Syllabus for Advanced Networks

For M.Sc. (I.T.)
Chapter 1: Basics of Networking
Introduction – Applications of a Network – Analog and Digital Techniques – Serial and Parallel Transmission – Asynchronous and Synchronous Transmission.

Chapter 2: Internet & Wide Area Network
Internet asics – Internet in India – T!P"IP – Telnet – #orld #ide #e$ – %yperte&t Transfer Protocol – #e$ Ser'ers – rowsers – Search (ngines – #e$ Ser'ers – %T)* – +senet – ,irewalls - Intranets.

Chapter 3: Local Area Networks
*ocal Area Networks – International .rgani/ation for Standardi/ation 0IS.1 – IS. – .SI 2eference )odel – T!P"IP 2eference )odel – T!P"IP 2eference )odel – !haracteristics and uses of *AN – *AN Protocols – *AN Standards

Chapter 4:

AN ! etropolitan Area Network"
0Distri$uted 3ueue Dual

)etropolitan Area Network 0)AN1 – D3D

us1 Structure – Data Transfer I D3D – Asynchronous Transfer )ode – PSTN Structure – !ircuit - Packet Switching – Asynchronous - Synchronous Transfer


)ode – Introduction to AT) – enefits of AT) – AT) Technology – !lasses of ser'ices in AT).

Chapter #: $thernet
(thernet – (thernet *imitations – 45 )$ps Switched (thernet – 455 )$ps (thernet – Arcnet *AN – I ) Token ring *AN – ,DDI

Chapter %: Integrated &er'ices (igital Network
Introduction to ISDN – Types of ISDN – ,unctions of ISDN – ISDN Standards – ,uture Applications of ISDN

Chapter ): &torage Area Networks
Introduction – enefits – )anagea$ility – .pen Standard Platforms – (ase of Integration – Ad'anced Application !apa$ilities – Ad'anced Storage )anagement.

Chapter *: C+rrent ,rends in Co-p+ter Networks Bl+e ,ooth: Introduction . %istory – System !hallenges – Security – The
asic Structure – lue Tooth for (m$edded Internet – Need for lue Tooth.

WA/: Introduction – *imitations – #AP forum – De'ices used in #AP –
.S !ompati$le with #AP – #AP protocols – Introduction to #)* – Security in #AP – #AP - Internet – Introduction to (6mail – Push Technology – Push ,rame #ork – ,uture in #AP.

WLAN: Introduction – Application – )a7or
Technologies – Need to Deploy #*AN.

enefits – #*AN


!hapter 4 ASI!S ., N(T#.29IN: • Introduction • Application of a Network • Analog - Digital Signals • Serial - Parallel Transmission • Asynchronous - Synchronous Transmission. • andwidth

The rise of intranets and e&tranets is an indication of the crucial importance of computer networking to $usinesses. . A network may $e 'ast< comprising of hundreds of computers spread across continents= it may link together mainframes minicomputers and micros< printers< fa& machines and pagers= its users may $e host of indi'idual enthusiasts or firms= or the network may consist of not more than two machines connected with the sole purpose of sharing a printer or hard disk. A computer network is a resource< which ena$les the $usinesses to gather< analy/e< organi/e and disseminate the information that is essential to their profita$ility.? Network: A computer network is a collection of de'ices that can store and manipulate electronic data and is interconnected in such a way that network users can store< retrie'e and share information. Intranets and e&tranets are pri'ate $usiness networks that are $ased on Internet technology. In the near future< numerous other types of de'ices will $e network connecta$le< including interacti'e T>s< 'ideophones< na'igational and en'ironmental control systems. The larger network systems are generally referred to as #ide Area Networks. In +9 many of the leading chain stores and supermarkets ha'e networks that span the whole country with e'ery store feeding data $ack to the central organi/ation. Some are run $y single organi/ations< with perhaps the $iggest $eing the world6wide area network run $y I ) for its own use< linking its many research esta$lishments and sales organi/ations.

A design or engineering office may well ha'e a network composed largely of high6resolution graphic terminals to run their !AD software< with a smattering of P!@S for routine word processing and accounting. #ith a network< usually fewer peripherals are needed than with the . /eripherals: %ard disk dri'es and tape streamers< printers and plotters< modems and mice. !omputer networks pro'ide communication possi$ilities faster than other facilities. What akes +p A Network0 The most important components are< o$'iously< the computers. ecause of these optimal information and communication possi$ilities< computer networks may increase the organi/ational learning rate< which many authors declare as the only fundamental ad'antage in competition. These networks are a kind 0one might call it paradigm1 of organi/ation of computer systems produced $y the need to merge computers and communications. . !omputer networks allow the user to access remote programs and remote data$ases either of the same organi/ation or from other enterprises or pu$lic sources.A . !omputer networks can manage to put down the $arriers $etween information held on se'eral 0not only computer1 systems. At the same time they are the means to con'erge the two areas= the unnecessary distinction $etween tools to process and store information and tools to collect and transport information can disappear. Today e'ery organi/ation uses a su$stantial num$er of computers and communication tools< to communicate with other departments and participate in information retrie'al programs< effecti'e usage of information technology< computer networks are necessary.he I-portance of Co-p+ter Networks: Information and communication are two of the most important strategic issues for the success of e'ery enterprise.nly with the help of computer networks can a $orderless communication and information en'ironment $e $uilt.

+sers can send messages quickly without any to mo'ement. #hen a file is sent to $e printed< it is the Netware that ensures that it reaches the right printer= Applications of Co-p+ter Networks a1 &haring of applications: This allows all network users to share the same application< sa'ing disk space< $ecause the application only needs to $e installed on one of the computers. it is particularly useful for companies like $anks and tra'el agencies. !a$les are needed to create the physical links $etween the computers. d1 /ersonal Co--+nications: It allows users to communicate with each other< sending computer files to another user= 7ust $y clicking a $utton and it impro'es company@s efficiency. This pro'ides a means of identifying and addressing each component< and controls the flow of data around the system.B same num$er of separate computers< for each user will ha'e access to e'ery peripheral that is attached to the network. c1 &haring 3eso+rces: It allows each user to ha'e access to the peripheral de'ices like printers and scanners. Special networking software or Netware is also essential. 21 &haring of (ata2ases: Second aspect $eing multi6user access and modify to the same data$ase at the same time is definitely $etter than ha'ing the same data$ase in all the computers and periodically com$ine all the modifications together. e1 Cost $ffecti'e 3eso+rce &haring: y selecting the right mi& of printers and allowing each network user an appropriate access to them< one could ha'e enough printing power to take care of the . It is certainly cheaper than each terminal ha'ing its own peripheral de'ice.

(igital (ata Network: A network specially designed for transmission of data< where'er possi$le in digital form< as distinct from analog networks such as telephone systems< on which data transmission is an e&ception.E needs of all users= one can ensure that< a network ena$les to share any networka$le equipment or software and reali/e the same $enefits that one can en7oy from sharing printer.) dri'es= data $ackup de'ices< such as tape dri'ers= (6mail systems= fa& machines= and all networka$le software. .rans-ission: Transmission of a continuously 'aria$le signal as opposed to a discretely 'aria$le signal. #hen you compare sharing these resources to purchasing them for each computer< the cost sa'ings can $e enormous. (igital (ata: Information represented $y a code consisting of a sequence of discrete elements.n a network< users can share modems= data storage de'ices< such as hard disks and !D62. Analog & (igital &ignals Analog (ata: Data that is in the form of continuously 'aria$le physical quantities. Analog . Physical quantities such as temperature are continuously 'aria$le and so are descri$ed as CanalogD. . Analog &ignaling: An analog signal is one that 'aries in a continuous manner such as 'oice or music.

To understand how a'aila$le technology ena$les us to do this< we need to define a few terms and understand some $asic concepts. Analog signals suffer far less from attenuation o'er long distances.F The purpose of computer networks is to ena$le users to manipulate data so that it can $e stored< retrie'ed and shared. !omparing analog and digital signals< ad'antages lie on either end of the spectrum. Data< whether it is 'ideo< audio< or digital< is transmitted on the wire at certain frequencies. Digital technology is generally utili/ed e&clusi'ely for $ase$and networks. Since digital data can only $e a 4 or 5. Since a computer@s memory is simply a series of switches that can either $e on or off< digital data directly represents one of these two conditions. These networks de'ote the entire ca$le to network transmission. #e typically represent this on and off status with 4s and 5s where 4 represents an ConD $it and 5 represents CoffD. In effect< a digital signal is a snapshot of a condition and does not represent continual mo'ement. oard$and networks incorporate technology similar to that of ca$le tele'ision. Digital signals ha'e 'ery few 'alues. !omputers in a network must CcommunicateD with each other to ha'e the desired $enefits of the network. The most o$'ious e&ample of digital data is that communication on6$oard a computer. (ach signal is unique from a pre'ious digital 'alue and unique from the one to come. . These signals can $e either CanalogD or CdigitalD. This rather makes sense. Digital signals< on the other hand< are distincti'ely different. The typical medium is coa&ial ca$le.

rans-ission: Parallel Transmission is the technique that sends each $it simultaneously o'er a separate line. A group of SNA networks connected in series $y gateways is called as Serial Network. . Serial Transmission is the normal mode of data communications. Digital de'ices are more resilient to ()I and make more efficient use of the ca$ling $andwidths than analog systems do. Normally parallel Transmission technique is used to send data a $yte 0F$its o'er eight lines1 at a time to a high speed printer or other locally attached peripherals.H Digital de'ices are lot less sophisticated< meaning that they are fairly easy to manufacture and cost6effecti'e. Two approaches e&ist to sol'e the pro$lem of synchroni/ationG these are asynchronous transmission and synchronous transmission.rans-ission: . Parallel Transmission is often used $etween computer and local peripheral de'ices. &erial .ne ma7or difficulty in data transmission is that of synchroni/ing the recei'er with the sender. (ata . (ach E6$it AS!II character is preceded $y a start $it and ended with a parity $it and stop $it. /arallel .rans-ission: The standard method of AS!II transmission where $its are sent< one at a time< in sequence. Serial Transmission is a technique in which each $it of information is sent sequentially on a single channel< rather than simultaneously as in parallel transmission.

8. As4nchrono+s trans-ission has 'ario+s ad'antages5 the ad'antages 2eing: 4. 8. The initial change in the state of polarity< from the idle state to the first $it< is known as the STA2T P+*S(. !learly< this ena$les the recei'er@s clock to $e synchroni/ed with the transmitter@s clock.45 As4nchrono+s .. . The control information consists of additional $its added to each character< STA2T ITS – which indicate that it is a$out to cease.he ad'antages of as4nchrono+s trans-ission s4ste. .are: 4. +sually< the stop $its are of the same polarity as the !hannel idle state. data entry from the key $oard. Successful transmission ine'ita$ly depends on the recognition of the start $its – clearly these can $e easily missed or occasionally spurious start $ut can $e generated $y line interference. .rans-ission: In this approach< synchroni/ation is implemented at character le'el and each indi'idual character is transmitted along with the necessary control information to allow this to take place. As a result of the effects of distortion the speed of transmission is principal ad'antage is that each indi'idual character is complete in itself – therefore if a character is corrupted during transmission< its successor and predecessor will $e unaffected.g. Particularly suited for applications where the characters are generated at irregular inter'als e. %igh proportions of the transmitted $its are unique for control purposes and thus carry no useful information. .

a few detri-ental attri2+tes the4 are: 4. .555 $its per second for simple< single character error detection. The system is not as prone to distortion as asynchronous communication and can thus $e used at higher speeds. AS!II pro'ides a control character.rans-ission: In this system the message is transmitted 'ia single channel. The characters are grouped together in $locks of some fi&ed si/e and each $lock transmitted is preceded $y one or more special synchroni/ation characters< which can $e recogni/ed $y the recei'er. &4nchrono+s . %owe'er< in this instance it is imperati'e to note that there is no control information associated with indi'idual characters. &4nchrono+s trans-ission also s+ffers fro. The sender cannot transmit characters simply as they occur and consequently has to store them until it as $uilt up a $lock< thus the system is unsuita$le for applications where characters are generated at irregular inter'als.44 Asynchronous serial transmission is normally used for speeds of up to . If an error does occur rather than 7ust a single character the whole $lock of data is lost. . The amount of central information which requires to $e transmitted is restricted to only a few characters at the start of each $lock.he ad'antages of as4nchrono+s trans-ission are: 4. 8. 8.

or e&ample a 4? techniques in detailI ?. andwidth descri$es the amount of data a network can transport in a certain period of time. And the new .8 – 4. #hat are the important applications of networkingI . 6+estions 4. As technology continues to e'ol'e< e'en more ad'anced networks ha'e $een de'eloped that offer transmission rates greater than 4 :$ps. The $and width is the speed at which the physical connection can mo'e data< and it actually constrains we$ access or access across the network more than the speed of your computer. (&plain analog . 45 mega $ites of data can mo'e through any gi'en spot on the network.ast (thernet has transmission speeds of 455 )$ps. (&plain the $asis of networksI #hy networking is essentialI 8.? kilo$ytes of data per second< e'en if there is no other traffic on the network. )any networks today are $ased on a technology called (thernet< which has a standard $andwidth of 45 )$ps. In other words< $andwidth is a capacity for rate of transfer< usually e&pressed in $its per second.48 Bandwidth In the simplest sense< $andwidth refers to the amount of information that can $e transferred $etween computers. #hat is Asynchronous and Synchronous Transmission and discuss them in detailI . .? k$ps modem can recei'e only a$out 4. #hat do you mean $y serial and parallel transmission and e&plain them in detailI A.

!hapter 8 INT(2N(T .29 0#AN1 • Internet asics • Internet in India • Internet Protocols • Telnet • #orld #ide #e$ • %yper Te&t Transfer Protocol • #e$ Ser'ers • rowsers • Search (ngines • +senet • .ire #alls • Intranets .4.#ID( A2(A N(T#.

n 4Ath August 4HHB :o'ernment called >SN* and started its dial6up ser'ices as first Internet Ser'ice Pro'ider. . The kind of information freely a'aila$le from internet includes :o'ernment documents< scientific data< ho$$yist lists< $usiness and personal information< ad'ertising data$ases and much more. Now< there are . Internet in India In India Internet was started to ser'e the educational institutions to help in their research work. (&changing short social notes. Transferring computer files. Internet is network of computers that offer access to people and information. (&changing information with others who ha'e similar ho$$ies or interests. ?. :etting the latest news around the world.'er B5 million people use Internet< and the num$er is e&pected to increase o'er 485 million within a few years. . A.. 8. The kinds of communication that can $e a'ailed on the internet include the followingG 4. !olla$orating on scientific research.$3N$. !onducting $usiness negotiations.4? IN. In 4HFB< IIT was linked up with Indian Institute of Science $y (2N(T< which later connected with foreign uni'ersities. . B.

4A more than 455 ISPs gi'en license to pro'ide Internet Ser'ice. Some of them are )TN*< Satyam !omputers *td.< #intech< etc.

Internet /rotocols
Transfer !ontrol Protocol and Internet Protocol are two sets of rules that allow computers and networks to communicate effecti'ely. They regulate the flow of data and make sure that it reaches its destination safe and sound. T!P and IP goes hand6in6had to ena$le the safe deli'ery of data o'er a network< the data is split into a num$er of smaller packets. T!P"IP attaches a header to the data packet< which contains information like the address< its origin< length of the packet and so on. IP< on the other hand< works like a postal department and ensures that once the data packets reach the recei'er@s end< they are re6assem$led in the same sequence they were $roken up and are ready for the application they are meant for. IP works as routing agent falls under the network layer which has function of making decision for transmitting data across de'ice not connected to each other.

La4ers of ,ra'el
The two protocols T!P"IP are stacked o'er each other and occupy the network layer and the transport layer. These layers are a part of 'irtual model of networking called .P(N SJST() INT(2!.NN(!TI.N 0.SI1 model. The .SI model consists of Physical< Data link< Network< Transport< Session< Presentation and Application layers. The physical layer transmits data from one location to another and is made up of physical aspects of the network like ca$les and connectors. The data link layer ensures error6free transmission of data and consists of networking cards< modems< etc. The

4B function of the network layer is to make routing decisions for transmitting data across de'ices that are not connected to each other. As IP is a routing agent< it falls under this layer. The transport layer comes ne&t and its primary function is to ensure error free transmission of data. Transfer !ontrol Protocol or T!P falls under this layer. The remaining layers such as the Session< Presentation and Application layers from the application group< which synchroni/es links across programs and con'erts network data to user reada$le formats.

As Transport layer protocol< T!P accepts message information from the applications< and di'ides it into multiple segments< and encapsulates each segment into a datagram. (ach datagram is passed o'er to the network layer protocol 0IP1 for further transmission and routing. At the recei'er@s end< T!P reassem$les the data and distri$utes it to the concerned application program. T!P transmits data in the form of packets that comprise of a header and a data $lock. The header consists of information like the address of the packet< its origin< the length of the packet and more. The data $lock carries the payload< which is the te&t or pictures that we down load or $rowse off the Net.

Internet /rotocol
Internet protocol or IP works like postal department. It routes data packets to the address mentioned in the header and fragments them. These are then marked so that the fragmentation sequence is maintained and are reassem$led upon reaching their destination. The routing of data grams o'er a network can occur o'er different paths and the possi$ility of some data grams arri'ing out of sequence is not ruled out. In addition< as

4E data grams flow $etween 'arious networks< they also face physical limitations in terms of the amount of data that can $e transferred o'er a particular network. IP is also attached to a small header on the data packet< which pro'ides information a$out the handling of the datagram< identification of fragmented data grams and the like. The 'ersion field contains a ?< $it code that identifies the IP protocol used to create the datagram. The identification field pro'es the identity of a datagram. In case the datagram has $een further fragmented< the fragment offset field specifies the other offset of the datagram. The flag field contains information a$out the nature of fragmentation. It pro'ides information a$out the current fragment and also gi'es the total num$er of the fragments. The header also has a field called KTime to *i'e@ or TT* that defines the num$er of routers a data packet can encounter en route to its destination computer< there$y a'oiding chocked networks. IP operates on gateway machines that mo'e data from the department to the organi/ation< then to the region and finally across the world.

I/ A((3$&& & 83L
To connect from one machine to another machine on the Internet< we need to know its IP address< which is an identifier for a particular machine on a particular network. These are referred as IP num$ers or Internet addresses. The IP address is represented $y four decimal num$ers separated $y dots and is $asically di'ided into the host computer section.

Classification to Internets:

To make the operation simpler< ordinary names are assigned to each address using the Domain Name System.E4.5.5.5 to 48E. The first num$er $efore the dot defines the network with the remaining three sections assigned to hosts. %ost Name .5 to 4H4.3eso+rce Locaters !83L" +2* is the way to represent site name on the #orld #ide #e$.E? 0#hich is the domain name for the we$ site1. In this case< the first three num$ers denote the network and the last one denotes the host.5.5.855. (ach Domain Name corresponds to a numeric IP address. +2*s are similar to postal addresses or telephone num$ers which are used to represent the destinations.5.5..5. )ost +2* consists of .4F !lass AG This comprises of 'ery large networks with millions of nodes.5..5. Ser'ice Name 8. They ha'e their IP addresses ranging from 4. !lass G These are smaller networks and can ha'e only a$out BA<555 nodes.5.5. !lass !G These are much smaller networks< which support a ma&imum of 8A? The first two num$ers are allocated to the network and the remaining two num$ers for the hosts.5 to form your $rowser< the Internet actually connects you to the IP num$er 85?.5.or e&ampleG As you type in the address www.5. 8nifor. partsG 4. The IP addresses range from 4H8. The Internet uses the IP address to identify the network and the node and send data to the same.5.5. Their IP addresses range from 48F. . 2equest .

TP. These num$ers are called IP. #hen $rowser needs the address of any site< resol'er queries the nearest name ser'er< replies immediately if it knows the answer or it asks another ser'er.HA. These refer to #e$ ser'ers< :opher ser'ers< . #hen a DNS fields a query that it cannot answer 4.45 might know . Thus e'ery ser'er has two roles to playG 4. It was updated twice a week to include new sites. It sends a query to root ser'er 8. #hen we connect to the net we ha'e seen a set of ? num$ers $eing dialed i.8 $it num$ers.B country name a$$re'iations like C.TP ser'ers and +senet news ser'ers< respecti'ely.4H The most common ser'ice names you use in +2*s are ChttpD< CtogetherD< CftpD and CnewsD. 2oot ser'er says it does not know $ut a machine at say 4HA. A few +2*s do not ha'e a host name. 8. This helps to locate the site easily. DNS There are a num$er of ser'ers< which maintain the addresses of sites. (o-ain Na-e &er'ers Internet works on the num$ering system. System would download the copy of this ta$le through .e.inD for India. There are two types of ser'ers as $elowG 4. Domain Name Ser'ers are the ser'ers< which maintain a distri$uted list of all domains against Internet Protocol address. (arlier to Domain Name Ser'ers there was a system of ha'ing a host ta$le maintained $y S2I6NI!.ollowing this are 8. As a ser'er for name ser'er. . 2esol'er 8. All we$ sites are arranged in E $ranches namely arpa< com< edu< net< go'< mil< org. Super ser'er to e&tend functionality. The IP addresses of name ser'ers at each of the domain name tags are maintained $y 45 root ser'ers. for each address on the Internet there is a unique set of these .8A4.

TP requires that we $e directly linked to the machine in question. The machine to which we are connecting must ha'e .msn.TP ser'ers all o'er the world allow the people any where on the Internet to log in and download whate'er files ha'e $een placed on the . Name ser'ers currently return all IP addresses lea'ing P! to choose at random. . ut some name ser'ers will now e'aluate all addresses to find out he one with least load.45 knows the answer A.85 can ha'e multiple addresses for same domain name. %ere one can get all sorts of files inside them. #ith it< it is possi$le to send or recei'e files to and from a machine on the Internet. DNS sends a query to the a$o'e machine ?. 9.TP computer knows the name of the Internet ser'ices we are calling from< we only need to type KusernameL@ followed $y return. *oad alancingG *arge sites like www. &pecial feat+res of (N& !acheG Name ser'er caches all IP address for domain names that were requested recently. DNS returns answer to your P!..TP ser'er permanently connected to the Net. So that if requested again it responds immediately./ .8A4.TP ser'er and its address generally starts with Kftp@ code. As . Ser'er at 4HA.nce logged on< we can get access to pu$lic accessi$le software. .TP ser'er. .TP to transfer your files unless we or our client has dedicated . Thus< numerous . So we are unlikely to use .ile Transfer Protocol< which is the standard system for mo'ing files on the Internet.

