54

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 19, NO. 1, JANUARY 2004

A New ZVS Bidirectional DC–DC Converter for Fuel Cell and Battery Application
Fang Z. Peng, Senior Member, IEEE, Hui Li, Senior Member, IEEE, Gui-Jia Su, Senior Member, IEEE, and Jack S. Lawler, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract—This paper presents a new zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) bidirectional dc–dc converter. Compared to the traditional full and half bridge bidirectional dc–dc converters for the similar applications, the new topology has the advantages of simple circuit topology with no total device rating (TDR) penalty, soft-switching implementation without additional devices, high efficiency and simple control. These advantages make the new converter promising for medium and high power applications especially for auxiliary power supply in fuel cell vehicles and power generation where the high power density, low cost, lightweight and high reliability power converters are required. The operating principle, theoretical analysis, and design guidelines are provided in this paper. The simulation and the experimental verifications are also presented. Index Terms—Auxiliary power supply, dc–dc converter, fuel cell vehicle, power generation, TDR, ZVS.

I. INTRODUCTION

I

N RECENT years, the development of high power isolated bidirectional dc–dc converters has become an urgent topic because of the requirements of fuel cell vehicle applications and battery based energy storage systems. Fig. 1 shows a typical system configuration of a fuel cell system where a bidirectional dc–dc converter is needed for cold start and battery recharge. For cold start, the dc–dc converter boosts the 12-V battery voltage to a desired high voltage (normally 150–300 V) for the fuel cell to start. Once the fuel cell is started, the dc-dc converter recharges the battery from the fuel cell or regenerative braking. In order to increase efficiency, soft-switching technology has been widely used in dc–dc converters. However, most of the existing soft-switched dc–dc converters are low power [6]–[8] or unidirectional [9]–[13], and often are difficult to meet the requirements of the above applications. Full-bridge bidirectional dc–dc converters with soft switching are considered as one of the best choices for these applications. Several full-bridge based topologies [1]–[4] have been published in the literature to reduce switching loss, improve EMI and increase efficiency. Normally, a voltage-source converter has high current ripples, while a current-source converter requires voltage clamp circuits [5].

This paper presents a new bidirectional, isolated dc–dc converter. The new converter is based on a dual half-bridge topology. Compared to the dual full-bridge topologies, it has half the component count for the same power rating with no total device rating (TDR) penalty. In addition, unified ZVS is achieved in either direction of power flow without any additional component. Therefore, a minimum number of devices is used in the proposed circuit. Also the design has less control and accessory power needs than its full-bridge competitors. All these new features allow efficient power conversion, easy control, lightweight and compacted packaging. A 1.6 kW prototype of the converter has been built and successfully tested under full power. The experimental results of the converter’s steady-state operation confirm the theoretical analysis and simulation results. The proposed converter is a good alternative to the full-bridge isolated bidirectional dc–dc converter in high power applications and has distinct advantages for high power density and low cost applications.

II. POWER STAGE DESCRIPTION AND OPERATING PRINCIPLE The proposed bidirectional dc–dc converter for fuel cell applications is shown in Fig. 2. The circuit consists of an inductor on the battery side and two half-bridges each placed on each side of the main transformer . Each switching device has a small parallel capacitor for soft switching. When power flows from the low voltage side (LVS) to the high voltage side (HVS), the circuit works in boost mode to keep the HVS voltage at a desired high value. In the other direction of power flow, the circuit works in buck mode to recharge the battery from the fuel cell or from absorbing regenerated energy. The HVS switches are implemented with IGBTs, while the low voltage side switches are MOSFETs. The arrangement of the inductor and the LVS half bridge is unique. The LVS half bridge has double functions serving as 1) a boost converter to step up voltage; 2) an inverter to produce high frequency ac voltage. and the The boost function is achieved by the inductor LVS half bridge. The LVS boost converter draws much smoother current from the load voltage source than full bridge voltagesource inverter. This integrated double function provided by the LVS half bridge is advantageous over other topologies, because the primary current rating of the transformer and current stress of the LVS devices are minimized. This feature will be explained in more detail in the following comparison of TDR and the analysis in Section IV. The capacitor across each switch is a lossless

