General Operating Problems and Their Solutions of Natural Gas Sweetening Process (Amine System

)
Rifat M.Dakhil, Technical College in Basrah, Sata K.Ajjam College of Eng., Babylon Univ.

Abstract.
The paper presents general operating problems and some important trouble shootings which are concerning and involved with the operation and performance of the different equipment of the gas sweetening plant by using amine system. The trouble shooting deal and diagnosis of the problems encountered during plant operation with the main equipment like high & low pressure, level and differential pressure in the absorber and stripper as well as the high and low temperature of the lean solution besides the reflux pump shut down and low & high level alarm failure. Experimental work was done, it was seen that the optimum concentration of M E! is "# $, the optimum mole of steam to acid gas ratio is %.", and it was recommended to maintain the p& value for lean amine at a range of '.%().# by improving the stripping process

Keywords* +as sweetening, !mine system, Trouble shooting

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-:‫الخلصة‬

Symbols

M E! * Methyl( iethanol !mine . ME! * Mono(ethanol !mine. E! * i(ethanol !mine +! * i(glycol !mine +,2! * +as ,rocessors 2uppliers !ssociation. ,01 * ,ressure 0ontrol 1alve. &01 * &and 0ontrol 1alve. ,* ,ressure -ndicator. 3 1 * 3low own 1alve. ,21 * ,ressure 2afety 1alve. , * ifferential ,ressure.

,- * ifferential ,ressure +auge .aulty. /01 * /evel 0ontrol 1alve. T01 * Temperature 0ontrol 1alve. T0 * Temperature 0ontroller. /+ * /evel +auge. //! * /ow /evel !larm. Mmscf * Million 2tandard 0ubic .eet.

1-Introd ction
Many natural gases are produced from wells containing hydrogen sulphide, sulphur compounds and carbon dioxide. ,erry and 0hilton, et al, %444 these gases are treated prior to sale or entry to a process plant. ! gas which has high concentration of sulphur compounds is called 52our5 gas. 6!lso called 5!cid5 gas7. The &82 and 098

8:

M E! has been recogni?ed primarily for its ability to selectively absorb &82 from a gas while leaving large amounts of 098 in the gas. and . . 2irte 9il 0ompany.rom 2ahl 9perating Manual. ( Methyl( iethanol !mine 6M E!7 ( Mono(ethanol !mine 6ME!7 ( i(ethanol !mine 6 E!7 ( i(glycol !mine 6 +!7 ( !lkanol !mine < 2ulfinol 3ullin. %4):. M E!As selective absorption ability is due to its relatively slow reaction rate with 098. 8= . due to the fact that it is highly corrosive and deadly toxic. %4)%.et al. aniels. 1-1 Amine Sweetenin! "rocess There are a number of absorption gas treating processes.unk. see the simplified below diagram and fig6=7 for 2ahl . . however. The 5rich5 amine solution is heated under low pressure to regenerate the liquid by driving off the acid gases. These amine mixtures have been called a variety of names including formulated amines and M E! based amines. %4)=. Bntil the last few years. The selective absorption characteristics of M E! have been widely reported in the above literature. aviet. M E! has not been associated with cases where the removal of large amounts of 098 is desired. 098 concentration in the first gas plant is below the allowable concentration for the pipe line specification 6less than "$7. and are corrosive.are known as acid gases. 2avage and . onnelly. the process flow diagram for !mine sweetening system show the process details carried upon the 2our gases in the plant. 8##@.rambil. 3ullin. . but the most common is the amine process in which acid gases react chemically. &istorically. and 3ullin.lant.atural +as before it can be used. 2undermann. 2everal different amine solutions can be used. 0ornelissen. some of the 098 and sulphur compounds during the sweetening process also absorbed. The M E! solution selectively removes the &82 . %4)'.The hydrogen sulphide &82 must be removed from the . if water or oxygen are present.olasek.%4)8.et al. Mac>en?ie. The type of solution used in the process will depend upon the type and quantity of acid gas contained in the sour gas stream and the volume of sour gas to be treated.olasek. -glesias(2ilva. the sweetening process is similar for each of the amine solutions listed. %4)8.

