Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations
A Guidebook

Copyright © 2004 World Tourism Organization Calle Capitán Haya, 42 28020 Madrid, Spain

Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook ISBN 92-844-0726-5

Published and printed by the World Tourism Organization, Madrid, Spain First printing in 2004 All rights reserved The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication does not imply the expression of any opinions whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the World Tourism Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

World Tourism Organization Calle Capitán Haya, 42 28020 Madrid, Spain Tel.: (+34) 915 678 100 Fax: (+34) 915 713 733 Web site: Email:

© This publication may be reproduced for such purposes as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarships, or research, or for use by member country governments, in which the use is for noncommercial purposes – is freely authorized, with due credit to the WTO source. The WTO would appreciate receiving a copy of any publication that uses this publication in these circumstances as a source. No use of this publication may be made for resale or any other commercial purpose whatsoever without prior permission in writing from the WTO. For applications see

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How to Use this Guidebook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Why Use Indicators? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Indicators at Different Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 Types of Indicators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3 Measurement and Expression of Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.4 Indicators and Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.5 Indicators as a Catalyst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Progress in Indicators Development and Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Growing Indicators Initiatives Worldwide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2 Advances in Indicators Methodologies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.3 Indicators Initiatives of Other Sectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.4 Indicators and Performance Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Expected Use and Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part 2 Indicator Development Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Initial Phase: Research and Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 1 Definition/Delineation of the Destination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 2 Use of Participatory Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 3 Identification of Tourism Assets and Risks; Situation Analysis. . . . . . Step 4 Long-term Vision for a Destination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indicator Development Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 5 Selection of Priority Issues and Policy Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 6 Identification of Desired Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 7 Inventory of Data Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 8 Selection Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 9 Evaluation of Feasibility/Implementation Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 10 Data Collection and Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 11 Accountability and Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 12 Monitoring and Evaluation of Indicators Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Use of Other Sections of the Guidebook within this Process . . . . . . . . . . . . .
© 2004 World Tourism Organization - ISBN 92-844-0726-5

1 3 5 7 8 8 10 11 12 13 15 16 16 17 18 19 19 21 22 24 24 26 32 35 35 35 37 38 40 43 43 46 50 52 54

2.1 Key Steps to Indicators Development and Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Part 3

Sustainablility Issues and Indicators in Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55 55 56 56 57 65 68

The Presentation of the Issues and Their Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Wellbeing of Host Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 Local Satisfaction With Tourism ¢ Baseline Issue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attitudes, Dissatisfaction, Community Reaction

3.1.2 Effects of Tourism on Communities ¢ Baseline Issue . . . . . . . . . . . .
Community Attitudes, Social Benefits, Changes in Lifestyles, Housing, Demographics

3.1.3 Access by Local Residents to Key Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Access to Important Sites, Economic Barriers, Satisfaction with Access Levels

3.1.4 Gender Equity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Family Wellbeing, Equal Opportunities in Employment, Traditional Gender Roles, Access to Land and Credit

3.1.5 Sex Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Child Sex Tourism, Education, Prevention Strategies, Control Strategies

71 76 76 83 83 86 86 90 94 94 101 104

3.2 Sustaining Cultural Assets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Conserving Built Heritage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cultural Sites, Monuments, Damage, Maintenance, Designation, Preservation

3.3 Community Participation in Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Community Involvement and Awareness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information, Empowerment, Participation, Community Action

3.4 Tourist Satisfaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.1 Sustaining Tourist Satisfaction ¢ Baseline Issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Expectations, Complaints, Problems, Perceptions

3.4.2 Accessibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mobility, Older Tourists, Persons with Disabilities

3.5 Health and Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5.1 Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Public Health, Community Health, Food Safety, Worker Health and Safety

3.5.2 Coping with Epidemics and International Transmission of Disease . . .
Facilitation, Contingency Planning, Impacts on Tourism

3.5.3 Tourist Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Risk, Safety, Civil Strife, Terrorism, Natural Disasters, Impacts, Management Response, Contingency Planning, Facilitation

3.5.4 Local Public Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crime, Risk, Harassment, Public Security, Tourist Anxiety

109 111 111

3.6 Capturing Economic Benefits from Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.1 Tourism Seasonality ¢ Baseline Issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Occupancy, Peak Season, Shoulder Season, Infrastructure, Product Diversity, Employment

3.6.2 Leakages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Imported Goods, Foreign Exchange, Internal Leakage, External Leakage, Invisible Leakage


3.6.3 Employment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Training, Quality, Skills, Turnover, Seasonality, Pay Levels



3.6.4 Tourism as a Contributor to Nature Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Financing for Conservation, Local Economic Alternatives, Constituency Building, Tourist Participation in Conservation


3.6.5 Community and Destination Economic Benefits ¢ Baseline Issue . .
Capturing Benefits, Tourism Revenues, Tourism Contribution to the Local Economy, Business Investment, Community Investment, Taxes, Satellite Account


3.6.6 Tourism and Poverty Alleviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equity, Micro Enterprises, Employment and Income Opportunities, SMEs

135 143

3.6.7 Competitiveness of Tourism Businesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Price and Value, Quality, Differentiation, Specialization, Vitality, Business Cooperation, Long-term Profitability

3.7 Protection of Valuable Natural Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7.1 Protecting Critical Ecosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fragile Sites, Endangered Species

147 147 149 152 152 155

3.7.2 Sea Water Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contamination, Perception of Water Quality

3.8 Managing Scarce Natural Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8.1 Energy Management ¢ Baseline Issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Energy Saving, Efficiency, Renewables

3.8.2 Climate Change and Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mitigation, Adaptation, Extreme Climatic Events, Risks, Impacts on Destinations, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Transport, Energy Use

3.8.3 Water Availability and Conservation ¢ Baseline Issue . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water Supply, Water Pricing, Recycling, Shortages

165 169 171 171 173 180 183 185 192 192 196

3.8.4 Drinking Water Quality ¢ Baseline Issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Purity of Supply, Contamination Impact on Tourist Health and Destination Image

3.9 Limiting Impacts of Tourism Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9.1 Sewage Treatment ¢ Baseline Issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wastewater Management, Extent of System, Effectiveness, Reducing Contamination

3.9.2 Solid Waste Management ¢ Baseline Issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Garbage, Reduction, Reuse, Recycling, Deposit, Collection, Hazardous Substances

3.9.3 Air Pollution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air Quality, Health, Pollution from Tourism, Perception by Tourists

3.9.4 Controlling Noise Levels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring Noise Levels, Perception of Noise

3.9.5 Managing Visual Impacts of Tourism Facilities and Infrastrucure . . . . .
Siting, Construction, Design, Landscaping

3.10 Controlling Tourist Activities and Levels ¢ Baseline Issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.10.1 Controlling Use Intensity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stress on Sites and Systems, Tourist Numbers, Crowding

3.10.2 Managing Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sport Events, Fairs, Festivities, Crowd Control


3.11 Destination Planning and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11.1 Integrating Tourism into Local/Regional Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information for Planners, Plan Evaluation, Results of Plan Implementation

204 204 207 210

3.11.2 Development Control ¢ Baseline Issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Control Procedures, Land Use, Property, Management, Enforcement

3.11.3 Tourism-Related Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mobility Patterns, Safety, Transport Systems, Efficiency, In-Destination Transport, Transport to/from Destination

3.11.4 Air Transport - Responding to Changes in Patterns and Access . . . . .
Environmental Impacts, Planning and Security

219 223 223 226 228

3.12 Designing Products and Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12.1 Creating Trip Circuits and Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Corridors, Links, Cooperation

3.12.2 Providing Variety of Experiences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Product Diversification, Range of Services

3.12.3 Marketing for Sustainable Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
“Green” Marketing, Products and Experiences Emphasizing Sustainability, Market Penetration, Tourist Response, Marketing Effectiveness

3.12.4 Protection of the Image of a Destination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Branding, Vision, Strategic Marketing

236 241 241 244 247 247 251 253 257 259 263 268 269 272 274 278 281 282 286 291

3.13 Sustainability of Tourism Operations and Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.13.1 Sustainability and Environmental Management Policies and Practices at Tourism Businesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environmental Management Systems, Social Responsibility

3.14 ¢ Baseline Issues and ¢ Baseline Indicators of Sustainable Tourism . . Part 4 Destination Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.1 Coastal Zones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Beach Destinations and Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Small Islands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Destinations in Desert and Arid Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Mountain Destinations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Natural and Sensitive Ecological Sites. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7 Ecotourism Destinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.8 Parks and Protected Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.9 Communities Within or Adjacent to Protected Areas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.10 Trails and Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.11 Built Heritage sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.12 Small and Traditional Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.13 Urban Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.14 Conventions and Convention Centres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.15 Communities Seeking Tourism Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


4.16 Theme Parks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.17 Water Parks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.18 Cruise Ships and Their Destinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part 5 Indicators Applications: Uses in Tourism Planning and Management .

293 294 297 303 303 305 307 308 309 312 313 316 318 318 321 322 327 327

5.1 Indicators and Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Using Indicators to Strategically Plan for Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 Using Indicators to Measure Plan Progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Indicators and Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Legislation, Monitoring Compliance

5.4 Carrying Capacity and Limits to Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sensitivity, Limits of Acceptable Change, Thresholds

5.5 Public Reporting and Accountability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.1 Considerations Regarding from and Content of Information Provided . 5.5.2 Measuring Success and/or Results of Indicators Applications . . . . . . .
Reach, Penetration, Action

5.6 Indicators and Certification/Standards Programmes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6.1 Certification Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6.2 Validation of Indicators for Certification Programmes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7 Performance Measurement and Benchmarking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part 6 Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hotels, Analysis, Reporting, Management Indicators, Private Sector

6.1 ACCOR Hotels Environmental Sustainability Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Albufera de Valencia (Spain): Measuring Carrying Capacity in a Fragile Ecosystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Carrying Capacity, Model, Multivariate Analysis; Wetlands, Data Integration, Sensitive Natural Areas, Ecotourism,


6.3 Antarctica: Sustainable Tourism Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hotels, Analysis, Reporting, Management Indicators, Private Sector


6.4 Arches National Park (USA): Indicators and Standards of Quality for Sustainable Tourism and Carrying Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Image, Crowding, Visitor Percepcions, Virtual Response, VERP, Ecotourism


6.5 Balearic Islands (Spain): Integrated Tourism Management Through Sustainable Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Demographics, Pressures, Comprehensive Measures, Islands, Prioritization

345 351

6.6 The Canary Islands (Spain): A Planning Model for a Mature Destination . . . . .
Scenarios, Touirsm Planning, Islands, Limits to Growth, Carrying Capacity

6.7 Cape Breton Island (Canada): Indicators of Sustainable Tourism and Ecotourism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ecotourism, Sensitive Natural Areas, Parks, Community Participation

355 360

6.8 The Caribbean Sustainable Tourism Indicators Initiative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Ecotourism, Sensitive Natural Areas, Parks, Community Participation

6.9 Chiminos Island (Guatemala). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private Sector, Ecolodge, Management Indicators

368 371

6.10 El Garraf Natural Park, Catalonia (Spain) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ecotourism, Sensitive Natural Areas, Parks, Community Participation

6.11 European Environmental Agency Indicators: Tourism and the Environment in the European Union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Regional Indicators, Impacts, Public Reporting

377 382

6.12 France: Aggregated National Reporting on Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aggregation, Scale, Reporting, Communication

6.13 India: Community Based Tourism in Corbett National Park Using Appreciative Participatory Planning and Action (APPA) Methodology . . . . . . .
Community Participation, Small Communities, Qualitative Indicators, Project evaluation, Perfomance Indicators


6.14 Kangaroo Island Tourism Optimization Management Model (TOMM). . . . . . . .
Community, Community Participation, TOMM, Monitoring, Implementation

391 400 402

6.15 ‘Keep Winter Cool’: Tourism Sector Greenhouse Gas Mitigation. . . . . . . . . . .
Skiing, Mountains, Climate Change, Impact Measurement, Private Sector

6.16 Kukljica (Croatia): WTO Indicators Workshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indicators Development, Community Participation, Workshop Methods, Islands

6.17 Lanzarote Biosphere Strategy (Canary Islands, Spain): Towards Sustainable Development of the Island . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Biosphere Reserve, Islands, Participation, Indicators Development, Strategic Planning

406 413

6.18 Samoa Sustainable Tourism Indicator Project (SSTIP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Strategy Development, TOMM, Community Participation, Priorization, Implementation

6.19 Sonke Cape Route: Information to Support Township SMEs and Community-based Tourism in Cape Town, South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tour Route, Community Tourism, Social Tourism, Urban Tourism, Community Participation

418 422

6.20 Super, Natural British Columbia: Assessing Branding Sucess . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Image, Branding, Perfomance Measurement, Monitoring, Brand Protection

6.21 Sydney Quarantine Station (Australia): Applying the Tourism Optimization Management Model (TOMM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Integrated Planning, Management Indicators, Adaptive Management, TOMM, Private Sector

429 435 440 448

6.22 Tunisia: Indicators and Standards for Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
National Indicators, Coastal Zones, Development Control, Hotels, Zoning

6.23 Uganda Heritage Trails: Impact Assessment Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Community Participation, Monitoring, Results, Benefits

6.24 Villarrica Lake Area (Chile): Regional Application of Sustainability Indicators . .
Regional Planning, Implementation, Community Participation, Monitoring

6.25 Yacutinga Lodge (Argentina): Indicators for a Private Wildlife Refuge and a Model for Monitoring Physical Trail Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Management Indicators, Community Participation, Ecotourism, Trails, Private Sector



Part 7 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 Key Messages on the Use of Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Roles and Challenges for Stakeholders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annexes Annex A - Authors and Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex B - References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex C - Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C 1 Indicators Selection Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C 2 Indicators Development Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C 3 Indicators Reporting Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C 4 Indicators Re-evaluation Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C 5 Exit Questionnaire Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C 6 Local Questionnaire Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex D - List of Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex E - Picture Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index ......................................................

463 463 463

467 475 485 485 486 488 490 491 494 497 501 503


the lead expert and principal author of this book. leading an initial expert group. pilot studies. as well as writer of several sections. All helped to identify who was involved worldwide in tourism indicators. He is the author of many chapters and most photos throughout this guide. the overall revision and production of the publication. Edward W. Henryk Handszuh. in the preparation of several sections. He has been involved in WTO’s sustainable tourism indicators programme since the first regional workshop took place in 1999. WTO would like to express its gratitude to Dr. contributed by identifying sources. Manning has been working with WTO in the field of sustainable tourism indicators since 1992. boxed inserts and many of the issues sections and cases were written by experts with the specific expertise and experience on each topic.ISBN 92-844-0726-5 . Sustainable Development of Tourism Department. Programme Officer. Specific sections. Sustainable Development of Tourism World Tourism Organization © 2004 World Tourism Organization . The work has benefited from the guidance and input of an expert committee from the inception of the project. His wide experience in sustainable tourism matters and good organization skills were fundamental in the worldwide review of indicators initiatives that lead to this publication. 467). Eugenio Yunis Head. One of the most important products of this initiative is the creation of a worldwide network of experts and practitioners. and he coordinated and reviewed the contributions of other authors as well. along with some information about each author. (Ted) Manning. Head of WTO’s Quality and Trade in Tourism Department. Several of the experts met in Madrid in the spring of 2003 to clarify the need and to seek consensus on direction and contents of the Guidebook. the preparation of the indicators guide published in 1996 and various workshops. safety and security. and who could be contacted for contributions. it is hoped that this will continue to act as a forum to advance work on indicators for sustainable development of tourism and to exchange information on progress and best practices. WTO would particularly like to thank Carolyn Wild and Louise Twining Ward who both helped identify contributors to fill gaps and who provided ongoing review and critical comment on sections. preparing and revising sections on health. Gabor Vereczi. The acknowledgements for individual issues or sections written by these contributors are contained in the List of Authors (Annex A. leakages. p. He has been instrumental in identifying information sources and contributors for this guide. Dr. Margo Manning also deserves recognition for her editing and review of all of the sections and year long service as initial content editor for this project. In the first place. has been the main coordinator of the indicators study at WTO.Acknowledgements WTO would like to recognize the considerable efforts from over 60 authors from more than 20 countries who helped make this book a reality.