Manuscript received October 22, 2002; revised April 28, 2003. Recommended by Associate Editor F. Blaabjerg. F. Z. Peng is with Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1226 USA (e-mail: fzpeng@egr.msu.edu). H. Li is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32308. G.-J. Su is with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Knoxville, TN 37932 USA. J. S. Lawler is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 USA. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPEL.2003.820550

0885-8993/04$20.00 © 2004 IEEE

This paper focuses on case of the 50% duty cycle case. The TDR of the full bridge is equal to the load current is calculated as devices . The low voltage bus is 12-V battery and the high voltage bus is the fuel cell voltage 150–300 V. 3 shows the energy transfer principle [4].: NEW ZVS BIDIRECTIONAL DC–DC CONVERTER 55 Fig. The full bridge is used to proand ) voltage. The amount of power transferred is determined by the phase shift of the two square-wave voltages. the TDR of the half-bridge can be calculated as devices . each generates a square-wave voltage applied to the primary and secondary of the transformer. this is an advantage in EV/HEV and fuel cell applications because the dc input voltage is very low (12 V battery). The leakage inductance of the transformer is utilized as an interface and energy transfer element between the two voltage-source half bridge inverters: LVS and HVS half bridges. The conclusions can be made as follows. and the current stress stress equal to the dc-input voltage . The LVS half bridge in the prowhere posed converter Fig. 2) Although the devices of the half-bridge are subject to twice the dc input voltage. A comparison of total device rating (TDR) in full bridge and half bridge can be made as shown in Fig.PENG et al. The other advantages of the proposed circuit are . Similarly. where is again the output power. The major drawback of the half bridge is the split dc capacitors that have to handle the full load current. 3) The dual half bridge topology uses only half the number of devices as the full-bridge topology. 4. Fig. 1) The total device rating is the same for the dual half bridge topology and the dual full bridge for the same output power. 2 boosts the dc-rail voltage to twice the and generates a same high-frequency dc-input voltage square-wave ( and ) voltage with when operated at 50% duty cycle. The and voltage relationships of ( and to minimize optimum case would be the peak current. it should be noted here that the two half bridges could have a synchronized duty cycle control rather than 50%. Fig. The current waveform is determined by the phase shift and ) and ( and ). 2. is the output power. we obtain the easiest and most traditional . respectively. high current electrolytic capacitors in conjunction with high frequency polypropylene capacitors are used. Proposed soft-switched bidirectional half-bridge dc–dc converter. 4. Therefore. snubber (or resonant capacitor) for soft switching. The use of the dual half-bridge topology instead of a dual full-bridge configuration can be justified as follows. each switching device’s voltage stress is twice the dc input voltage . 1. and . The transformer is used to provide isolation and voltage matching. Block diagram of fuel cell power bus and energy management system. The two voltage-source half bridge inverters: LVS and HVS half bridges. However. duce a high-frequency square-wave ( Each switching device in the full bridge is subject to a voltage . When the duty cycle is 50%. for the half bridge in Fig. Detailed analysis will be given in Section IV. For the intended application. and the current stress is still the load current .