1. pumps packing etc.+. 0orrosion problem =. &ere are some guidance to help in minimising the amine solution losses from the 8" . The losses vary for different plants. Amine loss from the system ! certain amount of M E! will be continuously lost from the amine sweetening system due to the vapour pressure of the amine.rocessors 2uppliers !ssociation7. reboiler temperature. high differential temperature between amine solution and the sour gas in the amine absorber. amine flash tank.et al. 2ome amine is also lost through the amine stripper. !mine foaming problem :. bad filtration system and foaming.2!6+as . the general operating problems in the amine system are centered around the following five maCor areas*( %. The largest amine losses are usually through the amine absorber as carry over with the treated gas. 0oncentration of residual gas in lean amine solution ". !mine loss from the system 8. Dinteri?ation. bad mist eliminator on the absorber top. but usually are between #. These losses can be much higher depending upon several factors such as sour gas flow rate." !allons #er Mmscf of treated gas. 8##=.#" to #.

try a de(foaming agent and evaluate the results. it may be eliminated by maintaining the temperature of the absorber above the hydrocarbon condensation temperature.system* ( Maintain the top temperature of the amine absorber as low as possible. These acid gases combine with water to form acids. amine stripper and amine pumps etc.oaming can be prevented in the following ways* ( o not overload the inlet separator in your plant. Amine foamin! . ( Ensure good clean amine solution ( good filtration. $. ( egradation of amine can cause foaming. ( >eep field corrosion inhibitors. ferric sulphide. soap based lubricants and lube oil out of the amine system. or other sludge. 0orrosion problems can be minimi?ed by the following practices* 8@ . Dhere foaming is caused by hydrocarbon contamination. ( !void condensation of liquid hydrocarbons in the amine absorber by keeping the temperature in the absorber above the hydrocarbon dew point. ( Maintain proper amine solution concentration. -t is usually detected by a sharp rise in the pressure drop across the amine absorber.oaming is a common problem that results in a decrease of treating capacity of the plant and amine losses. which will attack the metal surfaces in contact with the amine solution. and the best cure for the problem is to avoid the main causes. (Eegularly check all operating parameters & process variables to maintain steady running of the amine unit. %. stripper tower and its overhead systems. . (Maintain the charcoal filter in good working condition. proper reboiler control to avoid chemical breakdown of amine and avoid all amine contamination. Most corrosion occurs in areas where the acid gases are actually released from the solution i. in the reboiler. The cause of corrosion is traced to gaseous &82 & 098 which comes out of the amine solution while the rich amine solution is receiving heat in the heat exchanger prior to the regenerator. because this is the filter which absorbs the liquid contaminants. so avoid it by preventing oxidation and by proper reboiler control. heat exchanger. &orrosion #roblem 0orrosion problem is commonly encountered in the amine system and generally occurs in the amine regenerator. (!lways keep in mind that the de(foamers are only a temporarily answer for the foaming problem. (-f these remedies fail. 2everal anti(foaming agents have been developed to combat this and some products which are primarily corrosion inhibitors have shown good anti(foaming properties.e. !mine foaming can occur from the reaction of the amine solution with organic acids or because of the presence of hydrocarbon contaminants.