Most users will not need to read all sections. but. bringing managers the information they need. It is intended to bring information on the state of the art in development and use of indicators to those who need good information and who can influence the future of tourism and its destinations. This Guidebook. This volume is built on the studies and workshops. and in a form which will empower better decisions. Every year. for a quick introduction to what is available and how it may be of use. when it is required. and on the experience of some 60 experts and practitioners working on indicators in more than 20 countries. tourism can be an engine for degradation. the destinations for tourism. more people are in motion than ever before in history. is intended to help the managers of tourism companies and destinations.Preface Tourism is now one of the global engines of development. tourism can be a positive force. It focuses on the use of indicators as a central instrument for improved planning and management. bringing benefits to destinations around the world.ISBN 92-844-0726-5 . Over the past decade. It is clearly in the interest of the tourism sector to maintain and sustain the basis for its prosperity. their partners and other stakeholders to make better decisions regarding tourism. This Guidebook is designed to bring practical assistance to tourism and destination managers. It contains a range of tools and examples which can be of direct use. and to encourage them to use indicators as a building block for sustainable tourism in their destinations. with the objective of creating an effective system to support better decision-making for tourism. studies and workshops have been held at destinations in various regions of the world. © 2004 World Tourism Organization . through the table of contents and index be able to find the sections which respond to their needs. With good planning and management. Readers are recommended to begin with the section “How to Use this Guidebook” on the following page. Readers are encouraged to use this book as a resource. Since the early 1990’s the WTO has pioneered the development and application of sustainability indicators to tourism and to destinations. If poorly planned and managed. produced by the World Tourism Organization.


Implementing this essential list of indicators can be a good starting point for choice of indicators and also will help destinations to make comparisons with the same indicators from other destinations. Indicators application in tourism planning and policy-making (PART 5): guidance and examples relating to the specific use of indicators for planning. community-based. and that are easy to measure and use for decision making. destination. Many destinations contain several components: readers will wish to consult all sections that seem to fit their destination.g. instead they are encouraged to use those sections which respond to their specific needs. Case Studies (PART 6): 25 examples of comprehensive indicators applications at different levels (national. or ecotourism). The TABLE OF CONTENTS and the INDEX are designed with keywords to help readers locate the specific sections of interest to them. This long list of issues is designed as a reference. beach tourism.How to Use This Guidebook This Guidebook provides building blocks and references which can be used to develop indicators in response to the policy and management issues or challenges found in any destination. managers are urged to select and use the sections most pertinent to their destination(s). management. cultural sites. The Guidebook provides: An introduction to indicators and their use (PART 1) which explains why indicators are important and how they are used. natural areas). small islands. academic and research institutions. The procedure contains a sequence of practical steps in order to identify indicators that respond best to specific issues of destinations. site and company levels). References are included for specific issues detailed in Part 3. understandable indicators recommended for each of them. © 2004 World Tourism Organization . A list of the most common issues of destinations with suggested indicators: (PART 3) a comprehensive analysis of the environmental.g. The cases are referenced throughout the guidebook and keywords referring to their contents are included in the index.ISBN 92-844-0726-5 . For each issue and their specific components practical indicators are summarized in tables. References: Publications and websites are cited in the specific sections and in a comprehensive list (Annex B) for further information and reading. A participatory process for indicators development: (PART 2): a recommended 12-step procedure to develop indicators in the context of tourism planning processes. means to use or portray the indicators and possibilities of benchmarking where applicable. private companies and organizations. including support for stakeholder consultations. Most readers will not need to read the entire Guidebook. Conclusions and recommendations for specific stakeholder groups (PART 7): suggestions for public authorities. regional.. Destination applications (PART 4): indicators and issues that are common to specific types of destinations (e. and with simple. 3. Baseline issues and baseline indicators (PART 3. NGOs and international organizations on how to apply or promote the use of indicators. The Templates in Annex C help guide the process. certification. socio-economic and managerial issues likely to be of concern to tourism destinations. reporting and other purposes that aid the formation and implementation of sustainable tourism policies.14): a smaller list of selected issues that can be considered as essential for most destinations. and through different types of tourism activities (e. Concrete examples in boxes and references are provided for most issues. benchmarking. and their applications are explained in terms of data sources.


maintaining essential ecological processes and helping to conserve natural heeritage and biodiversity.1 Sustainable development of tourism: Sustainable tourism development guidelines and management practices are applicable to all forms of tourism in all types of destinations. Box 1. These indicators have focussed both on issues of impact and sustainability for tourism. economic and sociocultural aspects of tourism development. 2) Respect the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities. and contribute to inter-cultural understanding and tolerance.ISBN 92-844-0726-5 . such as at the regional or national level. raising their awareness about sustainability issues and promoting sustainable tourism practices amongst them. 3) Ensure viable. including mass tourism and the various niche tourism segments. Indicators are proposed as key building blocks for sustainable tourism and as tools which respond to the issues most important to managers of tourism destinations. conserve their built and living cultural heritage and traditional values. and on more traditional management indicators that respond to particular needs at many scales. While the primary focus of this Guidebook is at the destination level (See Box 1. but which also tend to affect the sustainability of tourism operations and their destinations. Sustainable tourism should also maintain a high level of tourist satisfaction and ensure a meaningful experience to the tourists. During the decade since the 1992 Rio conference.2) some attention is also given to indicators that focus on issues at a broader scale. as well as strong political leadership to ensure wide participation and consensus building. and more broadly. the futures of ecosystems. especially as it refers to the international trade in services. and a suitable balance must be established between these three dimensions to guarantee its long-term sustainability. Thus. and contributing to poverty alleviation. The management of tourism affects the conditions of destinations and host communities. long-term economic operations. Reference is also made to issues which may be site or enterprise specific. providing socio-economic benefits to all stakeholders that are fairly distributed.Part 1 Introduction Tourism is now a major sector of the world economy. particularly as they may affect destinations. planners and academics in many nations and specific destinations have been working to develop indicators suitable for their management needs. This Guidebook has been produced to help tourism managers obtain and use the best information possible in support of better decision-making regarding sustainable development for tourism. (WTO Conceptual Definition 2004) © 2004 World Tourism Organization . Sustainable tourism development requires the informed participation of all relevant stakeholders. regions and nations. including stable employment and income-earning opportunities and social services to host communities. Achieving sustainable tourism is a continuous process and it requires constant monitoring of impacts. introducing the necessary preventive and/or corrective measures whenever necessary. Informed decisions at all scales are needed so that tourism can be a positive contributor to sustainable development in keeping with its role as a significant source of both benefits and potential stresses. sustainable tourism should: 1) Make optimal use of environmental resources that constitute a key element in tourism development. Sustainability principles refer to the environmental.

It includes tourism scientific credibility. and images and perceptions considered relevant only if they effectively defining its market competitiveness. measures of risk and potential need for action." indicators development process is usually iterative: in effect a procedure of negotiation between the ideal information important to key issues and decisions surrounding them. This Guidebook provides some guidance in how to manage the process to produce and use effective and meaningful indicators for the sustainable development of tourism and tourism destinations. In the context of sustainable development for tourism. concerns relating to economic sustainability. An indicator is normally chosen from a range of possible data sets or information sources because it is meaningful with regard to the key issues to which tourism managers must respond. It has physical and choose the indicators likely to have the greatest administrative boundaries defining its impact on decisions or actions. They must often including a host community. and more broadly to organization and management issues. In any destination.2 Why Use Indicators? Over the past decade. Use of that indicator can lead to actions to anticipate and prevent undesirable (or unsustainable) situations at destinations. b) changes in external factors which affect tourism and c) the impacts caused by tourism. Indicators are information sets which are formally selected to be used on a regular basis to measure changes that are of importance for tourism development and management. In addition. and ability to be products such as support services and used as benchmarks for comparison over time attractions. and the realities of what can be obtained and at what cost. a great deal of work has occurred on the clarification of the key issues in sustainability for tourism and the means by which indicators can support better decisions and actions. the fortunes of the tourism sector. Relevance to the Organization’s working group on destination key issues of a destination and practicality of management. The development and use of indicators is increasingly viewed as a fundamental part of overall . They can measure: a) changes in tourism’s own structures and internal factors. "A local tourism destination is generation and use are the foremost a physical space in which a visitor spends at considerations. and ultimately. clarity. and means to identify and measure the results of our actions. and also provide information which can help clarify issues and measure responses. aiming at more accurate indicators.1 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Indicators are measures of the existence or severity of current issues. and tourism resources within one and with other destinations are used to help day's return travel time. 1.2 What is a destination? a good indicator are elaborated in some detail According to the World Tourism in Part Two of this Guidebook. Indicators are management. criteria relating to least one overnight. As a consequence. The procedure is dynamic as the continuous improvement of information sources and processing. the destinations. Indicators will normally respond to issues concerning the natural resources and environment of a destination. Both quantitative and qualitative information can be used for sustainability indicators. and can also be feasible to collect and analyze and nest and network to form larger practical to put in place. signals of upcoming situations or problems. both within the tourism sector and the broader destination.8 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook 1. indicators are time series information which is strategic to the sustainability of a destination. The criteria and procedures for the definition of Box 1. is an implicit objective. the best indicators are those which respond to the key risks and concerns regarding sustainability of tourism. Local address the key issues associated with planning destinations incorporate various stakeholders and management of a destination. its assets. issues relating to cultural assets and social values.

allowing prevention. The objective is to reduce future risks to the tourism industry and to destinations. where participants from many nations learned about indicators application. including the effects of of indicators by WTO and by many other environmental factors on tourism (possibly experts and jurisdictions since 1995. hostile reactions to tourists and to tourism development. performance measurement of the implementation of plans and management activities – evaluating progress in the sustainable development of tourism. globally.lowering risks or costs. the program has been most successful in its efforts to aid managers of tourism destinations to anticipate and prevent damage to their product . Responsibility requires knowledge. and Croatia.identifying limits and opportunities. They serve as a key tool. Sri Lanka. Mexico. Begun as a means to address sustainability issues at all scales. Within this context. therefore. helped to advance the methodology. in turn. and an integral element in efforts to promote sustainable development for the tourism sector at all scales. Tourism sector decision-makers need to know This Guidebook is designed to build on the the links between tourism and the natural and experience gained in the various applications cultural environments. indicators are an early warning system for destination managers of potential risks and a signal for possible action. 2. In 1995-96 a manual for indicator development was prepared based on initial pilot tests in Canada. Argentina.Introduction 9 destination planning and management. and resultant problems for the tourism sector have occurred in many regions. and to expressed as risks to tourism) and the impacts continue to support improvement in the of tourism on the environment (which may also planning and management of tourism be expressed as risks to the product).Part 1 . including those organized by the WTO in Mexico. better decision-making . Using existing and newly gathered data. Box 1. Studies done by the WTO and many others have supported the conclusion that the planning and management of tourism in many destinations have occurred with insufficient information. 5.and to thereby foster sustainable tourism at a destinationspecific scale. providing specific measures of changes in factors most important to the sustainability of tourism in a destination. the impacts of changes in the social and natural environment on tourism and the longer term maintenance of the key assets which make a destination attractive. Decision making in tourism planning and management can. . reduced risk of planning mistakes . identification of impacts . Incidences of contaminated beaches and damaged cultural and ecological assets. This information. particularly with regard to the impacts of tourism on destinations. identification of emerging issues . enables the status of issues relevant to a destination's sustainability to be gauged on an ongoing basis. Hungary. be improved. Since the publication of the manual. there have been several regional workshops and case studies. The stimulus for the tourism sector comes from the perception that many destinations have been at risk due to insufficient attention to the impacts of tourism and to the long-term sustainability of destinations. 3. 4. Netherlands and Argentina.allowing corrective action when needed. destination by destination. US. changes in environmental.3 The World Tourism Organization (WTO) indicators initiative Since 1992. the World Tourism Organization (WTO) has been active in the effort to develop and implement indicators which help in the sustainable development of tourism at different destinations. social and economic conditions can be detected. focused on specific cases to ensure practical application and testing of the approach. Some of the benefits from good indicators include: 1.

etc. and often find it difficult to determine which data are important. accommodation capacities. risks. amount of waste produced by tourists in peak seasons). analyse and present data to better link with sustainability issues. compare with other nations. Often the same data can be useful to support decisions which lead to more sustainable tourism development. (See Part 4 for examples). 7.1 Indicators at Different Levels Indicators can support information-based decision making in all levels of tourism planning and management: • National level . and performance. greater accountability . As part of a carrying capacity assessment or estimate of limits to acceptable change. Environmental issues. Many existing data sources can be adapted as indicators measuring sustainability. Regional level . constant monitoring can lead to continuous improvement . if their relevance is understood.4 Information and indicators Tourism destinations often already have some data and information available that can serve as indicators. Specific destinations (e. state of the tourism sector. tourist numbers (in particular peak use figures) can be related to the use of natural resources (e. when it is related to desired levels of tourism or to known limits of capacity. 377). Indicators can help to select.building solutions into management. Any data can become a useful indicator – if it responds to the issues important to a destination.. or social issues related to host communities (ratio of tourists and host population in different periods of the year) can only be effectively understood when linked to tourist numbers. particularly when their relevance to sustainability is understood. (see Caribbean case p. the number of tourists. tourism base line data and statistics like tourist arrivals. (see EEA case input into regional plans and protection processes. When these same tourist numbers are compared with the number of local residents. Tourism professionals work regularly with some indicators. such as water supply or waste (consumption of water by tourists. • • . to serve as a basis for comparison between regions and to provide information for national level planning processes. coastal zones. Many managers operate in an environment which can be considered as data-rich but information-poor. provide a baseline for the identification of changes at more localized levels and support broad level strategic planning. process. For example. Some have become generally used indicators for management.g. for example tourist numbers. the number of tourist arrivals is a basic indicator conventionally used to measure the success of the tourism sector. overnights spent. It can also be essential information to a number of sustainability issues which are related to tourist numbers and levels of stress on resources. local municipalities and communities) to identify key elements of indicator of the socio-cultural sustainability of tourism. 1.2. average water use per tourist) and used to indicate potential levels of stress on natural or built detect broad changes in tourism at the national level. Decision-makers are often inundated by large quantities of data. Box 1. a ratio is formed that can serve as an indicator of potential social stress . the most commonly used and understood measure economic aspects like tourism revenues and expenditures. (a baseline figure measured in nearly all destinations) can be considered a sustainability indicator. 360). For example.credible information for the public and other stakeholders of tourism fosters accountability for its wise use in decision-making.10 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook 6. These are reference points for business decisions and respond to ongoing management issues.