: At . 1) the LVS half bridge produces a relatively ripple-free dc current that is desirable and friendly to the low-voltage source (fuel cell or battery). therefore increases . To aid in understanding each step. SOFT-SWITCHING PRINCIPLE The soft switching of each device in either direction of power flow is demonstrated by exploring the commutation process in boost mode and buck mode. The rate of from change depends on the magnitude of . : At . Boost Mode of Fig. S4 can be gated on at any time at zero voltage. 6 describes the various stages of The interval to operation during one switching period in boost mode. marily by the sum of the magnitude of : At . inductance A. D2 is therefore forward biased. creasing until it is equal to 0 at . S2 can be gated on at zero voltage.56 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. 2) current ratings (stresses) are minimized for the LVS switching devices and transformer thanks to the boost function of the LVS half bridge. Comparison of (a) full-bridge topology and (b) half-bridge topology. During this period. making across discharge from .g. III. 5 where the transformer is replaced with a leakage . and begin to resonant again. : At . current is commutated from D3 to S3. S1 can be gated on at zero voltage. However. 3. a relatively large active clamping circuit is needed for such current source full bridge as indicated in [1]. so S2 bekeeps on degins to transfer current from D2. Step 8) Step 9) ): Circuit steady state. a set of corresponding annotated circuit diagrams is given in Fig. S3 is gated to turn off. S1 and D3 are (before conducting. The low input ripple current is achieved due to the current source functionality in this converter. During this period. : From to begins to change polarity. when attempts to overshoot increases the positive rail. . NO. 1. During this period. at The rate of change of the voltage depends on . The converter operation is repetitive in the switching cycle. D4 is forward biased. the difference between : At attempts to overshoot the negative rail. when attempts to overshoot the negative rail. D1 is forward biased. : From is less than . [2]. : At . until it equals 0 at . 3) the unified soft-switching capabilities in either direction of power flow without additional switching devices are achieved. also drops from . S2 is gated off. D3 is thereby still conducting until . One complete switching cycle is divided into thirteen steps. Step 1) Fig. VOL. and begin to be charged and discharged. the primary referred equivalent circuit is drawn in Fig. JANUARY 2004 This will be described in the following section. the full bridge) can also operate as current source. making across fall . 7 with a brief description of each step. therefore. Note that V and V are the values after referred (a factor of 1=n) to the primary. Step 2) Step 3) Step 4) Step 5) Step 6) Step 7) Fig. which is and at . 4. (a) Simplified equivalent circuit referred to the primary and (b) idealized voltage and current waveforms of transformer. and begin to resonate.. Other topologies (e. S1 is turned off. respectively. The rate of change now is decided prifrom and . respectively. 19. In order to simplify the circuit analysis.

: From to begins to exceed Step 11) . i. unlike ARCP inverter. Step 12) and begin to be charged and discharged again. polarity and continue to increase until it equals The current is commutated from D4 to S4. The charge/discharge rate depends mainly on the at . From Fig. Waveforms and switching timing of boost mode. it is clear that the conditions of soft switching in boost mode and at and . : From to begins to change its . turn-off of the main conducting device diverts the current Step 10) to the corresponding resonant capacitors to charge one and discharge the other. This is summarized as (1) For boost mode. S4 is gated to turn off. D3 is forward biased. The circuit returns to the original steady state. : At . depend on the magnitude of respectively. S3 can be gated on any time at zero voltage. the proposed circuit does not require an auxiliary circuit to achieve soft switching.e. Commutation in the proposed circuit is similar to the diode-to-switch commutation mode of the ARCP inverter [14]. magnitude of : At . The zero voltage turn-on is achieved by gating on the in-coming device while the anti-parallel diode is conducting. it is observed that rate of change of the is different from that at . Primary referred equivalent circuit.: NEW ZVS BIDIRECTIONAL DC–DC CONVERTER 57 Fig. However. This voltage of S1 and S2 at .. 6. During this period.PENG et al. The current is transferred from D1 to S1. resulting in a zero voltage turn-off. 5. 6. when attempts to overshoot Step 13) the positive rail. Fig.

3: Current path between t (g) Step 7: Current path between t t . VOL. (j) Step 10: Current path between t t . JANUARY 2004 Fig. (i) Step 9: Current path between t t . Comparing these four voltage slopes. (b) Step 2: Current path between t t . (c) Step t . 19. Commutation step diagrams during a switching cycle in boost mode: (a) Step 1: Current path before t . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 is because the turn-off currents are different at their switching instants. and (m) Step 13: Current path after t (one cycle completes). (d) Step 4: Current path between t t . (l) Step 12: Current path between t t . 7. (f) Step 6: Current path between t t . Similarly.58 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. NO. 1. at and at represent the minimum and max- . devices S3 and S4 have different voltage change rates at and . (h) Step 8: Current path between t t . (k) Step 11: Current path between t t . (e) Step 5: Current path between t t .

