Show   that   using   an   appropriate   qubit   distribution   of   the   above-­‐entangled   state.   Does   there   exist   a   choice  of  (a.   we   have   two   Bell   pairs   ψ+ generate    a  Bell  state   ψ+ AD AB and   ψ+ CD .6.  Show  the  outcomes   of  Alice’s  measurements  and  the  corresponding  states  obtained  by  Bob  explicitly.  Plot  how  the  improved   Fidelity  varies  with  the  number  of  purification  steps  up  to  20  steps.    Show  how  one  entangled  state  of  higher  fidelity   (F’)  could  be  obtained  with  two  entangled  states  of  lower  fidelity  (F)  provided  F>1/2.   ( ) W 123 = a 001 123 + b 100 123 + c 010 123           .   Alice   can  transmit  an  arbitrary  and  an  unknown  two-­‐qubit  state  to  Bob.       b)   Both   the   Bell   states   ψ+ AB  and   ψ+ CD undergoes   the   decoherence   process   and   evolves  into  mixed  states  (also  known  as  Werner  states)  given  by     ρW = F ψ + ψ + + 1− F " # ψ− ψ− + ϕ + ϕ + + ϕ − ϕ − \$% 3   where  ‘F’  is  the  entanglement  fidelity.  Assume  that  the  initial  fidelity  of  the  two  Bell  states  is  0.