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Reciprocal Teaching

Palincsar (1986) describes the concept of reciprocal teaching: "Definition: Reciprocal teaching refers to an instructional activity that takes place in the for of a dialogue bet!een teachers and students regarding seg ents of te"t# $he dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: su ari%ing& 'uestion generating& clarifying& and predicting# $he teacher and students take turns assu ing the role of teacher in leading this dialogue# Purpose: $he purpose of reciprocal teaching is to facilitate a group effort bet!een teacher and students as !ell as a ong students in the task of bringing eaning to the te"t# (ach strategy !as selected for the follo!ing purpose:

Summarizing provides the opportunity to identify and integrate the ost i portant infor ation in the te"t# $e"t can be su ari%ed across sentences& across paragraphs& and across the passage as a !hole# )hen the students first begin the reciprocal teaching procedure& their efforts are generally focused at the sentence and paragraph levels# *s they beco e ore proficient& they are able to integrate at the paragraph and passage levels# Question generating reinforces the su ari%ing strategy and carries the learner one ore step along in the co prehension activity# )hen students generate 'uestions& they first identify the kind of infor ation that is significant enough to provide the substance for a 'uestion# $hey then pose this infor ation in 'uestion for and self+test to ascertain that they can indeed ans!er their o!n 'uestion# ,uestion generating is a fle"ible strategy to the e"tent that students can be taught and encouraged to generate 'uestions at any levels# -or e"a ple& so e school situations re'uire that students aster supporting detail infor ation. others re'uire that the students be able to infer or apply ne! infor ation fro te"t# Clarifying is an activity that is particularly i portant !hen !orking !ith students !ho have a history of co prehension difficulty# $hese students ay believe that the purpose of reading is saying the !ords correctly. they ay not be particularly unco fortable that the !ords& and in fact the passage& are not aking sense# )hen the students are asked to clarify& their attention is called to the fact that there ay be any reasons !hy te"t is difficult to understand (e#g#& ne! vocabulary& unclear reference !ords& and unfa iliar and perhaps difficult concepts)# $hey are taught to be alert to the effects of such i pedi ents to co prehension and to take the necessary easures to restore eaning (e#g#& reread& ask for help)# Predicting occurs !hen students hypothesi%e !hat the author !ill discuss ne"t in the te"t# /n order to do this successfully& students ust activate the

aboratory# *ll rights reserved# <isclai er and copyright infor ation# .relevant background kno!ledge that they already possess regarding the topic# $he students have a purpose for reading: to confir or disprove their hypotheses# -urther ore& the opportunity has been created for the students to link the ne! kno!ledge they !ill encounter in the te"t !ith the kno!ledge they already possess# $he predicting strategy also facilitates use of te"t structure as students learn that headings& subheadings& and 'uestions i bedded in the te"t are useful eans of anticipating !hat ight occur ne"t# /n su ary& each of these strategies !as selected as a eans of aiding students to construct eaning fro te"t as !ell as a eans of onitoring their reading to ensure that they are in fact understanding !hat they read# Research Base: -or the past five years& Palincsar and 0ro!n (1981) have conducted a series of studies to deter ine the effectiveness of reciprocal teaching# $he initial studies !ere conducted by adult tutors !orking !ith iddle school students in pairs and by 2hapter 1 teachers !orking !ith their s all reading groups averaging five in nu ber# $he students !ere identified to be fairly ade'uate decoders but very poor co prehenders& typically perfor ing at least t!o years belo! grade level on standardi%ed easures of co prehension# /nstruction took place over a period of 34 consecutive school days# $he effectiveness !as evaluated by having the students read passages about 514 to 144 !ords in length and ans!er 14 co prehension 'uestions fro recall# $he students co pleted five of these passages before reciprocal teaching instruction began and one during each day of instruction# Perfor ance on these assess ent passages indicated that all but one of the e"peri ental students achieved criterion perfor ance& !hich !e identified as 64 percent accuracy for four out of five consecutive days# $hese results !ere in contrast to the group of control students& none of !ho achieved criterion perfor ance# /n addition& 'ualitative changes !ere observed in the dialogue that occurred daily# -or e"a ple& the e"peri ental students functioned ore independently of the teachers and i proved the 'uality of their su aries over ti e# /n addition& students7 ability to !rite su aries& predict the kinds of 'uestions teachers and tests ask& and detect incongruities in te"t i proved# -inally& these i prove ents !ere reflected in the regular classroo as the e"peri ental students7 percentile rankings !ent fro 34 to 14 and above on te"ts ad inistered in social studies and science classes# )hen the sa e instructional procedure !as i ple ented in larger classes !ith groups ranging in si%e fro 8 to 18& 61 percent of the students achieved criterion perfor ance as opposed to 19 percent of the control students !ho !ere involved in individuali%ed skill instruction# -urther ore& teachers observed fe!er behavior proble s in their reciprocal teaching groups than in their control groups#" (pp# 19+34) References info8ncrel#org 2opyright 9 :orth 2entral Regional (ducational .