. hotels.. measures of management effect. • • While all categories of indicators can be valuable in supporting sustainable tourism. • • Indicators generated at different scales are often strongly interrelated. the early warning indicators are frequently most useful to tourism managers and may provide the ability to anticipate serious negative effects on the destination. (see for example the section on tourist sites in or adjacent to national parks p. management and future development of tourist attractions (e. decline in numbers of tourists who intend to return). Destination level indicators are essential inputs for regional level planning processes that can further accumulate information to support the development of indicators at the national level. changed pollution levels. becoming in effect. (See for example the Chiminos Island case p.g. For example.g. 368 and the Bow Valley Convention Centre Operational Indicators p. 327).g. Related to other sites or regions. hotel-. While the most directly useful may be those that help to predict problems. Individual tourism establishments (e.g. indicators of environmental performance gathered at individual tourism establishments are normally reported to the central management of hotel and restaurant chains.2 Types of Indicators There are different types of indicators. tour operators. and individual tourism establishments. greater number of returning tourists). (see for example the ACCOR hotels case p. beaches. specific tourist attractions.. cleanup cost for coastal contamination).. protected areas. (E. water shortages.. many can be used to create higher-level indicators. measures of the current state of industry (e. Ideally. historic districts within cities.g. indicators can enable actions to be taken well before serious threats to sustainability occur.Part 1 .g. or crime indices). 289)..g. restaurants. an indicator of stresses on the system will serve later on to measure the effects and results of management efforts taken in response to the problems identified. transportation companies and tour operators as a part of normal business and can be important inputs to company level decision making planning processes. It should also be noted that the same indicator can frequently serve different purposes and its use can change over time. 371).g. or on the overall tourist experience. indices of the level of deforestation. transport. each with different utility to decision-makers. occupancy rate. results or performance (e.2. indicators of stresses on the system (e.g. . changes of consumption patterns and income levels in local communities). 272 or the El Garraf case p. marinas) to monitor the impact and performance of their operation.g. measures of the impact of tourism development on the biophysical and socio-economic environments (e.g. measures of management effort (e. theme parks) where management level indicators can support site planning and control. several other genres exist: • • • • early warning indicators (e. tourist satisfaction).Introduction 11 • Key tourist use sites within destinations (e. areas of special interest) where specific indicators may be key to decisions on site control. Sustainability indicators for a destination are often based on data collected at a more specific level from key tourist use sites. national parks.and catering companies) who may access indicators to feed their strategic planning process for the destinations. 1. Tourism companies (e. they can contribute to comparative analysis or benchmarking. If aggregated. a performance measure for the response).

To find the adequate measures is critical in the design and use of indicators.g.3 Measurement and Expression of Indicators An indicator can be applied in practice only if there is a feasible mechanism to measure it.showing whether tourists outnumber locals.. % of local population with educational degrees of different levels.g. regional and national levels.2. but at lower cost. existence of tourism development plan. Percentage. an alternative indicator may be available to measure the same risk or issue indirectly. Note that often. 45). Grades in the scales of environmental certification systems). Sri Lanka..g. “Yes or No” questionnaires of evaluation in certification systems. beach zoning. A certain indicator can have different alternative and complementary methods of measurement (use of different instruments) and can be portrayed in different forms: The different means to be used to portray indicators include the following: Quantitative measurements: (where comparable numbers can be obtained over time) • • Raw data (e. such as existence of beach clean-up programmes. or volume of waste generated /month/week expressed in tonnes).which describe a state or level of attainment on a graded list (e.12 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook 1.11 p. where good data is not readily obtainable at an affordable cost. pet control etc.g. Blue Flag certification. and if so by how much). Ratios. Recommended indicators from the workshop for the extent of coastal erosion were: • metres change per annum • % of beach area affected . Nominal indicators which are in essence labels (e. considering that the data gathering and processing must be technically and economically feasible.g. level of tourists’ satisfaction or level of satisfaction of local residents relative to tourism or specific elements).. or plan with tourism components at local. % change in tourist arrivals and expenditures over last year). level of protection of natural areas according to the IUCN Index... a benchmark or an earlier measure (e. percentages as above .related to existence of certain elements of tourism management and operation (e. number of tourists visiting a site/year/month. first aid booths. where data is related to total.g.. Normative indicators .g.). • Qualitative/normative measurements: • Category indices . Opinion-based indicators (e. (See Box 2. ratio of the number of tourists to local residents in high season . % of waste water receiving treatment. where one data set is related to another showing a relationship (e. These are normally based on questionnaires and may be expressed as numbers. • • • Field group from the WTO Indicators workshop looks at shore erosion at Beruwala.where essentially qualitative data is quantified. which is based on an extensive independently applied checklist in beach management and safety but that appears to users as a single Nominal Yes/No indicator).

and the key elements are often the same as those which are important to tourism. 2001).g.bc. indicators can respond to the key issues identified and ideally to the goals and objectives of the plan or strategy. providing precision (e. In each case. but more often addresses issues that are shared with tourism (e.Introduction 13 1. 391) for land use planning for a national park and island community in Haida Gwaii British Columbia (http://srmwww. Lanzarote – see case studies in Part 6) that tourism cannot be planned or managed in isolation from the environments. infrastructure development or social wellbeing. Indicators can help clarify goals. (See Box 2. The work to develop and use indicators in other contexts sometimes explicitly addresses tourism. 23). Similarly. South Australia (see case p. In any case. (See also Part 5 of this Guidebook p. costs of repair for protected areas. As well. In each of these cases. local crime statistics. and even cause reconsideration of the goal or target where clarity reveals inconsistencies. selected indicators have been developed within the context of the goals and objectives set for the destinations – and act both as signals of what is important to the destination and also as potential performance measures for progress towards planned goals.for links and relations between indicators and planning procedures p. indicators have been important components of broader planning exercises. part of a broader process of planning for tourism. information and sometimes specific indicators are shared with other agencies such as the jurisdictions that are the sources of tourists for the destination. The act of considering indicators tends to promote precision. they are specific tools.. good indicators can help strengthen it. Kukljica. there has been considerable development of indicators to address issues such as community based regional Tourism occurs in a spectrum of destinations ranging from those which are well established to those which may be new and even outside any planning process. Where no plan is in place. It has become increasingly apparent (e. not just “better water supply” but “provision of reticulated potable water to 90% residents and hotels within the municipality by 2007”).2. indicators need to relate directly to the goals and targets of tourism development. or quality of life issues in many nations. for example. tour operators and transportation companies which bring them to the destinations or nearby destinations that may be part of a tourism experience. indicators development can be the catalyst to initiate the process. such as the TOMM initiatives for Kangaroo Island. . as a response to the global focus on sustainability stimulated by the Brundtland Commission (1986) and the Rio Earth Summit (1992). economies and communities that are part of the destination. Where there is already a local authorities. Indicators are therefore shared with other stakeholders (ministries.4 Indicators and Planning Indicators first became a subject for attention from the tourism sector. peak use levels for transportation hubs) – and can be a ready source of information for the tourism sector. or a key component in an iterative planning process. 302).pdf) or the development of carrying capacity estimates for Malta (Mangion. Indicators can be of use both where there is a plan in place and where none exists.g. In the past decade. Kangaroo Island. the process of establishing and using indicators can be a catalyst for improvement of the decision process. Where plans and management systems are already in place.Part 1 . Because indicators are frequently shared with other sectors or organizations. Indicators have increasingly become a component of planning and management processes for specific ecosystems that are also destinations for tourists. work in other domains related to indicators often provides examples or lessons useful to tourism. The goal of sustainable development for tourism and for the destinations of tourism has become increasingly accepted as providing the framework within which identification and evaluation of indicators is situated. and create greater participation in solutions and accountability for the results.g. for environmental protection.1. private and non-governmental organizations) in destinations that may have specific mandates. Ideally indicators play a part in the entire project cycle as part of a process of continuous improvement. carrying capacity for natural areas. Indicators should not be seen as an end in themselves.

as well as documentation of the major current or expected trends or events which may affect these. and stimulated a re-examination. a series of indicators was developed. Where a planning process is already in place. Both involve the identification of the key assets and key values associated with the destination. indicators become key both to monitor implementation towards them and as a means to claim successes where they occur. Both normally involve the assessment of the actual problems. Through a subsequent series of indicators development workshops with the officials who would have to respond to these. While other goals such as “improved access to education” or “health” were amenable to some measurement. and improvement of reporting and communication for the stakeholders involved. indicators may assist in drawing attention to whether a plan or strategy responds to the overall goal of sustainability. beginning with identification of potential issues (pollution. (e..5 Providing clarity to policy and program goals: Canadian rural indicators Policy goals are often defined very broadly. the attempt to develop and report on progress towards the public goals led to a re-examination of the goals and an objective assessment of whether they were realistic. A focus on indicators promotes dialogue on the specific definition of what is most important to be sustained. with the stakeholders. Box 1. Canada defined a broad set of policy goals for rural development through an extensive public consultation process. At a broader level. In a recent WTO application in Cyprus an indicators program was implemented to complement an ongoing planning and policy process and to act as a catalyst for greater participation by stakeholders in both defining issues and providing data. some information has usually been collected and plans developed at least in part in response to that information.g. A more systematic development and application of indicators can reinforce and improve the process by stimulating better use of existing data sources. the procedure by which indicators are developed is analogous to the first step in plan development. impacts of development in other sectors). Box 1. and whether these have changed. improvement of data collection and analysis processes.. Clarification of key indicators can frequently stimulate reexamination of plans and clarification of performance measures. The goals defined were very broad. the process demonstrated the need to further examine what was really meant by the goals.6 What if there is no plan? What if there is one? The sustainable development of tourism destinations requires a sound planning process..14 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Where clear goals (with specific targets associated) are in place. The process was essentially one of clarifying what was really meant by such general goals as “leadership” and “quality of life” – not an easy task. Response will likely require some form of plan or management procedure. including such goals as “improved rural leadership” and “improved quality of life for rural residents”. maintenance of assets. identification of new ones. and attainable. . of what were the real issues. involvement of the community. involvement of tourism in the planning process for the destination) Indicators are an intrinsic component of the planning process. In this case. current or potential impacts or risks associated with development. • An indicators study can be the catalyst for development of a formal plan or planning process. In 2000. loss of access. as well as continuous management of the key elements that support tourism and its destinations. Where no plan currently exists • Where no plan exists that includes tourism.

Peninsula Valdes . Participation by officials at all levels of . to define key assets and sensitivities. In other words. This information will serve to decide whether corrective actions are needed and also can provide a tool for continuous monitoring. • The indicator identification exercise can be applied to already defined problems. and often to realize that many of the most important issues are shared. indicators determining the actual state of seawater quality at beaches or actual levels of community income from tourism will serve later on to measure achievement relative to these goals. • Indicators defined to analyse actual environmental and socio-economic conditions at the initial phase of the planning process can became performance indicators in the implementation phase. For example. • Performance indicators can be defined relative to the specific goals and targets of the plan. • Where no monitoring system or performance measures are included in an existing plan.Hungary. It has also proven very useful in creating partnerships for solutions that can benefit many different stakeholders.Part 1 . • The results of indicators use may well foster demands for action . indicators are a form of education all tool helping to highlight key concerns for public information. Each specific development project can integrate performance indicators in order to measure the success of management actions in the implementation phase. the indicators development process can assist in identifying and clarifying key areas where performance measures are needed. In many of the regional applications using the WTO methodology. Indicators as tools for public information and education • Within and outside of the planning process. Source: WTO Kukljica Final Report 1. obtain information on the state of actual conditions. set goals and identify actions to produce improvements. and many who had arrived with the conviction that the others were adversaries left with a changed understanding of shared goals and the potential to work together for shared solutions. the indicators development process can begin a dialogue which results in some form of plan and stimulate response to key issues in a destination. The procedures delineated in this Guidebook can bring potential stakeholders together to discuss what is important.5 Indicators as a Catalyst If there is no strategy or plan (or even planning authority) the process to develop indicators is an effective means to focus attention on key issues.2. • Indicators discussions can often stimulate greater precision in redefining goals and targets. indicators can be the trigger for a more systematic planning or management process. Where there is a plan • An indicators study can assist in evaluation of current regional or tourism plans to determine whether all of the key risks to sustainable development of tourism are covered.Introduction 15 • An indicators exercise can help identify key elements that must be included in plans. such as the resource base for the industry.Mexico. Cozumel . issues and objectives to improve the provision of accurate data and information where needed. Beruwala -Sri Lanka) the indicators workshops held by WTO were the first time a majority of the key local stakeholders had met together. Ideally. Keszthely . or risks to the assets or product.and lead to public support for more inclusive planning procedures to protect and sustain the key values in any destination. even if it only meant sharing information.g.. (e.Argentina.

summarized in Manning et al. Establishment % of visitors to Canada who visit PEI National Park.3 Progress in Indicators Development and Use 1..3.16 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook jurisdiction reinforced the realization that there were shared interests and that indicators developed by one level could often be adapted or combined to support information needs at other levels. and the development of certification and standards. Indicators at a destination level can sometimes be rolled up to be used to address national and broader issues. including policy development. National. from local to global. Maximum number of visitors to the beach area on peak day. which cause risk to the sustainability of a destination.. 1. Box 1. Here is one example with reference to Prince Edward Island National Park and its peripheral community in the Atlantic region of Canada. academic institutions. % occupancy of accommodation in Park region. Local destination. Regional.7 A hierarchy of indicators Indicators can be defined at all scales. They may also be used at a regional or national level to identify site or destination specific anomalies (e.g. % visitors to the Park region who stay over night. Note that specific indicators when aggregated may be of use to higher order jurisdictions to measure collective results (such as average occupancy at the regional level). regulation and enforcement.1 Growing Indicators Initiatives Worldwide There is now an increasing role for indicators in support of tourism management processes. Indicators research and applications have been done in all parts of the world by governments. Site. and private companies and by communities themselves.. or the “greatest progress” in improvement of beach cleanliness or service quality). % of visitors to the Atlantic region who visit PEI National Park. the “worst” site in the nation in terms of crowding. . which is the basis for the tourism in the destination. The documents cited in the following sections are pitched at a variety of levels. Indicators at many different scales are potentially relevant to the management of tourism in a destination. to much more global issues involving health or security issues (Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome -SARS is a contemporary example). 1997). (Indicators pilot study 1995. from global systems to very local applications (and even to the enterprise level). Important indicators for a destination may refer to a limited local phenomenon such as reduction in a key endangered species.

org/. mountain ecosystems).org/sustainable. Malta) visitor management strategies (e.2 Advances in Indicators Methodologies There has been growing interest from a number of academic institutions. Work on destination management and the identification of approaches to sustainability have all invoked indicators and measures that may be of use more broadly. • Based on GRI.3. Research projects has begun work to solicit input from a range of academics and practitioners concerning their opinions on the characteristics of successful tourism sustainability indicators. the Tour Operators Initiative has elaborated guidelines for sustainability reporting through performance indicators for tour operators.htm • The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) attempts to set world standards on environmental reporting for public and private organizations. and limits to acceptable growth for impacted natural destinations. and a principal tool for monitoring. There have been several innovative applications to heavily used destinations in many parts of Europe. Local Agenda 21 processes (coastal destinations of Spain).g. Often indicators development has occurred in response to specific issues or risks.8 Global initiatives: There are various international initiatives that provide the rationale for indicators of sustainable development and also suggest particular measures which may be of use at many scales. 355) tests the utility of indicators as a tool to help differentiate between overall destination sustainability and the specific risks to ecotourism products and assets. (See Box 1. (see references section) both to help advance indicator development related to sustainability issues and to use indicators as a vehicle for teaching purposes.8 and European Environmental Agency case study p. http://www. Australia).un. These include: • The Agenda 21.Introduction 17 Box 1.htm • The Agenda 21 for Tourism (WTO. http://www. workshops and applications have more frequently focussed on issue-specific indicators (e. In many cases.g. (e. • The UN Commission on Sustainable Development has developed a Theme Indicator Framework..toinitiative. which address overall sustainability issues. (USA. 1. and suggests the elaboration of indicators of sustainable development.un. It also defined guidelines for developing a national indicator programmes. indicators have been a means to attract political attention to tourism management issues and to create leverage for their EC. 377) The broad range of initiatives now provides a rich reservoir of examples and applications that can be of use to those seeking to improve . Indicators development has occurred at the community scale on social and ecological sustainability (South Africa). in Canada. with specific subsets that may be directly applicable to tourism destinations or to key assets. in Chapter 40 defines the need for appropriate information that supports decision-making.Part 1 . defined at the Rio Earth Summit. France. presents indicators as one of the priority action areas. Spain). http://www. Several international initiatives have suggested broad sets of indicators for uses relevant to tourism.. Britain). A 2002 project on indicators in Cape Breton Island Canada (p. For example. park management.globalreporting. 1995).org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd. and on whether there are standards that may be attributed to these indicators within an overall framework of sustainability. within the context of carrying capacity. WTTC. and comparative analysis of the state of destinations (e.