Transformer The transformer has three functions in the proposed converter. Waveforms and switching timing of buck mode. If no loss is considered in the converter. 3) The leakage inductance of the transformer is used as an energy storage and transfer element. Mode I ends at initial current of II is the . The transformer current is the switching frequency.: NEW ZVS BIDIRECTIONAL DC–DC CONVERTER 59 Fig. the phase of is leading . the transfer power must be derived first. The derivation of output power is based on the primary-referred equivalent circuit and the idealized waveforms in Fig. Similarly. 3. The buck mode operation can also be divided into thirteen steps. where is . 8 describes one switching cycle in buck mode. In mode (4) IV.PENG et al. 8. Fig. In order to find the right leakage inductance value. Due to the reversed power-flow direction. the current in mode III can be found to be (5) . 1) It isolates the LVS and HVS. the allowable minimum and should be designed according to application maximum requirements. 3 is a function of . because the turn-off current is minimum at and maximum at . As a result. The turns-ratio selection of transformer is easy and based on the voltage ratio of the HVS over the LVS. In mode I (3) (2) and are voltages across and where at . B. DESIGN GUIDELINES A. the operation principles in buck mode are similar to those in boost mode. There are four operation modes in one switching period. In addition. Like boost mode. The description of each step can be analogously inferred and will not be discussed here. the soft-switching conditions in buck mode can be derived similarly as 2) It boosts the voltage of HVS. the inductor current is reversed. The phase shift between the two voltage waveforms of Fig. respectively. imum. the transfer power equals to output power. The selection of leakage inductance will be presented in the following. Buck Mode Because the half-bridge topology of the two sides is symmetrical.

6 kW for example. the leakage inductance of the transformer can be designed according to the expected phase shift angle at the required power rating to reduce current stresses. It will find out later that different phase shift angle will have different current stresses over the devices.6 kW. Current stresses of devices versus phase shift  . the switching frequency is . is the turn on time interval (9) Fig. Fig. 9 shows that the leakage inductance shall not be greater than 0.60 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. Fig. It is interesting to notice that if the leakage inductance is selected differently. Therefore. the input dc Suppose the maximum output power is . 9 H and illustrates the output power curves of H. B. VOL. the phase shift angle of the same output power is changed. 19. JANUARY 2004 Fig. NO. 9. the output power is related to phase shift angle and leakage inductance of transformer. Output power. Current stresses of devices versus output power. The output power (output voltage) can be regulated by phase shift angle duty cycle and switching frequency . when duty cycle and switching frequency are fixed.  and leakage inductance L .56 H in order to deliver a maximum power of 1. the output power can be (7) is the period of the switching frequency and . Fig. 1. The dv=dt range versus output power. If % is assumed and the switching frequency is set at 20 kHz. The smaller leakage inductance results in the smaller the phase shift angle. Input Inductor The average current found to be provided by the power supply can be (10) If of is selected according to the system requirements. and the current in mode IV is (6) From the representation of found to be . 12. . the expected phase voltage is is can be calculated as shift angle at Fig. is designed to be then (11) where is the ripple current and of S2 during each switching cycle. then the output power equation can be simplified further to where (8) According to (8). 10. . 11. If the output power is chosen to be 1.

in can be controlled as a fixed desired value with which the the price of using an auxiliary switch and complicated control.6 kW as an example. 11 plots the current stress as a function of phase shift instead of output power. 13. I . and (d) Soft-switching conditions versus output power of L = 0:56 H: (a) I ( +  ) versus output power. the initial conditions of are cal- Fig. (13) The device rating of LVS can be calculated as (14) The HVS devices design can be derived similarly. 10 shows the current stress of the main switches of the low voltage side and the high voltage side against output power in per unit (pu) with the base value of 1. This is important to improve the system efficiency because the power losses are closely related to the current stress. 3.I ( ) versus output power. Unlike ARCP inverter. Fig. (b) I ( ) versus output power. 14. However. the initial states of current during one complete switching cycle can be derived based on the boundary conditions (12) When culated in % . Photo of the prototype. . Fig. 11. I and I (0) versus output power.: NEW ZVS BIDIRECTIONAL DC–DC CONVERTER 61 Fig. Power Device range are The voltage and current peak values and the the interesting design topics for devices. the cannot be too soft or too hard the soft otherwise it will cause other problems. Referred to Fig. (c) C. which shows that the current stresses of the devices are proportional to the phase shift angle. The current stress of high voltage side is calculated based on the primary-preferred circuit. the current stress becomes less. As a result. One important feature of soft switching over hard switching is . if the phase shift is decreased for the same output power. An interesting feature can be brought to light by examining Fig.PENG et al.