& & 3 && && *redicting&4ignette & & 5 && && (6planation&o7&*redicting & & 5 && && 81estioning&4ignette & & 6 && && (6planation&o7&81estioning & & 7 && && )lari79ing&4ignette & & 8 && && (6planation&o7&)lari79ing & & : && && -1mmari.!!"#$%&'!R&R()#*R!)+ &T(+).& oo2&'or&reciprocal&teaching&is&. 'ind&/hat&0o1&$eed.ere& $ow monstermar2etplace.ing&4ignette & & 10 && && (6planation&o7&-1mmari.com *ds for: reciprocal t Reciprocal Teaching Elizabeth oster and Bec!y Rotoloni $he =niversity of >eorgia Revie! of Reciprocal $eaching Contents • • • • • • • • • • • • • • & 1 && && #ntrod1ction & & 2 && && /hat&is&Reciprocal&Teaching.#$%&#-.ing & & 11 && && *1tting&it&+ll&Together & & 12 && && <ene7its&o7&Reciprocal&Teaching & & 13 && && )hallenges&o7&Reciprocal&Teaching & & 15 && && -1mmar9 & .

• • & 15 && && Re7erences & & 16 && && )itation & 2lick ?ere to Play an :arrated Po!erPoint @u 0eth -riese& and Aelissa ?o!ell (3441)# ary of this 2hapter& by 0renda 2heshire& "ntroduction Ars# 2larkBs third grade class has several students !ho are reading !ell belo! grade level# $hey can decode& or break !ords into sounds and blend the enough to say the !ords& but they Cust do not see to be able to co prehend !hat they are reading# $hey are beco ing very frustrated and reluctant to try because they see the selves as Dpoor readersE# $hey do not understand !hat it is that other students are doing !hen they read that allo!s the to be able to get the DrightE ans!ers on reading tests# $hese students are unable to co prehend& or understand& ho! the 'uestions are related to !hat they are reading# Ars# 2lark attends a professional learning se inar on reciprocal teaching and hears testi onials about the progress that students have ade !hen teachers e ploy this instructional strategy# #hat is Reciprocal Teaching$ Reciprocal teaching is a cooperative learning instructional ethod in !hich natural dialogue odels and reveals learners7 thinking processes about a shared learning e"perience# $eachers foster reciprocal teaching through their belief that collaborative construction of eaning bet!een the selves and students leads to a higher 'uality of learning (*llen& 344F)# @tudents take o!nership of their roles in reciprocal teaching !hen they feel co fortable e"pressing their ideas and opinions in open dialogue# $hey take turns articulating and Gthinking out loudG H talking through their thoughts + !ith each learning strategy e ployed# $he learning co unity is able to reinforce understanding and to see& hear& and correct isconceptions that other!ise ight not have been apparent# *ll e bers of the co unity have shared responsibility for leading and taking part in dialogue during learning e"periences (?ashey and 2onnors& 344F)# Reciprocal teaching is based on Iygotsky7s theory of the funda ental role of social interaction (dialogue) in the develop ent of cognition# $hinking aloud and discussion of thoughts aid in clarification and revision of thinking and learning& therefore developing cognition# Iygotsky7s theory of JP< (Jone of Pro"i al <evelop ent) is critical to identifying appropriate te"t and scaffolding activities to support student success (Iygotsky& 1968& as cited in >allo!ay& 3441)# $e"t ust be at a level that can be effectively shared& not too easy and not too difficult# *ppropriate support and feedback ust be given to facilitate learning during reciprocal teaching activities (Kc%kus& 344F)# (ffective reciprocal teaching lessons include scaffolding& thinking aloud& using cooperative learning& and facilitating etacognition !ith each step# (ach strategy is taught by the teacher and is clearly understood by students before they go on to the ne"t strategy (?ashey et al& 344F)# Procedures are first odeled by the teacher# $hen they are practiced and coached !ith peer and teacher feedback# -inally& the leadership of the group !ork strategy is handed over .