A useful telnet site< especially if we are una$le to access the full graphical splendor of the #e$ isG telnet.3L( WI($ W$B The #orld #ide #e$ is an architectural frame work for accessing linked documents spread out o'er thousands of machines all o'er the Internet.. 2esearchers colla$orating across the country can log into a single computer to run 7oint e&periments. In most cases we need to log6in and details of how to do this may $e displayed after we ha'e connected to it. Telnet has many uses on the InternetG 4.84 .w. If you ha'e accounts on more than one computer on the Internet< you can log into the one closest to you and use telnet to log into the others. This is a te&t $ased we$ $rowsing system. Its enormous popularity stems from the fact that it has a colorful graphical interface that is easy for .:$ W. +sing telnet ser'er long distance charges of dial on directly to those computers= some don@t e'en allow direct dialing.. 8. . .org. +NIM computer on the Internet uses the T(*N(T protocol< so this is rarely an issue.$LN$. oth computers in order for the telnet program< to work must use the T(*N(T protocol. The telnet command is a user interface to a protocol called< not surprisingly< T(*N(T. %undreds of li$rary catalogs are a'aila$le only through direct connection to the li$rary@s computers. Telnet is a way of connecting to another machine on the Internet< and using it as if it were our own.

!(2N has se'eral accelerators at which large team of scientists from the participating (uropean !ountries carry out research in particle physics.ransfer /rotocol !:. Any ser'er configured to communicate using T!P"IP uses ports. We2 &er'ers: Is a software program that sits on your ser'er 0The physical machine that is designed to store and ser'e we$ pages1. The #e$ grew out of the need to ha'e these large teams of internationally dispersed researchers colla$orate using a constantly changing collection of reports< $lueprints< drawings< photos< and other documents.. Port F5 is the default we$ ser'er port and all hyper te&t transfer protocols.e<t . The #e$ $egan in 4HFH at !(2N< the (uropean center for nuclear research. #e$ ser'ers and clients speak to each other using %TTP< so end users don@t need to know anything a$out its intricacies. (. . A we$ client program sends a single request to the we$ ser'er for information< and the we$ se'er responds with a single reply. Not serial or parallel ports like the ones on the $ack of your computer< $ut the ones that look different and ser'e the same purpose.g. :4per . %TTP is a stateless protocol< meaning that the client and the ser'er programs speak to each other only once and that a connection is not retained./" The %TTP is a method used to make hyper te&t documents reada$le on the #orld #ide #e$.88 $eginners to use< and pro'ides an enormous wealth of information on almost< e'ery concei'a$le su$7ect.

..48. The #e$ ser'er has certain restrictions to what it can process.4pe of We2 &er'ers 9.48.TP or .irstly the user should log in to . )apping #e$ is referred $y Internet software to retrie'e the IP address. As %TTP request comes to the ser'er it checks the appropriate permissions and then either transmits the page or if the permissions are not adequate< it sends an error message.TP ser'er< where the access rights are deri'ed for different directories. 8senet News &er'ers: . It therefore uses additional software that performs au&iliary processing called middleware< which is written in Perl< ! or !NN./ &er'ers: of them is :opher Ser'er. It is a !lient"Ser'er system that teaches you to na'igate through the Internet.8. Since remem$ering the num$ers is difficult< the Internet users want to reach a specific computer on the ### can also use description. A DNS ser'er includes a data$ase of IP Address.. )ost middleware re'ol'e around interaction with the data$ase. =opher &er'ers: In the past few years many new tools for searching for information on the Internet ha'e de'eloped. . (N& &er'ers: ('ery computer in the Internet is pro'ided with a specific IP address consisting of four num$ers like 48.ile Ser'er Transfer Protocol ser'ers are Internet computers that use this protocol and pro'ide data to Internet users for downloading. #hen the ser'er recei'es a request for a page ha'ing em$edded scripts< it cannot process these $y itself. .48. .

Spiders are programs that are designed to look up we$ pages which are listed in e'ery data$ase< follow up on each and e'ery link and update their data$ases to reflect the updated information. Da'id . Search engines are composed of data$ases that comprise inde&ing schemes< a query processor and Kspiders@. &earch $ngines: Searching on the net comprise the enormous and e&hausti'e task of connecting to each ser'er and finding the requisite information on it. Today there e&ist a 'ariety of search engines< all of them they would possi$ly co'er almost a ma7or part of the information on the we$ at any gi'en time. There are more than A555 acti'e new groups< Browsers rowser is a kind of program< which can understand the hyper te&t protocol and present it into te&tual or graphical 'iew.8? It is a system where messages a$out any su$7ect can $e posted and other people on the Internet can reply to them. !onsequently the worlds first search engine JahooP was $orn in April 4HH?. They decided to de'elop a uni'ersal data$ase using which one could find information in a quick and simple way. :ow do &earch $ngines Work0 . The records in these data$ases consist of the +niform 2esource *ocater or more simply< the dares where the we$site or page is located< the title of the page and the keywords for that page along with a short summary of the site in a few lines. Some of the popular $rowsers are Internet (&plorer< Netscape Na'igator< .pera< )osiac etc. This topic includes politics< science< religion etc.ilo and Oerry *ang< studying electronics at Stanford +ni'ersity decided to do something a$out it.

Search engines are huge computer generated data$ases containing information on millions of we$ sites. #e can send and recei'e (6mail= through there is a strong limit of 8 ) . Jou can reach the corresponding pages with a click. It promises you free we$6$ased e6mail account that you can access from anywhere in the world. Alta'ista< %ot$ot< *ycosQ< InfoseekQ< (&citeQ and #e$crawlerQ are search engines 0Q these are hy$rid sites i.e. Search directories are lists of we$ sites organi/ed into categories and su$6categories. Depending on the system< the data is released only after editorial processing. The popular ser'ices areG . &earch site t4pes: Search sites are $asically of two types< search directories and search engines. Search directories are created manually rather than $eing automated. They ha'e programs called spiders that automatically look up we$sites and update their data$ases. At the same time< the entries are displayed as links. The query is forwarded to the data$ase. The result displays a list with all pages hat correspond to the search criteria. %otmail was one of the first success stories on the Net.8A A Search engine continuously sends so6called Kspiders@< a special kind of program< which starts in a homepage of a ser'er and pursues all links stepwise. Their co'erage is far less than that of search engines $ut comprise recommendations and re'iews of sites. 4. To search for data< the search criteria are entered in the form pro'ided $y the search engine. 8. they are search engines as well as offering search directories1 We2 &er'ices: The we$ ser'ice is that facility to pro'ide the user with or without charge with some limitations. In some search engines< the operators make entries using forms. #ord indices are created from indi'idual pages and the data$ase us updated. ..

com"fa&. These systems may store their files with hidden em$edded markup so they can reproduce them later< $ut not all of them work this way.geocities. eginning and end of the paragraph. . 8&$N$.com www. L" It is language for descri$ing how documents are to $e :4per . )akes the $eginning and end of a script section.htm www. The script itself is not displayed on the page only the result is dictated. page $ut $ecomes the title of the page that appears in the $rowser title $ar.tcp. The term C)arkupD comes from the old days when copy editors actually marked up documents to tell the printer6in those days< )arkup languages thus contain e&plicit commands for formatting. y em$edding the markup commands within each %T)* file and standardi/ing them< it Commonly used HTM Ta!s" R%T)*S R"%T)*S RTITA*S R"TITA*S R .or e&ample< in %T)*< R S means start $oldface RT S means lea'e $old face or www.ree we$ pages or www.icq. The te&t $etween these tags does not appear on the eginning and end of the paragraph.48.DJS R" . $ecomes possi$le for any we$ $rowser to read and reformat any we$ page.DJS RPS R"PS RS!2IPTS R"S!2IPTS eginning and end of we$ page.tacstems. Documents written in a markup language can $e contrasted to documents produced with #JSI#J: 0#hat Jou See Is #hat Jou :et1 word processor< such as )S6#ord or )S6Perfect.e<t ark+p Lang+age !:. .com www.8B (6mail Ser'ice .a&ing Pager Ser'ice (lectronic !ard .greetings.

It is a chaotic< unregulated mishmash of newsgroups on all topics< some of which are 'ery popular< and most of which are worldwide. The hierarchies co'ered so far ha'e a professional< somewhat academic tone. Alt is to the official groups as a flea market is to a department store. . Talk co'ers contro'ersial topics and is populated $y people who are strong on opinions< weak on facts. Soc< which has many newsgroups concerning< politics< gender< religion< 'arious national cultures and genealogy. (ach article posted to a newsgroup is automatically deli'ered to all the su$scri$ers< where'er they may $e in the world. The Sci and humanities groups are populated $y scientists< scholars< and amateurs with an interest in physics< chemistry $iology< Shakespeare< and so on. People interested in the su$7ect can Csu$scri$eD to the newsgroup.8E A newsgroup is a worldwide discussion forum on some specific topic. People can also post articles to the newsgroup. !omputer scientists< computer professionals and computer ho$$yists populate these groups. The news hierarchy is used to discuss and manage the news system itself. Air is a complete alternati'e tree that operates under its own rules. System administrators can get help here. The !omp groups were the original +S(N(T groups. Deli'ery typically takes $etween a few seconds and a few hours< depending how far off the $eaten path the sender and recei'er are. (ach one features technical discussions on a topic related to computer hardware or software. Su$scri$ers can use a special kind of user agent< a newsgroup< to read all the articles posted to the newsgroup.

&:$LL ACC. ///7&LI/ !omputer using the T!P"IP !ommunication protocol to another T!P"IP computer o'er a modem or a serial line< $oth computers must $e running on an additional protocol.8N. The user composes an article and then gi'es a command or clicks on an icon to send the article on its way. The selected articles are then displayed one at a time.8F In nearly all cases< when the newsreader is started< it checks a file to see which newsgroups the user su$scri$ers to. News readers also handle posting. Shell account descri$es the authori/ation to access another computer at the operating system le'el. The sociology of +S(N(T is unique< to put it mildly. ///7&LI/ ACC. #ithin a day< it will reach almost e'eryone in the world su$scri$ing to the newsgroup to which it was posted. oth protocols perform . Ne'er $efore has it $een possi$le for thousands of people who do not know each other to ha'e world wide discussions on a 'ast 'ariety of topics. This can either $e PPP 0point to point1 or S*IP 0special *ine IP1. Shell accounts are useful to the user who needs data in te&tual format. !hanging a su$scription simply means editing the local file listing which newsgroups the user is su$scri$ed to.8N. It then typically displays a one6line summary or each as6yet6unread article in the first newsgroup and waits for the user to select one or more for reading. News readers also allow users to su$scri$e and unsu$scri$e to newsgroups. All postings to a moderated newsgroup are automatically sent to the moderator< who posts the good ones and discards the $ad ones. In shell account< user has no direct IP6*ink 'ia S*IP"PPP. A moderated newsgroup is one in which only one person< the moderator< can post articles to the newsgroup.

irewall.8H the same task $ut they are not interopera$le 0i.or Networks integrated with the Internet< there is a need to ensure safety to our network.orce1 9irewalls . To minimi/e such pro$lems< the companies need to add a fire wall $etween the network and the Internet. The firewall consists of hardware such as routers and host systems software. PPP was deri'ed in 4HH4 $y I(T. Any kind of network that uses T!P"IP for data transmission depends on source address< and the port num$er. $oth ends of the connection must $e running on either PPP or S*IP1.e. Application filter firewallG It is the fastest and simplest of the three and is also one of the earliest. Classification of 9ire Walls: • • • Packet filter< Application pro&y or Application gateway Packet Inspection . . 0Internet (ngineering Task . A study re'ealed that out of the 8A5<555 attacks on the Department@s computer systems< a$out BA percent succeed. A firewall is $asically a data packet $etween trusted and un6trusted networks. 4. A firewall uses these addresses and port num$ers to control the flow of data packets $etween the trusted and un6trusted network. +sually the 2outer 0hardware1 $ased< in this system a packet filter compares the header information source and destination address< and port num$er6of each incoming or outgoing packet against a ta$le of access control rules.

This inspection of packet can $e either $ased on its Kstate@ or Ksession@. In !ase of state filtering< the firewall only allows the incoming packet if it can $e matched with an out$ound request 0or@ in'itation1 for that packet. 3eal like firewalls: There are two types in which a firewall can $e set upG • Dual homed gatewayG %ere there is only one firewall with two connections< one for trusted network another for un6trusted network. ..: . The first firewall has one connection leading to un6trusted network and second leading to host systems that can $e accessed through untrusted network. In case of session filtering< the network station in tracked. If the ser'ice is a'aila$le to that packet< then it is allowed to pass through.3AN$. An application firewall works $y e&amining what application or ser'ice 0such as e6mail or file transfer1 a data packet is directed to..nce the trusted user terminates the session< all incoming packets with identity pertaining to that session are re7ected. IN. The area $etween the firewalls is called demilitari/ed /one. Application pro&y firewallG Pro&y firewalls are $uilt on the principle that security can $e relia$le only if there is no direct connection $etween the trusted and un6trusted networks.5 8. • Demilitari/ed /oneG %ere two firewalls are used. . Packet inspection firewallG The content of the packets is also considered.

This is possi$le $ecause intranet applications are typically much less e&pensi'e to de'elop and deploy< and much easier to use than applications $ased on older proprietary platforms.4 It is a network connecting as an affiliated set of clients using standard internet protocols< especially T!P"IP and %TTP. A .. A @news@ section of an intranet< for e&ample< can include recent company press releases regarding management strategies< partnerships< and new products. enefiting from a uni'ersal client interface the #e$ $rowser6intranet $usiness applications can $e deployed and managed from a central location. . Ad'antages of Intranet: &trea-lining 2+siness process: Intranets are phenomenally powerful tools to streamline $usiness process.rom decision support< customer ser'ice and product engineering to distri$uted channel operations< from sales force automation and e&ecuti'e information systems< $usiness applications $ased on intranets can su$stantially impro'e the efficiency of comple& operations.acilitating Information DisseminationG A key $enefit of the intranet technology is its a$ility to pro'ide up6to6date information quickly and cost6effecti'ely to the entire user community. At the same time< standard $ased protocols and de'elopment technologies ena$le separate departments across a company to create intranet solutions that remain compati$le and compliant with company wide systems and process. An intranet puts 'ital information at the fingertips of employees< regardless of their location or the location of the information. Information disseminated on an intranet ena$les a high degree of coherence for the entire company $ecause communications are consistent. It is also defined as an IP6$ased network of nodes $ehind a firewall< or $ehind se'eral firewalls connected $y secure< possi$ly 'irtual< networks. .

>endors can su$mit in'oices online and check procurement status. 3uestions 4. y gi'ing people the a$ility to access time6critical information< intranets impro'e the decision6making process $y empowering indi'iduals with the knowledge necessary for faster and $etter informed $usiness decisions.or e&ample< the interacti'e capa$ility ena$led $y hyper6te&t links makes it easy for users to gather all the information they need from #e$ pages quickly< 7ust $y clicking on a related icon or $utton.8 finance section can keep employees informed of 'ital financial reports and forecasts.. . Intranets allow the centrali/ation of information< which makes it easier to maintain and keep data up to data. (&plain the $asic principles of InternetsI 8. $nriching Co--+nications and Colla2oration: Intranet technologies ena$le teams to share knowledge and information regardless of their locations or time /ones. (&plain the concepts of T!P"IPI .. (ngineering groups can share research data< design concepts< schedules and other pro7ect materials for comments and re'iews during a de'elopment process. The $enefit to the end6user is the simplicity and speed of information access. Pro'iding instant and secure access to $usiness6critical information sa'es time and increases producti'ity< and pu$lishing information online eliminates the production< duplication and distri$ution costs associated with paper. :i'e a $rief o'er'iew of Indian Internet ScenarioI . Training groups can distri$ute training schedules and multimedia computer6associated training courses using #e$6$ased technologies. Pro7ect terms can take ad'antage of intranet newsgroups and threaded discussion to communicate issues and solutions< and can use online chat technology when real6time interaction is required. A customer section can allow customers to check the status of an order or repair. #ith intranet teleconferencing< participants can share conference materials in a 'ariety of formats< including te&t< graphics< audio and 'ideo.

ring out the highlights of %yperte&t Transfer Protocol< #e$ Ser'ers and rowsersI B.!A* A2(A N(T#.perating System • !lassification of *AN . ?. #hat are Search (ngines .perating System • !lient Ser'er Network . *..29 • Introduction • International . #hat are Telnet . #hat are .irewalls and IntranetsI (&plain themI !hapter .rgani/ation for Standardi/ation • T!P"IP 2eference model • The Network .#orld #ide #e$I riefly e&plain themI A.#hy it is importantI E..

has pro'ided to networking the . A $rief description of se'en layers of the . It is $asically contains details all and the functions of networking and pro'ides a framework in which all 'endors around the world can create systems that can communicate with one another.e. /h4sical La4er: Is the le'el at which the interchange of electrical signals< which represents data and control information takes place.SI standard is to define the way that a network node should look from the outside< i.? Local Area Network *AN is an interconnection of computers and peripheral de'ices within a limited geographical area utili/ing a communication link and operating under some from of standard control.SI model is gi'en $elow. is made up of o'er 4B5 technical committees with o'er 8<. This ena$les the interconnection of networks< which differ in terms of the implementation in internal organi/ation and operation.": IS.rgani>ation for &tandardi>ation !I&. All told< there are o'er EA of these national groups. *AN is a computer network confined to a $uilding or a cluster of $uildings= it is typically personal to an organi/ation and is installed for the e&clusi'e use of an office or factory of a gi'en organi/ation. This includes a . Is a standard attempts to define the structure of a network as a E layer hierarchy each of which has a well defined function..pen Systems Interconnection1. )ost of these committees work with national standards organi/ations from se'eral countries. The main aim of . IS. from other network nodes.SI model 0. International . 4.55 su$ committees across the glo$e.

Acknowledgement of receipt of data and error control is $oth implemented at this le'el with the facility of retransmission if necessary. &ession La4er: Pro'ides a ser'ice to esta$lish< to maintain and terminate a connection with a process of a remote host computer. The protocol used may $e character oriented< where control characters are used to delimit the 'arious fields of the $asic transmission $lock< or may relay upon positional significance. The data is transmitted in the most efficient way that is suita$le for the needs of the session layer. Network La4er: Takes the packet si/e data $locks< which are handed down from the transport layer and attaches to these the address and routing information< which completes the packet. This layer should pro'ide a relia$le ser'ice to the presentation layer and ha'e the a$ility to reesta$lish a connection< should one of the lower layers in the hierarchy fail. The choice of routing algorithm is ar$itrary and so routing can $e fi&ed or adapti'e< in which case packets are routed according to current network traffic loads. This may $e an error – free 'irtual connection with acknowledgements on a per packet $asis for secure data e&change. A. .ransport La4er: Pro'ides a relia$le data transmission and reception ser'ice for the session layer. 8. The transport layer takes data from the session layer and splits it up in to pies< the si/e of packet data field. It could also $e a transmission ser'ice with no guarantee of deli'ery< which may $e suita$le for certain< types of traffic< digital 'oice for instance.A specification of electrical and mechanical characteristics of the physical connection. (ata Link La4er: Takes the $are $it6le'el communication system pro'ided $y the physical layer and superimposes onto this a means for transmitting data and control information. Session layer should $e a$le to negotiate with the remote machine o'er . . ?...

/resentation La4er: Pro'ides a set of ser'ices to the application layer< which can $e used to process the data e&changed across the session connection. E. These may include the type of communication to $e employed< how the integrity of session connection is to $e controlled. Application La4er: Is the highest layer in the network hierarchy.B certain connection< parameters. All the other layers in the hierarchy e&ist for the sole purpose of satisfying. . This layer protocol interacts directly with the application software wanting to transfer data across the network.. B.

These are La4er 4: Is the highest layer of T!P"IP concerned with the application process the user requires.E . La4er 2: IP< the Internet Protocol is responsi$le for routing indi'idual datagrams across the interconnected networks. La4er 3: CTransportD layer uses the Transmission !ontrol Protocol 0T!P1 to pass the message from the user process to the internet 0IP1 layer  The transport layer is where a long message is su$di'ided in smaller CpacketsD in preparation for east in CtransportingD.C/7I/ 3eference odel:  Network Access  Internet  Transport  Process +nlike IS.  At the other end< this layer reassem$les the CPacketsD it recei'es into their correct order and puts the original message $ack together for the application to use. model this model uses ? layers.  The completed message is often referred to as a frame  The CtrailerD is added at this point.. La4er 1: Network Access: The $ottom layer< here is where the data link to the physical media is prepared according to the desired type of connection.  These packets are properly called datagrams. .

actory automation . -odel o'er .he ad'antage of I&.. Some e&amples areG 4. .F  Is finally con'erted into an electromagnetic signal $y special D!( hardware and placed on the physical medium. . Characteristics & 8ses of LAN A *AN typifies a distri$uted en'ironment and finds applications in a num$er of areas.C/7I/ -odel can 2e stated as follows:  )ore carefully thought out and more CmodernD  %as se'en layers< as compared to the four used in T!P"IP  +sed more as a Creference modelD is the standard $y which others are often compared.ffice automation 8. .

:igh relia2ilit47Integrit4: Since *AN is s set of multiple interconnected systems= it offers a good $ackup capa$ility in the e'ent of one or two systems failing in the network. *ANs use 'ery ine&pensi'e ca$le such as twisted – pair telephone wire. . Another factor that influences the cost of a *AN is the wiring< which must $e installed. )ost computers on a *AN are physically placed at the user ta$le< which is most con'enient for working and impro'es producti'ity significantly.ire and Security Systems A. Process !ontrol B. The slowest transfer data at around 455 k$ps while the fastest ha'e data rates of up to 455 k$ps.he characteristics of the ideal LAN can 2e s+--ari>ed as follows: :igh &peed: Data rates of currently a'aila$le *ANs co'er a wide range. Document Distri$ution. . Low Cost: )any applications of *ANs in'ol'e low cost microprocessors systems= it is desira$le that connection of such systems to a *AN should $e economic. Installation fle<i2ilit4: *AN offers fle&i$ility in locating the equipment. It may $e put into operation with a small in'estment< and more systems..H . . $<panda2ilit4: +nlike a large centrali/ed system< a *AN may e'ol'e with time.. Distri$uted !omputing ?. This enhances the relia$ility and a'aila$ility of the systems to users. There are $oth the costs of the wirer and its installation to consider.

.?5 $ast of Access: The connection pattern of a *AN is normally a simple topological form such as a ring or a tree and this has implications for the routing of packets on a *AN. (&ecuta$le files may reside locally or remotely as well< meaning a workstation can run its own programs or those copied off the *AN.he other ad'antages of LAN are as follows: 4.$'iously< diskless workstations require all data to $e stored remotely< including that data necessary for the diskless machine to $oot up.. *AN adhering to a certain standard< permits multi6'endor systems to $e connected to it. 8. In *AN< the systems are generally so chosen as to meet most of the user requirements locally and the network is used only for resource and information sharing purposes. It may allow data to $e stored locally or remotely on a file ser'er. &er'ers: A ser'er is a computer that pro'ides the data< software and hardware resources that are shared on the *AN. A *AN can ha'e more than one ser'er= each has its unique name on the network and all *AN users identify the ser'er $y its name. . All the *AN users may share e&pensi'e peripherals< hosts and data$ases. . . Co-ponents of LAN Workstations: In *AN< a workstation refers to a machine that will allow users access to a *AN and its resources while pro'iding intelligence on $oard allowing local e&ecution of applications. *AN pro'ides a resource6sharing en'ironment.