Therefore.Eesidual acid gas from the amine stripper. Therefore. 9ther solids that contribute to corrosion are removed by amine filters. the amine system at the hot areas gas plant does need special attention during the cold weather other than not allowing excessive cooling. The free?ing point of M E! and +! is about 6 (=# G. The free?ing point of these solutions is about the same as that of the water. (ote) The rich amine solution fed to the amine stripper contains acid gas from two sources* a7. (Maintain a regular corrosion testing programmed for an early detection of any corrosion problems in the system. so. o not over load the inlet separator. the amine solution flow rate and the reboiler heat should be changed in same proportion to match the sour gas changes. +interi. b7. so there should be a gas blanket on all the amine storage tanks to exclude air. -ncreasing the heat reduces the residual acid gas and vice versa. (The presence of air will cause the amine to degrade into heat stable salts.ation 0old weather operation requires special attention for plants using ME!. the amine solution should be completely drained from the system. allow a reduction in the circulation rate of the amine solution.!cid gas absorbed in the absorber. E! or 2ulfinol. this problem is an occasional one. (The amount of residual acid gas in the solution depends upon the heat used in the stripper reboiler. its very important to maintain a good amine filtration system. which prevents solids entering in the system. (Maintain acid(gas loading within the proper ranges. *. 7 at the recommended amine concentration which is about "#$ by weight for M E!. &oncentration of resid al !as in lean amine sol tion The 0oncentration of residual gas in the lean amine solution should be controlled at a specified level for the plant. This will also. (-f the concentration of residual gas is low then more acid gas can be absorbed by the lean amine solution in the absorber. but it is rather important and must be 8' . (0orrosion problems become severe at high temperatures with the rich amine solutions.(>eep the amine solution clean. the sum of the two is the total acid gas content of the rich amine solution. 0onsequently. (!mine reboiler temperature should be kept at the recommended range to avoid any amine decomposition or any extra water losses which will affect the amine solution concentration. -f the plant and F or the amine unit is shut down for an extended period during free?ing weather. lines or vessels in which there is no continuous flow should be given a special consideration during cold weather. !s a conclusion. '. This is the gas which remains in the M E! solution at all times. (-f the inlet sour gas rate changes. so keep the amine solution concentration up to the recommended value.

21(8=#F8=% open ifferential pressure gauge faulty 6 .-(8==F8=%.01 ownstream block valve &01(8=% obstructedFclosed . 8##8. pressure gauge.considered while working in the amine system.01 downstream 0alibrate defective . %4): and .oaming etermine cause of foaming.ressure gauge failure EEME H 0heck the downstream .-(8=#7 8) .-(8=% pressure gauge. 0heck power feeding to its solenoid valves. the following trouble shooting guide is presented to assist with the diagnosis of the problems encountered during plant operation. /ow pressure in absorber Malfunction of . in absorber . &ave .01 . ide . &igh .21 correct if required :. if required install new 0heck air supply 6valve open with air failure7. .E93/EM %.ersonal communications with 2ahl .rom 2ahl 9perating Manual. 0heck vent valve 0heck setting of .ressure gauge failure 9pening of 3 1(8=# to flare system 1ent valve left open . &igh pressure in absorber 0!B2E Malfunction of . -nCect de(foamer until foaming stops 0heck the isolating valves ( close if open.01 0heck for opening of block valve 0alibrate defective . if required install new gauge 0heck the . gauge checked out 8.lants supervisors. 1-$ -ro ble Shootin! .-(8=# or .

/ow liquid level in the absorber /01(8=# sticking in open position &igh gas rate causing hold(up on absorber trays or failure of glycol circulation ( pump or filter problem.urther checks are required. /ow . check the /01 0heck for abnormal gas rate and glycol filters and pump operation. Bse the bypass and have the -nst.-(8=# ". -ncrease flowrate if it is too low 0heck vent valves closed. in the absorber 0!B2E 1ery low gas flow rate EEME H 0heck correct opening of isolating valves of the gas piping system 0heck amine solution flow. and &igh /evel remains. . Meanwhile use bypass to control level. change over pumps & re(check. /ow pressure at amine charge pump discharge 84 . gauge. ept.lash Tank pressure ( -f high investigate why and correct the fault. 0heck . 0alibrate . @.E93/EM =.lash Tank are 9>.lash Tank. 0heck pump for correct operation 6no cavitation7 -f necessary. . +as leaks through trays and down(comers ifferential pressure gauge failure . -f /01 and .ossible high pressure in . &igh liquid level in absorber . /iquid outlet line blocked 0heck /01 ( -f faulty contact -nst.. ept. probable blockage in the line ( .aulty /01 operation.