to the students (*llen& 344F)# 2ontinual teacher and student odeling of cognitive processes for each of the four strategies + predicting& 'uestioning& clarifying& su ari%ing + is an integral part of the process# $he teacher onitors and evaluates to deter ine !here scaffolding is needed to help students to be successful in using strategies# @tudents beco e a!are of their o!n learning processes and think critically about the # )hole class introduction or reinforce ent of reciprocal teaching is appropriate& but this should serve as opening and closing activity# @tudents !ho are inattentive& shy& or have other individual needs ay not benefit if reciprocal teaching is only used in !hole class activities that do not de and their participation# $hese students !ill benefit if the sa e ethod is also a part of teacher+led s all groups& cooperative learning groups& or literature circles !here it is easier to keep their attention through fre'uent involve ent and !here they can be ore co fortable speaking (Kc%kus& 344F)# >roups should include no less than four and no ore than si" so that all students have e'ual opportunity to practice strategies# $he teacher can collaborate !ith the students to create rubrics that ake e"pectations clear and ake the class environ ent co fortable for both the students and the teacher# Palincsar& 0ro!n& and 2a pione (1989) define reciprocal teaching as a dialogue bet!een teacher and student# $his dialogue is described as reciprocal because each learner acts in response to another# $his interaction ay occur bet!een teacher and student or bet!een students# $he dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies& so eti es kno!n as the G -abulous -ourG (Kc%kus& 344F)& !hich are predicting& 'uestioning& clarifying and su ari%ing# $hese four strategies are described in individual vignettes as !e follo! Ars# 2lark and her students through i ple entation of reciprocal teaching as an instructional ethod# $he goal of reciprocal teaching is to use discussion to enhance students7 reading co prehension& develop self+regulatory and onitoring skills& and achieve overall i prove ent in otivation (0orko!ski& 1993 as cited in *llen& 344F)# Ars# 2lark decides to try reciprocal teaching to see if she can ake a difference for her struggling readers# @he does so e research& develops lesson plans& and begins to incorporate this ethod of learning during her reading instruction# ?er plans include teaching the four strategies that are associated !ith reciprocal teaching# $hese skills do not have to be taught in any particular order& but they should be taught and astered one at a ti e# *fter all four are astered individually& they are co bined and used consistently in all reading e"periences in order to agnify understanding of te"t# $he follo!ing are vignettes of Ars# 2lark7s use of each of the parts of this instructional odel# ("planations of her use of the teaching strategies are interspersed# Predicting %ignette Ars# 2lark Ars# 2lark tells the students that they are going to !atch the video G$he Aagic @chool 0us /nside RalphieG# 0efore she starts the video& she asks the students !hat they think !ill happen in the video# Ars# 2lark encourages the to use all the clues in the title of the video to ake G/ thinkGG#& /7ll betGG#& / !onder ifGG#& / i agineGG/ supposeGGG state ents# 0ecause the students are fa iliar !ith the series& they can ake so e predictions# )e think that: .

• • • • • =s.le&will&ta2e&the&st1dents&on&a&7ield&trip.. used the example of forecasting the weather to teach the students how to make predictions when reading a story.& Ars# 2lark !rites do!n their predictions on a graphic organi%er that includes the headings of characters& setting& proble & and resolution# )hen the video is half finished& Ars# 2lark pauses it# @he asks the students if their predictions have proven to be correct or incorrect# @he then asks if they can ake any ore predictions based on !hat has happened so far# $he students revise their prediction of ho! the Aagic @chool 0us !ill get out of Ralphie7s body# $he changed prediction is recorded on the graphic organi%er# *fter the ovie has finished& the students discuss their predictions# Ars# 2lark e"plains that the students !ere able to ake the initial& ore general predictions based on their prior kno!ledge of the Aagic @chool 0us series# @he co pares that to the predictions they ade that !ere ore specific to the story# $hese predictions could only be ade after they had seen so e of the content of the video and !ere ore specific to the storyline# @he e"plains that predicting !hile reading a book helps to set a purpose for reading& allo!s interaction !ith the te"t& and i proves understanding of the reading by increasing interest# Caption: This image illustrates the cartoon figure of a weather wolf standing in front of a weather map. the teacher.e&the&b1s&o1t&to&sol>e&the&problem. ?I wonder if?.&'ri.& there&will&be&a&problem&with&the&b1s&getting&bac2&o1t&o7&Ralphie&beca1se&that&is& 1s1all9&a&problem&on&these&>ideos. Clark. In the text. ?I . The weather wolf is modeling some of the statements that students can use:?I think?.& Ralphie&might&snee.& the&>ideo&m1st&ha>e&something&to&do&with&Ralphie?s&heart&or&stomach. Mrs.& the&>ideo&will&be&abo1t&something&scienti7ic.