4pes of &er'ers: In large installations< which ha'e hundreds of workstations sharing resource< a single computer is often not sufficient to function as a ser'er. Since< it is not completely dedicated to ser'ing. &o-e of the other ser'ers ha'e 2een disc+ssed here +nder: 4. . . . Thus< there is a user networking on the computer and using it as a workstation< $ut part of the computer also dou$les up as a ser'er. (edicated &er'er: A ser'er that functions only as a storage area for data and software and allows access to hardware resources is called a dedicated ser'er. 9ile &er'er: A file ser'er stores files that workstations can access and it also decides on the rights and restrictions that the users need to ha'e while accessing files on *AN.?4 4.. . Such a ser'er is called a non6dedicated ser'er. 8. Non?(edicated &er'er: In many *ANs< the ser'er is 7ust another work station. Ser'er attached to one or two modems would ser'e the purpose. /rinter &er'er: A Printer ser'er takes care of the printing requirement of a num$er of workstations. 8. *ANs do not require a dedicated ser'er since resource sharing amongst a few workstations is proportionately on a smaller scale.ther .. Dedicated ser'ers need to $e powerful computers. odern &er'er: It allows *AN users to use the modern to transmit long distance messages.

N$. ecause each machine has a unique name or num$er 0so the rest of the network can identify it1< you will hear the term node name or node num$er quite often. Thus a typical ten P! local area network may ha'e one large ser'er with all the ma7or files and data$ases on it and all the other machines connected as clients. A node essentially means any de'ice that is attached to the network. In the more common definition of a client< the ser'er supplies files and sometimes processing power to the smaller machines connected to it. N. (ach machine is a client.?8 CLI$N.($&: Small networks that comprise of a ser'er and a num$er of P!. This type of terminology is common with T!P"IP networks< where no single machine is necessarily the central repository. (ach P! on the network is called a node.3@ IN.W.$39AC$ CA3(& .& A client is any machine that requires something from a ser'er.

An interface card has a speciali/ed port that matches the electrical signaling standards used on the ca$le and the specific type of ca$le connector. Token ring *ANs require token ring NI!s< (thernet *ANs require (thernet NI!s< etc. . The Network Interface card< or *AN adapter< functions as an interface $etween the computer and the network ca$ling< so it must ser'e two masters. Software is required to interface $etween a particular NI! and an operating system. Inside the computer< it controls the flow of data to and from the 2andom6Access )emory 02A)1. It is ad'isa$le to $ut P!I6equipped computers and using P!I *AN adapters where'er possi$le. The peripheral component interface $us has emerged as a new standard for adapter card interfaces. .ne must select a network interface card that matches your computer@s data $us and the network ca$le. .utside the computer< it controls the flow of data in and out of the network ca$le system.?.

?? Connectors: !onnectors used with TP included 2O644 and 2O6?A modular connectors in current use $y phone companies. The .ccasionally other special connectors< such as I )@s Data !onnector< are used. If the user name and password are 'alid< the ser'er CauthenticatesD the user and allows him access to all network ser'ices and resources to which he has $een granted rights. The network operating system pro'ides many ser'ices< including coordinating file access and file sharing< managing ser'er memory< managing data security< scheduling tasks for processing coordinating printer .perating &4steThe Network . .perating &4ste-s: . 2O644 connectors accommodate ? wires or 8 twisted pairs< while 2O6?A houses F wires or ? twisted pairs. In other words< the network operating system is the 'ery heart of the network.he Network . To log in< a user enters a log in command and gi'es his user name and password. A client6ser'er operating system is responsi$le for coordinating the use of all resources and ser'ices a'aila$le from the ser'er on which it is running. The network file system is also a ser'er resource.n a !lient Ser'er Network< the network operating system is installed and runs on a computer called the network ser'er.S manages 'arious ser'er resources< which include hardware such as hard disks< 2A)< printers and equipment used for remote communications< such as modems. . The ser'er must $e a specific type of computer.perating System software acts as the command center< ena$ling all of the network hardware and all other network software to function together as one cohesi'e< organi/ed system. The client part of a client6ser'er network is any other network de'ice or process that makes requests to use ser'er resources and ser'ices. Client &er'er Network .

)aintenance – *arge networks will require a staff to ensure efficient operation. 8. /eer?to?/eer Network .. .perating &4ste-s: (na$le networked computers to function as $oth a ser'er and a workstation. A.. !entrali/ed – 2esources and data security are controlled through the ser'er.?A access< and managing inter network communications. Peer6to6peer operating systems ha'e $oth ad'antages and disad'antages when compared to client6ser'er operating systems. Ad'antages of a client7ser'er network: 4. (isad'antages of a client7ser'er network: 4. The most important functions performed $y a client ser'er operating system are ensuring the relia$ility of data stored on the ser'er and managing ser'er security. Scala$ility – Any or all elements can $e replaced indi'idually as needs increase.le&i$ility – New technology can $e easily integrated into system. Interopera$ility – All components 0client"network"ser'er1 work together. They pro'ide many of the same resources and ser'ices so do client ser'er operating systems< and under the right circumstances< can pro'ide good performance. (&pense – 2equires initial in'estment in dedicated ser'er. 8. Dependence – #hen ser'er goes down< operations will cease across the network. Accessi$ility – Ser'er can $e accessed remotely and across multiple platforms. In a peer6to6peer network< the operating system is installed on e'ery networked computer= this ena$les any networked computer to pro'ide resources and ser'ices to all other networked computers. . ?. . .

Also< the ser'ices they pro'ide are a great deal less ro$ust than those pro'ided $y mature< full6featured client6ser'er operating systems and the performance of peer6to6 peer networks commonly decreases significantly.?B Peer6to6peer networks pro'ide fewer ser'ices than client6ser'er operating systems. .

B+s . These apparent ad'antages of the $us topology are offset< $y the difficulty in . 8. 2equires less ca$le length than a star topology. Additionally< a single ca$le is easier to install than se'eral ca$les. This doesn@t mean the physical layout< $ut how the logical layout looks when 'iewed in a simplified diagram. 8. This approach is 'ery economical< as single ca$le is cheaper to purchase than se'eral indi'idual ca$les. Security – Does not pro'ide the security a'aila$le on a client"serer network.opolog4: In this topology all de'ices share a common wire to transmit and recei'e data. Classification of LAN: Network topologies: A network topology is the way the ca$ling is laid out.?E Ad'antages of a peer?to?peer 4. (isad'antages of a peer?to?peer network 4. Decentrali/ed – No central repository for files and applications. (asy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear $us.

&. . Star topology a popular choice in the networking market place.?F trou$le shooting a pro$lem in this layout. Since e'ery one shares the same ca$le no two machines can transmit at once or the $its of data from each will collide destroying $oth pieces of information.opolog4: Star topology deri'es its name from the arrangement of de'ices so that they radiate from a central point. 8. A data reflection can occur any time an electronic signal encounters a short or an open. (ntire network shuts down if there is a $reak in the main ca$le. Terminators are required at $oth ends of the $ack$oned ca$les. . 8. 9ey $enefits of the star topology is the hu$ unit which may 'ary in function from a simple signal splitter to one that amplifies and keeps statistics on data tra'eling through them.. . 2equires less ca$le length than a star topology. Trou$le shooting in $us topologies may require a good pair of sneakers. Not good as a stand6alone solution in a large $uilding. Ad'antages of a Linear B+s . (isad'antages of a Linear B+s . This e'ent is called a collision and o$'iously too many of them can $e disastrous to traffic flow on a network. %u$s that amplify signals coming through are called acti'e hu$s or multi6port repeaters. The end result is the same reflected data collides with the CgoodD data on the *AN and traffic flow is impacted.n the ends of the common ca$le< a de'ice a called a terminator is utili/ed to a$sor$ signals that ha'e tra'ersed the entire length of the $us.opolog4 4. (asy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear $us. ?. At the central point we usually see a de'ice generically called a hu$.opolog4 4.A3 . It is difficult to identify the pro$lem if the entire network shuts down.

. . 2equires more ca$le length than a linear topology. (isad'antages of a &tat . It@s o$'ious how the central hu$ de'ice offers ad'antages< $ut there is one draw$ack. The hu$ itself represents a single point of failure.opolog4 4. At the 'ery least< one may disconnect de'ices from a central hu$ to isolate a pro$lem as opposed to 'isiting each indi'idual machine. (asy to detect faults and to remo'e parts. Trou$le shooting is $it easier than us topology. If you lose a hu$< you effecti'ely lose all workstations attached to it. No disruptions to the network when connecting or remo'ing de'ices. The hu$s themsel'es require e&pense and the le'el of that e&pense is direct attri$uta$le to how comple& a hu$ is needed. . Ad'antages of a &tar .?H Star topologies do require more ca$le than a simple $us topology< $ut most use a relati'ely ine&pensi'e type of ca$le called twisted pair ca$ling which helps control costs of wiring.opolog4 4. (asy to install and wire. 8.

3ing . A special signal called a token tra'el around this ring 'isiting each machine letting it know that it is that machine@s turn to transmit. Since the token 'isits e'ery node< e'ery one gets the chance to transmit< creating a 'ery CfairD *AN.A5 8.opolog4: It descri$es the logical layout of token ring and . Since e'ery piece of data tra'eling around a ring . If the hu$ fails< nodes attached are disa$led. The logical creation of a ring allows information on such a *AN to tra'el in one direction. Since only one de'ice is allowed to transmit at a time< collisions are not a pro$lem on ring systems. Typical ring system NI!s contain the a$ility to perform what is known as signal regeneration< this means information recei'ed $y them is copied and retransmitted at a higher amplification. )ore e&pensi'e than linear $us topologies $ecause of the cost of the concentrators.. The simplistic e&planation $elies the true comple&ity of ring topology systems a'aila$le today. .DDI networks. Token ring *ANs< and their .DDI cousins< are the most sophisticated fault6tolerant< and consequently< the most e&pensi'e systems a'aila$le in the current market place. In this a ring is created to which each de'ice is attached.

The signal gets regenerated numerous times. 8. . Supported $y se'eral hardware and software 'endors. )ore difficult to configure and wire than other topologies.A3?WI3$( 3IN=1 . .. 8. Point6to6point wiring for indi'idual segments. . This feature allows for greater distances $etween nodes and increased chances that good data will completely tra'erse the ring. Ad'antages of a tree topolog4: 4.opolog4: A tree topology com$ines characteristics of linear $us and star topologies.'erall the type of ca$ling used limits length of each segment. (isad'antages of a tree topolog4 4.A4 must 'isit each de'ice. If the $ack$one line $reaks< the entire segment goes down. It consists of groups of star configured workstations connected to a linear $us $ack$one ca$le.ree . &.

.=A: • • • • one41 A liner $us network may $e the least e&pensi'e way to install a network= Length of ca2le needed1 The linear $us network uses shorter lengths of ca$le.&IN= A .N&I($3A. LAN Access Control Collision &ense +ltiple Access 7 Collision (etection !C& A7C("1 In $us topology systems< all de'ices are attached to a common wire.N& W:$N C:. Internally< the multi6station access unit of a star6wired ring contains wiring that allows information to pass from one de'ice to another in a circle or ring. Since se'eral de'ices may need to use the wire at once< machines are said to $e contending for the media.A8 A star6wired ring topology may appear 0e&ternally1 to $e the same as a star topology.I.. Ca2le t4pe1 The most common ca$le is unshielded twisted pair< which is most often used with star topologies. As mentioned in a pre'ious section< this means that only one de'ice may use the common wire at a time. 9+t+re growth1 #ith a star topology< adding another concentrator easily does e&panding a network./. .L. C.

The collision detection part means that each workstation listens to make sure that only one signal is present on the *AN. The capacity of the *AN may $e far underutili/ed in this e'ent. If another signal 0containing a CcarrierD1 was present< than the de'ice attempting to send would wait until the *AN is clear. *ocal Talk *ANs used $y )acintosh P!s also use !S)A contention schemes< $ut these machines incorporate a technology called time6di'ision multiple&ing to allow a'oidance of collisions. The ma7or ad'antage of contention systems is that de'ices may transmit whene'er they like 7ust as long as the *AN is free. %owe'er< as traffic increases in a contention system< collisions can $ecome e&cessi'e< impacting the o'erall performance of the network. In the e'ent there are two then o$'iously the data from one de'ice has collided with that of another. If transfer of . . The token gi'es permission for the de'ice to transmit if it needs to. In fact< *ocal Talk Systems are said to $e !S)A"!A systems< with !A standing for !ollision A'oidance. Though this seems a lot of words< the meaning is quite simple. (thernet systems use a channel access method known as !S)A"!D< short for !arrier Sense )ultiple Access " !ollision Detection.A. !arrier Sense means that each de'ice checks the *AN $efore it starts transmitting to see if some other de'ice is using the media then.oken /assing &che-e This technology is used for token ring systems. Its incorporation along with complementary fault6tolerance capa$ilities yields a *AN with a fair amount of sophistication< managea$ility and relia$ility. The other ma7or disad'antage is that contention systems do not follow an easily predicta$le pattern of performance degradation as traffic increases. Then it transmits its data. In this channel accesses a small signal called a token which regularly 'isits each de'ice. !onsequently the o'er headed of de'ices waiting on the opportunity is generally low.

There are se'eral types of ca$le< which are commonly used with *ANs. Token ring systems are additionally considera$ly more e&pensi'e than (thernet systems.A? data is needed< the de'ice recei'es a set amount of time to $roadcast its data. As traffic demand increases on a token *AN< the o'erall throughput of data rises as well< until a point is reached where the networks simply cannot accommodate anymore.WI&. The type of ca$le chosen for a network is related to the network@s topology< protocol< and si/e. These systems are ideal for hea'y traffic situations. The 'arious types of ca$les are as followsG .$( /AI3 CABLIN=: . +nderstanding the characteristics of different types of ca$le and how they relate to other aspects of a network is necessary for the de'elopment of a successful network. This mechanism ensures opportunity for all de'ices to gain access to the *AN. #hen it is done< the machine then retransmits the token to another machine gi'ing that recipient permission to transmit< and so the system continues. ha'e enhanced access to the *AN if warranted. . Token systems require o'erhead to carry out their many functions including fault6tolerance. !omple&ity of such a *AN does come at some cost. ecause of its predicta$le $eha'ior< token scheme *ANs offers the ad'antage of priorities< where a certain group of de'ices may LAN CABLIN= !a$le is the medium thorough which information usually mo'es from one network de'ice to another. The function in this case is somewhat like a waterwheel. The wheel itself recei'es water from a sluice. Jou may increase the capacity of the wheel< $ut the sluice can only hold so much water. Throughput characteristics of token *ANs are so predicta$le< $ecause of the characteristics of traffic demand.actors weighing in deciding which system to choose should include traffic demand and $udgetary restraints.

A copper 'ersion of fi$er optic@s . Twisted pair comes in two different 'arieties6 shielded and unshielded. The marketplace popularity is primarily due to twisted pair@s 0TP@s1 low cost in proportion to its functionality. This Special layer is designed to help offset interference pro$lems. If properly manufactured< the twists themsel'es fall in no consistent pattern. STP is simply TP ca$ling with a foil or mesh wrap inside the outer coating. This is to help offset electrical distur$ances< which can affect TP ca$le such as radio frequency interference 02.DDI< called !DDI< will continue to mature while standardi/ation is worked out for 455 )$ps (thernet systems $y the mid H5s.AA Twisted pair ca$ling is the current popular fa'orite for new *AN installations. %owe'er< the standard for fi$er stipulates *AN speeds of only 455 ) $ps< for $elow the fi$er optic ca$le@s actual capacity. Two insulated wires are twisted around one another a set num$er of times within one foot of distance. These CpairsD of wires are then $undled together and coated to form a ca$le.I1 and electromagnetic interference 0()I1. !opper ca$le will not allow the speeds attaina$le with fi$er optic ca$le. The shielding has to $e properly grounded< howe'er< or it may cause serious pro$lems for the *AN. TP ca$ling has $een around a while and is a tried and true medium. New de'elopment is focusing on achie'ing 455 )$ps throughput on +TP without costing the user an arm and a leg. Shielded twisted pair 0STP1 is often implemented with *ocal Talk $y Apple and $y I )@s token ring systems. . It hasn@t $een a$le to support high6speed data transmissions until relati'ely recently howe'er. The construction of TP is simple.

. !arries data at upto 45 )$ps. 8N&:I$L($( . Doesn@t support as high a speed as other media. +TP $y itself is often grouped $y CgradesD. . #ell tested and easy to get.AN(A3(&" STP< two pair< 88 gauge< solid conductors< and $raided6 Type 4 ca$le with additional four pairs of +TP.AB Twisted pair is grouped into certain classifications $ased on quality and transmission characteristics..WI&. Suscepti$le to 2. Ine&pensi'e 8. :rade .WI&. C. #ISA#$ANTA%&S 4. +TP< 88 or 8? gauge< 8 twists per foot< four pairs. . Type F Two pair< 8B gauge< and untwisted $ut untwisted $ut shielded ca$le .WI&.ften a'aila$le in e&isting phone system . Not as dura$le as coa&.I and ()I 8. Two pair< stranded 0not solid1 8B gauge< patch ca$les. Type 8 Type .ABIAL CABL$: .A/$& !IB Type 4 shield.i$er optic ca$le used to link )A+s. I ) calls the classifications CtypesD.. Type A Type B &.$( /AI3 CABL$: A#$ANTA%&S 4.$( /AI3 CABL$ .$( /AI3 =3A($& :rade 4 Suita$le for 'oice transmission and data transfer upto 4 )$ps. :rade A Support speeds at upto 455 )$ps. . :rade ? 2ated at 85 )$ps. :rade 8 !apa$le of carrying data at ? )$ps.

hms . The conductor within a conductor sharing a single a&is is how the name of the ca$le is deri'ed.N C. It has fit the $ill perfectly for applications requiring sta$le transmission characteristics o'er fairly long distances. (ach has its own 2: specification that go'erns si/e and impedance< the measure of a ca$le@s resistance to an alternating current.3@IN=: Type !ommon +sage Impedance 2:6F Thick (thernet A5 . It is typically composed of a copper conductor that ser'es as the CcoreD of the ca$le. It has $een used in A2! net systems< (thernet systems and is sometimes used to connect one hu$ de'ice to another in order systems. C.A/$& 8&$( IN N$.W. These characteristics impro'e as the si/e of the coa& increases. This conductor is co'ered $y a piece of insulating plastic< which is co'ered $y a wire mesh ser'ing as $oth a shield and second conductor.hms 2:644 road$and *ANs EA . !onstruction6wise coa& is little more comple& than TP.AE !oa&ial ca$le or 7ust Ccoa&D en7oys a huge installed $ase among *AN sites in the +S. !oa&ial ca$le@s construction and components make it superior to twisted pair for carrying data. It can carry data farther and faster than TP can.ABIAL CABL$ . There are se'eral different types of coa& used in the network world. P>! or other coating then coats this second conductor. Different ca$le can differ widely in many important areas. .

aster data rates than twisted pair .i$er optic is unsophisticated in its structure< $ut e&pensi'e in its manufacture. It is worth noting that there are two kinds of fi$er optic ca$le commercially a'aila$le6single mode and multimode.hms 2:6AH Tele'ision EA .hms !. . ecause of fi$er@s formida$le e&pense< howe'er< we are not likely to see it at the local workstation any time real soon.hms 2:6B8 A2! net H. The crucial element for fi$er is glass that makes up the core of the ca$ling. Supports . AT use single mode in the telecommunications industry and T or +S sprint to carry huge 'olumes of 'oice data./. . !an $e effected $y strong interference 8. ulkier and more rigid than TP 9IB$3 . The glass fi$ers may $e only a few microns thick or $undled to produce something more si/a$le.IC&: ... )ore dura$le than TP #ISA#$ANTA%&S 4. )ore costly than TP. . .I and ()I 8.airly resistant to 2.AMIA* !A *( A#$ANTA%&S 4. .i$er has come into importance on its own as the premier $ounded media for high6speed *AN use. )ultimode is what we use in the *AN world.AF 2:6AF Thin (thernet A5 .

Single mode fi$er used in telecommunications has a theoretical top speed in e&cess of 8A<555 :$ps. That much data is the equi'alent of all the catalogued knowledge of man transmitted through a single small glass tu$e in less than 85 seconds.DDI $eha'es 'ery much like token ring< only much faster. .i$er optic is lightweight and is utili/ed often with *(Ds 0*ight (mitting Diodes1 and I*Ds 0In7ection *aser solution was to create synthetic ca$les from plastic as opposed to glass. The $andwidth or capacity of fi$er is enormous is comparison with copper ca$ling. The ca$le itself is pricey< $ut demand will ease that $urden as more people in'est in this medium. Some fi$er optic ca$les incorporate 9e'lar fi$ers for added strength and dura$ility. Since it contains no metal< it is not suscepti$le to pro$lems that copper wiring encounters like 2. The standard go'erning implementation of fi$er optic in the marketplace is called the fiber distributed data interface standard or . These tools are e&pensi'e and hired skills are e&pensi'e too. An added feature for . The $iggest hindrance to fi$er is the cost.DDI. 9e'lar is the stuff of which $ulletproof 'ests are made< so it@s tough. A plastic then surrounds this cladding or P>! outer 7acket which pro'ides additional strength and protection for the inwards. )ultimode fi$er can carry data in e&cess of A giga$its per second. Special tools and skills are needed to work with fi$er.I and ()I. . .DDI specifies the speed of the *AN< the construction of the ca$le< and distance of transmission guidelines. Attempts ha'e $een made to ease the cost of fi$er. #hile this ca$le worked< it didn@t possess the near capa$ilities of glass fi$er optic< so its acceptance has $een somewhat limited. Plus< fi$er optic is e&tremely difficult to tap< so security is not a real issue.AH The glass core of a fi$er optic ca$le is surrounded $y and $ound to a glass tu$e called CcladdingD.DDI is a . . !ladding adds strength to the ca$le while disallowing any stray light wa'e from lea'ing the central core. The plastic fi$er ca$les are constructed like glass fi$er only with a plastic core and cladding.

. LAN /rotocols: A protocol is a set of rules that go'erns the communications $etween computers on a network. .B5 $ackup ring in case the main ring fails.or an increased speed of transmission< the (thernet protocol has de'eloped to new standard that supports 455 )$ps. If the network is clear< the computer will transmit.ast (thernet. (ach computer then $acks off and waits a random amount of time $efore attempting to retransmit. Data can $e transmitted o'er twisted pair< coa&ial or fi$er optic ca$le at a speed of 45 )$ps. #ith this access method< it is normal to ha'e commissions. This fault tolerance along with the fault tolerance already incorporated in token ring technology makes . This is commonly called . It uses an access method called !S)A"!D 0!arrier Sense )ultiple Access " !ollision Detection1. This is a system where each computer listens to the ca$le $efore sending anything through the network. This protocol allows for linear $us< star< or tree topologies. These rules include guidelines that regulate the following characteristics of a network= access method< allowed physically topologies< types of ca$ling< and speeds of data transfer.ast (thernet requires the use of different< more e&pensi'e network concentrators"hu$s and network interface cards. 9ast $thernet: .DDI *ANs pretty resilient. If some other node is already transmitting on the ca$le< the computer will wait and try again when the line is clear< sometimes< two computers attempt to transmit at the same instant< when this happens a collision occurs. $thernet: The (thernet protocol is $y far the most widely used.

