Botkin: Chapter #28 Guided Viewing Urban Environments Name: ________Claudine Manabat______________ 1: The environmental focus has shifted

from outside to inside the city. Why has this happened? Cities pollutes more 2: How much of the world’s population live in cities? 45% How much of developed countries live in cities? 75% How much of developing (poor) countries live in cities? 38% 3: What is a megacity? How many are there? More than 8million residents/ 30 megacities 4: As of 2011, which city is the most populated in the world? Tokyo, japan Which U.S. city is the most populated? Ney York 5: Why is a city considered to be an ecosystem? Maintain a flow of energy , provide necessary material resources, and have ways of removing wastes. 6: Define: Site: Can be readily defended, with good building locations, water supplies, and access to resources Situation: They grow up at crucial transportation locations What things are considered when choosing a city location? Site & Situation Environmental 7: What do city planners tend to do in city centers that is harmful to the environment? Tendency to transform a city center from natural to artificial features 8: What was the first large public park in the United States? Central Park

9: What is a greenbelt? Why are they important? (Hint: Think of corridors) system of countryside and urban landscapes. Important - changes the relationship between biological and physical aspects of the environment 10: What is the energy budget of a city? (1) absorption and reflection of solar energy (2) evaporation of water (3) conduction of air (4) winds (air convection) (5) transport of fuels into the city and burning of fuels by people within the city (6) convection of water (subsurface and surface stream flow) 11: How does the climate change in a city? Explain why. Because of the building and the pollution. 12: Why are cities called, “Urban Heat Islands”? Explain how this happens. Increased heat from burning fossil fuel or other activites. Lower rae of heat loss because bulding as solar collecters 13: How are water pathways changed in the city? Paved city streets and city buildings prevent water infiltration Water goes to the sewage We have grounds that doesn’t allow the ground to absorb water 14: How are soils changed in the city? Soil are no longer replenished by wegetation 15: Why are city dwellers exposed to more pollution? Higher concentration of toxic chemicals 16: What are the main sources of urban pollution? Cars stationary power sources, home heating and industry 17: What are some professions that specialize in bringing nature into the city?

Urban forestry, landscape architecture, city planning, civil engineering 18: How can vegetation help alleviate city issues? Shade/ quiet contemplation 19: What are the 4 categories of city wildlife? (1) those species that cannot persist in an urban environment and disappear (2) those that tolerate an urban environment but do better elsewhere (3) those that have adapted to urban environments, are abundant there, and are either neutral or beneficial to human beings (4) those that are so successful they become pests 20: How can city environments contribute to conservation of wildlife? Be home to endangered animals 21: What are animal pests? Pest t people when it is in an undesired place at an undesirable time doing an unwanted thing. What are the characteristics that they have in common? Generalists in their food choice High reproductive rate Short average lifetime 22: How are pests controlled in the city? Pesticide 23: How can we revitalize urban environments? Get abadon areas and make them environmentally better like high lines.