Charmaine &roe'Mac(en)ie and *im &rown +.&/h9..&0uestion chart& ..&/hich&b1ilding&material&wo1ld&#&choose.A& @tudents discuss these 'uestions and add so e that they !ould ask& and Ars# 2lark dra!s a chart !ith three colu ns on it# @he !rites one of the three kinds of 'uestions at the top of each colu n and describes the types of 'uestions: Table 1. redicting helps to increase the students! in"ol"ement in the story.& @he then continues to ask so e • • ore reflective 'uestions: /h9&did&the&7irst&and&second&pig&choose&the&materials&the9&1sed./.& /h9&did&the&third&little&pig&allow&the&others&to&be&sa7e&in&his&ho1se&e>en&tho1gh&the9& didn?t&listen&to&him&when&he&warned&them&abo1t&the&materials&the9&chose. E&planation of Predicting $he students in Ars# 2lark7s class are learning the skill of predicting# Predicting helps a student to be ore involved in a story# >raphic organi%ers serve as visual clues for aking predictions and help !ith confir ing andLor revising initial predictions# Aost children ake casual predictions in the course of their lives: G)ill / like this ovieGG G/f / ask y friend to go skating& !ill she say yesGG )hen students use the skill of predicting in reading& it helps the to reali%e the value of picture and !ord clues# /t also helps the to develop higher level thinking about !hat is going on in the story# $hinking about !hat has happened and !hat !ill happen ne"t akes it easier for the student to foreshado! and understand upco ing events and allo!s the to focus on the ain ideas in the story (?ashey& et al& 344F)# Questioning %ignette Ars# 2lark7s third grade class gathers in a circle for reading ti e# $his is an enCoyable ti e for the students as they get to rela" and listen to a story read by their teacher# Ars# 2lark reads the story D$he $hree ...--.& /hat&did&the&second&little&pig&do&when&his&ho1se&was&blown&down..imagine?.& @he adds so e • • ore evaluative or opinion 'uestions: /hich&t9pe&o7&little&pig&wo1ld&#&be.ittle PigsE# Ars# 2lark !ants to ake the internal process of self+ 'uestioning visible for the students& so before she starts the story& she odels asking herself 'uestions about the story she is about to read# @he asks& D/s this version of this story like the one / re e ber or is it different#E )hile she is reading the story& she continues odeling self+'uestioning about !hat she is reading# D)hy did that pig do thatGE& D)ere there any other things he could have used to build his houseGE D/ !onder !hy the !olf didn7t try to catch hi before he built a house#E )hen she has finished the story& she • • odels asking herself so e fact 'uestions such as: /hat&material&did&the&7irst&little&pig&1se&to&b1ild&his&ho1se. Image #y $onna %hlrich.& #7&#&were&the&third&little&pig@&wo1ld&#&help&m9&brothers&or&wo1ld&#&lea>e&them&to&7end&7or& themsel>es.

FACT REFLECTIVE OPINION -omething&clearl9&stated&in& Thin2&abo1t&the& /hat&do&#&thin2&abo1t&the&choices&the& the&boo2& in7ormation&in&the&boo2& characters&in&the&stor9&made.& do&what&the9&did.& #mportant&7or&recalling& act1al&happenings@&times& and&places.& Remember&the&answer& /hat&was&the&moti>ation& Bid&the&character?s&actions&ma2e& o7&the&characters.& /hat&is&the&C1sti7ication& 7or&the&characters.& +ccording&to&m9&>al1e&s9stem@&did&the& oo2&bac2&thro1gh&the& /h9&did&the&characters& character&ma2e&a&good&or&bad&choice& reading&to&7ind&the&answer.& sense&in&the&stor9.& in&their&actions.& $he ne"t day in class& the students divide into s all groups to read short stories thinking their 'uestions out loud as they read# Ars# 2lark !orks !ith each group and scaffolds as needed by odeling 'uestions she has about their story# @o e of the students have very fe! 'uestions that go beyond basic fact 'uestions or GyesG and GnoG ans!er 'uestions# Ars# 2lark encourages the to ake their 'uestions GfatterG# @he !ants the to get to the real Gthinking about !hat you are readingG !hich are reflective& elaborative and opinion 'uestions# Ars# 2lark revie!s the three types of 'uestions and groups discuss ho! these 'uestions help the understand !hat they are reading# Ars# 2lark then reads 2inderella& another si ple book that the students kno! and odels self+'uestioning before& during& and after reading# $he class divides into s all groups and each person in the group reads a page of the story odeling the think out loud 'uestioning as they read# (ach group !orks to co e up !ith three 'uestions in each of the 'uestioning categories# Ars# 2lark listens in on each group7s discussions and scaffolds !henever necessary# Knce the 'uestions are co pleted& the groups s!ap 'uestions and ans!er the to odel 'uestion for ation and to check their understanding of the reading passage# $he ne"t day& the students continue to !ork in s all groups reading& sharing and discussing their 'uestions and ans!ers# $he teacher guides these discussions by encouraging deep 'uestions to help students to!ard a deeper understanding of !hat they are reading# $he class is no! ready to try this skill !ith a ore co ple" chapter book# $hey read a chapter in class each day# $he students !rite 'uestions they think of during independent reading in their Cournals and then bring these 'uestions to their group# * different student in each group serves as the group leader each day and guides the discussion to ans!er the 'uestions# .& actions.& /hat&will&the&character&do&ne6t.