less gate drive circuit. The converter is operating at 20 kHz. The overall size is about 7. of (b) is 25 A. 19. JANUARY 2004 Fig.6 kW output power is selected as the base value. which shows the high power density feature. transformer current over the full output power range when transformer leakage inductance is selected as 0. In addition. A. if 1. The limitation of 20 kHz switching is limited by the high voltage side IGBTs and efficiency considerations. For inductor and transformer current .62 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. The average value of in (a) is about 22 A and that in simulation is 26 V. the maximum and minimum and . Although the magnitude and the shape of almost the same in the two figures. the new converter has the same primary current rating of the transformer as the full bridge converter. (5 V/div). the peak values of A and those of experimental values are A and A. the range of in V/ s is derived as (15) Again. 1. I (50 A/div). D. The prototype is pictured in Fig. According to (16). The soft switching conditions in boost mode and buck mode will be re-shown here boost and buck (16) Fig. Soft switching of the buck mode can be similarly inferred. the size of the converter is saved more than 1/3. V (50 V/div) and (b) the of the proposed converter is not a fixed value.56 H. Howrange can ever. 12 plots the and over the whole power range. I (50 A/div). The purpose of Fig. respecvoltage change rates happened at tively. ZVS conditions cannot be met in low output power range. This resulted in a great efficiency improvement. 14. 15.6 kW soft-switched bidirectional dc-dc converter has been built and experimentally tested to validate the soft switching analysis. 13(a)–(d) plots the input current. Steady state operation of boost mode (v = 3 V): (a) simulation results of V experimental results of V (5 V/div). soft switching is maintained at any output power in the boost mode. because the conduction loss is a major power loss. the be carefully designed to meet the requirements. The corresponding turn-off currents are calculated as V. . Compared to a full bridge counterpart converter that was developed previously at the lab. I (50 A/div). EXPERIMENTAL AND SIMULATION VERIFICATIONS A 1. and higher efficiency (94% versus 92%). I (50 A/div). . Fig. The devices will go through hard switching at light load and this will cause some serious problems [15]. Based on the analysis in the previous section. the experimental result waveform has a ringing effect. VOL. The there are also similarities in shape and frequency of and in the two figures are phase shift angle between are consistent.25 width and 8. The switching loss is minimized due to soft switching. by selecting right circuit components. . V (50 V/div). For the proposed converter. The magnitude of the experimental magnitude is also about 26 V. There is a good agreement between simulation results and experimental results. the wave shapes of current simulation and those of experiment agree with each other. the problem does not exist at least for the steady state operation.15. The primary current of the transformer flows through only one MOSFET at any time instead of two in the full bridge converter. This is because it is of hard to measure directly the two terminals of the primary side of the transformer. ZVS Range For some uni-directional ZVS phase shift full bridge topology. The size saving was mainly from less current stress.5 in length. NO. As described previously. In in simulation are A and addition. 13 is to show that the soft-switching condition is satisfied during the whole operating range. Boost Mode Verification The experimental results and circuit simulation results of steady-state performance in boost mode are obtained in Fig. consequently the measurement loop Assuming resonant capacitors are selected as 1 F.