.01 set point and operation ( 0all -nstrument Technician if necessary.01. Bse . 0heck reboiler temp. -nst. 0heck amine flow rate. /ow pressure in stripper . ..oaming. 2top the fixed pitch fan. -nCect defoamer until system is normalised. 0heck .0(=%# failure. &igh temperature of lean amine solution 0!B2E 0ooler T01 6to variable pitch fan7 failure or fan motor failure /ean amine air cooler tube bundle internal or external fouling &igh ambient temp.Felect.o action can be taken. /ow temperature of lean amine solution Temperature controller T0( :@# failure /ean amine air cooler auto( variable fan failure /ow ambient temperature EEME H 0all inst. 0heck pressure drop across the tube bundle and visually check tubes & fins externally .ressure relief valves . technician. Excessive vapour flow or circulation rate too high causing flooding of the trays . Bse cooler bypass if necessary.E93/EM '. 4.01 bypass meanwhile.1-2 TROUBLE SHOOTING GUIDE . across the stripper. gauge etermine cause of foaming and take remedial action. &igh . ( decrease if too high.aulty . ). 0heck for open 2F1 or bypass valve. 0heck and correct set point if required 0heck T01(:@# for correct operation ( call -nstrument Technician if required. ept to check gauge :# . %#. &igh pressure in stripper Eeflux drum controller . 0heck stripper pressure ( if too low ( adCust .21( 8@#F8@%F8'#F=%# open.

gauge 3lowdown the /+ F &ave //! checked out. /ow . :% . across the stripper. &igh and low level alarm failure. 3lock valve closed. rain valves of alarm left open. 2elector on I9I position.E93/EM %%. Eefer to paragraph on low pressure in stripper. gauge checked /+ bottom leg blocked or //! malfunction /01 malfunction. 0all instrument Technician. /ow level of reflux drum. /ow pressure in the reflux accumulator. %". %=. &ave . . .1-2 TROUBLE SHOOTING GUIDE . 0heck reflux system operation. 0!B2E 1apour blow(through in trays andFor downcomers. if necessary. &igh stripper temperature.aulty %8. EEME H 0heck reflux drum level and liquid flow to stripper and increase flow if possible to re( establish liquid levels on trays. 2witch failure. dept. 2elect the running pump. Eeflux pump shutdown. /ow liquid level in stripper.ailure of reflux flow %:. 0heck the minimum flow block valve is open or flow orifice is not plugged. 0heck & open valves. 0heck and close the valve. . 0heck /01 operation ( call -nst. 0lose down on /01 block valve to raise stripper level.

8 40 44 48 52 56 60 C o n c .o. The .ick(up rate can be determine from the difference of the acid gas concentration in the rich and lean !mine solution6i." @. $ "ick.= @. of lean sol tion =# Dt. before and after the absorption tower7. &onc. $ =" Dt. relation between the concentrations & pick-up rates for M E! 6 . $ "# Dt./0#erimental Res lts and Disc ssion)Three main factors in the sweetening process were adapted experimentally as follow* 1-he #ick.ick(up EateJ. sol tion =.e.1 r e l a t io n e t ! e e n t " e c o n :8 c e n t r a t io n s # p ic k .u p r a te i n ft3 a c i d g a s / g a l .$.4 ".4 6 5 .u p r a t e s f o r $ % & ' . o f l e a n s o l u ti o n F ig .6 5 .# rate The quantity of acid gas removed by each gallon of amine solution is referred to asJ The .# rate ft% acid !as 1 !al.' -able 1. $ "" Dt. $ @# Dt.8 P i c k .2 4 .: @. %. s o l u ti o n 6 . 2tudy the relation between the amine concentration and gas pick(up rates for M E! 6Methyl di(ethanol amine7 as shown in table .