g. In the work to develop indicators. South Australia (p. such as the Tourism Optimization Management Model (TOMM) initiatives for Kangaroo Island. while other work has focussed on smaller regions similar in scale to the destination-specific work that has been the focus of WTO applications.3 Indicators Initiatives of Other Sectors Since the beginning of the 1990’s there have been many developments in sectors other than tourism pertinent to indicators development and application.g. Similarly.g. particularly in those regions where it is an important sector of the regional economy (CONAMA. at the corporate Examples include indicators development for integrated regional development (e.18 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook management of destinations through the development and use of indicators. China. In addition to explicit work on indicators.g. transportation. OECD. trade. (http://www. indicators of the state of urban systems (Spain). national parks (USA).. direct parallels to the indicators work done by WTO can be seen in the development and use of indicators and performance measures for regional planning in nations including Chile. environment. data and indicators produced through global and national processes. 1. carrying capacity. much has been done which is potentially relevant. (España. in Spain an initiative of the Secretary of the Environment has. from the industry perspective and from those of impacted communities and ecosystems (Several interesting cases can be found in the case studies indicators to be applied to sustainability of specific sectors or to cultural and natural assets (UNESCO.3. It should be noted that there is growing work in academic institutions in many countries to advance the concept of indicators both. both in theory and in application. given that tourism itself is an activity incorporating many different sectors. In Chile. produced Environmental Indicators for Tourism. Some of this work has been aimed at aggregating data for national decisions. to efforts to create specific indicators to support a range of planning and development objectives. UNDP. and many European countries. Canada). in collaboration with the tourism sector.un.. economy. Collaboration between ministries has also been important for the production of indicators of interest to more than one constituency. For example. there has been considerable de facto development of indicators to address issues such as regional planning. the tourism sector can benefit significantly from the information. Such indicators have frequently been the engine for direct application in the planning and management process (e. a comprehensive program of development of regional indicators has been undertaken. Taiwan. These range from broad efforts to create universal indicators lists for application to ). many national applications). organizations such as the International Hotel Environmental Initiative have established the means for hotels to generate and exchange information on a wide range of economic. permitting benchmarking between hotels. There have also been many examples of interesting local applications to e. Part 6). Because tourism is clearly part of broader development processes. data and indicators developed by other sectors. and the development of carrying capacity estimates for Malta. Similarly. 391). Australia. the use of indicators has been a key element during broader planning exercises. The results of these studies can also be used to benchmark indicators for use in other destinations. For example.benchmarkhotel. for example. to efforts directed at planning and implementing measures to support sustainable tourism. social and environmental factors related to sustainability. broad national or international reporting programs on state of the environment (e.g. and community quality of life. The tourism industry is a participant in this process. etc. Chile).) and economic sectors provide important information for tourism indicators. .html). national or community sustainability. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente 2001). UN Millennium Indicators (http://millenniumindicators. US Parks Service). or small islands (Small Island States section. EEC. as well as other administrations (e. European Environmental Agency. The information. Canada.. linked to the regional planning process.conama. (http://www..

the causes of the issues and the partners in their solution will necessarily include others. Certification initiatives necessarily involve the establishment of criteria. Tour operators.Introduction 19 1. the achievement of rural and regional development goals (England).4 Expected Use and Users While the principal target for use of this Guidebook is the destination management organization (usually at the local authority level). natural and cultural sites or protected areas. While rapid assessment is designed to provide an initial evaluation of state. Social accountability is an increasing focus for the governments of many OECD countries. Researchers and students dealing with tourism-related development issues. Facility planners and managers for resorts. the participatory process does identify key factors of importance and ideally leads to monitoring (and the identification of key indicators) as part of the next steps of any project or program. yet. RUEA . 302) for specific examples). this Guidebook can also be of use to others in.g. environmental objectives and standards. In addition to destination managers. so that the information is most likely to make a difference. On-site managers of specific attractions. and those who manage product development. 1. rapid assessment of health risks or environmental conditions) where international development organizations are increasingly using participatory processes to identify key issues and indicators relevant to project and program goals.Part 1 . other potential users of the Guidebook may include: • • • • • Tourism administrations and other public authorities at the regional and national levels. The identification of key performance measures is often done via a consultative process with key stakeholders to define those indicators that best capture the desired outcomes. Clear definition of which indicators are needed can then result in more strategic positioning of data gathering and better targeted analysis. or associated with. and the measurement of comparative quality of life (UNEP) are of interest to the tourism sector. national or even international levels. . where performance measurement is increasingly aimed at the identification of indicators to assist in the assessment of whether social goals.3. Initiatives aimed at the measurement of success in regional development (OECD and EEC). This is particularly important in relation to the expansion of traditional performance evaluation methods to account for broader social outcomes. rapid project assessment. Destination managers or authorities are the key front line decision-makers for many of the issues and challenges related to the sustainable development of their destination. rather than performance over time. A further source of methodology and applied examples is in the growing field of rapid assessment (e. who may need to aggregate data from several sites or destinations. accommodation and other tourism establishments.4 Indicators and Performance Measurement The fields of evaluation and results-based management are also an emerging source of information on advances in indicators development and application. whose main interest may focus at local. (See the Performance Measurement section of Part 5 (p. quality of life.. Evaluators begin with the identification of broad goals and objectives and then seek appropriate measures or indicators to allow monitoring of their achievement. and which can support decisions on policies and programs. and sustainability are being achieved. and more abstract goals such as equity. transportation companies and other service providers. the tourism industry.rapid urban environmental assessment. Compliance with the criteria is measured by indicators. and using data mining (use or manipulation of existing data) to obtain information to support the process. associated with specific performance to obtain the official recognition.

Moorea. community organizations and the host community. Users are encouraged to make use of all of the sections of this Guidebook in the development of indicators most suitable to their needs. .20 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook • • Members of interest groups. Even paradise has risks and can benefit from good indicators. French Polynesia. who wish to understand and help maintain the basis for their tourism. Informed tourists. who wish to be informed participants in the development of destinations.

Step 3. Step 5. Step 11. but the primary focus of this Guidebook is at the destination level – with destinations being defined generally in terms of the marketable destination. All destinations may not need to use all of the steps (particularly if they have some planning system or monitoring program in place on which they can build). These steps are outlined below. Accountability. Monitoring and evaluation of indicators application. The indicators development process has twelve steps: Research and Organization Step 1. Step 9.ISBN 92-844-0726-5 .Part 2 Indicators Development Procedures This section contains a recommended framework for use in indicators development processes. which may range in size from a small nation to a region. Selection procedures. This process need not be onerous. Selection of priority issues. While they may be followed in order. Indicators Development Implementation Step 10. Step 7. This section will be used by those who are interested in creating indicators for their destination. Indicators development will occur at several scales. communication and reporting. and should be adapted to the specific needs and conditions of the destination. Long-term vision for a destination. Step 4. Identification of tourism assets and risks. at any point it may be useful to return to an earlier step for additional clarification or information. Definition/delineation of the destination. Step 12. Identification of desired indicators. Evaluation of feasibility/implementation. Data collection and analysis. Step 6. or to a specific resort or site. © 2004 World Tourism Organization . Step 8. Inventory of data sources. Use of participatory processes. Step 2.

showing the links and uses indicators may have at any stage in the planning process. Croatia.22 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook 2. and can trigger policy formation and tourism planning. (See also Box 2. this approach stresses the importance of starting with the basic steps to be as clear as possible on what it is intended to sustain.1 the relationship between indicators development steps and traditional approaches to planning is outlined. as well as reporting mechanisms that support monitoring and management processes. the indicators development process can help to clarify this. wherever there is already an established tourism development strategy and planning process. and Part 5 which addresses means to use and portray indicators).1 Key Steps to Indicators Development and Use The recommended methodology for indicators development is a phased approach that results in operational indicators for a destination. Even where there is a strategy or plan in place. . in itself. and is used as a training tool.g. produces benefits for the destination and for the participants. and information may already be regularly collected. the identification of tourism assets and initial assessment of risks and opportunities). it is useful to review all of the steps: the focus on indicators can improve data sources and processing capacities. The methodology features a participatory process which. Where there is no formal tourism planning process in place. and lead to productive monitoring processes. As noted in Part 1. Where a plan already exists. In Box 2. it can be the point of departure for indicators development.5 which shows the process applied in Kukljica. The suggested procedure for indicators development includes various steps that form part of normal tourism planning processes (e. the focus on indicators can help improve the provision of accurate information. and it will be available to support some indicators.

Essential for definition of clear targets and timeframes. reporting and communication Monitoring and evaluation of implementation should be conducted on an ongoing basis. 10. I . Inventory of data sources. . Indicators are essential to clarify key issues. Long-term vision for a destination – clearly defined. medium and long term according to priority needs). Indicators are what is monitored and evaluated about: . Formulation of vision and/or mission statement. D. Evaluation of indicators feasibility and implementation procedures. Establishment of participatory planning process. Indicators can be used to define or analyze fit between issues and strategies.progress in achieving defined objectives. Indicators implementation 9.Monitoring of indicators application Priority issues. impacts (situation analysis). risks. 6. using indicators.Part 2 . Definition/delineation of the destination /development area. Indicators development 5. G. Selection of indicators.Data collection and analysis. Indicators become performance measures for projects and activities and assist in definition of specific processes. with periodic reporting of results. Indicators form key part of public accountability for implementation and results. Indicators are used to report on the results of the initial assessment to the stakeholders involved. Selection of priority issues and policy questions. so it is also necessary to verify the appropriateness of indicators periodically. Indicators help to provide clarity to development objectives – can be used to set targets and performance measures. . 12. Initial assessment and analysis of assets. 3. 8. Identification of tourism assets and risks. Indicators are part of participatory planning process and catalyst to stimulate it. Ideally indicators are built into the action phases of planning and implementation.1 Indicators and planning procedures – links and relations Planning process A. Implementation of action plans and projects. Identification of Desired Indicators. Monitoring and evaluation of plan and project implementation. C. B. information sources and processing capacities can change. 2. H. Key step in indicators work is to identify existing vision. 7. Role of indicators The definition of area reflects data boundaries (management or political units for access and utility). . and clearly define key elements. F. direct program and project outputs. risks and provide accurate information on them. Formulation of action plans and specific projects based on the optimal strategy. Steps in indicators work Research and organization 1. Data gathering and analysis occur on an ongoing basis. Use of participatory processes for indicators development. Definition/delineation of the destination (to identify scope of information needs for indicators). 4. Formulation and evaluation of strategies targeting development objectives.Accountability. assets.changes in environmental and socio-economic conditions as a result of actions. Policy objectives can also target development of data sources and processing capacities that supports indicators application. E. 11. and communicate them to stakeholders.Indicators Development Procedures 23 Box 2. Setting up development objectives (for the short.

the delineation of boundaries can be a 6. When indicators are to be applied to 7. Accountability. and typically visit adjacent mainland sites or other nearby islands as part of their vacation. at the 2. Long-term vision for a destination. (e. . Monitoring and evaluation of indicators other attractions which may be outside the application.24 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Initial Phase: Research and Organization The initial phase involves the collection of key information on the destination. property or jurisdictional boundaries of the primary site of the visit. which may appear initially to be the easiest to demarcate. Use of participatory processes. Selection procedures. Inventory of data sources.2: What is a destination?). communities or 12. Step 1. tourism conditions. Initial contacts are made at this stage with key local experts at the destination.g. Mexico. The objective is to obtain clarity in the identification of the current state of the destination and its tourism. For a successful indicator program. Croatia.. and previous studies that can be used to support the development and implementation of indicators. beginning. Adjustments (and selection or delineation of sub-destinations. most visited the city of Zadar. determine trends and potential risks to the industry. In these two destinations. Selection of priority issues. Definition/delineation of the destination important to be completely clear. in practice 5. stakeholders. reporting. communication and services used by tourists visiting the park. political jurisdictions that circumscribe the area 4. For example. Identification of tourism assets and risks. it is 1. critical sites or hot spots) may occur during subsequent phases of indicators development as key data are found. based on other boundaries. ® Even in island destinations. or as new information is acquired regarding relationships with adjacent areas. a defined destination (e. islands. and make clear the roles of key stakeholders before focusing on issues and indicators. Even in Implementation these types of destinations. it has proven necessary to respond to the fact that many visitors use the adjacent sea for much of their vacation activities. As a consequence. in the case of the WTO study of Cozumel. which was easily accessible by ferry). ecological or other boundaries to the maximum extent possible. Identification of desired indicators. challenge. past concerns.. on the geographic boundaries and 3. park peripheries typically contain many of the 11. with some potentially useful data currently available only for the combined areas. adjacent areas or communities. Evaluation of feasibility/implementation. a national park or a 8. to which the program is to apply. Definition / Delineation of the Destination Establishment of destination boundaries Research and Organization Definition of the destination is a necessary first step. it was found that most visitors also spent some time in Cancun or the Costa Maya. Data collection and analysis. While there is Indicators Development a generally accepted definition of “destination” (See Box 1. the selection of boundaries is usually a compromise – an attempt to encompass the main assets and activities and to reflect the political. tourism often affects 9. Visitors to a resort normally will also visit nearby mountains. the political organization was such that for many planning decisions and programs the islands were combined with mainland areas. resort community) the existing jurisdictional boundaries can be a point of departure. 10.g. In the case of the islands of Ugljan and Pasman. drawing as well upon services from the areas outside the island.

boundaries should be selected reflecting physical or ecological boundaries. and to recognize that much information may already exist. The WTO studies of Keszthely on Lake Balaton.. when.. In some cases it may be useful to subdivide the destination into parts for separate analysis. the beach. Consider subdividing the destination. How does tourism relate to the overall situation in the destination? . or management districts for which data is likely to exist? Where different agencies have different boundaries. the fact that the destination had virtually no tourism now. but had just been “discovered” by Conde Nast and could anticipate a rapid massive growth in day tourism (mainly by bus from Puerto Vallarta and Mazatlan) became both the impetus for the project and a key factor in the identification of potential issues and indicators.g. Such areas should receive special treatment as a subset of the overall destination (where measurements. Reflect natural or ecological areas. Can the destination boundaries be matched to the boundaries of existing data units such as census areas. in a case application to the tiny island of Mexcaltitan (Mexico). combining political sub-areas to best match the limits of the valley.Part 2 . and are there proposals currently on the table (from the tourism sector or from others) which may affect the future of the destination? This is basic background information for any indicators initiative. The ideal is sometimes attainable by selecting political boundaries which best emulate biophysical ones. Try to match existing boundaries. for example. which will not be adequately addressed by indicators that refer to the overall destination. It is important at this stage to also obtain information about the other development issues affecting the destination. (e. Basic information that can be collected early in the process includes identification of who comes to the destination. For example. where and for what purposes? What is the typical experience? What are the trends in tourism for the destination? Have there been any tourism planning or regulation processes put in place and are results evident? Are there existing problems which are likely to drive any planning or management process.g. Argentina found it useful to establish a small separate set of indicators for the intensively used managed beach areas. where the tourist sector workers live). and where potential issues may exist or emerge.g. Within each destination there may be areas of concentrated activity or “hot spots” (e. defined indicators for each separately). often the plans and actions of other sectors can be very important factors in any approach to overall sustainability. the study of Prince Edward Island National Park in Canada divided the “destination” into the Park itself and the peripheral resort municipality and. its tourism.. focusing on localized impacts. This is done in order to help understand the scope of the initiative. the boundaries used by the principal potential user of the indicators (likely the planning authority) should be favoured. a specific ecological asset). The boundaries should wherever possible surround all of the key assets of the destination. the island. (e. particularly where there are significant differences between parts of the destination such as a core area where most of the activity occurs and a peripheral area which is also clearly impacted or involved.g. Does the defined destination contain all the areas affected by tourism activity? (e. b) c) d) e) Documentation of tourism and broader sustainable development issues at the destination One of the initial steps is to obtain information on the current state of the destination and its tourism. which can help in better understanding the destination. where necessary.. Wherever possible. Hungary and Villa Gesell. The Cozumel study recommended specific indicators to be developed for the reef area and the Chankanaab ecological park. political boundaries should be followed. municipal boundaries. of density of use are calculated just for that area and will be much different than density measures for the entire destination). or the mountain range). Consider specific sub-areas for special consideration. Where feasible.Indicators Development Procedures 25 The following rules of thumb may assist in the choice of destination boundaries: a) Include key sites and assets.