The token ring protocol requires a star wired ring using twisted pair or fi$er optic ca$le. If a computer wishes to transmit and recei'es an empty token< it attaches data to the token. The access method used in'ol'es token passing. It is similar to !S)A"!D e&cept that a computer signals its intent to transmit $efore it actually does so. for )acintosh !omputers. A primary disad'antage of *ocal Talk is seed< its speed of transmission is only 8. The token then proceeds around the ring until it comes to the computer for which the data is meant. Transmission normally occurs on one of the rings= howe'er< if a $reak occurs< the system keeps information mo'ing $y automatically using portions of the second ring to create a .alk: *ocal talk is a network protocol that was de'eloped $y Apple !omputer< Inc. A single electronic token mo'es around the ring from one computer to ne&t. At this point< the recei'ing computer captures the data.5 9$ps.DDI1 is a network protocol< used primarily to interconnect two or more local area networks< often o'er large distance. . In token ring the computers are connected so that the signal tra'els around the network from one computer to another in a logical ring. . The *ocal Talk protocol allows for linear $us< star< or tree topologies using twisted pair ca$le. 9((I: .DDI uses a dual ring physical topology.oken 3ing: I ) de'eloped this protocol in the mid 4HF5s. It can operate at transmission speeds of ? )$ps or 4B )$ps. If a computer does not ha'e information to transmit< it simply passes the token on to the ne&t workstation. The access method used $y .DDI in'ol'es token passing.B4 Local . The )acintosh operating system allows the esta$lishment of a peer6to6peer network without the need for additional software. The method used $y local talk is !S)A"!S 0!arrier Sense )ultiple Access with !ollision A'oidance1.i$er Distri$uted Data Interface 0. *ocal Talk adapters and special twisted pair ca$le can $e used to connect a series of computers through the serial port.

These layers in'ol'e the physical medium on which we mo'e data and the way that we interact with it.4< which specified a framework for *AN@s and inter6networking.DDI Cable Twisted !oa&ial< .SI model are addressed. This organi/ation is huge with o'er .SI model initiated $y the IS. I((( is credited with ha'ing pro'ided definiti'e standards in *ocal Area Networking. 'rotocol (thernet . It operates o'er fi$er optic ca$le at 455 )$ps. These standards fall under a group of standards known as the F58 pro7ect.SI model up into two separate components. The first pu$lished work was F58.@s . This was followed in 4HFA with specific *AN6oriented standards titled F58..86F58. A ma7or ad'antage of . The !omputer Society of I(((@s F58 pro7ect committee is di'ided into se'eral su$6committees that deal with specific standards in these general areas.DDI is speed.i$er Twisted Pair Twisted Pair .55<555 mem$ers cosists up of engineers< technicians< scientists< and students in related areas. F58 I((( committee responsi$le for setting standards concerning ca$ling< physical topologies< logical topologies and physical access methods for networking products. .i$er Twisted Pair< .B8 new complete ring.i$er S(eed Pair< 45 )$ps 455 )$ps 8. Specifically the Physical *ayer and the Data *ink *ayer of the IS. )ost of the work performed $y the F58 pro7ect committee re'ol'es around the first two layers of the . The computer society of I((( alone has o'er 455<555 mem$ers.ast (thernet *ocal Talk Token 2ing . The F58 standards were the culmination of work performed $y the su$committee starting in 4HF5. )$ps ? )$ps – 4B )$ps 455 )$ps To(olo!y *inear us< Star< Tree Star *inear us or Star Star – #ired 2ing Dual 2ing LAN &tandards: Institute of (lectrical and (lectronic (ngineers 0I(((1G The I((( has done nota$le work in the standards area of networking. In order to $etter define these functions< the I((( split the Data *ink *ayer of the .A.

B )etropolitan Area Networks are defined $y this group. F58. It in'ol'es the token passing concept on a ring topology with twisted pair ca$ling. F58.. F58.B.? Standards de'eloped for a token passing scheme on a $us topology. . F58.8 !alled the *ogical *ink !ontrol 0**!1 standards< this specification go'erns the communication of packets of information from one de'ice to another on a network. )ANs are networks that are larger than *ANs typically falling within A5 9ilometers.4D.4 This set of standards specifically address the network management. F58.A This standard defines token ring systems. Defines the way data has access to a network for multiple topology systems using !S)A"!D. I )@s token ring system uses this specification= the speed is either ? )$ps or 4B )$ps. A prime e&ample is (thernet and Star *AN Systems. F58. F58.F This group sets up standards for *ANs using fi$er optic ca$ling and access methods. They operate at speeds ranging from 4 )$ps up to a$out 855 )$ps.E These are standards concerning $road$and *ANs.4 This work defines an o'erall picture of *ANs and connecti'ity.4D Standards for $ridges used to connect 'arious types of *ANs together were set up with F58.H This specification co'ers 'oice and digital data integration. F58. The primary utili/ation of this specification was the )anufacturing Automation Protocol *ANs de'eloped $y :eneral )otors< operates at 45 )$ps. F58. F58. F58.

oth infrared and radio *ANs are co'ered. . Though< the processing power and num$er of people interacting with the computer is great economically< such computing power would $e 'ery e&pensi'e. Ad'antages of LAN o'er ini and ainfra-e Co-p+ters )ainframe computers or )ini computers ha'e a huge processing power.45 These mem$ers set standards for interopera$le security.44 #ireless *ANs are the su$7ect of this particular su$committee@s works. F58. Skilled and highly qualified engineers are required for the operations of )ainframe and )inis whiles users themsel'es can manage *ANs without any pro$lem. *AN on the contrary is modular which can $e altered as per the user requirement. ('en the installation and commissioning is e&tremely easy for *ANs. Scala$ility is 'ery difficult and time and money consuming for )ainframes and )inis while *AN is ideally suita$le for this. The setup and operations of )ainframe and )ini systems are rather rigid gi'ing 'ery little room for the fle&i$ility in design and approach *AN on the contrary is modular which can $e altered as per the user requirement.le&i$ility is another ad'antage of the networked P!s. 6+estions .B? F58. )any users are attached to the !P+ with the help of Kdum$ terminals@. The ad'antage of the )ainframe and )ini system are rather rigid gi'ing 'ery little room for the fle&i$ility in design and approach.

BA 4.*ITAN A2(A N(T#.SI modelI . #hat is T!P"IP reference modelI ?.rgani/ation 0IS..*AN standardsI (&plainI A. (&plain the CInternational Standard . #hat are *AN Protocols . Discuss the !haracteristics .29 • Introduction • !ircuit Switching . ring out the concept of *ocal Area NetworkI the techniques of .1 functions and $ring out !hapter ? )(T2.Packet Switching • Synchronous and Asynchronous Transfer )ode • AT) !lasses of Ser'ices .P.+sers of *ANI 8.

B.BB etropolitan Area Network Is $asically a $igger 'ersion of *AN and uses similar technology. It can support $oth data and 'oice and might e'en $e related to the local ca$le tele'ision network.or networks co'ering an entire city< I((( defined one )AN called D3D 0Distri$uted 3ueue Dual us1< as standard F58. . . The technology aspect of )AN is that there is a $roadcast medium< to which all the computers are attached. It co'ers a group of near $y corporate offices or a city and might $e either pri'ate or pu$lic.

The $asic rule is that stations are polite. (ach cell carries a ?? $yte payload field< and it also holds two protocol $its< $usy set to indicate that a cell is occupied< and request< which can $e set when a station wants to make a request. (ach cell tra'els down stream from the head end. Traffic to the left uses the lower one.B is that two parallel uni6directional $usses make through the city with stations attached to $oth $usses in parallel.I. %ere stations queue up in the order till they $ecome ready to send and transmit in . This politeness is needed to pre'ent a situation in which the station nearest to the head end simply grasp all the empty cells as they come $y and fills them up< star'ing e'ery down stream. $yte cells.BE The $asic geometry F58. Traffic that is destined for a computer to the right of the sender uses the upper $us. . order. (ach $us has a head end< which generates a steady stream of A. #hen it reaches the end it falls off the $us..

As this cell propagates down the re'erse $us< e'ery station along the way notes it and increments it@s 2!.!D.B . Then station D makes a request< which causes station !< < and A< to increment their 2! counters< after that D makes a request copying its current 2! 'alue in !D.or simplicity in the discussion $elow it is assumed that a station can ha'e only one cell ready for transmission at a time.. )any carriers throughout the entire cities are now installing D3D )$ps.E. #hen the still empty cell gets to < that station sees that !D U 5< meaning that no one is ahead of it on the queue< so it inserts its data into the cell and sets the $usy $it. As it passes $y < that station sees that its !D S 5< so it may not use the empty cell 0when a station has a cell queue< !D represents its position in the queue< with 5 $eing front of the queue1. At this point the head end on $us A generates an empty cell.BF To simulate the . (ata . In this way stations queue up to take turns without a centrali/ed queue manager. Instead it decrements !D. systems.I. queue< each station maintains two counters< 2! .ransfer in (6(B: To send the cell< a station must first make a reser'ation $y setting the request $it in some cell on the re'erse $us. Typically they run for up to 4B5 9) at speeds of ??. 2! 02equest !ounter1 counts the num$er of downstream request pending until the station itself has a frame to send at that point 2! is copied to !D< 2! is reset to 5< and now counts the num$er of request made after the station $ecame ready. . Initially all the 2! counters are 5 and no cells are queued up as shown in the figure.

. !alls are generally connected at the lowest possi$le le'el.g.he /&. There were many calls from New Jork to *os Angeles. 2ather than go all the way up the hierarchy< they simply installed direct trunks for the $usy routes.N !/+2lic &witched . As a consequence many calls can now $e routed . %owe'er calls from customer attached to end office 4 to a customer attached to end office 8 will ha'e to go to toll office 4.BH A. #ith a pure tree< there is only one minimal route that could normally $e taken. !As4nchrono+s . The telephone companies noticed that some routes were $usier than other e. %owe'er a call from end office 4 to end office ? will ha'e to go to primary office 4< and so on.ransfer ode" .T system which can $e looked at as a general model the telephone system has fi'e classes of switching offices. Thus< if a su$scri$er is connected to end office 4 calls another su$scri$er connected to end office 4 the call will $e completed to that office.ew such lines are shown in the figure as dashed lines.elephone Network": In AT .

Circ+it &witching: #hen a computer places a telephone call< the switching equipment within the telephone system seeks out a physical copper path all the way from the senders telephone to the recei'er telephone< this technique is called !ircuit Switching and is shown fig 0i1. The actual route choosed is generally the most direct one< $ut if the necessary trunks along it are full< the alternati'e is chosen.E5 along many paths. . Circ+it &witching and /acket &witching Two different switching techniques are used in the telecommunications systems namely !ircuit Switching and Packet Switching.

or many computer applications long setup time are undesira$le. During this time inter'al the telephone system is hunting for a copper path. As a result of the esta$lished path there is no danger of congestion i. per thousand kms. .E4 An important property of circuit switching is the need to setup an end6to6end path $efore any data can $e sent. /acket &witching: In packet Switching fi&ed length $locks or packets or information is sent o'er the transmission line. .nce the setup is completed the only delay for data is the propagation time for the electro magnetic signal a$out A msec.e. once the call is put through< you ne'er get $usy signals< although you might get one $efore the connection has $een esta$lished due to lack of switching or trunk capacity. The further ad'antage of packet switching is that the first packet of a )ulti6packet message . y making sure that no user can monopoli/e any transmission line for 'ery long packet switching networks are well suited for handling interacti'e traffic. The elapsed time $etween the end of dialing and the start of ringing can easily $e 45 seconds< more on long distant or international calls.

. +sually< the analog signals are sampled on a round ro$in $asis with resulting analog screen $eing fade to the !odec rather than ha'ing 8? separate !odecs and then merging the digital output. This rate is go'erned $y a master clock.i&ed Jes No Jes 2equired At setup time Per minute 'acket * Sw)tc+ed No Dynamic No Jes No Not 2equired Not packet Per packet &4nchrono+s & As4nchrono+s . At a lower sampling rate< information will $e lost= at a higher one< no e&tra information would $e gained. This technique is called P!) 0Pulse !ode )odulation1. AT) in contrast has no requirement that cells rigidly alternate among the 'arious sources.E8 can $e forwarded $efore the second one has fully arri'ed< reducing delay and impro'ement throughput. .ne T4 frame is generated precisely e'ery 48A micro second.ransfer ode: Analog signals at digiti/ed in the end office $y a de'ice called !odec 0!ode Decoder1< reducing F6$it num$er. The !odec makes F555 samples per second 048A micro second per sample1 $ecause the Nyquist Theorem says that this is sufficient to capture all the information from the ? k%/ telephone channel $andwidth. 'arameter Dedicated CcopperD path andwidth a'aila$le Potentially #asted andwidth Store6and6forward transmission (ach packet follows the same route !all Setup #hen can congestion occur !harging C)rcu)t * Sw)tc+ed Jes . .ne method that is in wide use in North America and Oapan is the T4 carrier. !ells arri'e randomly from different sources with no particular pattern. The T4 carrier consists of 8? 'oice channel multiple& together.

common *AN"#AN architecture allowing AT) to $e used consistently from one desktop to another. Scala$ility in speed and network si/e supporting link speeds of T64"(64 to .E. The simplification possi$le through AT) >!s could $e in areas such as $illing< traffic management< security< and configuration management.. !lass6of6ser'ice support for multimedia ?. This is particularly for *AN6 ased traffic< which today is connectionless in nature. . %igh performance 'ia hardware watching 8. Dynamic $andwidth for $ursty traffic . )ost applications are or can $e 'iewed as inherently $ursty= data applications are *AN6$ased and are 'ery $ursty< 'oice is $ursty since $oth parties are either speaking at once or all the time= 'ideo is $ursty since the amount of motion and required resolution 'aries o'er time. International standards compliance The high6le'el $enefits deli'ered through AT) ser'ices deployed on AT) technology using International AT) standards can $e summari/ed as followsG %igh performance 'ia hardware switching with tera$it switches on the hori/on. Scala$ility in speed and network si/e A.pportunities for simplification 'ia switched >! architecture. . .!648 0B88 )$ps1 today and into the multi :$ps range $efore the end of the decade.pportunities for simplification 'ia >! architecture B. are the following: 4. Dynamic $andwidth for $ursty traffic meeting application needs and deli'ering high utili/ation of networking resources. . !lass6of6ser'ice support for multimedia traffic allowing applications with 'arying throughput and latency requirement to $e met on a single network.he 2enefits of A.

The header is organi/ed for efficient switching in high6speed hardware implementations and carries payload6type information< 'irtual6circuit identifiers< and header error check. .echnolog4: In AT) networks< all information is formatted into fi&ed length cells consisting of ?F $ytes 0F $its per $yte1 of payload and A $ytes of cell header. A. The fi&ed cell si/e ensures that time6critical information such as 'oice or 'ideo is not ad'ersely affected $y long data frames or packets.E? International Standards compliance in central office and customer6premise en'ironments allowing for multi6'endor operation. .

This 'irtual trunk can then $e handled as a single entity $y< perhaps< multiple intermediate 'irtual path cross connects $etween the two 'irtual circuit switches. These can $e $undled $y the two AT) switches into a 'irtual path connection.rgani/ing different streams of traffic in separate cells allows the user to specify the resources required and allows the network to allocate resources $ased on these needs. They can also $e point6to6point or point6to6multipoint< thus pro'iding a rich set of ser'ice connections: a1 >irtual path connections 0>P!1 which contain 'irtual channel connections . Two AT) switches may ha'e many different 'irtual channel connections $etween them< $elonging to different users.EA AT) is connection oriented. 0>!!1. >irtual circuits can $e statistically configured as permanent 'irtual circuits 0P>!s1 or dynamically controlled 'ia signaling as switched 'irtual circuits 0S>!s1. A 'irtual path connection can $e created from end6to end across an AT) network. $1 A 'irtual channel connection 0or 'irtual circuit1 is the $asic unit< which caries a single of cells< in order< from user to user. All cells $elonging to a particular 'irtual path are routed the same way through the AT) network< thus resulting in faster reco'ery in case of ma7or failures. In this case< the AT) network does not route cells $elonging to a particular 'irtual circuit. . This can ser'e the purpose of a 'irtual trunk $etween the two switches. A collection of 'irtual circuits can $e $undled together into a 'irtual path connection. A. standards defined two t4pes of A. )ultiple&ing multiple streams of traffic on each physical facility com$ined with the a$ility send the streams to many different destinations ena$les cost sa'ings through a reduction in the num$er of interfaces and facilities required constructing a network. An AT) network also uses 'irtual paths internally for purposes of $undling 'irtual circuits together $etween switches.

5 specification1. The cell rate is constant with time. This class allows users to send traffic at a rate that 'aries with time depending on the a'aila$ility of user information. S>!s are the preferred mode of operation $ecause they can $e dynamically esta$lished< thus minimi/ing reconfiguration comple&ity. (&amples for real time > 2 are 'oices with speech acti'ity detection 0SAD1 and interacti'e compressed A'aila$le it 2ate 0A 21 'ideo.9 &$3CIC$&: AT) is connection oriented and allows the user to dynamically specify the resources required on a per6connection $asis 0per S>!1. This class is similar to > 26N2T $ut is designed for applications that are sensiti'e to cell delay 'ariation. There are the fi'e classes of ser'ice defined for AT) 0as per AT) . ATM Serv)ce Classes" Ser'ice !lass !onstant it 2ate 0! 21 3uality of ser'ice parameter This class is used for emulating circuit switching. Statistical multiple&ing is pro'ided to make optimum use of network resources. (&amples of applications that can use ! 2 are telephone traffic< >aria$le it 2ate6Non62eal Time 'ideo conferencing< and tele'ision.EB capa$ilities. )ultimedia >aria$le it 2ate62eal Time e6mail is an e&ample of > 26N2T. ! 2 applications are quite sensiti'e to cell6delay 'ariation.orum +NI ?. This class of AT) ser'ices pro'ides rate $ased flow control and is aims at data traffic such as file transfer and e6mail. The 3os parameters for these ser'ice classes are summari/ed in the following ta$le. CLA&&$& . A. Although the standard does not require the cell transfer delay and cell6loss ration to $e guaranteed or minimi/ed= it is desira$le for switches to minimi/e .

Depending upon the state of congestion in the network< the source is required to control its rate.EE delay and loss as much as possi$le. #hat is Asynchronous Transfer )odeI Discuss.))(2!IA* *AN SJST()S (T%(2N(T . #hat is )etropolitan Area NetworkI (&plainI 8. (&plain in detail the functions of Asynchronous and Synchronous Transfer )odeI B.(&plain its $enefitsI !hapter A !. #hat is AT) Technology . ?. 6+estions 4. (&plain the !oncept of !ircuit and Packet SwitchingI A.. #hat is D3D structureI . The users are allowed to declare a minimum cell rate< which is guaranteed to the +nspecified it 2ate 0+ 21 connection $y the network This class is the catch6all CotherD class< and is widely used today for T!P"IP.

W:A. Data is transferred $etween wiring closets using either a hea'y coa& ca$le 0CThicknetD1 or fi$er optic ca$le.SI )odel layers 4 VphysicalW and 8 Vdata linkW originally de'eloped $y Mero& in the late 4HE5s.:$3N$. . The hu$ adds less than XA5 to the cost of each desktop connection. It is the least e&pensi'e high6speed *AN alternati'e (thernet adapter cards for a P! range from XB5 to X485.i$er Distri$uted Data Interface.ast (thernet The Arc Net *AN The I ) Token 2ing *AN .55 feet of telephone wire to a Chu$D de'ice normally stacked in a wiring closet. I& $. They transmit and recei'e data at the speed of 45 million $its per second through up to .0 (thernet is a type of network ca$ling and signaling specifications 0.EF        The (thernet *AN Standard (thernet *imitations 45 )$ps Switched (thernet 455 )$ps .

The signal clock for the e&perimental (thernet interfaces was deri'ed from the Alto@s system clock< which resulted in a data transmission rate on the e&perimental (thernet of 8. The system also includes Clisten $efore talkD< in which stations listen for acti'ity 0carrier sense1 $efore transmitting< and supports access to a shared channel $y multiple stations. )etcalfe also de'eloped a much more sophisticated $ackoff algorithm< which in com$ination with the !S)A"!D protocol< allows the (thernet system to function all the way upto 455 percent load. In late 4HE8< )etcalfe and his Mero& PA2! colleagues de'eloped the first e&perimental (thernet system to interconnect the Mero& Alto.EH In'ention of $thernet Dr. The Alto was a personal workstation with a graphical user interface< and e&perimental (thernet was used to link Altos to one another< and to ser'ers and laser printers.H? )$ps. %e de'eloped a new system that included a mechanism that detects when a collision occurs 0collision detect1. %e reali/ed that he could impro'e on the Aloha system of ar$itrating access to a shared communications channel. 2o$ert )etcalfe at Mero& PA2! created the (thernet. . To $ase the name on the word CetherD as a way of descri$ing an essential feature of the systemG the physical medium carries $its to all stations< much the same way that the old Cluminiferous etherD was once through to propagate electromagnetic wa'es through space. Put all these components together. (thernet channel access protocol is called !arrier Sense )ultiple Access with !ollision Detect 0!S)A"!D1. All . Thus< (thernet was $orn.peration of $thernet1 (ach (thernet6equipped computer< also known as a station< operates independently of all other stations on the network< there is no central controller.

*ight and electricity tra'el a$out one foot in a nanosecond. This ensures that access to the network channel is fair< and that no single station can lock out the other stations. (thernet signals are transmitted serially< one $it at a time< o'er the shared signal channel to e'ery attached station. Access to the shared channel is determined $y the )edium Access !ontrol 0)A!1 mechanism em$edded in the (thernet interface located in each station. This stands for C!arrier Sense< )ultiple Access< !ollision DetectD. Therefore< after the electric signal for the first $it has tra'eled a$out 455 feet down the wire< the station has $egun to send the second $it. To send data a station first listens to the channel< and when the channel is idle the station transmits its data in the form of an (thernet frame< or packet. An (thernet ca$le can run for hundreds of feet. . If the *AN appears to $e idle then the station can $egin to send data. Need for Coll+sion (etect An (thernet station sends data at a rate of 45 mega$its per second. The C!arrier SenseD part says that $efore transmitting data< a station checks the wire to see if any other station is already sending something.F5 stations attached to an (thernet are connected to a shared signaling system< also called the medium. Access and collisions (thernet uses a protocol called C& AC(. The C)ultiple AccessD part means that e'ery station is connected to a single copper wire 0or a set of wires that are connected together to form a single data path1. If two stations are located< say< 8A5 feet apart on the same ca$le< and $oth $egin transmitting at the same time< then they will $e in the middle of the third $it $efore the signal from each reaches. That $it allows 455 nanoseconds per $it. All stations on the network must contend equally for the ne&t frame transmission opportunity.