it can be seen that the optimum concentration of M E! is "# $ . which may cause the amine to decompose and form undesirable compounds.##4 #.0 2 $ o l e o f a c i d g a s / ( o l e o f a ( i n e s o l u ti o n 0 . The percentage of amine sulphide & carbonate that convert to acid gas and amine depends upon the amount of heat and stripping steam applied to stripper tower.0 1 2 0 . To achieve an appropriate amine solution M E! to stripe the acid gas to an amount considered to be economically and technically acceptable. 0 .8 1 ." Mole of acid !as 1 mole of amine sol tion #.0 1 6 -able-$ The relation between the ratio of mole steam to mole of acid gas verses the ratio of mole of acid gas to mole of amine solution.# 8.0 0 8 0 . a higher concentration requires a higher temperature in the stripper reboiler.2 1 . !lso.#%" #." 8. $/ffect of o2erhead ratio3steam to acid !as4 on the amo nt of stri##ed acid !as by amine sol tion.2 ) " e r e la t io n e t ! e e n t " e r a t io o f ( o le s t e a ( t o ( o le o f a c id g a s * e r s e s t " e r a t io o f ( o le o f a c id g a:: s t o ( o le o f a ( in e s o lu t io n . it may be more corrosive and will require more heat for its regeneration.0 0 4 0 .4 2 . $ % & ' .# %. with a result of pick(up rate @. -n addition.#%) 0 .##" #.6 2 2 .#%' #. ! higher concentration of the amine in the solution would be more effective in acid gas removal but the increase in pick(up rate decrease slightly and." %.: ft: of acid gas per gallon of solution.From the above table-1 and f !-1.4 0 . The pick(up rates may drop as much as "#$ if the pressure in the absorber is below 8"# psig. ! different overhead ratios of moles of steam per moles of acid gas has been adapted during the plant start(up as shown in table (8. Mole of steam 1 mole of acid !as #.8 $ o le o f s te a ( / ( o le o f a c id g a s F ig . the pick(up rate shown above is for plants operating above "## psig pressure.

" Eich ".% ).: '." which is led to #.: ".= @. The recommended p& values for amine are given in the table below * Amine3MD/A4 -y#e Re6 ired #5 2al es /ean '.8 '.4 := ." #5 for rich amine sol tion ".Amine #5 &ontrol ) -t is important to control the amine p& within a certain specified value to get optimum acid gas removal and protect the equipment from corrosion. Too high a p& 6more than the specified values7 will tend to increase the amine foaming ." 6minimum7 #5 for lean amine sol tion '.) '. %." %.# ( '.@ Delta #5 Dates for sam#les taken %F8##8 8F8##8 :F8##8 =F8##8 "F8##8 @F8##8 'F8##8 %.: ". ! higher ratio of steam to acid gas would be more effective in stripping of acid gas by mole of amine solution but that sli!htly increase would not acceptable economically and technically.' @. hence more amine losses as well as less intimate contact between the gas stream and the absorbent agent 6amine7 . it can be seen that the optimum mole of steam to acid gas ratio is %.% %.% ".' 8.@ '." 8.#%" mole of stripped gas by mole of amine solution.From the above table-2 and f !-2." %.8 ".# '.' %.