which the teacher introduces to the students while reading the story ?The Three 2ittle igs?. 3ne pig is asking a fact 1uestion: ?4hat material did he use?? The second pig is asking a reflecti"e 1uestion: ?4hy did he use #ricks?? The third pig is asking an e"aluati"e 1uestion: ?5hould I help my #rothers?? The 1uestioning strategy helps students increase their understanding of the story.--. Image #y $onna %hlrich.Caption: This image illustrates the strategy of 1uestioning . The three little pigs are standing in front of the #rick house. Charmaine &roe'Mac(en)ie and *im &rown +. E&planation of Questioning Ars# 2lark7s students have no! added the skill of self+'uestioning to their Gtoolbo"G of reading strategies# $he teacher has introduced& e"plained and odeled this skill (?ashey& et al& 344F)# $he students have had practice in creating and ans!ering each of the three types of 'uestions# $he internal process of being a GgoodG reader has been de onstrated to the struggling students through the Gout loudG thinking of the teacher and their peers# $he students are beco ing ore confident and eager to take part in class discussions because they are gaining a better understanding of ho! the reading process !orks# Clarifying %ignette Ars# 2lark announces to the class that they are going on a nature !alk# $hey go outside and !alk across the street to a county nature park# $hey !alk about a half+ ile and stop# $hey sit ./.

do!n and Ars# 2lark asks the class to i agine that they are lost# @he asks the students to help her co e up !ith so e ideas about ho! they can figure out !here they are& and ho! they !ill get back to school# Kne student suggests backtracking until they recogni%e !here they are# *nother student suggests !alking until so eone recogni%es a fa iliar tree or flo!er as a land ark# *nother student suggests that Ars# 2lark use her cell phone to call the park supervisor to co e and find the # Ars# 2lark relates each of the ans!ers the students give to clarifying !hat you are reading# 0acktracking is si ilar to rereading aterial !hen you reali%e that you have lost your !ay in the story and do not kno! !hat is happening# .ooking for fa iliar land arks is si ilar to readers activating prior kno!ledge of vocabulary& gra ar& and synta" (?ackey& et al& 344F)# 2alling the park supervisor on a cell phone relates to referring to outside resources& such as dictionaries or atlases# $he students begin to understand that pretending they are not lost is not going to get the out of the !oods& and pretending to understand !hat they are reading !hen they really did not !ill not enable the to fully understand the reading assign ent# )hen the class arrives safely to their classroo & Ars# 2lark gives the students a reading assign ent and a pad of sticky notes# @he odels reading a short passage and arking !ords or concepts she is not 'uite sure of !ith the sticky notes# @tudents then practice reading independently and highlight any !ords or concepts that they do not understand in the te"t# $he ne"t day& they !rite the !ords they arked on the board# Ars# 2lark odels !ays to deter ine the eaning of the !ords& such as using a dictionary& using key!ords surrounding the unfa iliar !ord& using picture clues& and rereading# $he students are co forted to reali%e that any students !rote the sa e !ords on the board# $his helps the to build a co unity of learners and helps Ars# 2lark to identify vocabulary !ords that need further e"planation# .

and calling for help is similar to referring to outside resources such as a dictionary. looking for familiar landmarks is similar to readers acti"ating prior knowledge.Caption: This image illustrates the strategy students can use to clarify what they are reading. Charmaine &roe'Mac(en)ie and *im &rown +./. E&planation of Clarifying Ars# 2lark7s class has no! added the skill of clarifying to their toolbo" of reading skills# $hese skills have been odeled and practiced e"ternally# $his is done so that students ight understand the internal cognitive processes that good readers use and gradually internali%e the for the selves# $he students have beco e ore co fortable identifying things that they do not understand and seeking clarification to deepen their understanding# 0ecause their learning co unity is thinking out loud about this process the entire class is gaining ability and kno!ledge that individuals could not gain on their o!n (?ashey& et al& 344F)# $hey are also beco ing ore and ore co fortable sharing things that they do not kno! as !ell as things that they do kno!# .--. Image #y $onna %hlrich. Mrs. Clark explains that #ack'tracking through the woods is similar to rereading material in a story. In the text example.