Accountability. 7. discussion opportunities where all interested stakeholders can identify their interests and concerns. Identification of desired indicators. A key initial step is to identify the current and potential managers and to obtain from them information on their current and predicted needs. at the local level cannot be underestimated. 10. reporting. communication and Those who know the destination most 12. meetings. 8. Ongoing involvement of key players throughout the process (openness and transparency are essential). Implementation 9. academics. Key factors in obtaining constructive local participation include: • • • • Early contact with local groups. any indicators initiative (whether driven by government. Step 2. While the impetus may come from a local authority. Local knowledge can be a key source of unique information on such factors as local use of resources. active individuals and those most likely to be affected by any changes. local stakeholders and community organizations. and the values they hold most important regarding the destination. Use of participatory processes 3. their interests and relationships. Box 2. In the 1996 publication from WTO on this subject the sub-title was “What Tourism Managers Need to Know”. Provision of feedback in a clear form – showing participants that their input has been taken into consideration. close proximity to it. Evaluation of feasibility/implementation. Selection procedures. 4. key traditions. Their support and participation in providing information to assist in key issues identification and indicators selection is invaluable. 6. community. Identification of tourism assets and risks. from the community itself. Long-term vision for a destination. This is also true of the other stakeholders whose participation and agreement will be critical to the implementation and use of the information created. early involvement of other government departments. Indicators Development 5. Selection of priority issues. Monitoring and evaluation of indicators intimately tend to be those who live within or in application. Use of Participatory Processes The development of indicators is necessarily a participatory process.2 identifies some of the key participants who should be considered for any consultative process. 11. Local residents often will have clear ideas regarding the current situation and strong opinions on what is likely to be acceptable in the future. Provision of forums. its key allies. those who plan the assets and infrastructure critical to tourism. 2. or the industry itself) will need to serve the key destination managers – and ideally have them as full partners from the outset. the industry. Gaining local participation Research and Organization ® 1. Data collection and analysis. the tourism operators or as a response to a specific proposal. . and those who will help define issues and sources of information for indicators is considered essential. Definition/delineation of the destination. Ideally.26 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook How is tourism managed? Who has the mandate to deal with tourism issues and with the planning and management of the destination? It is important to identify the key client(s) for the use of indicators and to understand their needs to the extent possible. The complexity of stakeholder groups. Inventory of data sources.

coastal zone. wetlands.g. • Tenants. regional parks. • Tourism and trade organizations. environment. • Property and building owners (might live in the community or might be outsiders). cultural sites and events). • Traditional leaders. conservation authorities. • Native and cultural groups.. Note: local knowledge is necessary to identify all stakeholders. culture.g. planning.g. • Transportation and other service providers. interpreters and outfitters. Departments or equivalent) ministries responsible for tourism and its key assets.2 Potential stakeholders in tourism at local destinations This is an indicative list – each destination will have its own unique groups or individuals with an interest in tourism or related aspects of the destination. • Accommodation.. parks. transport. parks. • Agencies with an interest in the planning or maintenance of specific attractions (e.. cultural heritage). Public sector • Municipal authorities. museums. Communities • Local community groups.g. anyone or any group who believe that they are involved or affected should be considered a stakeholder. County. marketplaces. hunters. • Guides. Province. • Private sector employees. fishers. • International tourism bodies.Part 2 . • Business development organizations. • Conservation groups (e. Tourists • Organizations representing tourists’ interests at the point(s) of origin. planning areas. • Regional authorities (e. • Other interest groups (e. • Other ministries and agencies in areas affecting tourism (e. authorities). • Suppliers to the industry. NGOs • Environmental groups (in the destination and outside but with an interest). and their associations. natural resources. native species. • National (and State. heath. etc). infrastructure. protected areas. sports and adventure associations). .g. Private sector • Tour operators and travel agents.Indicators Development Procedures 27 Box 2. restaurants and attractions..

much work has occurred using participatory processes in the development of tourism indicators and indicators for related environmental and social purposes. organizations and firms together to participate in indicators development and use. local authorities. and care needs to be taken to help participants understand that it may not be possible to completely satisfy everyone all the time. Institutional mechanisms for participatory processes In most tourism destinations there are many different governmental. such as new developments. beaches. after all has been considered. or cultural sites. particularly off season.28 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook An important point to keep in mind in any participatory process is that expectations may exceed the capacity of any organization to respond. your favourite indicator reflecting your concern for a specific environmental or social issue may not necessarily be included in the short list. in contrast. . Optimal timing may also vary from culture to culture. it may be difficult to get all the stakeholders together for a consultation process. Coordination with such events can be of direct benefit. creation or review of regional. local or destination plans. and that this is often difficult to predict in any one community or destination. yet in season local operators may be too busy to participate. A key consideration is the positioning of the indicators initiative relative to other initiatives. In particular. can cause participants to ask why they are there and why they are not told what is proposed. Key factors are: • Timing: Consultation processes that begin too early. transport organizations. economic planning groups. Any participatory process should recognize both the interest of such bodies. timing that brings in participants late in the process risks the accusation that all has already been decided and that the opportunity to really influence what takes place has been missed. A further caution is that indicators themselves do not solve problems. In seasonal destinations. and the tourism industry are key players. before at least some direction or proposal is on the table. which may lead to more effective solutions. In most destinations there are utilities. unions or labour boards and organizations charged with the development or maintenance of key assets such as parks. For instance. Logistics In the past decade. Experience has shown that there is probably an optimal level of consultation and participation. showing both relevance and links to direct users. or from community to community based on their varying interests and past history of interaction with authorities. semi-governmental and private bodies involved in the planning and management of the resources and programs affecting tourism and conditions at the destination. hotel associations. planners. A challenge lies in bringing these agencies. only help in greater understanding and provision of accurate information. and also the constraints associated with their participation in public processes. like Norway’s Lofoten islands.

community surveys and questionnaires. Decisions on these areas will need to be taken by the user-group or the advisory committee early on in the planning stages.Part 2 . it is likely that the whole suite of tools. The aim of stakeholder analysis is to establish the extent to which a particular group needs or wants to become involved in the project. Individual responses given in privacy provide different information from those collected in a group setting. stakeholder planning and stakeholder management. experience of stakeholders. A much broader group of stakeholders tends to be involved at the start of the indicator development process. structured and semi-structured interviews. In stakeholder planning it is important to recognise that not all forms of participation are of equal worth. from the first steps in defining the project or the need for planning through the plan development. time-consuming and inherently unpredictable. Some of the most successful destination planning and management processes have incorporated consultation or participation into an ongoing process – where there is a form of advisory body or even co-management.3 Managing participatory processes It is often presumed that tourism stakeholders are eager to become involved in destination monitoring. This will depend on the degree to which tourism affects their professional and personal lives. Key areas to consider include stakeholder analysis. existing institutional frameworks and consultation processes.Indicators Development Procedures 29 Box 2. analysis of results and decisions regarding appropriate action. focus groups. importing indicators unconditionally will never result in the same awareness and understanding of the issues or the commitment required for long-term monitoring to be successful. nor is gaining their confidence and maintaining their interest. to identify key issues. made up of representatives from all the key stakeholder groups. informing people is not the same as giving them decision-making powers. attend meetings or join committees is not always easy. In reality. more specialised group is required for the collection of data. and into implementation. participatory action research. to oversee the entire indicator development process and monitoring (see Samoa case p. cross-sectoral expertise and adds significant value to the work. and logistical factors such as geography and communication technology. cultural norms. • . Duration: The participation process ideally has a long time span. seminars. adaptive management and co-management. This gives the project greater continuity. If meetings are too seldom. phase of the work. These processes encourage activities such as participant observation. their understanding of monitoring and their available time to participate. Collecting information from various sources is not the same as seeking advice. advisory panels. rather than just one will be used during the process. and a smaller. participants may feel left out of the process. use and react to indicators if they can relate to and have had a part in developing them. their interests or those of their organisation. Too frequent meetings may cause participants to drop out due to excessive demands on their time or lack of visible progress between meetings or events. However. 413). workshops. and some would argue that the technical nature of monitoring is better suited to a top down management style. committees. Because indicator development involves a number of different stages. The bottom line is that people are much more likely to value. Participatory processes are complex. The appropriate level and type of participation will depend on factors such as scope of the project. convincing people to participate. It may also be useful to establish an indicator committee or working group. transparency and patience. • Frequency: Meetings or events are best tied to key decision points. They depend on good communication. Different tools exist for managing stakeholders such as participatory rural appraisal.

At the destination level.30 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook • Size considerations: Large groups can be very inclusive but the larger the group the less the capacity to involve all who wish to participate or to achieve consensus or even good discussion. encountering all of the issues. including increased use of mail consultation to complement meetings and open access to the process. WTO organized an international web-conference. working groups or task groups to split off and work on specific issues. Workshop logistics A) Site visits and presentations by local officials and experts in order to familiarize participants with the study area. enhanced dissemination and visibility of contributions and results. Access to local knowledge and the consideration by experts of the full range of values and risks to them. and may not be sufficiently inclusive and accessible to all stakeholders. Even so. Box 2. At the WTO workshops the participants (including both local and foreign . It also serves as a training ground for experts in indicators development. an easier process of inputs. (See Box 2. together with the advanced strategy draft incorporating the different views. such as Internet and email. In contrast to nationwide consultation procedures.5 A participatory workshop approach for indicators development and training The WTO has adopted a participatory approach to indicators development and for the training workshops it organized between 1999 and 2001 for officials of its Member States.3).tourism. and different opinions which make the development of indicators both interesting and at times difficult. a number of new models for consultation have been developed. and access by the stakeholders to a small number of public or face-to face meetings may be easier than for wider policy exercises. In this approach.4 On-line consultation in Australia In Australia. Box 2. and to mobilize stakeholders. Tourism and Resources. a large number of stakeholders provided comments and position papers for the medium to long term strategy for the Tourism Industry in 2003 (Tourism White Paper). As a result. consultation can be simpler at the destination level. This is the most direct approach but also can be very time consuming and a significant user of resources.4) As part of the preparatory conferences for the International Year of Ecotourism 2002. This is a quick means to catalyze the identification of key issues and potential indicators. has become a cornerstone of the WTO approach to creating indicators of sustainable tourism. • Broad consultation processes like those cited above can also be very expensive and time consuming both for officials and participants. www. The list of organizations that participated in the consultation and their inputs are also made public in the website of the Department of Industry. through on-line consultation. Consultation techniques: The most traditional approach that has been used for indicators development has been through organized meetings with selected stakeholders. some use of mail or electronic input may make contact easier for those who are unable or unwilling to participate in public meetings or more formal procedures. (See Box 2. as the identity of most stakeholders may be well The use of modern technology.5). the WTO has been experimenting with an abbreviated workshop approach (See Box 2. which can be of considerable use to destinations and as a training tool – to help achieve significant progress towards indicators in a short time. conducted through emails in order to facilitate access to stakeholders that could not attend the regional meetings. One method can be to have large information meetings but smaller breakout groups. Use the approach most likely to generate acceptance and engender a sense of ownership and/or group loyalty if at all possible. gives opportunity for a broader consultation. and as a vehicle to expose participants to the indicators development process. a study is done employing a workshop approach to both assist in the consideration of indicators.

In several cases. In small groups the long list of issues was deliberated and priorities established where information was useful and needed to respond to the risks and opportunities. and both a learning and decision-support tool. Each group was given a set of priority issue areas as a focus for the selection of potential indicators. as well as for other building blocks towards sustainability for the destination. A field trip took the participants to the key areas of concern in the destination and showed them both the assets and potential changes envisioned. The prior analytical work of the workshop consultants was added. The results from each group were then presented to the plenary for discussion. Each group was first set the task of creating a long-list of issues risks of opportunities) for the destination (e. impact on sensitive sites. loss of jobs. A form of nominal group technique was used to select the key issue areas of concern for the active development of indicators by the working groups. crowding of villages. to assist in these deliberations. Each of the participants was guided through the actual process of identification of indicators. Croatia 2001) .Part 2 . The broad range of participants in the case applications has provided a rich source of information and stimulated lively debate on both the issues and the indicators to be used. the workshops are an essential part of the indicators development process. its issues.Indicators Development Procedures 31 experts) were presented by facilitators and experts with key materials on the destination. it has been a catalyst for the partnerships necessary to carry the indicators process further in the destination. lack of funding for infrastructure.. The presence of a wide range of knowledgeable local and other specialists assisted in the identification of potential information sources to power the indicators. the attendees were divided into small working groups. D) Indicator development. including the problems associated with data.40). and as a means to develop responses. and on the indicators development process. (Based on WTO Workshop Report. leadership. Kukljica..and doing an initial ranking using the evaluation worksheets. B) Participation in the definition of key risks and opportunities. both as a procedure for identifying concerns. faced with the problems of prioritization. C) Participatory identification of priority issues. as well as at other similar destinations where appropriate. presentations by local experts and some key stakeholders were made to workshop participants.g. Participants discuss the logistics of indicators for a specific destination. (For example the Kukljica sessions also suggested use of the process for other Croatian islands besides Ugljan and Pasman). The workshops use open participatory sessions to develop recommendations for follow up activities and the application of sustainability indicators at the study area. analysis etc – helping in the understanding of the compromises needed to make an indicators program work. While the relatively brief workshops are not intended as a substitute for the more thorough analysis of risks and areas of decision which the indicators are designed to serve. The updated WTO criteria for indicator selection were used (see Step 8 Selection Procedures p. where useful.). participation. After an initial introduction to the process. It has also stimulated interest in indicators use in other destinations in the host nation and the region. The process is as important as the result. short season. and able to work through the practical process of choosing which indicators are most important to implement for the improved planning and management of the destination. foreign control of industry etc. E) Participation in the development of recommendations for next steps. Each small group was tasked with assessing and fleshing out a set of potential indicators responding to the key issue areas . In most cases. each having both local and foreign representatives.

11. and which elements of them are valued by both the residents and the current or potential tourists. Identification of Tourism Assets and Risks Where a formal planning process or strategy exists. can concentrate much of the core work on issue identification. landscapes. marketplaces. viewpoints. the work already in place can be the point of departure for an issue scan regarding the destination. It can be very helpful to the process to create an ongoing indicator advisory group or working group that meets on a regular basis. It should be noted that the definition of assets can differ among stakeholders and therefore the review should include all perspectives to the greatest extent possible. or where a strategy is partial or does not involve all key players. wildlife. Accountability. Implementation 9. forests. The process of indicators development. reporting. such as beaches. The result of such short concentrated work can serve to accelerate the indicators development process. 7. game) whether or not these are currently seen as assets by the tourism industry. 10. Even so. Identification of tourism assets and risks 4. Definition/delineation of the destination.g. Selection procedures. some appropriate means to access the local and/or traditional knowledge in the identification of important issues and indicators and in other elements of the destination planning process is necessary. opportunities for exchange of information and learning are maintained throughout the project or program. Use of participatory processes. and provide a sound basis for subsequent work on implementation. communication and ® What are the priority tourist use areas and current/potential attractions. Step 3. can normally take several weeks to months.. Data collection and analysis. This step is central to the identification of the assets on which tourism is based. get enthusiastic local support. 12. and the group can act as a continuing impetus once the indicators have been developed. waterfalls. and identification of candidate indicators into a shorter period (typically from ten days to two weeks) involving several days of participatory workshops. The objective of this step is to have as clear an understanding as possible of what the key assets are in a destination. 6. application. Long-term vision for a destination. Where no plan or strategy exists. 8. Indicators Development 5. Inventory of data sources. It should also cover the key assets that support the local community (e. . Use of open public participatory processes may not be appropriate in some cultures where there is a strong history of centralization of control or a tradition of decisions taken by elder groups or similar. Selection of priority issues. Evaluation of feasibility/implementation. This means that additional institutional memory is created. especially if it is integrated into a broader tourism planning and policy-making process. from obtaining the information through to indicators development and agreement on implementation. A focussed project. the early involvement of stakeholders is essential to help identify what is important. areas of natural interest. food. 3. fish.32 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Participatory processes will vary in form and procedures from culture to culture. 2. such as the destination workshops conducted by WTO. and the values which are associated with them by different stakeholders. cultural experiences? This is a baseline inventory of the assets upon which tourism in the area is currently or potentially based. Identification of desired indicators. This can be an initial step: experience has shown that the participatory process can frequently reveal other assets or potentials for the destination. Identifying the destination’s assets Research and Organization 1. Monitoring and evaluation of indicators historical sites. festivals.