it can be seen that the p& values decreases within the range of '.!.roceedings of +as.L onnelly. of @%st !nnual +as .: for rich amine due to acid gas removal by the lean amine solution.I 2hell /aboratory p. K. References 3ullin. Mac>en?ie.&.lant 0onversion to M E!. !. aviet..E.+ !T! 399>. %4)'. +. and the p& values decreases within the range of '. 0.%(@.E. %4)8. &oncl sions -t was highly recommended that the different operating problems accompanied with the gas sweetening process specified in order to establish the possible solutions of these problems and keep the units running well with a highly efficient performance. I esign :" . %4)=. . and . March. 2undermann.: ft: of acid gas per gallon of solution. that problem can be shoot by improved the stripping process as shown in fi!-$. /!. L 3ullin. @4. E. p. March.rambil.I.. I2elective !bsorption Bsing !mines.EEE-. 0ornelissen." which is led to #.%(). From the above table-" and f !-".%(@. E. elta p& variation before and after absorption almost the same. . 2.#%" mole of stripped gas by mole of amine solution.orth 0aroline ..!.# for lean amine solution to ". K. +.%(). K.-able-% p& 2amples at different dates showing the difference between the rich and lean amine solution p& values..olasek.I .+-. and 3ullin.!. .rocessors 2uppliers !ssociation 7..T. %4)8. :#%(:%"..rocessors !ssociation 0onvention..# for lean amine solution to ".roc. !.rocessors 0onvention. 8##= 6+as . with a result of pick(up rate @. K. To establish a trouble shooting guide seems to be very important to be adapted as a training course for the process engineers and plant operators in order to understand the effect of the different process variables and their fluctuations effect on the process and to take the correct decision in case of any malfunction with the process.e9rleans.I2imulation of !bsorption of &82 and 098 -nto !queous !lkanolamines. . 0.I omeAs . This study help the process engineers and operators for keeping their gas sweetening plant in a safe and good working conditions.: for rich amine . aniels.. E#$er mentall% it can be seen that the optimum concentration of M E! is "# $ .2!. the optimum mole of steam to acid gas ratio is %.0.

Scrub. D.N o2. & rum L !&%280- P %281- S& %2+0- &9peration of a 2elective 2weetening . %7.erry and 0hilton.440 "400- harge Pum p P3+0/380/3. Technical . Sw eet .ersonal communications. th . K. %444. nit * eflu+ & rum e d T L %410- b %410- ($ 12 Strip. 8##8. !. 3 6 4A L %280- (rom %230- 1 P %280- "2+0* eboiler # $ G . 0hemical Engineering &andbook.sec. %4)%.0- (ig 0 /4. . IBsing Mixed !mine 2olutions for +as 2weeteningI 3ryan Eesearch and Engineering -nc. D. .3 T320 -to %/240- Tas).50- L %2+0( %2+0- .%=. c ontactor %. 2ahl 9perating Manual.aper. Tas). L -glesias(2ilva. . (' 3+0- 14 (' 3+1- ond..2 %240 -to T/320- Tas).I !-0hE meeting.a To/G lycol "36013 f A ir ooler * eflu+ ond. and E..0- %260ond . ( %3+0- %240P420/430- A bs. !pril "(4 I2elective !bsorption of &82 and 098 into !queous 2olutions of Methyldiethanolamine.unk.0.lant Bsing M E!.5 * eflu+ System / . (rom Tem p. . @ edt.olasek. 10 (350!ooster Pum p P330/340(2 4! "2. '.0 6.I Energy . Esso 2tandard /ibya /td. Texas. system L %240- (rom%. :@ 8 . 6vol.80- & P' T320Surge Tan) harcoal + Tow ers 5 To (G Scr.0Lean/* ich A m ine "+ch.!lan)et G as/ %280(300(1 (310(rom G lycol ontactor 6 G A S-(G #O T# $ O L& # $ * ' #A $ 'N " L"A NA $ 'N " (lash & rum + Signals to close 2 L%2.80- Tas). +. 2avage.0 6.0 6.0 -fromLSLL- 280 or fromLS# # - 260 L%2. %4):. &ouston. with 2ahl . 8##@.lants supervisors. ( %3+1- ".o.rogress.SA# LG A S S""T"N'N G1 A! SO * PT'O N# $ & "A * " O %"* . 2irte 9il 0ompany.0 6..4 To/(rom"/.

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