$hrough the collaborative process of sharing 'uestions students find that they all have infor ation to share that sheds light on their understanding of !hat they are reading# Auch of this kno!ledge co es fro their individual backgrounds and prior reading e"perience& so individuals find value in the selves (*llen& 344F)# /dentifying !ords and concepts that are not fully understood has beco e a valued skill rather than a perceived !eakness# Summarizing %ignette $he students have !orked !ith su ari%ing as an independent skill before# $hey understand that a good su ary ust include the ain idea and the ost i portant details to tell !hat happened in their o!n !ords# @o e of the class already does an e"cellent Cob !ith this& but others are still struggling because they have a hard ti e identifying the ain idea# $hey still feel that they ust tell all the details or go back and read the te"t# $hey are unable to put the su ary into their o!n !ords# Ars# 2lark begins this class by telling her students that she is very proud of the things they are doing in their reading groups# @he says& GMour reading is i proving because you have learned to use things you kno! to predict !hat !ill happen& to self+'uestion !hile you are reading& and to clarify uddy points#G @he says& G/ have Cust told you in y o!n !ords !hat has been happening in our reading class over the past fe! days# :o! / !ould like you to tell e !hat you have learned during this study that helps you !ith your o!n reading#G $he students are e"cited about their success and eager to talk about it# Ars# 2lark says& G-antastic& you have Cust done a great Cob of su ari%ingN :o! !e !ill try that !ith our reading# Oust tell the ain idea and the ost i portant details in your o!n !ords& and that is it#G @tudents !ork in s all groups taking turns reading a paragraph and then su ari%ing# (ach e ber of the group takes a turn being the discussion leader# Ars# 2lark listens to group discussions and scaffolds as needed# ?er goal is to fade her interventions so the students can interpret the te"t according to their perceptions (?acker and $enent& 3443)# >roup e bers also assist each other !ith su ari%ing skills# .

E&planation of Summarizing $hrough this process& the internal skill of su ari%ing !hile reading that good readers auto atically do is odeled e"ternally and practiced# Readers !ho did not understand ho! to do this before !atch the teacher odel the strategy& practice !ith scaffolding& and gradually begin to internali%e the process for the selves# *s !ith the other strategies& the teacher odels the skill& then hands over the leadership responsibility to the students (*llen& 344F)# Putting it 'll Together $he students no! have e"perience using each of the G-abulous -ourG strategies that are used together as part of a co prehensive reading progra to increase co prehension# -ro this point& Ars# 2lark !ill encourage her students to use all four of the strategies before& during& and after reading to deepen co prehension# @he and the students !ill continue to take turns G being the teacherG and thinking out loud !hile they read# Ars# 2lark !ill use this strategy during reading instruction& but !ill also e ploy it to teach science& social studies& and ath concepts# $he Gthink out loudG and Gtaking turns being the teacherG has proven to be very effective in helping students to focus on their learning& share their thinking about !hat they are learning& and bonding students into a learning co unity (?ashey& et al# 344F)# Caption: This graphic illustrates the 6a#ulous 6our strategies of 7eciprocal Teaching: predicting. 1uestioning.Caption: This image illustrates the summari)ing strategy.--. Charmaine &roe'Mac(en)ie and *im &rown +. which are used together to increase . clarifying and summari)ing./. % s1uare knot ties together the main idea and the most important details of a story to make a summary. Image #y $onna %hlrich.

reading comprehension.--.ederer& (3444& as cited in *llen& 344F)& students !ere given reciprocal teaching instruction for 11 to 16 days# $he instructor described and de onstrated each strategy that !as going to be used in the process to the students prior to teaching it# -eedback !as given to the students on a daily basis# $he study sho!ed positive changes in the students7 abilities to generate 'uestions& ans!er 'uestions& and su ari%e infor ation (*llen& 344F)# /n a study by ?ashey& et al# (344F)& the teachers sa! increases in students7 confidence and success& in their understanding and use of strategies& and in their enCoy ent of literature# *t the conclusion of the study& one seventh grade student co ented that GRreciprocal teachingS helps e understand the book ore& understand eaningful 'uestions& understand other people7s opinionsG (?ashey& et al& 344F)# *dditionally& a odified version of reciprocal teaching can benefit students !ho struggle to co prehend athe atical !ord proble s# $he four aCor co ponents of this odified approach are: clarifying& 'uestioning& su ari%ing and planning (van >arderen& 3445)# /n a reciprocal teaching ath lesson& one student is assigned to be the group leader# $hat student leads the other students through each of the four steps# $he group first clarifies any !ords or phrases that are not understood# $hen the leader uses 'uestions to guide the group into identifying the key parts of the proble # :e"t& the leader su ari%es the purpose of the !ord proble and finally guides the group in creating a plan to solve the proble # (ach person in the group takes a turn being the leader# Challenges of Reciprocal Teaching . Palincsar& 0ro!n P 2a pione& 1989. Charmaine &roe' Mac(en)ie and *im &rown +./. %rrows are pointing in #oth directions towards each strategy #ecause the strategies can #e used in any order. Image #y $onna %hlrich. Benefits of Reciprocal Teaching * significant body of research (2arter& 1996. Palincsar P Qlenk& 1991& 1993) has sho!n that students !ho have been struggling !ith reading and are taught ho! to think about te"t in this !ay are able to feel co fortable taking part in discussions and engaging !ith both fiction and non+fiction grade level te"ts# $hey begin to understand ho! to ake sense of !hat they are reading !hether it is in the conte"t of pleasure reading& classroo reading& social studies te"t& science te"t& or even in ath !ord proble s# $heir reading co prehension levels i prove dra atically# Palincsar and 0ro!n (1986& as cited in Kc%kus 344F)& observed that reciprocal teaching used !ith a group of students for 11+34 days i proved reading co prehension on assess ents by F4 to 84 percent# Palincsar and Qlenk (1991) concluded that students i proved reading skills i ediately and also e"hibited that they had aintained these skills on tests perfor ed a year later# Rosenshine and Aeister (1995& as cited in Kc%kus 344F) ined data collected through 16 different research studies# $hey concluded that reading co prehension !as i proved through the use of this instructional odel# *ccording to a study by . Palincsar P 0ro!n 1985& 1986.