55 feet on ordinary wire. #hen such a collision occurs< the two stations stop transmitting< C$ack offD< and try again later after a randomly chosen delay period. AT a signaling speed of 45 million $its per second< this is enough time to transmit A55 $its. Any data coming down any phone line is copied onto the main (thernet coa& ca$le< and any data from the main ca$le is duplicated and transmitted down e'ery phone line.F4 C!ollision DetectD part. The connection to the desktop uses ordinary telephone wire< the hu$ $ack in the telephone closet contains a repeater for e'ery phone circuit. • 3ecei'es the entire -essage into -e-or41 If a collision or noise damages the message< then it is discarded. As the term C(thernetD is commonly defined< this round trip is limited to A5 microseconds 0millionths of a second1. Any data that it recei'es on one wire repeats $it6for6$it on the other wire. Any system $ased on collision detect must control the time required for the worst round trip through the *AN. Two stations can $egin to send data at the same time< and their signals will CcollideD nanoseconds later. It duplicates e'erything< including the collisions. #hen collisions occur< it repeats the collision as well. to $e carried . . A repeater is a simple station that connected to two wires. (thernet can $e $uilt using a repeater. The repeaters in the hu$ electrically isolate each phone circuit< which is necessary if a 45 mega$it signal is going =i'en 2elow are so-e of the de'ices +sed: • 3ecei'es and then i--ediatel4 retrans-its each 2it1 It has no memory and does not depend on any particular protocol. At F $its per $yte< this is slightly less than B? $ytes. If the $ridge knows that the message was $eing sent $etween two stations on the same ca$le< then it discards it.therwise< the .

F8 message is queued up and will $e retransmitted on another (thernet ca$le. The first two fields in the frame carry ?F6$it address< called the destination and source address. 2outing is a function specific to each protocol. . T!P"IP can $e routed $y dedicated de'ices< +NIM workstations< or .S"8 ser'ers. . There is a speciali/ed de'ice that finds pro$lems in an (thernet *AN. The effect is similar to a sonar CpingD. Typically< machines directly send messages to each other when they are on the same ca$le< and they send the router messages addressed to another /one< department< or su$6network. The test de'ice senses the echo< computes how long the round trip took< and then reports how far away the $reak is in the ca$le.or SNA< an APPN Network Node does the routing. These fields include address fields< a 'aria$le si/e data field that carries from ?B to 4<A55 $ytes of data< and an error checking field that checks the integrity of the $its in the frame to make sure that the frame has arri'ed intact. It plugs into any attachment point in the ca$le< and< sends out its own 'oltage pulse. $thernet 9ra-e and $thernet Address The heart of the (thernet system is the (thernet frame< which is used to deli'er data $etween computers. Again< $y sending out a pulse and timing the return< the test de'ice can determine the distance to the pro$lem. If the (thernet ca$le is shorted out< a simple 'olt meter would determine that the proper resistor is missing from the signal and shield wires. • Acts as an agent to recei'e and forward -essages1 The router has an address and is known to the client or ser'er machines. The I((( controls< the assignment of these addresses $y administering a . The frame consists of a set of $its organi/ed into se'eral fields.or IPM< the No'el ser'er can act as a router. Its actions are transparent to the client and ser'er workstations. If the ca$le is $roken then there is no proper terminating resistor. The pulse will hit the loose end of the $roken ca$le and will $ounce $ack.

D Destination Source *(N Data PAD !2! E 4 8 or B 8 or B 8 564A55 56?B ? $thernet 9ra-es %igh6*e'el Protocols and (thernet Addresses !omputers attached to an (thernet can send application data to one another using high6le'el protocol software< such as the T!P"IP protocol suite used on the worldwide Internet. portion of the address field.F. All other network interfaces will stop reading the frame when they disco'er that the destination address does not match their own address.+I as the first 8? $its of the address. #hen (thernet frame is sent onto the shared signal channel< all (thernet interfaces look at the first ?F $it field of the frame< which contains the destination address. =i'en 2elow is a diagra.rgani/ationally +nique IdentifiersD 0. The I((( does this $y pro'iding 8?6$it identifiers called C.+Is1< since a unique 8?6$it identifier is assigned to each organi/ation< in turn< creates ?F6$it address using the assigned . The (thernet interface with the same address as the destination address in the frame will read in the entire frame and deli'er it to the networking software running on that computer. This ?F6$it address is also known as the physical address< hardware address or )A! address. The high6le'el protocol packets are carried $etween computers in the data field of (thernet frames. The system of high6le'el protocols carrying application data and the (thernet system are independent entities that cooperate to deli'er data $etween computers.of $thernet fra-es1 Pream$le S. . The interfaces compare the destination address of the frame with their own address.

F? To make things< work< there needs to $e some way t o disco'er the (thernet addresses of other IP6$ased stations on the network. The logical topology of an (thernet pro'ides a single channel 0or $us1 that carries (thernet. . AS an e&ample of how (thernet and one family of high6le'el protocols interact< let@s take a quick look at how the< A2P protocol functions. Through the use of repeaters< a gi'en (thernet system of multiple segments can grow as a Cnon6rooted $ranching tree. . #orkstation us 0 ack$one1 P. CThis means that each media segment is an indi'idual $ranch of the complete signal system. !onnector 0Transcei'er1 Printer P.! . Also known as the logical topology< to distinguish it from the actual physical layout of the media ca$les.! #orkstation P.!.ile Ser'er us Terminator )ultiple (thernet segments can $e linked together to form a large (thernet *AN using a signal amplifying and retiming de'ice called a repeater. ('en though the media segments may $e physically connected in a star pattern< with multiple segments attached to a repeater< the logical topology is still that of a single (thernet channel that carries signals to all stations.or se'eral high6le'el protocols< including T!P"IP< this is done using yet another high6le'el protocol called the Address 2esolution Protocol 0A2P1.

A signal sent from any station tra'els o'er that station@s a signal sent from any station tra'els o'er that station@s segment and is repeated onto all other segments. The total set of segments and repeaters in the (thernet *AN must meet the round trip timing specifications. This way all other stations hear it o'er the single (thernet channel.FA The notion of CtreeD is 7ust a formal name for systems like this< and a typical network design actually ends up looking more like a comple& concatenation of network segments. DNon?rootedE means that the resulting system of linked segments may grow in any direction< and does not ha'e a specific root segment.n media segments that support multiple connections< such as coa&ial (thernet< you may install a repeater and a link to another segment at any point on the segment. There are media segments linked with repeaters and connecting to stations. .ther types of segments known as link segments can only ha'e one connection at each end this is descri$ed in more detail in the indi'idual media segment chapters. These de'ices are known as hu$s< since they pro'ide the central portion or hu$< of a media system. The second kind of hu$ pro'ides packet switching< typically $ased on $ridging ports. To help e&tend (thernet systems< networking 'endors sell de'ices that pro'ide multiple (thernet ports. ('ery segment in the system must ha'e two ends< since the (thernet system will not operate correctly in the presence of loop paths. )ost importantly< segments must ne'er $e connected in a loop. . The important thing to know at this point is that each port of a packet switching hu$ pro'ides a connection to an (thernet media system that operates as a separate . $<tending $thernet with :+2s (thernet was designed to $e easily e&panda$le to meet the networking needs of a gi'en site. There are two ma7or kinds of hu$sG repeater hu$s and switching hu$s. (ach port of a repeater hu$ links indi'idual (thernet media segments together to create a larger network that operates as a single (thernet *AN.

+nlike a repeater hu$ whose indi'idual ports com$ine segments together to create a single large *AN< a switching hu$ makes it possi$le to di'ide a set of (thernet media systems into multiple *ANs that are linked together $y way of the packet switching electronics in the hu$.FB (thernet *AN. . A gi'en (thernet *AN can consist of merely a single ca$le segment linking some num$er of computers< or it may consist of a repeater hu$ linking se'eral such media segments together. All (thernet *ANs can themsel'es $e linked together to form e&tended network systems using packet switching hu$s. #hile an indi'idual (thernet *AN can typically support anywhere from a few up to se'eral do/en computers< the total system of (thernet *ANs linked with packet switches at a gi'en site may support many hundreds or thousands of machines.

ptics. It pu$lished a set of standards of which the most important areG  F58. – %ardware standards for (thernet cards and ca$les. . group< and they decided to stick with the old DIM message format indefinitely.. The I((( was careful to separate the new and old rules. %owe'er< the F58.A – %ardware standards for Token 2ing cards and ca$les. Apple had to change its (ther talk< and did so when con'erting from phase 4 to phase 8 Appletalk. The o$7ecti'e of the pro7ect was not 7ust to standardi/e each *AN indi'idually< $ut also to esta$lish rules that would $e glo$al to all types of *ANs so that data could easily mo'e from (thernet to Token 2ing or .AN(A3(& The I((( was assigned the task of de'eloping formal international standards for all *ocal Area Network technology.FE ($9INI. The F58. It formed the CF58D committee to look at (thernet< Token 2ing< .8 standard would require a change to the network architecture of all e&isting (thernet users. standard further refined the electrical connection to the (thernet. It was immediately adopted $y all the hardware 'endors.. Internet standards are managed $y the I(T. D(! had to change its D(!N(T.N& AN( &.ptic< and other *AN technology.i$er .  F58.8 – The new message format for data on any *AN. This produced a deadlock $etween two standards organi/ations that has not $een resol'ed.i$er . No'ell added F58 as an option to its IPM< $ut it supports $oth DIM and F58 message formats at the same time.I. It recogni/ed that there would $e a period when old DIM messages and new I((( F58 messages would ha'e to coe&ist on the same *AN.  F58. The T!P"IP protocol used $y the Internet refused to change.

9 $. This means that N(T (+I 0the format for N(T I. So C(thernetD suffers from too many standards.ld style (thernet $us wiring is prone to ca$le failure and quickly consumes allowed distances due to the aesthetic wiring needs. rules take precedence. .A. The old DIM rules for message format persist for some uses 0Internet< D(!N(T< and some No'ell1. The new F58 rules apply to other traffic 0SNA< N(T (+I1.  (thernet is particularly suscepti$le to performance loss from such pro$lems when people ignore the CrulesD for wiring (thernet. .. 8. LI I.:  . A nail can $e dri'en into the ca$le $reaking the signal wire. A nail can $e dri'en touching the signal wire and shorting it to the e&ternal grounded metal shield.FF I ) waited until the F58 committee released its standards< and then rigorously implemented the F58 rules for e'erything e&cept T!P"IP where the I(T.:$3N$.  (thernets fail in three common ways< 4.I.inally< a station on the *AN can $reak down and start to generate a continuous stream of 7unk< $locking e'eryone else from sending.S on the *AN1 and SNA o$ey the F58 con'entions.  There are practical limitations to the distance of a shared medium and the num$er of workstations you can connect to it.N& . . The most pressing pro$lem is to make sure that No'ell clients and ser'ers are configured to use the same frame format.

Network designers ha'e to find a $alance $etween the type of ca$le used< the transmission rates< signal loss o'er distance and the signal emanations.FH  The electrical characteristics of the ca$le also dictate *AN limitations. All these factors must stay within physical $ounds and restrictions specified $y 'arious standards and go'ernment $odies.C:$( $. The following list descri$es the different 'arieties of 45 )$ps Switched (thernetG • • • 45 ase 8 is 45)%/ (thernet running o'er thin< A5 .hm $ase$and coa&ial ca$ling. The reason this happens is $ecause the time to propagate the signal from one end of the network to another is longer than the time to put the entire packet on the network< so the two de'ices that cause the late collision ne'er see that the other@s sending until after it puts the entire packet on the network. . A network suffering a measura$le rate of late collisions 0on large packets1 is also suffering loss on small packets.:$3N$. 1F 2ps &WI.n (thernet networks< workstations on either end of a long ca$le may not e'en detect that they are transmitting at the same time< thus causing a collision that results in corrupted data. 1FBase# is 45 )%/ (thernet running o'er standard 0thick1 A5 .hm $ase$and coa&ial ca$le. 45 ase8 is also commonly referred to as thin6(thernet or !heapernet. 1FBase f is 45)%/ (thernet running o'er fi$er6optic ca$ling.  Sometimes late collisions occur when two de'ices transmit at the same time< $ut due to ca$ling errors 0most commonly< e&cessi'e network segment length to repeaters $etween de'ices1 neither detects a collision. .  Delay is another factor.

S3( can $e .N or . &ignal 6+alit4 $rror !&6$": The Signal 3uality (rror signal is also called Kheart$eat@ and is a kind of keep ali'e notification $etween the transcei'er and the (thernet de'ice. This means that an A+I6ca$le will A*#AJS $e male6female. $etween a transcei'er and a workstation or file ser'er.H5 • • 1FBase. Jou either ha'e a positi'e or negati'e polarity. is 45)%/ (thernet running o'er unshielded< twisted6pair ca$ling.length of a segment6A55m"4B?oft . #hen a network card doesn@t contain the interface there will $e a Su$6D4A female connector. $etween a transcei'er and a 2epeater... The transcei'er interface is called A+I 0Attachment +nit Interface1.. #ith A+I there are two ways power can $e pro'ided to the units. )a& Speed 645 )$ps !a$le Standard6(thernet !oa& !a$le !onnectors6N6Type Terminators6A5 . 1FBroad 3% is 45)%/ (thernet running through a $road$and ca$le. The difference $etween the different 45 )$ps topologies is in the P%J part..n the ca$le will $e a transcei'er with a male connector. :ow does 1F 2ps $thernet work0 The P%J is the actual transcei'er that can $e a separate de'ice or it can $e integrated on the network card. This section connects directly to the ca$le and is responsi$le for e'erything that is medium depended likeG line encoding< transmission 'oltages< S3(< )a&. It )+ST $e set . .

1FF 2ps 9A&.num$er of taps per segment6455 )a& ..length of transcei'er ca$le6A5m"4B?ft )a&.distance $etween taps68.Am"F. As a result< this approach called 455>:6Any*AN. .H4 )a&.ft )a&. 1FF? 2ps edia &4ste-s !ompared to the 456)$ps specifications< the 4556)$ps system results in a factor of ten reductions in the $it6time< which is the amount of time it takes to transmit a $it on the (thernet channel. There are two *AN standards that can carry (thernet frames at 4556)$ps.ast (thernet. This produces a tenfold increase in the speed of the packets o'er the media system. %owe'er< the other important aspects of the (thernet system include the frame format< the amount of data a frame may carry< and the media access control mechanism< are all unchanged.num$er of repeaters6? Topology6 approach was to speed up the original (thernet system to 455 )$ps< keeping the original !S)A"!D medium access control mechanism.num$er of stations per network6458? )in. $. . #hen the I((( standardi/ation committee met to $egin work on a faster (thernet system< two approaches were presented. This new access control system transports standard (thernet frames< $ut it does it with a new medium access control mechanism. This approach is called 455 AS(6T . This system was further e&tended to allow it to transport token ring frames as well.:$3N$. Another approach presented to the committee was to create an entirely new medium access control mechanism< one $ased on hu$s that controlled access to the medium using a Cdemand priorityD mechanism.

This makes it possi$le for 'endors to pro'ide dual6speed (thernet interfaces that can $e installed and run at either 456)$ps or 4556)$ps automatically.  The C AS(D stands for C$ase $and<D #hich is a type of signaling. media system. The C. The CTMD segment type is a twisted6pair segment that uses two pairs of wires and is $ased on the data graded twisted6pair physical medium standard de'eloped $y ANSI.M medium Co-ponents 8sed for a 1FF? 2ps Connection The physical medium is used to carry (thernet signals $etween computers. The I((( identifiers include three pieces of information.MD segment type is a fi$er optic link segment $ased on the fi$er optic physical medium standard de'eloped $y ANSI and that uses two strands of fi$er ca$le. The TM and . /h4sical La4er (e'ice This de'ice performs the same general function as transcei'er in the 456)$ps (thernet system. standards are collecti'ely known as 455 AS(6M. It may $e a set of integrated circuits inside the (thernet port of a . This could $e any one of the three 4556)$ps media types. The CT?D segment type is a twisted6pair segment that uses four pairs of telephone6 grade twisted6pair wire.  The first item< C455D< stands for the media speed of 4556)$ps.H8 The .ast (thernet specifications include mechanism for Auto6Negotiation of the media speed. ase$and signaling simply means that (thernet signals are the only signals carried o'er the  The third part of the identifier pro'ides an indication of the segment type.

or a typical station connection the D(T 0computer1 contains an (thernet interface which forms up and sends (thernet frames that carry data $etween computers attached to the network. The )II electronics may $e linked to an out$oard transcei'er through a ?56pin )II connector and a short )II ca$le. /+tting it All .Independent Interface The )II is an optional set of electronics that pro'ides a way to link the (thernet medium access control functions in the network de'ice with the Physical *ayer De'ice 0P%J1 that sends signals onto the network medium.ogether . A2! net uses a token6passing protocol on . edi+. A3CN$.I. Transmission speeds are 8.N9I=83A.N The A2! net 0Attached 2esource !omputing Network1 is a $ase $and. network de'ice< therefore in'isi$le to the user< or it may $e a small $o& equipped with an )II ca$le< like the out$oard transcei'er and transcei'er ca$le. Token passing network system that offers fle&i$le star and $us topologies at a low price. The )II is designed to make the signaling differences among the 'arious media segments transparent to the (thernet chips in the network de'ice. The interface or repeater port might also $e designed to include the P%J electronics internally< in which case all you will see is )DI for whate'er physical medium the interface or port was designed to support. The (thernet interface is attached to the media system using a set of equipment that might include an out$oard )II ca$le and P%J with its associated )DI 0twisted6pair 2O?A6style 7ack or fi$er optic connector1.H. C.A )$its per second.

A2!net is showing its age and is no longer sold ma7or 'endors.H? a token $us network topology. )ore e'er each ring still retains its own capacity and will continue operating in the e'ent another ring on the $ridge fails. IB . I ) Token ring approach pro'ides resiliency to station and link failure. The $ridges also pro'ide for speed translations if rings are operating at different data rates.. The $ridge will pro'ide a cross6ring network $y copying frames that are forwarded from one ring to another. . The I ) topology permits se'eral rings to $e attached through the $ridges. A $ack$one ring then connects the $ridges.@$N 3IN= In 4HFA I ) announced its ma7or entry into *AN field with the I ) Token ring.

A IN.DDI is a high6speed networking technology de'eloped $y the ANSI 0American National Standards Institute1 M.DDI has a data rate of 455 )$its"sec and uses a redundant dual ring topology that supports A55 nodes o'er a . The standard is commonly used for *AN and campus en'ironment.TH. .HA 9IB$3 (I&.A committee.$39AC$ !9((I" .3IB8. It was originally designed for fi$er6 optic ca$les $ut now supports copper ca$le o'er short distances.$( (A.

DDI.DDI has $een used e&tensi'ely as a network $ack$one topology. 9((I Config+ration The topology is called a physical ring of trees $ut logically the entire network forms a ring. The two . There are three types of de'ices that can attach to the ringG  DAS 0dual attached station1 – connected to $oth rings< such as a critical ser'er and other pieces of equipment. . Small networks that consist of a few *AN segments and hea'y traffic produced $y high6 performance workstations< graphics file transfers< or other internetwork traffic will $enefit from . Such distances also qualify . The dual counter6rotating rings offer redundancy 0fault tolerance1.  DA! 0dual attached concentrator1 6 connected to $oth rings and pro'ides a connection point for stations.DDI rings are known as the primary ring and the secondary ring.DDI concentrator fails< the concentrator ensures the ring is maintained. if a link fails or the ca$le is cut< the ring configures itself and the network keeps operating.HB ma&imum distance of 455 kilometers. *AN segments attach to the $ack$one< along with minicomputers< mainframes and other systems. oth may $e used as a transmission path or one may $e set aside for use as a $ack up in the e'ent of a $reak in the primary ring. (ach station contains relays that 7oin the rings in case of a $reak or $ypass the station if it is ha'ing pro$lems. If a computer attached to an .DDI of use as a )AN 0)etropolitan Area Network1. .  SAS 0single attached station1 – attached to the primary ring 'ia connector.

DDI standard. . Asynchronous workstations then contend for the rest.DDI operates o'er a single6mode and multi6mode fi$er optic ca$le as well a STP 0shielded twisted pair1 and +TP 0unshielded twisted pair1 copper ca$le. A regulation mechanism is used to pre'ent one station from holding the token for too long.peration and Access ethod .DDI6II standard< which requires new adapter cards. Any station can access the network $y acquiring the token.  &4nchrono+s token?passing ring -ode: Allows prioriti/ation. In this mode traffic is not prioriti/ed. . 9((I now has three trans-ission -odes1  As4nchrono+s ring -ode: This is token6$ased. Synchronous capa$ilities are added 'ia software upgrades.DDI implements a logical ring in a physical star< you can $uild hierarchical networks. 9((I . The station then transmits the frame and remo'es it from the network after it makes a full loop. .DDI frame si/e is 4<A55 $ytes. A token frame is passed around the network from station to station= if a station needs to transmit< it acquires the token.HE ecause . This mode is a'aila$le in the new . The . The a$o'e two modes are a'aila$le in the original . The third mode< circuit6$ased can pro'ide dedicated circuits that can $e prioriti/ed for 'oice and other real time traffic.DDI uses a token6passing access method.DDI cards with synchronous capa$ilities gi'e network managers the a$ility to set aside part of the $andwidth for time6sensiti'e traffic.

.DDI1 TechniquesI .HF 9((I?II: Is designed for networks that need to transport real6time traffic. #hat is an A2!N(T *ANI (&plain. The circuits operate at from B. 2egular time slots in the ring are allotted for the transmission of data. If the slots are unused< they are reallocated immediately to other stations that can use them. (ach of these channels can $e su$di'ided further to produce a total of HB B?9$it"sec circuits.DDI modified to support synchronous data such as 'oice circuits and ISDN 0Integrated Ser'ices Digital Network1 traffic. It is .i$re Distri$uted Data Interface 0.455)$ps (thernetsI .4??)$its"sec each to a ma&imum of HH. (&plain the functions of 45)$ps .DDI6II network to use .DDI design. 6+estions 4.DDI uses multiple&ing technologies to di'ide the $andwidth into 4B dedicated circuits that can pro'ide on6time deli'ery for prioriti/ed traffic. ?. . Prioriti/ed stations use the num$er of slots they need to deli'er their data on time. These channels can support asynchronous or synchronous traffic.DDI6II requires all nodes on the .5E8 )$its"sec. #hat is (thernetI #hat are its limitationsI 8.DDI. . Another reason is that the 4556)$it"sec (thernet and AT) 0Asynchronous Transfer )ode1 ha'e pro'ided $etter solutions in most cases. The reason for this 'ariation is that the $andwidth is allocated to whate'er station that has the highest priority for it.DDI6II has not $ecome a widespread networking technology $ecause it is incompati$le with the e&isting . (&plain in $rief I ) Token ringI ..DDI6II= otherwise the network re'erts to .