Past or current studies are often a good source. . For example. how sensitive are the values of local residents to the changes which tourism can bring? This step can be accomplished through interviews as well as by reference to past studies or planning documents.Indicators Development Procedures 33 Identification of key values Exploration of the key values of all stakeholders is essential to determine which tourism assets are critical to the needs and expectations of both tourists and local residents. Hence. any information that can be obtained which documents the biophysical and social dimensions of sustainability for the destination is useful. social and environmental assets of a destination is a recognition of the potential limits to use (or carrying capacity) of the destination. Fishermen’s nets in Kerala. which will address certain values. a transportation agency may be planning to open a new route or restrict traffic on an existing route. a forestry department may be contemplating limits on use of the forest in peak season. but values of small communities can be very sensitive to impacts of tourism. India: Traditional activities provide tourists with an experience. policies etc. plans relating to the destination or to particular assets. or new regulations. Work done in these areas can assist in identifying the nature and extent of potential impacts of new developments or changes and can assist in identifying thresholds beyond which tourism may no longer be sustainable at that particular destination. etc..Part 2 . Where there is no plan that has considered such stresses and possible responses. Such plans and actions show the values of the sector associated with use of the shared resources. It should be noted that the research in this phase may involve contacting a number of different agencies or non-governmental bodies. They also help to identify plans that impinge upon current uses by others and upon their values. both local and in regional or national administrative centres. who may have published or unpublished material relevant to the site. The objective of this step is to look at the potential impacts of changes or trends on the key assets and their associated values. How sensitive are these to changing demands by the tourism industry and to the impacts of other changes that may alter their attractiveness to tourists or utility to the community? As well. Obtaining information on thresholds and system sensitivity Integral to sustaining the economic. the indicators development process may itself be a form of initial survey which can help to identify these sensitivities.

Conservation: tourism’s contribution to natural and cultural heritage. training needs. Threats (and constraints) Environmental impacts: disturbance of loss of habitat. Cultural degradation: daily lives. Community enhancement: socio-cultural benefits. Poor quality: tourist dissatisfaction. In other words. infrastructure and support services. environmental impacts. External threats: regulations. employment. funding available. Management capacity: skill levels. it is useful to assess a destination’s Strengths. A SWOT analysis helps to clarify the risks and opportunities and can assist in discussion of which indicators are most likely to be of use to address the sustainability of the destination and its desired tourism. waste. It is important information which may help to generate consensus on which issues and risks are of greatest importance and to whom. niche markets. and the types of indicators that will be valuable. Opportunities Economic opportunities: for businesses. “What have we got. complementary attractions. authentic products. travel security. natural and cultural assets. Preparedness: lack of plans. common objectives. Product and market opportunities: unique. Guidelines for a SWOT analysis Strengths Destination assets: local. funds. Community support: active participation. Weaknesses Lack of tourist appeal: few significant or unique tourism attractions. skill levels. what do we want to do with it and how do we measure success?” A SWOT analysis should give a succinct picture of the destination’s assets and shortcomings and reveal the opportunities and challenges it faces. lack of standards. lack of infrastructure. Opportunities and Threats (SWOT). Workforce: availability. poor accessibility. productmarket match. increased use of resources. alternative priorities. It will help clarify issues (see detailed discussion of issues in Part 3). Weaknesses. lack of understanding or cohesion in the destination community.6 SWOT analysis Before starting to select indicators. customs and practices disrupted. No vision: uncertainties in direction. .34 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Box 2. A SWOT analysis assesses tourism potential and helps managers to decide what type of indicators will be useful in monitoring trends and progress towards achieving the tourism goals of the destination.

helps greatly in determining what is most 3. tourist satisfaction and competitiveness . Step 5.8). plan or consensus on a desired future. The issues addressed later in this Guidebook (See Part 3) can be used as a reference point for the types of issues typically encountered. over 50 issues ranging from health to seasonality. indicators ideally respond to key elements of the vision. a key step is the identification of the most important issues from the perspective of all stakeholders. (See case of La Ronge Box 2. The objective is to obtain consensus on a list of issues which are likely to be of greatest importance. which is central to indicators definition. In practice.. The 11. participatory sessions which focus on future visions for a destination can be helped by reference to key indicators. Use of participatory processes. through its reporting. Selection of priority issues. can be a significant aid to consensus on long and shorter term goals – forcing clarity on what is really desired (e. Long-Term Vision for a Destination In workshops dealing with indicators development. or at least to the clarification of stakeholders’ shared objectives. Accountability.Indicators Development Procedures 35 Step 4. the process of defining indicators can become the catalyst for a visioning process. when. Identification of tourism assets and risks. and definition 12. Therefore. Definition/delineation of the destination. This list of important issues becomes the checklist against which candidate indicators can be developed. 7. of what type. and at what cost to other values important to the stakeholders?) This is very similar to and complementary to the setting of objectives. These indicators may also be used as 8. Evaluation of feasibility/implementation. Identification of desired indicators. This is central to determining which issues are considered most 4. Selection procedures. emphasis on broad participation. water use.Part 2 . communication and indicators development process. Where there is no current agreed 9.g. The work done in Phase 1 provides the background needed for an informed selection of issues currently or potentially of importance to a destination and to its tourism. 10. where a 6. The pragmatic need to quantify and clarify. climate change. Inventory of data sources. they are likely to be more willing to use the indicators that address them and to assist in supporting the indicators implementation. using the indicators to define target values. Monitoring and evaluation of indicators of key issues. can lead to better definition of a application. but how much. Data collection and analysis. Selection of Priority Issues and Policy Questions The selection of indicators is directly related to the issues that are important in a destination. performance measures on the path to achieving Implementation this vision. (What is needed to respond to these issues?) If stakeholders are able to agree on the priority issues. long term vision. important for a destination. Long-term vision for a destination critical and therefore may require indicators. vision. accomplish with respect to the tourism sector 2. Indicators Development While a focus on indicators can contribute to 5. ® Indicator Development Phase This phase focuses on the definition of which indicators are important and can respond to the issues of greatest importance to the destination. not just “more tourism”. it has become increasingly clear Research and Organization that knowing what the stakeholders wish to 1. Using a participatory group approach if possible (or alternatively through a series of interviews with key players) priority issues and policy questions can be identified. vision has already been developed. discussions on destination futures.

10 How Many Indicators?) . aimed at selection of about a dozen for initial monitoring. Mountains. 270 possible indicators were identified in initial brainstorming. It has been 12.7 Prioritization of issues Nearly every attempt to create lists of indicators begins with a very long list. In the Samoa case. In WTO workshops on indicator 10. economic.g.. Often dozens of potential indicators will be suggested for each issue. as discussion on how it can be measured often aids in clarification and may create understanding of why it should be considered a key issue. and only 20 were eventually selected for initial monitoring. with a broad range 9. the discussion becomes a de facto visioning exercise. (See also Box 2. Identification of desired indicators. In practice. reporting. identifying risks or opportunities related to the futures which all stakeholders (or some stakeholders) desire. of participants. ® 8. agreement is initially sought 11. Accountability. cultural and ecological risks to the destination and to the tourism which it supports. Reference to issues and indicators from other destinations with similar characteristics (For example the Coastal destinations. Most jurisdictions. where there is no agreement on whether an issue should be on the list. Where there is no such plan or vision in place. 2. and Small and Traditional Communities sections in Part 4) can also be of assistance as a catalyst for discussion. or beyond its ability to affect (e. Definition/delineation of the destination. risks (and opportunities) is a good icebreaker.g. and helps get most issues and concerns on the table quickly. despite creating long initial lists. economic. Box 2. Where there is already an agreed vision (for example. A valuable tool to help destinations obtain agreement on which issues are important can Implementation be a participatory workshop. over 200 were suggested to respond to the key issues. In the Beruwala workshops (WTO 2000).36 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook are examined and indicators suggested for each. discussion focuses on the values and expectations that both tourists and local residents hold concerning the destination. and may reaffirm the vision. 3. Data collection and analysis. development. Long-term vision for a destination. 57 made the cut for further investigation. Indicators Development 5. 7. In practice. and more than 50 were identified for further work. Monitoring and evaluation of indicators found in many cases that an initial focus on application.. While this menu can suggest issues each destination has its own unique mix of issues related to its own environmental. where there has been a planning exercise that has defined desired future scenarios and a set of objectives for the destination) risks may be defined in terms of achievement of that vision. or not. or add dimensions that may have been missed. control of waste from the industry). Selection procedures. social and administrative conditions. Similar experiences are reported from many other case applications. Inventory of data sources. 4. communication and concerning the principal social. climate change). The challenge to organizers is to shorten the list. and the process typically at some point may reach a list including hundreds of potentially interesting indicators. Issues may be both within the management purview of the tourism industry (e. it is recommended to keep it there for the next step. Use of participatory processes. Identification of tourism assets and risks. The desired result of this step is an agreed list of key issues for which indicators would be useful for tourism managers to respond effectively to the most important risks. Evaluation of feasibility/implementation. Achieving consensus on key issues Research and Organization 1. Selection of priority issues 6. end up with from 10 to 25 for practical implementation.

) While such issues may be raised. 4. 3. Identification of tourism assets and risks. Consultations regarding indicators development show that sometimes issues or specific indicators of interest to a single stakeholder may be raised.g. Based on the risks and issues identified. under what conditions?) helped not only to clarify but also to identify workable community level solutions. that each would be satisfied with shared access as long as they were not on the same lakes at the same time. The discussion on issues and specific indicators (not just access. but provides a menu from which the best indicators can be selected. Selection of priority issues. 11. Identification Indicators of Desired Research and Organization 1. opposing tax policies. (e. a consultative procedure. Use of participatory processes. as those who want to view live animals and those who wish to shoot them do not share the same images. where. preventing urban sprawl. communication and This procedure normally involves the generation of a wish list of possible or candidate indicators developed to address each of the main issues and policy questions. Implementation 9. The discussion resulted in an accommodation where each has some access and both are accommodated. The issue was access to desired lakes. . This precision can often help clarify issues. Selection procedures. In practice. when. Definition/delineation of the destination. 1999) Step 6..Indicators Development Procedures 37 One challenge in identifying key issues is to maintain a focus on the tourism sector and its interests. and this is important to which issues (and indicators) are chosen for implementation. Data collection and analysis. Inventory of data sources. (Tourism Conference: La Ronge Saskatchewan.8 Clarifying issues through indicators The definition of indicators demands precision. opposing genetically altered species etc. and in helping to manage or influence them. each fearing that new rules would remove rights of access for them. keeping a school open in the destination. Identification of desired indicators 7. few will make the priority list for tourism indicators. or even show that they are not real. Subsequent steps are designed to help the indicators developers and the stakeholders sort or prioritize from this list through discussion. and may be of great importance to the proponent but outside the realm of influence of the tourism sector or to the destination. 6. Discussion on what they really wanted showed that neither wanted exclusive rights. but at this stage all potential indicators are noted. 10. reporting. but how much. hunting guides and ecotourism operators appeared to be in conflict over access to lakes in the region. this list can initially be quite long.Part 2 . Evaluation of feasibility/implementation. Accountability. Indicators Development 5. Box 2. At the same time. a too narrow interpretation will also be insufficient because the future of the tourism industry is so closely linked to what else is happening in and to the destination. Monitoring and evaluation of indicators application. 8. or a designated group of experts can be used to define a list of possible indicators that might be of use in understanding the issues/risks. The focus for indicators exercises is on what is important overall to the tourism sector and what it is likely to be able to manage or influence. In a workshop in northern Saskatchewan (Canada). ® 12. What are the sets of information that will allow managers at the destination and at the site specific level to understand the changes that may affect the key assets and the industry as a whole? Some of the suggested indicators may not be practical. Long-term vision for a destination. 2. and could in some cases result in cooperation to address them.

Such indicators can be set aside for future development. 4. be brought back to the broader consultative process for their review and response. Inventory of Data Sources Information is necessary to produce and maintain indicators. 6. Processes that involve specialized working groups or technical subcommittees who will take issues away from the table and advance them can be very rewarding. a technical group is needed to deal with highly technical issues and to recommend appropriate measures which may support key indicators. The results of such work should. building on a strong existing data presence and working to enlist destinations to follow a data template). Definition/delineation of the destination. Inventory of data sources 8. Use of participatory processes. 413 can be characterized as policy-driven). Accountability. Monitoring and evaluation of indicators application. In the case of Calvia. and experts from other countries. and can we obtain the data to address them? (The Kangaroo Island case. 2. ) the issues and objectives were developed through wide consultation with the local population. In some cases. however. and avoid burdening the non-technical stakeholders with excessive detail. 412 and Samoa case. Indicators Development 5. which asks the question . It has been found most productive to have a mix of expertise in each discussion group. In applied workshops. at least half a day has been needed for this step. Identification of desired indicators. In the workshops run by WTO. 7. p. Data collection and analysis.calvia. (see Box 2.what can we do with the data we have. industry participants. the France Aggregated Reporting case p. Where there is an opportunity for a number of meetings. staff or other constraints that impede the gathering or processing of data. Identification of tourism assets and risks.38 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Some of the most potentially useful indicators may be found not to be feasible due to technical. Long-term vision for a destination. Spain for example (Calvia Local Agenda 21 see www. 382 can be characterized as largely data driven. 391. Two distinct but related basic approaches are in widespread use: a) Research and Organization 1. consultants with studies in the region. This step is one for which it is most important to use some form of consultative procedure.g. An issue (and /or policy-driven) approach. communication and A data-driven approach which asks the question . p. national-level officials. Selection of priority issues. . 3. academics. ® b) 12. ideally with from 8 to 10 participants in each working group. 10. ranging from local officials and politicians. Selection procedures. Implementation 9. but for the indicators definition and evaluation steps a technical committee of experts was designated to come up with the specifications for each indicator. financial. bringing their suggestions for indicators back to a larger more open group for deliberation. There can be a range of processes employed in indicators identification. or for what issues do we have data? (E. Evaluation of feasibility/implementation. led by a facilitator. Kukljica case p. Step 7. an alternative approach can be to have small working groups focusing on different issues.5 on the WTO workshop approach) a small group process has been used. 11. with small groups reporting back to a larger plenary where the results are shared.what issue or policy questions are most important. Indicator selection requires information on current and potential data sources. as the indicators process is not fixed in time and constant improvement is always desirable.