7. for current may be the main reason for this ringing effect.: NEW ZVS BIDIRECTIONAL DC–DC CONVERTER 63 Fig. The load resistance of the low voltage side is a 0. The phase shift . S3 and rent is 20 A at this moment. Zero voltage turn off of S4 in buck mode. 16. The soft-switching process can be derived similarly when S1 is gated off. The voltage source of the high voltage side is 116 V. the S4 are operating in the diode rectification mode.1 . B. (a) Experimental zero-voltage turn off of S4 in buck mode and (b) simulation zero-voltage turn off of S4 in buck mode. the current is diverted from D1 to S1 and S1 is turned on at zero voltage.5 s when S2 is gated off. (a) Experimental zero-voltage turn on of S4 in buck mode and (b) simulation zero-voltage turn on of S4 in buck mode. Buck Mode Verification The details of switching process of S1 to S4 in buck mode are demonstrated from Figs. 16–18 at the following conditions. Zero voltage turn on of S4 in buck mode. In this and next sections to verify the boost and buck mode operation. 17.PENG et al. This extra current measurement loop (about 2 in long) is significant compared with the transformer that has only two turns in the primary. D1 is conducting increases to . and charges and disWhen S2 is gated off. 18. which was depicted in Fig. Zero voltage turn on of S2 in buck mode. is also confirmed from the experimental results. respectively. 6 and Fig. Although S1 is given an “on” signal after 1. Fig. The transient peak voltage is mainly due to the parasitic inductance of the measured loop. The soft switching operation. Fig. of 160 V/ s. the sum of and . When the current at this moment until is bigger than . Because the turn off curof is 40 V/ s. only low input voltage was applied. As a recharges resonant capacitors changes from V to V with a limited sult.

855–860. no additional TDR exhibited.4 H. and are discharged and charged. M. the low side input voltage. CONCLUSION A new soft-switched isolated bidirectional dc–dc converter has been presented in this paper. The operation. “Bidirectional dc to dc converters for fuel cell systems. zero voltage turn on of S2 is inferred from Fig. 19. 74–79. As results. . decreased device count. The resonant capacitors When S4 is gated off. 47–51. pp. output current. When polarity.switched high power density dc-dc converter for high power applications. S4 is turning on at zero voltage.” in Proc. 2000. namely 1 s under 20 kHz switching frequency. The soft switching of S3 can be derived symmetrically. “A novel control principle of bidirectional dc-dc power conversion. is positive. Comparing Fig. There is a good agreement between (a) and (b). ItisshownthatZVSineitherdirectionofpowerflowisachieved with no lossy components involved. Cheng. no additional active switch.. the details of zero-voltage turn off of S4 are shown. and experimental results of bidirectional full-bridge dc-dc converter with unified soft-switching scheme and soft-starting capability.” IEEE Trans. [2] . The resonant capacitors When S3 is gated off. simulation waveforms and the operation principles analysis. K. and current. In addition. 18. Chan. Transport. Wang et al. 20 kHz prototype were shown to verify the operation principle. load power: 1. Efficiency chart. features and design consideration were illustrated. Fig. and are charged and discharged. With this limited of turn off voltage across S4. Barbi. high bottom. C.” IEEE Trans. Ind. implementation. the current is diverted from D4 to S4.64 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. Full Load Operation Typical oscillograms in boost mode. Conf. 63–73. DeDonker. secondary voltage. Kheraluwala. Reimann. charging the high voltage side from the low voltage at full rated input voltage. The calis 46 V/ s.. high efficiency (measured more than 94% at rated power). VI.” in Proc. JANUARY 2004 Fig. the experimental value is 45 V/ s. Fig. Variable Speed Drives. . 15. 20. IEEE Workshop Power Electron.” in Proc. efficiency: 92. L. Petzoldt. 2000. side output voltage. and J. 8 with Figs. D. pp. Sept. H. Thanks to the dual functions (simultaneous boost conversion and inversion) provided by the low voltage side half bridge. NO. Simulation and Fig. input current. 19(a) shows. 2000. experimental results for the 1. Steady state waveforms in low-to-high conversion mode.6 kW. 1991. vol. the experimental value is 58 V/ s. i. [3] T. there is a good agreement between experimental results. After is discharged to the negative value.5%: (a) input. respectively. pp. 27. Applicat. Divan.. 17. and the simulation waveforms are shown in (b) for comparison.e. In Fig.. pp.. “An extended load range ZCS-ZVS bidirectional phase-shift dc–dc converter. IEEE Power Electron. 978–984. D3 is on and increases to 116 V without an obvious overshoot. pp. and (b) shows the transformer primary side voltage. S. 19. Berger. . and M.” Proc.42 kW. are given in Fig.. the switching loss at turn off can be regarded as negligible or zero. from the top toward the . REFERENCES [1] K. [6] H. angle of S3 leading to S1 is 0. Efficiency is above 92% over a wide range of output power form 0. Szeponik. Power Electron. Power Electron. . In Fig.5 kW dc-to-dc converter with half of the input voltage across the switches. Deschamps and I. 20 plots an efficiency chart in the boost mode. Jan.4 kW [16]–[22].45 kW to 1. 16. VOL. The calculated is 60 V/ s. “A three-phase soft. vol. . D4 is on. analysis. the experimental zero-voltage turn on of S4 is shown in (a). 19. 1997./Feb. . G. is negative. advantages of the new circuit including ZVS with full load range.04 . pp. culated is discharged to the negative value. [5] E. The leakage inductance of the transformer is 0. output current and voltage waveforms and (b) transformer current and voltage waveforms. 8th Int. 1. Spec. . Conf. respectively. make the proposed converter very promising for medium power applications with high power density. During After changes the this period. and low cost as well as less control and accessory power needs. Sutanto. 16–18. and D. [4] R. IEEE Power Electron. “A flying-capacitor ZVS 1. 1998. current stresses on the switching devices and transformer are kept minimum. Conf. Spec. 1058–1063. “Design. S4 receives an “on” signal. W.