!hapter B INT(:2AT(D S(2>I!(S DI:ITA* N(T#.29

     

Introduction Types of ISDN ,unctions of ISDN ISDN Standards ,uture Applications of ISDN +ser Network Interfaces


Introd+ction to I&(N
The telephone ser'ice has $een de'eloped o'er the last 455 years. Initially its sole aim was to pro'ide simple one to one 'oice communications $etween su$scri$ers< $ut we ha'e seen that technology has influenced the telephone network in two ways. ,irstly impro'ements in technology such as the introduction of digital switching< computer control and common channel signaling ha'e meant that the network can offer its users far more facilities than simple one to one 'oice calls. Secondly the introduction of new technology in other $usiness areas has resulted in a situation in which the P.TS 0Plain .ld Telephone Ser'ice1 are carrying a wide 'ariety of data communications traffic. Although it is true to say that the ma7or use of the network is still for 'oice communications< a growing percentage of the traffic is accounted for $y digital traffic< i.e. data communications and facsimile. The limitations of Traditional !ommunications Networks< which used analogue switching and transmission are caused $y the following factorsG 4. The old network is noisy< resulting in $it errors. 8. !all setup times are long< the call set up time may e&ceed the holding time. ;. Transmission is limited to specific $andwidth pathway. ?. 2outing of calls is not fi&ed< and thus 'ariations in transmission performance due to effects such as group delay are e&perienced on different calls $etween any two gi'en locations. .'er recent years the communications infrastructure has e'ol'ed in such a way that ser'ices are pro'ided on dedicated networks< each with its own su$scri$er access and interface requirements. The ser'ices pro'ided can $e categori/ed intoG

454 4. Point to Point Digital *eased lines 8. !ircuit Switch Telegraph 0Tele&1 ;. Packet Switch data network The cost of $uilding and maintaining dedicated networks is so large that it can only $e contemplated if the demand for the ser'ice is large enough to generate sufficient re'enue to make it economic. These high costs therefore prohi$it the introduction of new speciali/ed communication ser'ices.

This may call for access to different computer systems connected in the form of a network< processing facilities< all in the place where he is at present. Technological de'elopment &ociological or societal needs: The rapid de'elopments in 'arious facets of the society call for increasing and comple& communication facilities. In such a system< it should $e possi$le for a user to the network anywhere in the world the equipment of his choice to o$tain a particular ser'ice.. The user will $e allotted a permanent identification num$er or code< like the income ta& permanent account num$er or the social security num$er< which would $e 'alid for his lifetime.ICA.3 I&(N . (conomic necessities .hree factors are responsi2le for the de'elop-ent towards I&(N: 4.I. To meet such a demand< we need to electronically transmit the microscopic image of the $lood sample and reproduce the same graphically on the computer screen of the $iotechnologist< at a rate fast enough to faithfully reproduce the mo'ements of li'ing cell< etc. .N 9.458 . In effect< the society is demanding a telecommunication system that can support uni'ersal access to a host of ser'ices. Sociological or societal needs 8. As another e&ample< a senior e&ecuti'e of a company< who often has to take important decisions at home or late in the e'ening or while on a holiday would like to gi'e instant effect to his decisions.. A $iotechnologist today would like to e&amine a $lood e&ample remotely< simultaneously compare the analytical results of other samples stored in a centrali/ed data$ase< consult his assistant who is presently in a la$oratory some distance away< and report the finding as the findings as the in'estigation progresses< to his superior who is in another $uilding.

Searching for new solutions is of no a'ail unless technology de'elopments make possi$le such solutions. In fact< it is the technology factor that $rought a$out the independent network solutions earlier. The desire of the network pro'iders to use a common network infrastructure can fructify only if there are uniform for all the ser'ices. It was necessary to design different communication characteristics. It was necessary to design different networks to suit each of these de'ices. Tele& network data network< telephone network and !AT> networks are e&amples of such a de'elopment. functions of a telecommunications network can $e reali/ed in the digital $'ol+tion Integrated Digital Ser'ices Network 0ISDN1 has $een perhaps the most important de'elopment to emerge in the field of !omputer !ommunications in the 4HF5@s and it will pro$a$ly continue to dominate the de'elopments in the 4HH5@s too. In addition< the network facilities are ne'er fully utili/ed as the ser'ices are independently supported on different networks. The independent and duplicate infrastructural facilities lead to high capital cost< low maintenance efficiency and high maintenance cost. +nlike many other de'elopments< ISDN is a well concei'ed and planned area of de'elopment in the field of communications. Independent networks call for separate administration< maintenance staff< and $uilding for housing switching systems. The end equipment@s for different ser'ices were analog in nature and had different electrical< electronic< signal and communication characteristics. !!ITT was quick to recogni/e the feasi$ility of digital telecommunication networks and set up a study group called Special Study :roup D in 4HBF to look at a 'ariety of issues related to the use of digital technology in telephone networks. This study . Traditionally< network pro'iders ha'e put up separate and independent networks to support different ser'ices. Today< the digital technology has matured to a le'el where all the a$o'e 6 mentioned domain.45. !!ITT has $een pioneering and guiding the efforts towards the de'elopment of ISDN.

The transition from the e&isting networks to a comprehensi'e ISDN may require a period of time e&tending o'er one or two decades. ISDN will $e $ased on and will e'ol'e from the telephony IDN $y progressi'ely incorporating additional functions and network features including those of any other dedicated networks. 8. . 4. A. Integrated Ser'ices Digital Network – An integrated digital network in which the same digital switches and digital paths are used to esta$lish different ser'ices< for e&ample< telephony and data. New Ser'ices introduced into the ISDN should $e so arranged and should $e compati$le with B? 9$ps switched digital connections. This intelligence may not $e sufficient for some new ser'ices and may ha'e to $e supplemented $y either additional intelligence in the customer terminals. The layered functional set of protocols appears desira$le for the 'arious access arrangements to ISDN.45? group is the forerunner of today@s Study :roup M>III set up in 4HEB< and has the responsi$ility for all ISDN related acti'ities within the !!ITT.. In 4HF5 the first set of ISDN standards emerged which laid down the conceptual principles on which ISDN should $e $ased. The ISDN will contain intelligence for the purpose of pro'iding ser'ice features< maintenance and network management at functions. B. During the transition period arrangements must $e made for the networking of ser'ices on ISDNs and ser'ices on other ser'ices. ?. .

. The ISDN will $e defined $y the standardi/ation of user interfaces< and will $e implemented as a network of digital switches and transmission paths which support a $road range of traffic types and pro'ide 'alue added processing ser'ices. CThe merging of technologies coupled with increasing demands for the efficient collection< processing and dissemination of information is leading to the de'elopment of integrated systems that transmit and process all types of information.45A The analogue systems are $eing replaced $y new digital networks which ha'e $een de'eloped to cater for all forms of digital communications. eaning & (efinition In early 4HE8< two definitions were formulated $y !!ITT which descri$ed the de'elopment of an analog into a digital telephone network and its further e'olution in to an ISDN.D CAn Integrated Digital Network 0ISDN1 is an integrated Digital Network 0IDN1 in which the same digital switches and digital switches and digital paths are used to esta$lish connections for different ser'ices. The ultimate goal of this e'olution in communications is called the Integrated Ser'ices Digital Network 0ISDN1. )ultiple de'ices can $e attached to the line and send as needed.D CIntegrated Ser'icesD refers to ISDN@s a$ility to deli'er two simultaneous connections< in any com$ination of data< 'oice< 'ideo and fa&< o'er a single line. The ISDN will e'entually $e a worldwide pu$lic telecommunications network which will deli'er a wide 'ariety of ser'ices. The standard mo'ement was started $y the International Telephone and Telegraph !onsultati'e !ommittee 0!!ITT1. CAn Integrated Digital Network 0ISDN1 is a network in which connections esta$lished $y digital switching are used for transmission of digital signals.

#hile ISDN accommodates telephones and fa& machines< its most popular ad'antage is in computer applications. 8. ISDN networks e&tend from the local telephone e&change to the remote user and include all of the telecommunications and switching equipment in $etween. The ISDN is an infrastructure to support a wide 'ariety of ser'ices and is not a network designed for any specific ser'ice. Jou can plug an ISDN adapter into a phone 7ack< like you would an analog modem and get a much faster connection with no line noise. . An ISDN is a network< in general e'ol'ing from telephony ISDN< which pro'ides end6to6end digital connecti'ity to support a wide range of ser'ices< including 'oice and non6'oice ser'ices< to which users ha'e access $y a limited set of standard multipurpose user network interfaces. ISDN transmits data digitally< resulting in a 'ery clear transmission quality. If your ISDN equipment includes analog capa$ilities< you can also connect analog. . The end6to6end digital connecti'ity implies that the digiti/ation process $egins right at the user premises. #hen you ha'e ISDN< you can make connection throughout the world to other ISDN equipment.he ke4 points of the a2o'e definition ha'e to 2e noted1 4. There is none of the static and noice of analog transmissions that can slow transmission speed. .45B CDigitalD in ISDN refers to its purely digital transmission< as opposed to the analog transmission of plain old telephone ser'ice. It should $e possi$le to support e'ery concei'a$le ser'ice on ISDN< for any such ser'ice is either a 'oice or non6'oice ser'ice.. CNetworkD refers to the fact that ISDN is not simply a point6to6point solution like a leased line.

The users of ISDN should not $e $urdened with too many speciali/ed interfaces< $ut at the same time< an e&pensi'e uni'ersal interface should $e a'oided. Types of ISDN Ser'icesG 4. A small set of carefully chosen interfaces should ena$le the support of all possi$le ser'ices.45E ?. #hen the two channels are $ounded in a single connection< you get a speed of 48F 9$ps< which is a$out four times the actual top speed of the fastest analog . Basic 3ate Interface !B3I": It pro'ides two single B? 9$ps channels per line.

In particular< network maintenance and network are the potential areas for the application of AI concepts and e&pert systems. Telecommuters< for e&ample< $enefit immensely from ISDN< whether you access the corporate *AN in the e'enings or maintain a full6time< remote home office= ISDN is the ne&t $est solution.5 &er'ices offered 24 I&(N: ISND en'isaged $eing an intelligent network.B k$ps. In the future< concepts of artificial intelligence and e&pert systems will $e applied to network functions. In (urope< P2I< consists of . 8. &+pple-entar4 &er'ices: Supplementary ser'ices call for additional functionalities $oth in the lower layers and in the upper layers< depending on whether they supplement a $asic $earer ser'ice or a $asic tele6ser'ice. /ri-ar4 3ate Interface !/3I": is intended for users with greater capacity requirements. . channels plus one B? 9$ps channels plus D channel for a total of 4A.45F modems. one B? 9$ps D channel for a total of 4HF? 9$ps. Typically the channel structure is 8.

In the conte&t of ISDN< the original ISDN concept is often ISDN is to support 'ideo and termed narrow6$and ISDN 0NISND1 The main aim of image ser'ices.ther applications include 'ideo conferencing and 'ideo sur'eillance. These include distri$uted data$ases< program downloading< inter6process communication and large 'olume high speed data e&change as encountered in !AD"!A) or graphics $ased applications. A num$er of data oriented con'ersational applications may also $e supported.?55 messaging ser'ices on NISDN< 'oice mail< 'ideo mail and document mail containing te&ts< graphics etc. 2" essaging &er'ices: It . Analogous to M. ISDN ser'ices are $roadly classified asG 4. Distri$ution Ser'ices Interacti'e &er'ices -a4 2e classified as: !on'ersational Ser'ices )essaging Ser'ices 2etrie'al Ser'ices (istri2+tion &er'ices are classified as roadcast Ser'ices !yclic Ser'ices a" Con'ersational &er'ices: It Supports end6to6end information transfer on real time< $i6directional $asis. There is a wide range of applications that may $e supported using con'ersational ser'ices< the most important one $eing the 'ideo telephony or 'ideophone.45H Broad2and I&(N: Is defined as a network capa$le of supporting data rates greater than the primary rate supported $y ISDN. may $ecome the important messaging ser'ices on ISDN. . Interacti'e Ser'ices 8. .ffers store and forward communication.

Automatic alarm ser'ices e. >ideote& 8. Image and graphics e&change F. Data$ase access B. Document Storage and transfer H. Short list of some of the important new ser'ices areG 4. smoke< fire< police and medical. . of 'ideote&t ser'ices in NISDN. .. The cyclic distri$ution ser'ices are an enhancement of the con'entional telete&t ser'ices.445 c" 3etrie'al &er'ices: In ISDN offer the capa$ility to retrie'e sound ISDN retrie'al ser'ices are an enhancement passages< high resolution images< graphics< short 'ideo scenes< animated pictures etc. 45. Tele& A. d" Broadcast distri2+tion ser'ices: It pro'ides support for $roadcasting 'ideo< facsimile and graphical images to su$scri$ers. Audio and >ideo conferencing.g. (lectronic fund transfer E.or e&ample such applications include tele'ision $roadcasting o'er the network and electronic newspaper distri$ution. (lectronic mail . New &er'ices: ISDN will support a 'ariety of ser'ices including the e&isting 'oice and data ser'ices and a host of new ser'ices. from centrali/ed or distri$uted data$ases. d" C4clical distri2+tion ser'ices: It offers some control to the user in the presentation of information on the screen. Digital facsimile ?.

9acsi-ile: Documents are e&changed through the facsimile systems and it is emerging as a ma7or application of telecommunication systems. (lectronic mail communication is from user6to6user means. o . o . Telete& users may select the information to $e seen< the pace at which the information is to $e displayed< and often< the sequence of display. Pri'acy is also ensured as only the intended recipient can open it.1 ser'ice.. . #ith this form of 'ideote&t< the user recei'es pre6selected information in a predetermined order.elete<: It is $roadcast or pseudo6interacti'e 'ideote&t ser'ice. It is a computer $ased messaging system. 8. . (lectronic mail is a store and forward 0S-. It is capa$le of transmitting and recei'ing printed matter which may include graphics< drawings< and pictures< hand written te&t< etc. (mail also reduces the consumption of paper in the office. Three forms of 'ideote&t that e&ists areG o Ciew (ata: is fully interacti'e 'ideote&t< this means that requests for information or ser'ice from a user and performs to send< recei'e and act $y a centrali/ed computer. $lectronic -ail: (lectronic mail is popularly known as the e6mail and may $e defined as the communication of te&tual messages 'ia electronic means. It permits communication $etween two parties without the parties actually $eing present simultaneously. Telete& is one way communication system and there is no real interaction $etween the user and the computer. Cideote<: Is a generic term for systems that pro'ide easy to use< low cost computer $ased ser'ices 'ia communication facilities.444 A few of the ser'ices are descri2ed in the following areas: 4.pen channel telete<: is totally interacti'e and is a one6way 'ideote&t.

elete<: It is an upgrade to the con'entional tele& ser'ice. D channel may also $e used for carrying some user information< if there is spare capacity. Telete& en'isages direct communication $etween electronic typewriters< word processors and personal :ow (oes I&(N 9+nction0 SignalingG ISDN uses a common channel signaling scheme< the signaling is done o'er the D channel which acts as the common signaling channel for the and % channels which carry the user information. Network le'el Signaling All user generated signaling and the signaling features that are open to the user are treated as user le'el signaling and are defined as part of the layer . Signaling in ISDN falls into two distinct categoriesG 4. +ser le'el Signaling 8. These data$ases may $e accessed online using the telephone network< modem and a personal computer. (ata2ase access: A user can $y suita$le search query< o$tain all the information generated in a particular topic.448 ?. A. user network interface standards. The terminal6to6 terminal communication ser'ice of tele& will $e turned into office6to6office document computers. transmission system $y telete&. There are o'er A555 data$ases in different parts of the world< co'ering a wide 'ariety of su$7ects< which include social sciences< science and technology< engineering and industry. . . In such cases also< the required signaling is done on the D channel. The signaling facilities employed $y the network to support user le'el signaling and to implement network control functions< not directly related to the user are treated as network le'el signaling.

(sta$lish< control and terminate circuit switched connections in 8. (sta$lish< control and terminate packet switched connections in channels. The process of esta$lishing< controlling and terminating a call is achie'ed $y e&changing messages $etween the network and terminal. !arry out user6to6user signaling and . !all (sta$lishment )essages 8.. or D channel< 8ser le'el signaling is of two t4pes: 4. !all !ontrol )essages . !all Discount )essages ?. . )iscellaneous )essages !all esta$lishment group includes set6up< call proceeding< alert< connect and connect acknowledge messages. Alert signal corresponds to ring $ack signal and is used when a non6automatic answering terminal is used at the recei'ing end. In ISDN parlance< as intelligent terminal is known as functional terminal.44. 8ser le'el signaling in I&(N per-its a +ser to: 4. Stimulus signaling )essage $ased signaling is employed when the user end equipment is an intelligent terminal. )essage $ased signaling 8. It pro'ides a user6friendly interface for signaling and performs the functions of forming< sending< recei'ing and replying messages. If the auto6 answering facility is a'aila$le< the terminal responds with connect signal directly and the alert signal is skipped !all control group includes suspend and resume messages and also user6to6user messages. The messages may $e placed under four groupsG 4..

!all reference . All user le'el messages ha'e a common message format. The call reference field gi'es reference to the < % or D channel information transfer acti'ity to which a signaling packet pertains. )essage type As the D channel may carry computer and telemetry data etc. su$6fieldsG length su$6field< flag and the reference 'alue. Protocol discriminator 8. in addition to signaling messages< it is necessary to ha'e a mechanism for differentiating packets and their associated protocols.. The protocol discriminator field is pro'ided for this purpose. These signals 7ust indicate e'ents like handset off6hook or depression of a specific push $utton< which are all due to manual action $y the user. The primary function of the miscellaneous messages is to negotiate network facilities to support additional ser'ice.44? !all disconnect group includes disconnect release and release complete messages. . There fields are mandatory for all messagesG 4. At present< only two message protocols are supportedG the ISDN signaling messages protocol and the le'el . As the de'ices do not ha'e functional capa$ilities< stimulus6signaling messages are generated as a direct result of actions $y the terminal user.6packet protocol. Depending on the ser'ice and the channel used< the length of the call reference 'alue may 'ary. The field has . Stimulus signaling is used when the user and equipments are dum$ de'ices with no intelligence< like digital telephone.

ne of the main aims has $een to e'ol'e fle&i$le design for the signaling system to accommodate new ser'ices and connection types that may come a$out in the future to $e supported in the future. Signaling features accessi$le $y the user to o$tain enhanced ser'ices< from the network and other network related signaling.44A Network Le'el &ignaling: Network *e'el signaling in ISDN is concerned with inter6office signaling. . A$out ?5 network le'el messages ha'e $een standardi/ed so far and these messages may $e placed under H $road categoriesG .

orward address 8. (nd6to6end H. !ircuit group super'ision E. In6call modification F. !ircuit and circuit group super'ision messages permit $locking and de6$locking of circuit and circuit groups respecti'ely. .. !all super'ision A.44B 4. !ircuit super'ision B. ackward Setup ?. :eneral Setup . I&(N 3eco--endation: It descri$es a reference model for user6network interfaces to the ISDN. . +ser6to6user )essages $elonging to 4 to ? categories a$o'e are used to support the call setup process initiated $y the user and start the accounting and charging functions.ther functions include connection release< temporary suspension and su$sequent resumption of circuits. The definitions of equipment in the 2eference model areG .

er-inal $G+ip-ent 2!.ther t4pes of ter-inal eG+ip-entH pertaining to certain -an+fact+res1 New ISDN applications $eing introduced all the time. facsimile machines.$2": A T(8 is a T( as defined a$o'e< $ut does not conform to ISDN user6network interface recommendations. .$": A T( is a user equipment< typically a telephone or data terminal< the functions of which include physical and procedural interfaces and maintenance< as well as the general communications function of the de'ice. :enerally these will $e older types of equipment such as data terminals conforming to > or M interface specifications and group .$1": A T(4 is a T( as defined a$o'e< and will $e a digital telephone< data terminal< facsimile terminal or other workstation that complies with the ISDN user6network interface recommendations.1": The main function of this equipment is the physical and electrical termination of the transmission line $etween the local e&change and the customer@s premises. . .er-ination 2 !N.44E Network .2": This may $e a PA M< a local area network 0*AN1 or a terminal 1!N. . +sers of *ANs< operating on geographically dispersed sites are now a$le to transfer data $etween . The functions associated with an NT8 include protocol handling< multiple&ing< switching< concentration and other maintenance functions. :enerally it co'ers more modern equipments which ha'e $een specially de'eloped for ISDN operation.ther functions of the NT4 include maintenance and performance monitoring $y pro'iding digital loop $ack facilities< and the a$ility to feed D! power from the transmission line to other equipment in the installation. . Typically new applications include *AN $ridges and ISDN P! cards to permit P! to P! $ulk file transfer. Network .er-inal $G+ip-ent 1 !.er-inal $G+ip-ent !.

Techniques such as 'ideo and speech compression are used to produce a highly comple& digital signal in which the $andwidth occupied $y the 'ideo and audio signals are constantly changing. types of fundamental channels in ISDN around which the entire information transmission is organi/ed. The added ad'antage of such an ISDN $ased >! system is that . 4. . Today such quality can $e achie'ed with digital circuits operating at rates as low as 48F 9$its"s.rans-ission Channels: There are . Signaling !hannel .. asic information !hannel 8. The transactions $eing transparent to the users who do not require knowledge of the location or address of the user to whom they wish to communicate. %igh speed channel Cideo Conferencing: (arlier< in order to achie'e accepta$le quality for a 'ideoconference< a leased digital link operating at 8)$it"s was required.44F each other.

!!ITT has $een playing a leading role and acting as a coordinating $ody $y issuing ISDN related recommendations and there$y guiding the introduction of ISDN internationally. D channel signaling messages are not encrypted< as they would then $e unreada$le $y the local e&change. The importance of standards has $een well recogni/ed in the conte&t of ISDN from the 'ery early stages. I&(N &tandards: Standardi/ation is an essential process in the introduction of any ma7or and comple& international ser'ice. The capa$ility of pro'iding true international connecti'ity and interpreta$ility $etween networks is critically dependent on the a'aila$ility of standards and the strict adherence to them. It is now a relati'ely simple matter to produce a secure speech link $etween two users< $y introducing some form of encryption de'ice $etween the digital telephone and the channel o'er which it is to $e connected. $ncr4pted speech: The e'olution of ISDN has $rought with it the digital telephone.44H there is no longer a requirement for a costly permanent leased circuit $etween sites< 'ideo conferences can simply $e dialed up when required and are charged on a pay as you go $asis. .

Procedures for o$taining the ser'ice are specified ?. 8. A.n the other hand< one single multi6purpose interface may turn out to $e o'erkill for most of the ser'ices. (&ample of an interface standard that ser'es us so well and yet goes almost unnoticed is the electrical power user interface.. (nd6to6end compati$ility is guaranteed. Terminals to pro'ide the ser'ice is standardi/ed . 8ser Le'el Interface !omprehensi'e user network interface definitions are key to ensuring worldwide ISDN compati$ility. #e can purchase an electrical appliance almost anywhere in the world and plug it in our house socket.n one hand< a num$er of custom designed interfaces may ideally suit each ser'ice $ut would lead to a proliferation of interfaces. Su$sequent studies led to the emergence of the first ISDN standard in 4HF5. Ser'ice su$scri$ers are listed in the international directories. !harging and accounting rules are spelt out. In ISDN< user network interfaces ha'e $een gi'en careful consideration to a'oid potential inconsistencies that may arise. 9eeping such factors in mind< two information rate access interfaces ha'e $een standardi/ed for ISDN. In such a situation like this< one encounters conflicting requirements. Testing and maintenance procedures are standardi/ed and B. .485 The first definition of ISDN appeared in !!ITT@s recommendations issued in 4HE8. . ISDN caters to a 'ariety of ser'ices such as 'oice< data telemetry and image. . A !!ITT ser'ice is said to $e completely standardi/ed only whenG 4.