May identify needs which cannot realistically be served at the present. In this Guidebook. can yield quick responses based on data in stock. Box 2. see Box 2. . Identify long term needs for data. identification of key goals and issues. Focuses on what policy issues are most important. When defining indicators. It therefore recommends: • • Departure point: Identification of priority policy issues. Make sure that perspective is not limited by what is now available.9 Comparison of data-driven and issue/policy-driven indicators approaches Data driven approach Departure point Begin with data inventory. and how can information sources be improved in the future.Set objectives for improving or developing data sources and processing capacities. the process of indicator development addresses both questions. Strengths Weaknesses May miss key issues because data is not available. Make sure that a prioritization process is done – with practical considerations regarding data. done to satisfy the needs. What information do we need to respond to the issues? Key question What can we do with the information we have? Indicators selection Based first on availability. The indicators development procedure suggested in this guidebook applies a combined approach.9 provides a comparison of these two approaches. then on Based first on needs. .Using alternative measurement methodologies for immediate needs.Indicators Development Procedures 39 In practice. .11). when data gathering exceeds current capacities. (e. . then on what can be application to needs and policy questions. How to make it work Practical indicator development will involve trade-offs regarding both needs and capabilities. The table in Box 2. examples of both types of procedures are shown.g.Identify data gaps. analyses data sources in order to: . Can identify needs for new data or means to extract what is needed.Part 2 .Build strongly on available data sources. • Monitor the application of indicators and develop new indicators with improved measurement techniques if needed. approximate measures. Uses existing information. and is at best a pragmatic process – form of negotiation between what information is needed and what can be created or obtained now. set objectives and plans for developing data sources and capacity for processing them. Policy or issue driven approach Begin with needs analysis. ideally an indicators exercise will contain elements of both approaches. Identify new needs for future data. considering both policy priorities (issues) and feasibility of indicators (practical considerations of data collection and analysis).

at least initially. issue. How can the information be obtained? Is there an organization identified as data source? Is it already available or will it require special collection or extraction? To what extent is the data processed. Then the search for data can be focused on that which is needed to support the desired indicators. 11. The criteria to be used are: 1. communication and ® 12. is there an electronic database)? What are the staff and cost implications of data collecting and processing. These may be very relevant to the tourism sector and require cooperation between the different sectors for resolution. Research and Organization 1. using the collective knowledge of participants.40 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook The identification of potential data sources. What level of effort is likely to be needed to create . Monitoring and evaluation of indicators Relevance of the indicator to the selected application. communication and other infrastructure. how systematically and in what form is the data collected (e. waste. The subsequent process focuses on further refinement and elaboration of the indicators that initially appear to meet these criteria. Use of participatory processes. Feasibility of obtaining and analysing the needed information. Definition/delineation of the destination. Indicators Development 5. This initial review can assist in reducing the wish list to a manageable scale. Does the indicator respond to the specific issue and provide information that will aid in its management? The ideal indicator will provide useful information when needed. 3. This stage is designed to create an initial list of potential sources of data which may be suitable to support indicators. 6. Identification of desired indicators. Accountability. Inventory of data sources. 2. This is particularly useful where there is already an extensive data source – such as mature destinations that already have an extensive tourism data base and operating planning process. 2. 10. 4. water. which are responsibilities of other government departments and private companies). Indicators may be needed to help guide joint response.g. Step 8. which will make a difference to a decision affecting the sustainability of tourism and of the destination. Selection of priority issues. reporting. 8. Selection Procedures Which indicators are the ones that the destination will actually try to implement? The following selection procedure is suggested: Indicators rating criteria Five criteria are used in the evaluation of each indicator. It is recommended that this initial screening be done wherever possible in a participatory forum (or at least in small groups) to both obtain a range of knowledge to be applied to the selection. Data collection and analysis. Selection procedures Implementation 9. Evaluation of feasibility/implementation. For destinations where there may not be an existing data and monitoring program it may be most effective to defer identification of data sources until the identification of key issues is in place and a wish list of potential indicators has been created. 7. issues of the management of energy. The discussion can then be framed in terms of how the existing data can best be used to address key issues. It should also be noted that there can be many issues directly related to tourism that are not managed by the tourism sector directly: (e. This information is then brought to the table to help in the next step – the reduction of the long list to a shorter set of indicators for the destination. can occur early in the procedure and act as a building block for the discussions. Long-term vision for a destination.g. and to maintain transparency. A further elaboration of the data occurs for those priority indicators selected in the next step. Identification of tourism assets and risks.

See the Indicators Selection Worksheet (Annex D). . A central challenge is to get to an agreed shorter list without important gaps. because all destinations are unique.g. In this case the continuity of the data generation should be ensured (e. Is the information from a reputable and scientifically sound source? Is it considered objective? Will it be believed by users? Data. Note that it is frequently useful to portray information differently for different users. where the feasibility of practical implementation of those indicators chosen for potential implementation is done in detail.. If users receive the information. 5. a list of more than 100 indicators would both be impractical and mean that individual indicators could be buried. The same information may be needed in a technical form for a manager of a response program (when to close the beach) but may be better portrayed publicly in a more simple form (e. Most practitioners agree that it is essential to prioritize issues and the indicators that correspond to them to help create a shorter list. will they be able to understand it/act on it? Some good technical information may be very difficult to understand (e. In some cases the data that supports the indicator has been never produced before. In many cases. social or economic considerations may receive scant attention. pollution exceeds tolerable standards). if tourists’ satisfaction survey is gathered for the first time. it is important to allocate resources for periodic surveys in the future that would generate trends over time). In initial working lists. Can the indicator be used reliably to show changes over time. and the information generation might start with the newly defined indicator.g.g. this will be useful in the initial evaluation process. compilation of some knowledge of key sources and providers prior to this assessment is recommended as one of the initial steps in preparation). Clarity and understandability to users. for example. 345). A template is provided for use at this stage in the indicators evaluation. parts per million of a toxic substance) unless the user has specialized knowledge. The challenge is to respond to all significant issues facing the destination with the minimum number of indicators possible. A more understandable indicator addressing this same issue may be percentage of days when the toxicity exceeds the legal limit. 3.g. 413 and the Balearics p. the best benchmarks are changes over time in the same locality. the potential numbers of indicators which have been put forward by stakeholders can be in the hundreds (e..10 How many indicators? There is clearly no ideal number of indicators. p. the assessment is in the form of a pre-scan (although as noted above.. If only economic indicators are chosen. See case studies of Samoa. Too many indicators can overwhelm users with too much information and can also overextend resources to support them. relative to standards or benchmarks at the same destination. Credibility of the information and reliability for users of the data. For more details see Evaluation of feasibility/implementation procedures under Phase 3. Comparability over time and across jurisdictions or regions. If indicators are predominantly environmental.. or relative to other destinations? This Guidebook provides examples of indicators in use in other destinations and addressing specific issues that may assist in applying this criterion. on seawater cleanliness will have greater credibility if it is collected and analyzed by an independent institute than if it is collected and presented by the beach hotel association.Part 2 . social or environmental issues may be missed. Box 2.Indicators Development Procedures 41 and maintain the indicator? This criterion may be used in concert with relevance to address the question – is it worth the cost to obtain the benefit? At this stage. While any attempt to cover all aspects of sustainable tourism with only a few indicators would be unrealistic. 4.

Argentina. The baseline list of issues and indicators provided in Part 3 of this book is one point of departure. the interests of the user group. The British Resorts Association suggests 12 to be about the right number of indicators for measuring tourism’s impacts and good management practice amongst local authorities. A template for this step. This selection procedure forces active and participatory comparison of what is desired with what is practical. “Is it needed now. it was critical to measure the numbers of whales in the bay – the main tourism asset. This can occur because the sources of information are widely dispersed (e. Indicator Selection and Development Worksheet are provided in Annex C. often causing discussion of substitutes that may be easier to support. in this book ¢ Baseline issues and the responding ¢ Baseline indicators (p. management of a particular property or resource). most practitioners agree 12-24 indicators are optimal. indicators can also be screened relative to urgency of need. may need a more extensive or detailed set than potential visitors making holiday plans. in Peninsula Valdes. will act as worksheet for elaboration of those indicators that are chosen for implementation. The addition of a few others central to the characteristics of a particular destination is also important. Those who manage a destination. For example. “Who will use it and for what purpose?” In addition.. In a significant percentage of cases the desired indicators will not be easy to produce. along with the water supply and usage – a critical resource issue facing tourism in this semi-desert environment. (See Box 2. the same template. In short. the Department of Culture. (p. During discussions of ‘how many indicators’ it is therefore important that decision-makers do not sacrifice key issues for the sake of the target number of indicators. every guide or outfitter providing services in a region). It should also be noted that different user groups will have different needs with regards to the number of indicators they require. and a central challenge in the indicators development process is to end up with consensus on a short list without important gaps. Following this approach. In the UK. or who are responsible for its planning for example. given the current availability of information. Individual stakeholders may use their own specific indicators for their own purposes (e.11 on approximate data p. Evaluators working in discussion groups are also advised to raise the question of the long and short term utility of the indicators.. particularly with participation from the key stakeholders and potential data providers. the information and the resources available to track and report on the indicators. as it is unlikely that all indicators recommended will be amenable to immediate implementation. but are nonetheless useful. and ended up with 21.42 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook The number of indicators will depend on the size of the destination. 45) This process also has the benefit of stimulating a discussion of what is not practical (at least right now) with the potential to stimulate future implementation. the number of critical issues. It is suggested that the identification of priority indicators be done in discussion groups charged with assessing each candidate indicator relative to the five criteria. The use of a participatory process for this stage can be productive. in Kangaroo Island. economic and environmental issues likely to be found in most destinations. Media Sport were commissioned to produce the smallest set of indicators possible to measure sustainable tourism. South Australia 17 indicators were selected to monitor and manage tourism on the island. It suggests a range of indicators that cover social. which are useful to focus discussion at this point. 244) were selected from the complete list of over 50 issues and some several hundred possible indicators which are a menu of potential measures. because there is no jurisdiction with authority to gather the information. 20 indicators were developed for destination monitoring from an initial list of 270. The more detailed indicators which they use may not be adopted for a destination level tourism indicators list. The answer to how many indicators are required is therefore “enough” to respond to the agreed priority issues. or where the cost of data collection may be prohibitive.g. In the case of Samoa.g. or can it wait until the next census or season?” This can assist in the establishment of priorities for action on . 485).

How many pilot whales are there? How likely is a tourist to see a whale on a tour? Who will count them and how will the information be reported? For Pleasant Bay Nova Scotia Canada. Ideally this occurs as part of a continuing monitoring program supporting sustainable development for the destination and its tourism. Frequency of collection of the data. each of the selected indicators is further elaborated and re-evaluated using a procedure that will clearly identify: • • • • Specific source(s) of the data to be used to construct the indicator. In some of the WTO workshop applications. Data is sometimes held for some time until an official publication is released containing those data and other data sets which may have different periodicity of production.g. annually. while energy data may be collected in real time by metering. . Time lags between gathering and availability. Implementation Phase The goal of this phase is to take the indicators defined in the first two phases and put them into operation in the destination. Specific characteristics of the data – level of detail (data fields. (e. While this approach is necessarily subjective.Part 2 . these may be the most important indicators of sustainability for its most important tourist product. Step 9. (will it be needed/ available every five years. weekly. a “five star” rating system has been used to identify those indicators that are most urgently needed to address important issues. the output of that data may only be done monthly and may be produced for individual sectors or regions annually). Evaluation of Feasibility / Implementation procedures In this step. number of integers. means of provision (paper. This approach can be of use where choices need to be made of which indicators to implement first. digital etc). it has served as a means to highlight which of the issues and related indicators are seen by the evaluators (or public consultation procedures) as having the highest priority for immediate implementation. tabular formats. on line in real time?). quarterly. monthly.Indicators Development Procedures 43 implementation.

Are the needed data readily available. Identification of tourism assets and risks. • • Responsibility for provision of data. 8.. See the following data collection section for greater detail on collection procedures. trained staff to compile and process existing data or to gather new data.. can data be derived from existing measuring processes. surveys) and secondary sources (data derived from existing information) need to be considered. Data collection and analysis. or is it protected so that only aggregated outputs can be obtained? Will early access be given to the indicators production group to data which is new. 6. Selection procedures. and any additional manipulation. Identification of desired indicators. Who will extract the data. Monitoring and evaluation of indicators application. Data assessment can be done through a data mapping process.g. Reporting units. Use of participatory processes. (See for example the process used in the EEA case p. Long-term vision for a destination. Data availability Both primary data sources (direct collection of data through measurement. a 10% sample of all hotel workers). Will the data be made directly available in raw form so that any analysis can be done by the indicators group. reporting. 377). 4. counties. Evaluation of feasibility/implementation 10. 2. p. Costs and technical requirements of data gathering and analysis. or will any analysis have to wait until data is officially published?. towns. are these suitable for use? What would it cost to have data gathered or output on different criteria? Is data complete or done on a sampling basis? If so. 485). communication and • ® 12. so existing sources should normally be considered first. data analysis. 3. or specific communities) or is it available only for fixed reporting units (e.g. A worksheet template is provided to assist in this process (See Annex C 2. Research and Organization 1. who will create tables. Is data available for the desired scale (e. Indicators Development 5.g. validity and accuracy concerns at different scales. Inventory of data sources.44 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook • Considerations of access and confidentiality. or experts who need to be hired for it? Completion of the above review procedure should result in agreement on the process for creation and support for each selected indicator. or new techniques and technology which needs to be introduced. 7. Selection of priority issues. districts)? If so. and who will validate or verify the data?. or does it have to be collected specifically? Is there technology. Definition/delineation of the destination. Accountability. followed by an assessment of gaps. Direct data collection tends to be costly.. 11. is the data sufficiently representative to allow valid use at a local scale? (e. each hotel. Implementation 9. . staff needing training. which matches needs to available sources.

furthermore tourists’ reactions are individual and subjective. it may be strategic to try to create a data alliance. and integration of their data with other data) as compensation. .11 Approximate measures In some cases a measurement that does not provide precise data but indicates approximately the seriousness of an issue can be useful. The questions asked at this step address the Saturn Resort. it can prove necessary to revisit the indicator and make changes to facilitate implementation. Romania. How many are on the beach? Where there is no access control. This may entail compromise. coliforms. • Complaints about seawater quality registered at local authorities or beach facilities. the calculation of numbers can be a challenge. there are alternative indicators that can be used as surrogates to give an idea of the existence and level of problems: • Number and type of skin irritations or other cases caused by seawater.and may be the stimulus for the initiation of the scientific tests noted above. water use calculated for the peak tourist season). use of analyzed results. However. It may also be necessary to make arrangements with the data provider to collect new variables that may allow analysis relative to tourist sector needs (e. discussions may be needed with the potential data provider to obtain data which breaks out the factors of interest to the tourism sector (how many of the park users are local and how many are tourists?) or to provide data reaggregated for the desired use (e. Experience with the development of indicators for the tourism sector has shown that the data needed to calculate many indicators may be obtained from existing data sources.. In practice. • Depletion of fish stocks. • Incidents of algae growth or excessive turbidity reported to local officials. turbidity. Refinement of key indicators Based on the detailed evaluation of each candidate indicator and the findings regarding actual acquisition of the needed data.. because the agency (e. resource or sectoral departments of government for their own purposes. or changes in success rates for fishermen. biological oxygen demand (BOD) or chemical oxygen demand (COD).g. especially if there are no other viable options. this information is often collected by agencies such as utilities..Part 2 . or long distances to the nearest laboratory.Indicators Development Procedures 45 Box 2. For example. Frequently data can be used directly. These measures are approximate because not all cases are reported or registered. In other cases. the most precise method to monitor seawater quality at beaches is through periodic laboratory tests that cover such elements as heavy metal content. to accommodate the logistics of data collection and availability. etc. an energy utility measuring electricity use by sector for its own reporting or billing purposes) has already done some simple analysis that can be used to separate out parts of the tourism industry. These are sometimes also called proxy measures.g.g. where the supplier obtains some advantage from their provision of data (such as access to other data. can we have the information collected on amount of seashore developed collected in a way which separates residential properties from those built for tourist use ?) It should be noted that this is done essentially as a negotiation or coordination process with the potential data provider. reported or treated. if at certain destinations lab analysis is impossible due to lack or high cost of skilled personnel or equipment. Nevertheless significant changes in these measures can be signals of emerging problems with water quality .