Ltd. He was an Assistant Professor from 1992 to 1995 at Nagaoka University of Technology. 1997. Knoxville. He teaches courses in electric power systems engineering and power electronics. in 1989 and 1992..PENG et al. Tallahassee. “MOSFET failure modes in the zero-voltage-switched fullbridge switching mode power supply applications. IEEE APEC. he worked with the Tokyo Institute of Technology. vol. Ying. June 18–23.” in Proc.: NEW ZVS BIDIRECTIONAL DC–DC CONVERTER 65 [7] H. pp. In 2000.. [18] E. Syst. 2001. degrees in electrical engineering from Nagaoka University of Technology. and M. 16... the International Hall of Fame.” in Proc. “A novel zero-voltage and zero-current switching PWM dc–dc converter with reduced conduction losses. 2001. in 1985. from 1997 to 2000. Regulated-output applications.S. Kawagoe. degree in electrical power system engineering from Wuhan University of Hydraulic and Electrical Engineering. H.. 2001. respectively. as an Associate Professor of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. In 2001. Knoxville.S. 184–192. where he has engaged in research and development of uninterruptible power supply.S. Ishikawa. design. Hatakeyama.D. [14] R. pp. degrees in electrical engineering from Nagaoka University of Technology. S. and holds the rank of Professor. “The auxiliary resonant commutated pole converter. IEEE APEC Conf. 745–751. respectively.S. I. pp.” in Proc. 313–319. 2002. From 1999 to 2000. Inc. the 1996 Advanced Technology Award from the Inventors Clubs of America. [22] J. 892–896. 205–210. Ltd. Knoxville. China. Her research interests include soft-switching converters. Zeng.. “Zero voltage and zero current switching single-stage power factor correction ac–dc half-bridge converter with low cost. Park. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). “An isolated ZVS-PWM active clamping nonpulsating input and [19] output dc–dc converter. 1228–1235. Galway. From 1994 to 2000. and experimentation. Lyons. IEEE IECON. and M. Nagaoka. J. “Analysis of a novel soft-switching dc–dc converter with low output voltage. University of Tennessee. vol.D. and power electronics system packaging and thermal management for electric/hybrid electric vehicle applications.” in Proc. Florida State University.. 413–419. Watanabe. and S. pp. Y.. [9] C. the 1990 Best Paper Award in the Transactions of the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. pp. “Novel soft-switching dc–dc converter with full ZVSrange and reduced filter requirement.” in Proc. Kang.. Romanello and I. Matsuo. Power Electron. 2000.. [17] H. degree in electrical engineering from Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Japan. was engaged in research and development of active power filters. Electron. IEEE Power Electron. Lee. from 1990 to 1992 as a Research Scientist. Aerosp. pp. G. He holds 10 patents. 515–526. Hui Li (S’97–M’00–SM’01) received the B.” Tech. degree in electrical engineering from Wuhan University. as a Research Assistant Professor. motor drive. he joined Michigan State University. 1972. P. W. Chung et al. Lawler (S’78–M’79–SM’85) received the B. He is especially interested in traction applications that require very large constant power speed range. IEEE PESC. in 1971.D.. pp. J.D. 2.S.. Japan. 237–242. and the M. in 1987 and 1990. P. Conf. and the Promotion Award of Electrical Academy. and M.” IEEE Trans. vol. 17.. initiated a multilevel inverter program for FACTS applications. Japan. His research interests include power system operations and electric and hybrid/electric vehicles. in 2000. he was with Sanken Electrical Co. in 1992 and 1995. 2001. sensorless PM motor drive. pp. Zhang. degrees in systems science from Michigan State University. IEEE APEC Conf.. Gui-Jia Su (M’93–SM’01) received the B. inverter. and Ph.. China. 