Identifying this specific equipment is a two6le'el process= first the end6point is identified as in the case of telephone or data networks and then the equipment at the end6point. Tele Ser'ices oth the earer and Tele ser'ice functionalities may $e enhanced $y adding to the $asic ser'ice< the functionalities of what are known as supplementary ser'ices. The component of the ISDN addresses which is used to identify the end6point. I&(N ser'ices are placed +nder two 2road categories: 4. It then $ecomes necessary to identify specific end equipment. Primary rate access N+-2ering & Addressing In telephone and data networks< the end Tequipments are more often single units than multiple de'ices units like PA M or *AN.or e&ample< computer of facsimile to render the ser'ice. %istorically< a telephone< a computer< or a terminal has $een the pre6dominant end equipment.484 4. The num$ering systems for these networks ha'e also e'ol'ed to identify single equipment end6points. The component of the ISDN address which is used to identify the end6point is known as the ISDN num$er. In ISDN< multiple de'ices at the end points are more of a norm than single units< in 'iew of the multiple ser'ice en'ironments. . Supplementary ser'ices cannot stand6alone and are always offered in con7unction with either a earer ser'ice or a Tele Ser'ice. . asic rate access 8. earer Ser'ices 8.

#hat is an Integrated Ser'ices digital networkI #hat are the types of ISDNI (&plain its functions 8.488 3uestions 4. (&plain in $rief the ISDN StandardsI . (&plain the !oncepts of +ser Network InterfacesI ?. ring out the future applications of ISDNI ..

!hapter E ST.pen Standard Platforms Ad'anced Application !apa$ilities Ad'anced Storage )anagement .29S       Introduction enefits )anagea$ility .48.2A:( A2(A N(T#.

3@& This technology is e'olutionary< and the demand for its applications is surging. This increasing reliance on the access to enterprise data is challenging the limitations of traditional ser'er6storage solutions.48? &. 2apid growth in data intensi'e applications continues to fuel the demand for raw data storage capacity.C$3 &83=$ .N& L..I. . As a result< the ongoing need to add more storage< ser'e more users and $ackup more data has $ecome a monumental task.9 (A.rom a client network perspecti'e< the SAN en'ironment complements the ongoing ad'ancements in *AN and #AN technologies $y e&tending the $enefits of impro'ed performance and capa$ilities all the way from the client and $ack$one through to ser'ers and storage. And analyst predictions that the num$er of network connections for ser'er6storage su$systems will e&ceed the num$er of client connections are further fuelling the demand for network storage. Applications such as data warehousing< data mining< on6line transaction processing< )ultimedia< Internet and Intranet $rowsing ha'e led to a near dou$ling of the total storage capacity $eing shipped glo$ally on an annual $asis. .A: #ith the rise of client net working< data6centric computing applications and electronic communication applications< 'irtually all network6stored data has $ecome mission6critical in nature..3A=$ A3$A N$. LI I. Storage area networking promises to re'olutioni/e modern day network computing. .A.W.

y com$ining *AN networking models with the core $uilding $locks for ser'er performance and mass . . )anagea$ility for ease of installation and maintaina$ility. I-pending li-itations of e<isting network ser'er connecti'it4: • • • • andwidth to ser'ice clients and maintain data a'aila$ility.le&i$ility to pro'ide optimum $alance of ser'er and storage capacity.48A %a'ing endured for nearly two decades< the parallel Small !omputer System Interface 0S!SI1 $us that has facilitated ser'er6storage connecti'ity for *ocal Area Network 0*AN1 ser'ers is imposing ser'e limitation on network storage. Scala$ility for long term< rapid growth.he sol+tion: &torage Area Networking1 The Storage Area Network 0SAN1 is an emerging data communication platform< which interconnects ser'ers and storage at giga $aud speeds. .

48B storage capacity< SAN eliminates the $andwidth $ottlenecks and scala$ility limitations imposed $y pre'ious S!SI $us – $ased architectures. )odular scala$ility %igh a'aila$ility and fault tolerance. Benefits of the storage area network en'iron-ent: • • • • • %igh $andwidth. This ena$les the SAN infrastructure to ser'e as $oth a ser'er6 interconnect and as a direct interface to storage de'ices and storage arrays. In addition to the fundamental connecti'ity $enefits of SAN< the new capa$ilities< facilitated $y its networking approach< enhance its 'alue as a long6term infrastructure.!6A*1 has emerged as the high6speed< serial technology of choice for ser'er6storage connecti'ity. These capa$ilities< which include compute clustering< topological fle&i$ility< fault tolerance< high a'aila$ility< and remote management< further ele'ate SAN@s a$ility to address the growing challenges of data6intensi'e< mission6critical applications. .!6A*@s high $andwidth and high scala$ility $ut also to its unique a$ility to support multiple protocols< such as S!SI and IP< o'er a single physical connection.rom a client network perspecti'e the SAN en'ironment complements the ongoing ad'ancements in *AN and #AN technologies $y e&tending the $enefits of impro'ed performance and capa$ilities all the way from the client and $ack$one through to ser'ers and storage.'er the past year< . Total cost of ownership. )ost organi/ations prefer this solution $ecause of the widely endorsed open standards. This $road acceptance is attri$uted not only to . 9i2re Channel: the open &AN sol+tion1 . )anagea$ility. .i$re !hannel6Ar$itrat ed *oop 0.

In contrast< .!6A* pro'ides a 8.A to 456fold increase in effecti'e data $andwidth o'er the traditional parallel S!SI storages interface.C. . AS $us $andwidth is pushed further and further this limit is compressed to e'er fewer de'ices per $us.6A* standard for $andwidth is 4 giga $aud< planned enhancements to 8 and ? giga $aud gi'e . Additionally< it offers future e&panda$ility.48E :igh Bandwidth .!6A* is a key to ena$ling an infrastructure for long6 term growth and managea$ility. Traditional parallel S!SI $us connections ha'e $een limited to a total of E or 4A storage de'ices.!6A* supports up to 48B nodes per loop with a typical configuration consisting of a com$ination of ser'ers and multi6disk arrays per node. 2enefits &an 2enefits !onnects the e&isting *ANs .C.!6A* a solid platform to address longer6term $and6width requirements.ully managed en'ironment Integrated fault tolerance Independently scala$le ser'ers and storage . 2enefits . &AN 's ..ptimi/ing the e&isting in'estments )inimi/ed support cost )inimi/ed down time !omplements Network !omputer 0N!1 paradigm %ighly efficient scaling of resources &er'er and storage scala2ilit4: The modular scala$ility of . #hile the current .

In order to scale the storage capacity $eyond this limit< additional ser'er6storage enclosures< including the cost of the ser'er processor $oard and peripherals is required.!6A* and S!SI. Inter6dependent capacity scaling with integrated ser'er6storage model +nder this single ser'er6storage enclosure model< the scaling of ser'er capacity and storage capacity $ecomes infle&i$le and inefficient. *argely dictated $y the limits on physical ca$le length< parallel S!SI storage connecti'ity requires close pro&imity to its host system< typically a ser'er. #ith less stringent ca$le length limitations< . This translates to a single< integrated ser'er6storage enclosure that contains $oth ser'er processing power and one or two S!SI $uses of limited scala$ility.48F Scala$ility in terms of capacity management and capacity $alancing is an area of significant differentiation $etween . .!6A* ena$les the networking of separate ser'er and storage enclosures within the SAN en'ironment. #ith a di'erse com$ination of data6intensi'e applications and ser'er processing6intensi'e applications running concurrently in the enterprise< the need for more fle&i$le and efficient scaling is needed. Single enclosures typically hold only ?645 dri'es.

48H This capa$ility pro'ides a more fle&i$le and cost6effecti'e path for the independent scaling of ser'er performance and storage capacity< where either may $e e&panded independently to achie'e an optimum $alance.!6A* introduces aspects of interconnect scala$ility that ha'e not $een possi$le with pre'ious architectures. Separation of ser'er6storage connections from *AN connections reduces *AN traffic. Through the use of modular networking de'ices such as hu$s< switches< $ridges and routers< ad'anced SAN topologies can $e created to scale o'erall $andwidth< enhance a'aila$ility< ena$le ad'anced SAN application capa$ility< and ena$le ad'anced SAN application capa$ilities in storage management and load $alancing. Ad'anced storage management &torage -anage-ent challenge *ength of time required to $ackup data Ina$ility to $ackup< mirror or restore remotely *ack of alternati'es to local $ackup and mirroring. Ideal platform for distri$uted hierarchical storage management. . )odular connecti'ity In addition to superior fle&i$ility in scaling ser'er processing capacity and data storage capacity< the networking approach of . +se of *AN connections for ser'er $ackup consumes client network capacity &AN sol+tion andwidth and protocol efficiency accelerate $ackup !a$le length up to 45 km support remote operation. e&ample of these on $oard capa$ilities is the feature of dual porting< which has $ecome standard on .!6A* de'ices pro'ide features that ease the general deployment of fault6 tolerant SANs. .5 :igh a'aila2ilit4 and fa+lt tolerance1 )any . .!6A* disk dri'es< to facilitate dual loop configurations.

). In fact< to e'en further em$race the 2AID approach< .ault6Tolerant (nclosures1  Simple Network )anagement Protocol 0SN)P1  #e$6 ased (nterprise )anagement 0# ()1. (+al loop arra4 config+ration1 The implementation of 2edundant Array of Independent Disks 02AID1 configuration is storage arrays and has $ecome a standard approach for fault tolerance and is fully supported $y the SAN en'ironment.21 logic< which effecti'ely pro'ides *e'el A 2AID capa$ilities from within the disk dri'e itself. y em$racing a network management approach< SAN connecti'ity de'ices< such as hu$s and switches< ha'e integrated highly e'ol'ed management capa$ilities modeled after pro'en *AN and #AN management techniques.2. A fully managed SAN platform can offer monitoring and $ypass control of indi'idual nodes< loops< enclosures< storage de'ices< and connecti'ity de'ices. y em$racing the $est6practice network management standards esta$lished $y *AN and #AN platforms< information regarding SAN topology< status and alerts can $e easily $e accessed $y system administrators. .A. anagea2ilit4 >isi$ility down to the node and de'ice le'el is essential to case the efforts of installation< deployment and maintenance of any network.  S!SI (nclosure Ser'ices 0S(S1  S!SI Self )onitoring Analysis and 2eporting Technology 0S.T1  SA.4 These dual loops pro'ide a redundant path to each storage de'ice in the array in case one of the loops is down or is $usy. It can also simplify remote system reco'ery and restoration in the e'ent of a failure.6T(0S!SI Accessed .!6A* disk dri'es pro'ide internal e&clusi'e6or 0M. Traffic monitoring capa$ilities can also $e .4.pen standards platfor-s for &AN -anage-ent1  S!SI command set.

$ase of integration1 #ith ad'ance capa$ilities of networked ser'ers and storage< the a$ility to integrate SAN solutions into an e&isting network pro'ides tremendous 'alue in ease6of integration.8 em$edded into the SAN management system to facilitate sophisticated< cost6effecti'e load $alancing and capacity planning. Ad'anced application capa2ilities y introducing the network like features of e&tended connection distance< IP support< and use of hu$s< $ridges switches and routers for comple& topologies < the SAN infrastructure ena$les a $road range of new capa$ilities includeG ad'anced storage management and ser'er storage clustering.ffering an infrastructure for cost6effecti'e< long6term growth< fault tolerance and managea$ility< the SAN en'ironment pro'ides Total !ost .wnership . . . !om$ined with a graphical management interface< these features simplify trou$leshooting and accelerate installation.!6A* also ease the introduction of SAN s into e&isting campus networks.otal Cost of .1 ad'antages< which ha'e ne'er $efore $een possi$le with ser'ers <storage or ser'er storage connecti'ity.4.wnership 0T!. The $road ca$ling options supported $y . Since the SAN en'ironment e&ists $ehind the ser'er< e&isting ser'er6*AN connections can easily $e le'eraged to facilitate a gateway $etween *AN and SAN< and allow the utili/ation of legacy ser'ers. SAN connection distances up to 45km can $e achie'ed without the need to pull new ca$le. As a key $uilding $lock of SAN deployment< SAN connecti'ity de'ices offer dynamically configura$le< hot – plugging capa$ilities.f .

. &ol+tion: The high $andwidth and topological fle&i$ility offered $y the SAN en'ironment accelerates the data $ackup process and facilities new< inno'ati'e platforms for remote $ackup< mirroring and hierarchical storage. . Through its $andwidth< e&tended connecti'ity and transport efficiency< the SAN en'ironment uniquely offers a $road range of solutions for storage management< including remote $ackup< mirroring< reco'ery and distri$uted hierarchical storage management using a $road range of online and near6line storage de'ices. Perhaps the $iggest challenge facing storage management is the need to pro'ide efficient< secure< high a'aila$ility access to critical data. To efficiently o'ercome these challenges< a num$er of fundamental issues must $e addressedG The $andwidth and connecti'ity limitations imposed $y ser'er6to6storage parallel S!SI connections and ser'er6*AN connections offer little to address these formida$le tasks.4. Ad'anced storage -anage-ent /ro2le-: Increasing amounts of network6storage data ha'e $ecome cum$ersome< if not impossi$le< to maintain in a timely< secure< fault6tolerant and restora$le manner.

In the case of . #hat is ad'anced Storage )anagementI .pen Standard PlatformsI .? #ith the increasing comple&ity of networked computing systems and glo$al enterprise solutions it is refreshing when a single technology yields $oth unmatched performance and e&ceptional Total !ost of .i$re !hannel Ar$itrated loop and the rapidly de'eloping Storage Area Network< an e'olutionary open technology promises to re'olutioni/e the network centric< data6 intensi'e computing era through a new< inno'ati'e market space. #hat is Storage Area NetworkI #hat are its $enefitsI 8.wnership $enefits. ring out the ad'anced application capa$ilities of SANI ?.. #hat do you mean $y . 6+estions 4.4.

4..29 *+( T.A !hapter F !+22(NT T2(NDS IN !.*.T% T(!%N.:J • Introduction • luetooth %istory • System !hallenges • luetooth Security • The asic Structure • luetooth for (m$edded Internet • The Need for luetooth Introduction to Bluetooth .)P+T(2 N(T#.

All the things that can $e connected $y ca$le now can $e connected without it using luetooth technology. Its key features are ro$ustness< low comple&ity< low power and low cost.ig. The luetooth technology eliminates the need for numerous and incon'enient ca$le attachments for connecting computers< mo$ile phones< mo$ile computers and handheld de'ices. It is a Yradio $lockY that ena$les de'ices to talk to each other. . The standard defines a uniform structure for a wide range of de'ices to communicate with each other< with minimal user effort.5 feet of each other to communicate without wires. It makes them accessi$le $ehind walls and has capa$ility of connecting multiple units luetooth is the name gi'en to a new technology standard using short6range radio links< intended to replace the ca$le0s1 connecting porta$le and"or fi&ed electronic de'ices. The technology also offers wireless access to *ANs< PSTN< the mo$ile phone network and the internet for a host of home appliances and porta$le handheld interfaces 0. 41.4.B luetooth is the radio technology that allows de'ices within . It replaces the ca$les that traditionally 7oin pieces or equipment together. luetooth is not a new wireless *AN= it is something much simpler< more powerful and is a ca$le replacement.

E 9ig+re 1G Wireless connecti'it4 o'er Bl+etooth1 luetooth ena$led electronic de'ices connect and communicate wirelessly 'ia short6range< ad hoc networks called piconets. )oreo'er< each unit can simultaneously $elong to se'eral Pico nets. The ad'antages and rapid proliferation of *ANs suggest that setting up personal area networks< that is< connections among de'ices in the pro&imity of the user< will ha'e many $eneficial uses. luetooth is further fueled $y the demand for mo$ile and wireless access to *ANs< internet o'er mo$ile and other e&isting networks< where the $ack$one is wired $ut the interface is free to mo'e. These piconets are esta$lished dynamically and automatically as luetooth de'ices enter and lea'e the radio pro&imity. luetooth could also $e used in home networking . (ach unit can simultaneously communicate with up to se'en other units per piconet.4. This not only makes the network easier to use $ut also e&tends its reach.

8. System Challenges The can $e used.)< )icrosoft< *ucent and )otorola also. luetoothYs main strength is its a$ility to simultaneously handle $oth data and 'oice transmissions< allowing such inno'ati'e solutions as a mo$ile hands6free headset for 'oice calls< print to fa& capa$ility< and automatically synchroni/ing PDA< laptop< and cell phone address $ook applications. The standard is named after %arald laatand Z luetoothZ II< king of Denmark H?56HF4A.!. ). The luetooth Special Interest :roup 0SI:1 was founded $y (ricsson< I )< Intel< Nokia and Toshi$a in .D.. %arald christeni/ed the Danes. (ricsson of Sweden. The group is now promoted $y . #ith increasing num$ers of homes ha'ing multiple P!s< the need for networks that are simple to install and maintain< is growing.4. >arious inno'ati'e usage models ha'e opened up new areas where luetooth .F applications. The following section descri$es some of the requirements from the luetooth system and in essence< suggests the functionalities planned for it. %arald thinks note$ooks and cellular phones should seamlessly communicate. There is also the commercial need to pro'ide Zinformation pushZ capa$ilities< which is important for handhelds and other such mo$ile de'ices and this has $een partially incorporated in luetooth. luetooth system is now recogni/ed more than 7ust a ca$le replacement technology. . %arald controlled Denmark and Norway. )ore than 4H55 companies ha'e 7oined the SI:. Bluetooth History luetooth was in'ented in 4HH? $y *.e$ruary 4HHF< to de'elop an open specification for short6range wireless connecti'ity. A runic stone has $een erected in his capitol city Oelling 0Outland1 that depicts the chi'alry of %arald and the ZrunesZ sayG 4.

All near$y access points respond with their addresses. The implementations of the standard should $e simple< small and power efficient for easy mo$ile usage. • The standard must ena$le the de'ices to esta$lish ad hoc connections. The communications should offer similar protection as in ca$les. The standard should $e a$le to incorporate new usage models without requiring any registration of the new ser'ice with a central authority.H • The most important requirement from the wireless link is that there should $e a uni'ersal framework that offers means to access information across a di'erse set of de'ices • In the practical scenario all de'ices are not e&pected to $e capa$le of all functionalities and users too may e&pect their familiar de'ices to perform their $asic functions in the usual way. Also< introduced is the unconscious connecti'ityZ paradigm< where de'ices can connect to those in pro&imity almost without any user command or interaction. • Support for $oth data and 'oice is e&pected as these are two most important kinds of information $eing transmitted o'er networks today. The de'ices to $e ena$led comprise a highly no uniform set and no single company can ha'e the e&pertise to manufacture all these.4. This will result in the following e'entsG a. There should not $e any compromises on security in switching o'er to wireless. It is necessary for the rapid deployment of the system and for the luetooth • • • • $enefits to actually reach the users that a large num$er of de'ices $e ena$led with the luetooth standard. . The de'ice picks one out of the responding de'ices. So luetooth must offer the facility for colla$oration $etween de'ices< in the pro&imity of one another< where e'ery de'ice pro'ides its inherent function $ased on its form. InG+ir4: The de'ice on reaching a new en'ironment would automatically initiated an inquiry to find out what access points are within its range. $. Connection $sta2lish-ent in Bl+etooth 4.

/aging: The de'ice will in'oke a $ase$and procedure called paging. Bl+etooth &ec+rit4 The luetooth system is intended to $e used as a uniform interface to all of a personYs information sources and will thus $e e&pected to transfer sensiti'e personal data.!. ///: Assuming that a PPP link is used o'er serial modem as in dial up networking< the same application will now $e a$le to run PPP o'er 2. Security of the data is thus understanda$ly an important issue.)). Network /rotocols: The network protocols like T!P"IP< IPM< and AppleTalk can now send and recei'e data o'er the link. 39C. Link esta2lish-ent: The *)P will now esta$lish a link with the access point. As the application in this case is email< an A!* link will $e used. B. &ec+rit4: If the access point restricts its access to a particular set of users or otherwise offers secure mode communications to people ha'ing some prior registration with it< then at this stage< the access point will send a security request for ZpairingZ. This will $e successful if the user knows the correct PIN code to access the ser'ice. This result in synchroni/ation of the de'ice with the access point< in terms of its clock offset and phase in the frequency hop. ?. H. L2CA/ channel: #ith information o$tained from SDP< the de'ice will create an *8!AP channel to the access point.!. This calls for authentication procedures to $e pro'ided.!. >arious setup steps will $e carried out as descri$ed $elow.4?5 8. &er'ice (isco'er4: The *)P will use the SDP0Ser'ice Disco'ery Protocol1 to disco'er what ser'ices are a'aila$le from the access point< in particular whether email access or access to the rele'ant host is possi$le from this access point or not. . A.)). F.)) or other channel will $e created o'er the *8!AP channel. . E.urther< luetooth de'ices are e&pected to $e omnipresent and at some places the access to these de'ices $y pu$lic users may ha'e to $e restricted.. . This may $e directly used $y the application or another protocol like 2. channel: Depending on the need of the email application an 2.

An initiali/ation key is generated using the PIN< the length of the PIN< a random num$er and the de'ice address. The e&change procedures will $e descri$ed $elow. . (ach luetooth unit has a unit key< installed in its non 'olatile memory. The second de'ice may add its own unit key to the unit key of the first de'ice and generate a com$ination link key if $oth the de'ices are capa$le of handling this. ..4?4 As the channel used is wireless and the packets $eing transmitted are a'aila$le to all mem$ers of a piconet< the security initiali/ation communications should not send any information that can allow an unauthori/ed de'ice to know the secret authentication keys. As the keys ha'e to $e secret< they cannot $e o$tained $y inquiry. The application may itself encrypt its data for added security. 8. That can add to the safety of the data< $ut the most of the authentication is $ased on the link le'el security procedures. The dependence on the de'ice address makes it more difficult for a fraudulent de'ice to try a large num$er of PINs as each has now to $e tried with different de'ice addresses. The claimant may also carry out 'erification on the 'erifier using a similar procedure as a$o'e. 4. The de'ice now uses the initiali/ation key to encrypt this unit key and sends it to the other de'ice. A. The security procedure requires a secret PIN to $e known to the user. An authentication procedure is carried out using the challenge response scheme. This random num$er is such that a claimant de'ice which has the correct initiali/ation key. ?. The basic structure The procedures for security use four 'aluesG the de'ice address 0which is pu$lic1< a pri'ate authentication key 048F $its1< pri'ate encryption key 0F648F $its< configura$le1 and a random num$er. The 'erifier unit sends a random num$er generated $y a specific process for the authentication.