Palincsar P 0ro!n 1986)& and Qlenk (Palincsar P Qlenk& 1991) used the findings of their research studies to create a odel of reciprocal teaching they used to teach procedures that Ggood readersG use internally !hen they read# /n the odel& four reading strategies nor ally taught separately are co bined in an instructional package# @tudents are taught to think about !hat they are preparing to read and ake predictions& to develop self+'uestioning strategies& to recogni%e and clarify !ords and passages that they do not understand& and to su ari%e or retell passages after they read# $hese Ggood readerG practices are nor ally taking place inside the reader7s head so they are not visible and therefore are difficult to teach# $he process ust be ade visible through odeling thinking out loud and participating in dialogue about those thoughts# @tudent learning is intensified by their o!n verbali%ation of that learning for others& and by observing the learning process of their peers# Repeated e"ternal use and understanding of the reading strategy package beco es an internal !ay of thinking about reading# . !here students !ere introduced to the strategies before dialogue began (*llen& 344F)# $he later is the theory on !hich the e"a ples of Ars# 2lark7s classroo are based# *nother dra!back to reciprocal teaching is that although students ake i pressive gains in their reading co prehension abilities& the process is not as effective for students !ith decoding difficulties (?ashey& et al& 344F)# @tudents !ho are not able to decode or break !ords do!n into phone es and then blend the enough to recogni%e and say ost of the !ords in the reading passages correctly& could feel unco fortable or e barrassed !hen !orking in the peer group ti e involved in this instructional ethod# Kne strategy to help alleviate this situation is tape+assisted reciprocal teaching (.e -evre& Aoore& and )ilkinson& 344F)# $ape+assisted reading involves listening to the reading of a te"t !hile follo!ing along !ith the printed te"t# $his strategy has helped students !ith poor decoding skills participate in reciprocal teaching activities& !hich allo!s the to ake gains in their etacognitive and co prehension skills (.Kne challenge of using reciprocal teaching is that constructivists in the field of learning strategies do not agree on ho! it should be taught (*llen& 344F)# Kne !ay of teaching it is called Greciprocal teaching onlyG& !here the strategy is not introduced to the students prior to the group discussions (*llen& 344F)# $he other !ay is called Ge"plicit teaching before reciprocal teachingG.e -evre& et al& 344F)# *n often overlooked but significant challenge to reciprocal teaching is that this ethod of instruction relies heavily on the teacher7s belief in constructive learning and hisLher proficiency !ith the reciprocal teaching process (?acker& et al& 3443)# Reciprocal teaching is a constructivist ethod of teaching# $he basis of this ethod is that the students !ill dra! their o!n eanings fro !hat they read based on their understanding of the te"t co bined !ith their prior e"periences# * teacher !ho does not support constructivist theory ay not be open to teaching using this ethod# *dditionally& teachers !ho do support the process and !ant to use the reciprocal teaching strategies need to be trained and have support !hen they encounter situations that re'uire odifications# $he teacher ust be able to de onstrate the strategies& gradually give over leadership of the lessons to the students& and then beco e a facilitator for the student groups# :ot all teachers are co fortable in this role (?acker& et al& 3443)# Summary Palincsar& 0ro!n (Palincsar P 0ro!n& 1985.