2000. he has been with the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center. [11] J. ORNL. China. Lead (principal) Scientist of the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center. Jain.” in Proc. and Q. Currently.” IEEE Trans. [15] A. IEEE APEC Conf. and a speed-sensorless vector control project. pp. Choi. Youn. pp. flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) applications and motor drives. IEEE PESC. DeDonker and J. 1990.S. Fiel et al. Barbi. Daniel. 1054–1060. “A double ZVS-PWM active-clamping forward converter: Analysis. respectively. Since 1979.S.E. C. uninterrupted power supply and motor drive application.” in Proc. pp.S. IEEE PESC. and the Ph. Rep.. pp.” in Proc. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Tennessee. he has been with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.. [8] M. He has been an Associate Editor for the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS since 1997 and Chair of Technical Committee for Rectifiers and Inverters of IEEE Power Electronics Society.” in Proc. June 1998. he worked for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). 979–985. [13] R. on developing soft-switching power converter for hybrid electric vehicle. vol. respectively. she worked for the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center. Apr. 2002. Jack S. Fang Zheng Peng (M’92–SM’96) received the B. W. Japan.” in Proc. and power factor correction for single. Dr. “Full bridge ZCS PWM converter for high-voltage highpower applications. Mar. . Jain. “A ZCS bidirectional flyback dc–dc converter using the leakage inductance of the coupled inductor. 804–810. 2002. Ayyanar et al. . “A new isolated phase-shift controlled nonpulsating input-output current converter. He joined Toyo Electric Manufacturing Company. vol. [10] S. Peng received the 1996 First Prize Paper Award and the 1995 Second Prize Paper Award of Industrial Power Converter Committee from the IEEE/IAS Annual Meeting. IEEE IAS Annu. 2000.. Power Electron. IEEE PESC. 635–640. “Boost half-bridge power supply. she is an Assistant Professor with the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department. pp. July 1998. J. motor drive control. modeling and simulation of power electronics system. as a Research Scientist with the Oak Ridge Associated Universities and then joined ORNL as a Staff Engineer in 2000. and application of new power semiconductor devices. Meeting Conf. East Lansing. Ianello et al. 2000..E. [21] C. [20] J. Zhang et al. Nov. the 1991 First Prize Paper Award in the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. From 1992 to 1994. Torrico-Bascop et al. “Design of high-quality AC/DC converter with high-efficiency based on half-bridge topology. and T. “A bidirectional dc–dc converter topology for low power application. 38. His current research interests include high power dc/dc converter. M. and Ph. Spec. Oak Ridge National Laboratory.” IEEE Trans. I. pp. May 2002. Watanabe and H. as a Research Assistant Professor at University of Tennessee. Since 1998.” IEEE Trans. [16] H. Wuhan. 1247–1252. From 1995 to 1998. He is currently a Senior R&D Staff Member and holds the position of Lead Engineer in power electronics at ORNL. K. Tokyo. from 1994 to 1997 and was a Staff Member. IEICE. Kim. and Ph.” in Proc. “A novel DC/DC ZVS converter for battery input applications. she joined Tyco Electronics working on high efficiency high power density rectifier and dc–dc converter. in 1983 and the M. Ireland. Hamada et al. Moon. East Lansing. EE98-17. vol. “A novel ZVS dc–dc converter for high power applications. [12] R. 16. Power Electron. F.. and 1979...and three-phase rectifiers.