Bluetooth for Embedded Internet HF[ of the computing de'ices 0microprocessors and microcontrollers1 sold today are em$edded products and only the remaining small fraction consists of general purpose microprocessors used in P!s or workstations. The internet will not $e restricted to $eing a newtork of P!s and the like< $ut will now include all intelligent de'ices located in the human en'ironment.4?8 An encryption key is now generated from the link key< a random num$er and another num$er o$tained from a fi&ed procedure. Not 7ust electronic equipment like 'ideo players< music systems or telephones $ut e'en mundane consumer goods like washing machines< dishwashers< o'ens and toasters now ha'e an em$edded processor sitting $ehind the control panel. The con'ergence of the a$o'e two technologies is leading to what is called the Zem$edded internetZ6 the immense new 'alue that is emerging $y connecting these computational components. This re'olution has come a$out due to the e'er increasing num$er of transistors $eing packed into a smaller and smaller area of silicon ena$ling high computational powers to $e pro'ided at 'ery low cost. !om$ine this with the increasing proliferation of wired and wireless networking which has completely transformed the way information flows around us. Thin ser'ers can almost run cgi and (m$edded Oa'a is .airchild A!(4454)TF processor supported fingernail si/ed we$ ser'er. #hat is now needed is for this de'ices to support ser'er side programming or client ser'er computational models that can ena$le these de'ices to process e&changed data. (&amples of thin ser'ers a$ound a nota$le one $eing the . oth the de'ices can generate this encryption key as all the required information is known to $oth de'ices. :ow far is it0 !heap microcontrollers today are 7ust capa$le of supporting an em$edded operating system< the T!P"IP stack and run a #e$ ser'er $ased on the omnipresent %TTP. Themost o$'ious mechanisms for this are the cgi interface and Oa'a applets.

The em$edded internet $ased on re'olutionali/e our li'ing and work en'ironments today. >arious efforts are on this direction.4?. !omputation power alone is not sufficient to create real world utility.he Need for Bl+etooth1 #ireless is important for the em$edded de'ices to $ecome really u$iquitous. )()S or )icro electromechanical systems are a hot area of research and are soon e&pected to pro'ide us usa$le and cost effecti'e sensors and actuators which can $e deployed rapidly for the purpose. OINI is another ser'ice that is $eing de'eloped for similar applications. . $eing de'eloped too. The processing has to $e on physical data and the output has to $e used $y physical de'ices. This requires sensors to pick up information and actuators to $ring a$out the desired changes. luetooth seems all set to . This throws up certain issues like low power consumption< connections without user interaction< a$ility to route data on an ad hoc $asis and their related addressing issues. Data security and access control can not also $e neglected #ith its e&tensi'e support for integration with e&isting protocols and APIs< luetooth seems to $e the ma7or contender among other such wireless solutions for the physical layer connecti'ity. The :PS 0:lo$al Positioning System1 can now $e accessed from e&tremely small de'ices< like those $uilt into watches or PDAs. Passi'e or $attery6less electronic tags ha'e $een successfully used and are already in commercial use< for instance at music stores to pre'ent theft.


WI3$L$&& A//LICA,I;N /3;,;C;L
#AP stands for #ireless Application Protocol. The popularity of digital wireless user 6 agents has $een staggering growth in recent years with a massi'e glo$al increase in the use of mo$ile phones. The addition of further capa$ilities mans that the mo$ile phone is no longer merely a telephone $ut a communication de'ice capa$le of running applications and communicating with other de'ices and applications o'er a #ireless Network. #AP is the de'elopment of esta$lished internet protocols and concepts intended to standardi/e the way in which pages< mo$ile phones< and personal digital assistants access information and ser'ices.

Li-itations of WA/
There are some limitations to #AP de'ices and the main aspects $eingG6 4. Small display monitor 8. *imited processing power and memory ;. *imited $attery life and power ?. *imited data input and users interaction capa$ilities A. *imited $andwidth and connection speeds. B. ,requent unsta$le connections

WA/ 9or+-:
A forum was formed in 4HHE $y the leading mo$ile phone manufactures like (ricsson< )otorola< Nokia and and is called the #AP forum. #ithin two years< more than 455 companies 7oined the group to define the standards for pro'iding internet content and ser'ices to wireless de'ices. #AP is actually not a single protocol= rather< is a collection of protocols and standards that make up a complete lightweight protocol stack along with special markup and scripting languages< which together define a complete solution


(e'ices +sed in WA/
Some of the #AP de'ices are hand6held6digital6wireless de'ices such as mo$ile phones< pagers< two6way radios< smart phones< and communicators6from low6end to high6 end. The ase Station Switching !enter is the control element for the $ase transmitter TS. Thus in a dense metropolitan area< S! switching site. stations< $ut need not $e co6located with the

se'eral antenna sites may $e used< $ut they require only one small

#hene'er the mo$ile handset is switching on and at regular inter'als thereafter< it uses the control channel to register itYs presence to the nearest mo$ile switching center. The mo$ile switching centers are the main controlling elements of the networks. (ach control has a gi'en geographic area o'er which a num$er of TS are spread. The information is held $y the home )S!s in a data$ase called the %ome *ocation 2egister or %*2. The local )S!s duplicates some of this information in a temporary 'isitor location 2egister or >*2< until the caller lea'es the )S!s are. The telephone networks are circuit switched networks.

;& co-pati2le with WA/
#AP is designed work with almost all wireless networks and application en'ironments. It can $e $uilt on any operating System including #indows< .S"H< Oa'a .S< etc. It pro'ides ser'ice interopera$ility e'en $etween different de'ice families.

WA/ Browsers
It runs on the #AP de'ice and displays the contents it recei'es. It also pro'ides the front6end< through which the user can na'igate the #AP application. The $rowser may $e $uilt into the phone or mo$ile de'ice< or into the SI) card< the de'ice contains. Some of the #AP $rowsers currently a'aila$le are gi'en in the $o&

:ow the WA/ protocol Works0
A simple #AP application consists of files< located on a we$ ser'er< written in #ireless )arkup *anguage 0#)*1 and possi$ly script files written in #)* script and graphics files in #)* itmap format. The #AP follows the steps mentioned $elowG6

4?B 4. The +ser presses a phone key that has a +2* assigned to it. 8. The phone sends a +2* request to a #AP gateway using the #AP protocol ;. The gateway creates a con'entional %TTP request for the specified +2* and sends it to the #( ser'er. ?. The %TTP request is processed $y the ser'er. The +2* may refer to a static #AP file or may use a !:I script to create the #AP content. The ser'er will fetch the file and add an %TTP header to it< or if the +2* specifies a script application< the ser'er will run the script. A. The we$ ser'er returns the #)* content with the added %TTP header. B. The #AP gateway 'erifies the %TTP header< and the #)* content< then encodes them into $inary form. The gateway then creates a #AP response containing #)* and sends it to the phone. E. The Phone recei'es the #AP response and processes the #)* to display the appropriate content.

WA/ &+--ar4:
4. #AP does for wireless de'ices that %TTP does for we$ $rowsers 6 it allows them to $ecome clients in an Internet6$ased client"ser'er world. 8. #AP is a protocol< a data transport mechanism. In many ways it is similar to %TTP and #AP was also $uilt on top of esta$lished standards< such as IP< +2*s< and M)*. ;. #AP is not a single protocol= rather< it is a collection of protocols and standards that make up a complete lightweight protocol stack along with special markup and scripting languages which together define a complete solution.

com originally known as unwired planet along with Nokia< )otorola and (ricsson launched the #AP forum 6 a nonprofit organi/ation dedicated to the de'elopment and proliferation of a single standard protocol for wireless application. .orum created and distri$uted #)* 6 a language different form< $ut in many respects similar to %D)*.. A. Introd+ction to W L In Oune 4HHE< phone. #)* is a markup language used for descri$ing the structure of documents to $e deli'ered to wireless de'ices. It also pro'ides the front6end< through which the user can na'igate the #AP application. Since #)* uses an M)* 'oca$ulary< it could $e useful to understand some $asic principles of M)* 0(&tensi$le )arkup *anguage1< a tag6$ased system used for defining< 'alidating and sharing document formats. #AP forum is the industry association comprising of hundreds of mem$ers that ha'e de'eloped the de facto world standard for wireless information and telephony ser'ices on digital mo$ile phones and other wireless terminals. Although they are 'ery similar< #)* differs from M)* in the following waysG 4. +sing phone. .comYs %D)* 0%andheld de'ice markup language1 as the $asis for its own standard markup language< the . 8. #)* was created to address the display $andwidth and memory limitations of mo$ile and wireless de'ices such as cellular phones and wireless handheld computers. #AP de'icesG %andheld digital wireless de'ices such as mo$ile phones< pagers< two6way radios< smart phones< and communicators 6 from low " end to high " end. #)*Ys white6space handling rules are not as ela$orate as M)*Ys. #)* has a $uilt6in method for handling international characters. The #AP $rowsers run on the #AP de'ice and display the contents it recei'es.4?E ?. #)* is to wireless $rowsers as %T)* is to a $rowser on a desktop computer. B. #)* relies on well6formed e&pressions. The $rowser may $e $uilt into the phone of mo$ile de'ice< or into the SI) card.

#AP utili/es a security certificate in order to present the pu$lic"pri'ate key pair generated once for the client to the #AP gateway and secure the #T*S layer for authentication. #AP implements most of its security in wireless transport layer security protocol< $ased on T*S with su$tle differences. !urrently most of the mo$ile de'ices are phones and the only input facility a'aila$le is the keypad. There is also a le'el encryption. .4?F &ec+rit4 in WA/ Security in #AP has $een implemented in such a way to pro'ide ma&imum $enefits with little or no hassles. Security on the internet is pro'ided at a num$er of le'els through the in'ol'ement of 'arious protocols< the most common of which is the Transport *ayer Security Protocol T*S formerly known as secure socket *ayer 0SS*1. In this model< connection is esta$lished with the #AP gateway through the network operator rather than through the ISP. The 2AS ser'er also performs authentication and routes the data to a #AP gateway. The #AP forum defined a new protocol #T*S that is $ased on T*S and pro'ides a similar le'el of security. *imitations of #ireless de'ices are the display of mo$ile phones is 'ery small and na'igation poses a pro$lem. This is not the feature in the regular process of internet communication< The #AP gateway then con'erts the #)* script to and from the $inary format that is transmitted o'er the air and passes on the data to the we$ ser'er using %TTP protocol. #T*S is capa$le of running o'er #ireless Data6gram protocol or +ser Data6gram Protocol. #AP de'ices are $asically mo$ile phones and they ha'e limited Processing Power and 2A). Pro'iding users with graphics when they are using is more difficult and the deck si/e is small. The phone call is routed through the network operator@s modem to a 2emote Access Ser'er 02AS1. WA/ & Internet: *et us 'iew how #AP differs from internet. #AP de'ices ha'e 'ery little $andwidth as compared to that of a P!.

?. Some #AP gateways do this automatically. #AP is a collection of languages and tools and an infrastructure for implementing ser'ices for mo$ile phones. E.4?H I-portant Aspects of WA/: 4. !ryptographyG The art of keeping messages hidden or sure. . #T*S is capa$le of running o'er #DP or +DP. The . 8.. The #AP gateway talks to the phone using the #AP protocol stack< and translates the requests it recei'es to normal %TTP. F. B. %T)* content to #)*< %T)* is the most common form of te&t on the we$ and the content con'erters are also known as Ztrans codersZ. (a'esdropper attack< impersonation attack< man in the )iddle attack is a few threat models. #AP introduces a gateway $etween the phones and the ser'ers pro'iding content to the phones. A.e. Con'erting $<istent We2 sites to WA/: y con'erting e&isting sites i. Authentication is the process of making sure that another party is actually who they claim to $e. !on'erters work $y e&tracting te&t from a source page< then re6formatting that te&t in to the target markup language< in this case #AP. #AP implements most of its security in #T*S< $ased on T*S with su$tle differences. The con'erter is performing the con'ersion of formatted data to pure date< so we< as the con'ersion author decide the format we want the output to $e in. (ncryption is the process of encoding information in to a different format that cannot $e easily understood and only the intended recipient understands.

4A5 intermediate data can $e manipulated without $ack6end and front6end processes affecting that manipulation. or I)AP< and any address $ook information is searched for using *DAP or A!AP.rom the users point of 'iew e6mail is sent 'ia S)TP< collected from their mail$o& using P. What WA/ & $?-ail can offer0 The popularity achie'ed $y 'ery limited short messaging technology 0S)S1 indicates the demand for messaging 'ia mo$ile phones certainly e&ists and gi'ing mo$ile phones all the functionality of e6mail definitely seems to $e the ne&t logical step. #e can either e&tract all the possi$le contents in the page such as title< welcome messages< and links and so on or e&tract specific parts of the page say 7ust the news headlines< or 7ust the stock quotes. )essage recipients are not limited in how they recei'e their messages. (6mail is su$stantially more ad'anced technology than S)S< e'en if it is only used for simple S)S like that messages. .P. . This simply means that when you send an (6mail message the recipients doesn@t ha'e to $e a'aila$le at that instant to recei'e the mail< $ut may collect the message at his own leisure. 2ather than only $eing a$le to access the messages from a single mo$ile phone< the user can use any e6mail client he prefers. Since< they allow for useful synergy of personal communication technology< deli'ering the con'enience of porta$ility from mo$ile phones< while allowing instant access to e6mail< pro'iding asynchronous access to written messages. #AP de'ices and e6mail capa$ilities seem to $e an ideal technological fit. Introd+ction to $?-ail: (mail is an asynchronous message e&change technology.

The contents are 'ery $rief< containing a message followed $y a link to a we$6site. The push initiator sends an instruction to a pro&y gateway which $roadcasts the command to wireless networks using the Push6o'er6the6air protocol< which shall $e discussed later.g. This technology is already in e&istence in the mo$ile phone networks using S)S and cell $roadcast mechanism in :S) networks $ut they lack an important feature< interacti'ity. The Push6pro&y6gateway is placed $etween the push origin ser'er 0PI1 and the #AP client. Tourist or hotel information can $e pushed to wireless de'ice users in a particular area. There is a lot of information that is a'aila$le and needs to $e pushed to the user at a certain predefined inter'al or notify the users when certain important e'ents occur.echnolog4: The internet user pulls the content from the network. /+sh 9ra-ework: Push architecture consists of client ser'er architecture.'er6the6air 0. The push technologies help us to pro'ide this functionality to a #AP user. The ser'er ha'ing the potential of push initiator< #AP client can listen for push requests.or e. The message is $asically M)* packets. It has to implement the entire PAP protocol stack plus PAP and .TA. . The Push Access Protocol 0PAP1 is designed to work on the top of one of the application le'el protocols like %TTP or S)TP on the internet Push6 .TA1 protocol is used on top of the #SP layer of the #AP stack of protocols.4A4 /+sh . .


9+t+re in WA/
4. It pro'ides the user with permanent connecti'ity< remo'ing one of the ma7or frustrations of :S)< namely dropped connections and the incon'enience and delay of ha'ing to dial up repeatedly to perform a #AP $ased transaction or interaction o'er :S)< or indeed any other circuit6switched network. 8. :S) is a circuit6switched technology. .n the other hand< packet switched technologies6such as :P2S and ;:6allow users of mo$ile de'ices to esta$lish a connection with their $arrier< which is then maintained indefinitely. ;. (D:( stands for (nhanced Data 2ates for :lo$al ('olution. (D:( is a further enhancement of :S) $ased technology and may e'entually offer data transmission rates that match those of ;: networks. ?. luetooth offers ine&pensi'e< easy to $uild and use< low power consumption< wireless communication o'er short distance $y means of small radio chips. luetooth< like a num$er of other key technologies such as 'oice recognition< impro'ed displays and key $oards< will make the user e&perience more con'enient and rewarding for wireless de'ices. A. The (P.!;8 operating system designed and $uilt for mo$ile computing is no dou$t one of the $est platform contenders for wireless client de'ices in terms of its capa$ilities and architecture. B. In future we are likely to ha'e a porta$le de'ice< which can $e called a #ireless information de'ice 0#ID1< which is going to $e far smarter than anything currently a'aila$le. +nified messaging< com$ining 'oice< e6mail< 'ideo6mail< fa& and any other messaging ser'ice imagina$le will $ecome a reality. There will $e many slips and stum$les along the way for many of these things to $e reali/ed. %owe'er< we can see the foundation technologies< ideas and ser'ices all around us.


#ireless *ANs
T. +N#I2( AN (NT(2P2IS(
#ireless *ANs 0#*ANs1 pro'ide fle&i$le connecti'ity as an e&tension< or an alternati'e to a wired *AN within a $uilding or a campus. #*ANs are usually used to connect handled terminals and note$ook computers to e&change real6time data with enterprise applications on the corporate $ack$one. These networks are growing popular in 'ertical markets for applications related to health6care< consulting and sales< retail< manufacturing< and education and research. The #ireless *AN 0#*AN1 market is likely to grow to a$out +SX ; $illion $y 8558< according to !ahner@s In6Stat :roup. #*ANs augment wired *ANs< making it possi$le to access shared information within the campus without needing to physically connect to the network. There is no need to e&tend the e&isting ca$ling or to configure additional nodes. And the enhanced mo$ility pro'ides producti'ity and ser'ice opportunities that are otherwise not possi$le.

.ften #*ANs pro'ide the last few meters of connecti'ity to the corporate $ack$one within a campus. Take a look at some of the applications a'aila$ility of information has greatly enhanced their efficiency.  Trade shows and product demonstrations make great use of #*ANs for pro'iding temporary connecti'ity.  #*ANs are 'ery effecti'e in rapidly changing connecti'ity scenarios $ecause they make mo'es< additions and changes the network much easier.

4A?  #arehouse workers roaming around the warehouse e&change information with the central data$ase o'er #*ANs<  #*ANs are also $eing used as $ack6ups for wired *ANs in mission6critical applications.  Teams meeting in corporate conference rooms make quicker decisions with immediate access to real time information o'er #*ANs.  #*ANs are of great help to the ser'ice industry< such as restaurants< car rentals< and so on6$ecause the a'aila$ility of real time information is 'ery 'ital to the efficiency of this industry.

In a typical #*AN configuration< a transmitter"recei'er de'ice< called an access point< interfaces with the wired network using standard ca$ling. The #*AN reach is also much wider than that of wired *ANs. . The access point $uffers and transmits data from the wireless *AN to the wired networks< A single access point can support a small group of users within a few hundred feet. $ase of installation: #*AN installation is so much easier $ecause there is no need to draw ca$les.=I$&G #*ANs use radio or infrared 0I21 wa'es to communicate information from one point to another.4AA AI. WLAN .L. Lower cost of ownership: Although the initial in'estment in #*ANs may $e more as compared to wired *ANs< the cost of ownership o'er the entire life cycle< keeping in 'iew the frequent mo'es< is significantly lower.3 B$N$9I. A num$er of such access points along the wired network augment the reach of the wired network.&: I-pro'ed prod+cti'it4 with -o2ilit4: Access to real time information anywhere in the organi/ation makes possi$le higher le'els of ser'ice.$C:N. &cala2ilit4: #*ANs are highly scala$le as they can $e set up in a 'ariety of topologies to meet specific requirements. The antenna of the access de'ice is mounted at a location to pro'ide radio co'erage in the desired area.

The range 'aries from 455ft to A55ft. Oust like light< I2 cannot penetrate opaque o$7ects. Wireless LANs can operate on an4 of the following technologies:  Narrow2and radio system transmits and recei'es user information on a specific radio frequency.  Infrared uses 'ery high frequency< 7ust $elow the 'isi$le light in the electromagnetic spectrum< to carry data. It is a wide6$and radio frequency technique de'eloped for relia$le< secure mission6critical communication systems. (ach user operates on a different frequency. . Wh4 sho+ld 4o+ deplo4 WLANs0 #*ANs pro'ide tremendous fle&i$ility< scala$ility and mo$ility.4AB At the user end< the handled de'ices ha'e a #*AN adapter< which interfaces with the operating system of the de'ice and the airwa'es 'ia an antenna. Ine&pensi'e line6of6 sight1 systems may pro'ide a 'ery limited range suita$le only for personal area networks. %igh6performance I2 systems may $e impractical for wireless users and may $e used to implement fi&ed su$6networks using line6of6sight. It is either directed line6of6sight or diffused.  &pread spectr+. Typically< a #*AN can pro'ide throughput to the order of 4644 )$ used $y most wireless *ANs. Some reasons why they should $e deployed areG Area of co'erage: ased on the power of the equipment< an entire indoor area can $e co'ered using #*ANs. )icro cells created $y using access points can increase.

)ost 'endors of #*ANs design their products to take care of this interference. Interopera$ility $etween #*ANs is $ecoming easier with standardi/ation. energy . The num$er of access points depends on the si/e of the area that is to $e co'ered. Interference: Since the radio frequencies used $y #*ANs may not $e licensed< there is a possi$ility of #*ANs interfering with some other de'ices like microwa'e o'ens. Costs: !osts include the cost of wireless access points and the wireless *AN adapters. Interopera2ilit4: #*ANs seamlessly integrate with wired *ANs< including (thernet and Token 2ing. &afet4: The output power of #*AN equipment is much less than that of a handheld cellular phone. Since radio wa'es fade 'ery rapidly o'er distance< e&posure to 2. The price of access points ranges from +SX B55 to +SX 4A55 #*AN adapters cost $etween +SX 4A5 and +SX A55.44 make it possi$le for #*ANs from different 'endors to work together. ut #*ANs sa'e on the cost of ca$ling and the cost of implementing changes to the network. These connections can often $e more relia$le than wired *ANs. Industry standards like I((( F58.4AE 3elia2ilit4: Though it may seem that radio interference would downgrade the performance of #*ANs< sturdy designs and the limited distance o'er which a #*AN has to operate ensures ro$ust connections.

45. ring out the concept of Push Technology . .rameworkI #*ANI H. (&plain the Technological aspects of #*AN. Towards this< #)* could $e used for faster deployment.Push .or more fle&i$le and maintaina$le systems< M)*6$ased architecture is recommended.. #hat are the System !hallenges . #hat are #AP ProtocolsI :i'e a small note on #)*. #hat is a #API #hat are its limitationsI #hy #AP forumI B. !omple& encryption techniques make ea'esdropping e&tremely difficult. 3uestions 4. #hat is lue tooth TechnologyI ring out the $rief history of lue tooth technologyI 8. Security pro'isions are typically $uilt into #*ANs< often making them more secure than most wired networks. #hat is #ireless *ANI #hat are its limitationsI ring out the ma7or $enefits of . No ill effects on health ha'e $een attri$uted to #*ANs. #here is the need to deploy #*ANI F.Security aspects in lue toothI . Integration with e<isting applications: #hile planning access to the wireless infrastructure< e&isting applications should not $e disrupted or rede'eloped. E. Depending upon specific $usiness needs< it@s perhaps time to $uild a 'ery scala$le and fle&i$le #*AN solution to suit your corporate requirements. #hat are the needs for lue tooth TechnologyI (&plainI A.4AF to the people in the 'icinity is 'ery little. &ec+rit4: #ireless technology has its origin from the military. (&plain how lue tooth is essential for em$edded InternetsI ?.

Integrated Ser'ices Digital Network – Oohn *ane B. Integrated Digital Network – *S *awton A..4AH 3eference Books: 4. ISDN Tutorials – ISDN – Jahoo Search (ngine . Data !ommunications . *ocal Area Network Architectures – Da'id %utchison . (ncyclopedia of Networking – Tom Sheldon ?.Distri$uted Networks – #yless D lack 8.