earning dialogues to pro oting te"t co prehension# (P?@ >rant 419)# 0ethesda& A<: :ational /nstitute of ?ealth and ?u an <evelop ent .: /nternational Revie! of *pplied .# (344F)# Reciprocal teaching at !ork: strategies for i proving reading co prehension# :e!ark& <(: /nternational Reading *ssociation Palincsar& *# @#& P 0ro!n& *# .anguage $eaching# 51(5)& F19+FF9# >allo!ay& 2# *# (3441)# Iygotsky7s learning theory# /n A# Krey ((d#)& ( erging perspectives on learning& teaching& and technology# *vailable )ebsite: http:LLproCects#coe#uga#eduLeplttLinde"#phpGtitleTIygotskyU36sVconstructivis ?acker& <#O& P $enent& *# (3443) / ple enting Reciprocal $eaching in the 2lassroo : Kverco ing Kbstacles and Aaking Aodifications# Oournal of (ducational Psychology# 95 (5)& 699+618 ?ashey& O# A& P 2onnors& <# O# (344F)# .#& P 2a pione& O# (1989)# @tructured dialogues a ong co unities of first+grade learners# Paper presented at the annual eeting of the * erican (ducational Research *ssociation& @an -rancisco& 2alifornia Palincsar& *# @#& P Qlenk& .$he teacher7s role in this instructional procedure changes as the strategies are taught to the students# $he teacher starts the instruction of each strategy as the Gsage on the stageG& and ends up as the Gguide on the sideG# $he teacher has to be proficient in odeling these strategies to the students and then gradually fade a!ay and let the students take over the control of their learning# $he ability of the teacher to fill this role greatly affects the learning process# *lthough there are so e dra!backs to reciprocal teaching such as the debate over ho! the strategies should be presented to the students and the need for support fro the teachers& ost studies have sho!n an increase in standardi%ed test scores in the area of reading co prehension after use of this instructional odel (?acker et al& 3443& ?ashey et al& 344F)# References *llen& @# (344F)# *n analytic co parison of three odels of reading strategy instruction# /R*.# (1991)# .# (1985)# Reciprocal teaching of co prehension+fostering and co prehension+ onitoring activities# 2ognition and /nstruction& 3& 116+161# Palincsar& *# @#& P 0ro!n& *# .e -evre& <# A#& Aoore& <# )#& P )ilkinson& /# *# >& (344F)# $ape+assisted reciprocal teaching: 2ognitive bootstrapping for poor decoders# 0ritish Oournal of (ducational Psychology& 6F(1)& F6+19# Kc%kus& .earn fro research# Reading $eacher& 16(F)& 335+3FF# our Courney: Reciprocal teaching action .# (1986)# /nteractive teaching to pro ote independent learning fro te"t# $he Reading $eacher& F9(8)& 661+66# Palincsar& *# @#& P 0ro!n& *# .inguistics in .

ubliner& @# (3441)# * practical guide to reciprocal teaching# 0othell& )*: )right >roup Ac.istor9 & & og&in & Navigation • • • • • & =ain&*age & & -1bmission&%1idelines & & #nstr1ctors & & Recent&changes & & .elp & Search && .essons for grades F+8# :e!ark& <(: /nternational Reading *ssociation# Citation *P* 2itation: -oster& (#& Rotoloni& R## (3441)# Reciprocal $eaching: >eneral overvie! of theories## /n A# Krey ((d#)& ( erging perspectives on learning& teaching& and technology# Retrieved Winsert dateX& fro http:LLproCects#coe#uga#eduLeplttL • • • • • & +rticle & & Bisc1ssion & & 4iew&so1rce & & .# (3443)# Aake it real: @trategies for success !ith infor ational te"ts# Ports outh& :?: .# (1999)# Revisit& reflect& retell: @trategies for i proving reading co prehension# Ports outh& :?: ?eine ann# ?oyt& .aughlin& A#& P *llen& A#0# (3443)# >uided co prehension: * teaching F+8# :e!ark& <(: /nternational Reading *ssociation# odel for grades Ac.van >arderen& <# (3445)# Reciprocal teaching as a co prehension strategy for understanding athe atical !ord proble s# Reading P )riting .# (1999)# @oar to success: $he inter ediate intervention progra # 0oston: ?oughton+Aifflin ?oyt# .uarterly& 34# Boo!s on Reciprocal Teaching or (ith lessons that strengthen Reciprocal Teaching 2ooper& O#<#& 0oschken& /#& Ac)illia s& O#& P Pistochini& .aughlin& A#& P *llen& A#0#& (3443)# >uided co prehension in action: .

This&page&has&been&accessed&125@252&times.Toolbox • • • • • & /hat&lin2s&here & & Related&changes & & -pecial&pages & & *rintable&>ersion & & *ermanent&lin2 & • • • • • • This&page&was&last&modi7ied&06:0:@&21&D1ne&2012. & *ri>ac9&polic9 & & +bo1t&(merging&*erspecti>es&on& earning@&Teaching&and&Technolog9 & & Bisclaimers & . )ontent&is&a>ailable&1nder&)reati>e&)ommons&+ttrib1tion-$oncommercial--hare& +li2e&3.0& icense&.