. Data collection and analysis 11. 7. detailed scientific data. Identification of desired indicators.. data available on a three year cycle can be sufficient to create a useful indicator) as a substitute for more expensive data gathering (e. Typical procedures include: • Use of existing data being collected by the tourism sector or by others (e. rank of 3. It may already have been decided that the most suitable indicator is not wholly quantitative. Long-term vision for a destination. it may not always be necessary. where some consideration of the potential form of the indicator has occurred.. Extraction and manipulation of data from existing sources (often similar sources to above but which require additional effort to extract. A recent indicators study of a beach. communication and ® • 12.g. For the purposes (and detail) needed to support decisions on remedial action. Identification of tourism assets and risks. Selection procedures. Accountability. % of beaches meeting the 2. Box 2. . Selection of priority issues. destination on exit survey relative to other 4. and have the distance to the sea measured each month by a local college science class. Inventory of data sources. (e. ordinal data (e. Data Collection and Analysis Data collection procedures This section provides advice and considerations to be addressed in the actual data collection and management associated with production of indicators. Implementation 9.12 What do decision-makers really need? While it may be desirable to have good. Evaluation of feasibility/implementation.. industry statistics. satellite or even historical survey data was not available for reasons of national security. direct use of data from the census. reporting. traffic counts or utility records). and nearly without cost. information (e. This step builds on the initial assessment process. the desired annual collection and reporting). that not all indicators will necessarily be Research and Organization quantitative . While an independent survey might provide detailed data on beach erosion at considerable cost. 10. In some cases.46 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook possibility of working with existing data (e. integrate or re-assemble). or is it necessary to undertake re-aggregation of the original data to break out specific places or types of enterprise? This is the point of decision regarding the actual form and delivery of the indicator and indicators program and will necessarily involve those who will lead implementation of the program.g. it will be clear that new data must be collected and that this may have to involve some form of sampling process as it would not be feasible to cover all tourists or all restaurants to collect comprehensive data.. not arithmetic mean of average price of room sales but % of rooms sold at within 10% of rack rate).and that qualitative (e. which was apparently eroding rapidly away and imperilling hotel foundations as well as transport infrastructure. but rather a data-based classification.g. 8..g. the practical solution was simply to set up measuring posts at a dozen key coastal points. rates four on a 1-5 scale) semi-quantitative 1. Monitoring and evaluation of indicators application. destinations) or even simple yes/no information (does the destination have a formal plan?) can Indicators Development be of use in some circumstances. The form in which the indicator will be used and how it will be calculated can greatly affect the collection procedure. Blue Flag standard). 6. 5. For each indicator it is essential to clearly document the specific means to be used to obtain information.g. It should be noted as well. found that traditional air photo. Definition/delineation of the destination.. Step 10. Use of participatory processes. Can we work with the existing data grouped by sector.g.g. these data were sufficient.

is an example of participation in data inside the Port Peninsula forest reserve in the northeast of Misiones province. created in 1999. 453) Among the routes and products that were organized. 453). confidence limits. favoured the creation of an ecotourism project. establishing an exit survey of a percentage of tourists from the region to query their behaviours or attitudes). Box 2.g. It started as a result of growing awareness of sustainable tourism in the local private sector (see Yacutinga Lodge case p. particularly where financial resources are an issue. 485) Indicators developers using survey data are encouraged to use a good statistical or sampling manual to help identify the limits of data and its use. The opening of the forest reserve to different economic activities. This may include methods such as sampling.Part 2 . a registration system for the fauna observed was established. based on sustainability.C. • For an applied example of new data collection on physical impacts of tourism see the Yacutinga.g. tourists were encouraged to participate in completing the forms. (A template is provided to assist in these evaluations Annex C p.Indicators Development Procedures 47 • Creation of new comprehensive data (e.statcan. Creation of sample data (e. use of questionnaire instruments. The limits and cautions associated with the use of such data sets (e. • As a way to expand participation and to generate added value for the tour. to be supported by all those using the reserve.. situated in the international tourist destination of Iguazú Falls.htm ) which provides support and examples of use of various data sets including that obtained through sampling procedures. in addition to traditional sustainable forest extraction. It is often useful to consider the involvement of other administrations or organizations in the collection or provision of data. Supporting the main attraction of the reserve: the observation of wild fauna and flora. and with the complementary objective of obtaining information that provided data of interest for the Ecological Center for Subtropical Research(CIES). It is administered by the Argentine Government. Note: model questionnaires appropriate for exit surveys and resident surveys are provided to assist – see Annex.g. where 16. and representativeness) should be formally evaluated at this point. particularly where there are shared or complementary goals (e..13 Iguazu Forest Natural Reserve: Participation in data collection The active participation of stakeholders in data collection is an effective way to obtain information. • Training was provided to all those involved in filling in the forms. Argentina case (p. The data collection procedure was organized in the following way: • All tourism vehicles circulating inside the reserve would have to complete a registration form. Iguazú Forest is a private reserve. A registration form was provided for any single observation of wild fauna designed to be simple and easy to complete. comprehensiveness. To satisfy this need. validity. Identifying the best places for observation of fauna in the reserve was the first step. the transportation ministry may also want data on tourist travel behaviour or use of access roads). A good practical website on this subject is that from Statistics Canada (http://www. and extraction of data from existing statistical sources. in conjunction with the potential data providers. . The participation of tourism guides who operate on the routes inside the Iguazú Natural Forest Reserve.g. definition of survey frame. the interpretive circuits through the forest have been the most important.000 hectares of paranaense forest adjacent to Iguazú National Park are protected. beginning a new process to monitor tourist stays and expenditures by tourist enterprises on a monthly basis by direct contact with each enterprise in the destination)..

all completed forms would be delivered to the operations head office that entered the data in data files. • Climatic conditions at the moment of observation: intensity of the sun. Though the system is not necessarily fully scientific in application.aguasgrandes. • Place of observation by path/trail (points of reference had been established by circuit). (sun exposure) general temperature (observed without use of thermometer) etc. Iguazú Forest Natural Reserve. . was substitution done. how many were sampled. The information contained in the registration form was the following: • Popular name and scientific name (this was completed in office) of the sighted animal. Director Aguas Grandes. • Location of these results on a map of the reserve. number of babies or young individuals observed. per single circuit or as a whole. at the end of a tour. the same questions regarding data quality and applicability should be asked. Despite this. and on what basis?) The methodology to be used to calculate each indicator should be specified. the program is considered a success. As noted in the introductory section of this report. • Monthly calculation of fauna observation results. (e. or just a sample? If it is a sample. • Number of individuals observed. • Day and hour of observation. and this affected the utility of the indicators. there are many forms of Where data from other organizations is used. information on the sex and the possible age of the animal observed. Also the number of observations per day. and how many of these were located in the defined destination? How were respondents selected? Did all reply? If any respondents did not reply. the collecting activity caused an increase of awareness in the local community involved in the project. according to seasonality and climatic conditions (season of the year and time of day) and trends could be calculated with the data collected. and identification of sites with better conditions for fauna observation. and not all indicators will be numeric. In spite of the obvious benefits. Further information: Charles Irala. The information collected on the activity.. Is this data on all hotels. contributed useful information for subsequent management of the species observed in each habitat. • Number of the persons that carried out the observation (visitors. by sex and by approximate age (where easily identifiable). the simple fact of its implementation generated indicators with multiple benefits. number of individuals in the group etc). although each will be designed in a way to show when changes have occurred.48 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook • Everyday. there was a problem with regularity of the data collection. www. on the value and the importance of fauna both from economic and ecological perspectives. number of observations by species.g. Besides being a constant source of information supporting sustainable management providing monitoring of key indicators on every circuit (attractiveness of the sites/circuits for photographic safaris. • Type of animal activity at the moment of observation. This becomes the formula to be used consistently to calculate the indicator and to allow changes to be measured over time. This way of data collection helped identify places of greater concentration of attractive or interesting fauna for the visits. employees and tour guides of the reserve).

: Site has environmental plan – Yes/No. a sampling process may be sufficient). (solution: calculate both. .: Number of beaches meeting Blue Flag Standard – allowing measurement of change in % which meet the standard). % of youth (Note: most applications have not included the water but consider the services which are on the beach to be part of the beach area for calculation). See Box 2.: percentage of tourists who agree that the destination is clean – but which can also yield the ability to show change numerically – six percent increase in the percentage who consider the destination clean relative to five years ago). relative to actual use numbers and to potential numbers who could use the site. Issues to be considered: do we include the adjacent service area. (Note: this is easiest for beaches with controlled entry.14 Calculation of tourist density The density of tourist activity has been used as an indicator applied to intensively used sites from Thailand to the Balearics to Argentina. Normative: (e. given the additional information that will be at hand regarding the data characteristics and the limits which may be revealed.. the water out to a defined depth? All these need to be clearly stated. • For controlled sites.g. Box 2. It is also useful to consider alternatives again at this point. Which forms of analysis are chosen is influenced by the way in which the results are to be used. Use of this definition requires: • Calculation of the site (beach) area – considering how much is open to use as in many littorals significant parts may be privately managed. dividing numbers by beach area. Documentation of the methods used is important. it is essential to find the most effective means to portray results. they can be any of: • Quantitative: (e. the analysis of data will be relatively simple..Part 2 .g.g. Qualitative: (e. The most frequently used indicator when applied to beaches has been number of actual tourists per square metre of beach at peak use.g. • Measuring number of tourists on the beach.14 on calculation of tourist density which illustrates the challenges and benefits of clarity in definition. Expression and portrayal of indicators. or use of simple contingency tables to separate cohorts (e. For non-controlled sites extrapolating counts to entire area. per linear metre of coastline.g.. Otherwise do counts from photos to calculate density – for large beaches. litres of water consumed per tourist – allowing actual calculation of changes in volume consumed – 2litres per tourist more this year than last). • • • Calculation (quantification or qualification) of indicators Users are urged to refer to the indicators in Part three of this Guidebook for model procedures and for references to indicators in use that may serve for comparison or benchmarking if the same methodologies are adopted. calculation of ratios (expenditures per tourist day). including and excluding this area – resulting in two different indicators overall density and density in public areas).Indicators Development Procedures 49 Remember that indicators will not all be fully quantitative. involving for example analysis of simple trends (e. change in tourist arrivals over last year. If indicators are to be used effectively. (This answer can change over time and can also allow aggregation to show % of sites with such plans). While in most instances. both to serve as a guide for subsequent calculations and as information potentially of use to others who may wish to use the data or replicate the method for the purposes of benchmarking. Descriptive: (e.g. Clarity is one criterion for indicator selection. Density has been described per square metre.

Definition/delineation of the destination. Long-term vision for a destination. Nevertheless. 253) But the key indicator for most users is whether or not a beach has a Blue Flag. or what percentage of the beaches in the destination has Blue Flags. Inventory of data sources. the public.2 p. Identification of desired indicators. developers of indicators should consider the needs of the potential user (in this case potential tourists or operators) and Local attitude 1995 ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ portray the indicator in terms most accessible to towards tourists: 2002 ☺ ☺ them. it is usually better to portray the results as simply as possible. 10. reporting communication and Note: if the actual use of the indicator is still questionable at this point. Selection procedures. 6. It is also useful to consider graphic presentation of indicators (trend lines. Identification of tourism assets and risks. use of a simple indicator such as percentage of seacoast which is protected as Results can be publicized through the press.50 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Box 2. Data collection and analysis. the formula used to determine whether a beach deserves a Blue Flag is relatively complex. parkland is in itself a meaningful indicator to in brochures and posters at tourist attractions potential visitors. Monitoring and evaluation of indicators application. attention is needed regarding the specific means to be used for regular reporting to stakeholders. Annual reports by tourism this in the last decade may be a more useful authorities and municipalities often use these indicator to the planning or environmentalist formats. 3. Selection of priority issues. . format(s) and presentation have been discussed in the decision on which indicators are likely to be most useful. Accountability. the intended use. “three knives and forks” or “first class” to portray to the public the results of complex classification procedures. the deliberations may result in returning to the earlier analytical procedures or may even cause reconsideration of whether this is still a useful indicator. Implementation 9. Indicators Development 5. 8. The industry is very familiar with the use of such symbolic indicators as “five stars”. involving several different tests which must be passed. 11. 4. Similarly. Ideally the indicators become part of a planning process for the destination . Ideally.) for some uses. Step 11. pie charts etc. Accountability. (See Box 4. and to specific decision-makers whom the indicators are designed to influence. Use of participatory processes. Research and Organization 1.helping to define ® 12. it can sometimes be useful to employ more sophisticated analytical techniques such as derived indicators or composite indices to address issues. and Communication and Reporting Because the purpose of indicators is to be of use in decision making and communication.15 Visual Portrayal of Indicators Indicators may be more accessible and have greater impact if shown in graphic form. 2. community. for example: Number of tourists per area of beach: LLLLL high density LLL medium L low Tourist revenues: visitors going to the beach relative to % of all other groups). but the percentage change in or in hotels. 7. Evaluation of feasibility/implementation. The key to implementation is commitment. Wherever possible. user. For example.

tourists and managers regarding what is being done to sustain what is most important to the future of the destination. China publishes air quality regularly for most major cities. What has changed or occurred as a result of the indicator monitoring? What actions have been taken in pursuit of more sustainable tourism? Projects might include new planning legislation. partnerships and action that indicators generate be used most effectively to guide destinations towards a more sustainable future. In short. and much of the legislation and regulation now in place. and become a source of knowledge for the residents. They also enter the public domain. it became the impetus for environmental movements.16: Indicators make a difference – When actually used Indicators can make a real difference to the decision process particularly when the results of indicators are used publicly. indicators make a difference not only through the information they provide but also through the partnerships and actions that result from their development. tourists and the general public. most of these have come from other social. web sites. non-government and private sector groups will improve linkages and cooperation between agencies. countries from China to Mexico. crimes against tourists. and the action they produce. and tourist arrivals frequently in the press. This often results in issues such as the need for greater composting of biodegradable wastes and the need to provide tourists with information about village protocol. health sector performance. from India to South Africa have regular data on key indicators which are important to tourism – such as air quality. Indicators can make a difference in three main ways: through the information they generate. Box 2. When environmental data was first publicized in North America and Europe. During the monitoring process partnerships are developed and many non-tourism bodies will necessarily become involved and learn about how tourism impacts on their area of work. the preparation of a new visitor survey. During the indicator development process. being brought to the closer attention of hoteliers. political action. employment. Involving a wide spectrum of government. tour operators. The question then becomes not so much ‘do indicators make a difference’ but how can the information. These data both show concern. stakeholders have the opportunity to consider what is important to them and to re-evaluate the impact of tourism on their lives and their community. and ultimately portray progress on such issues. The partnerships can then assist tourism authorities to implement cross-sectoral projects such as the upgrading of airport or waterfront facilities or to control impacts through planning legislation. and environmental constituencies and authorities who have begun to report regularly on such varied issues as air quality.Indicators Development Procedures 51 what is important and ultimately used to develop performance measures for the planning and management of the destination. Now. they become part of the understanding of what is important. and can be a catalyst for action.Part 2 . Examples exist of effective communication of indicators in ways which reinforce the public accountability of authorities for the sustainability of communities and regions. crime. and press releases.5 on Reporting and Accountability (p. regular progress reports. allowing partnerships to develop and generating greater cross-sectoral understanding of sustainable tourism. the partnerships they create. . By participating in indicator development. 312). NGOs. consultation and appropriate use of publicity. training workshops for hoteliers. or state of the currency (these are all critical to the sustainability of tourism). information is generated through discussion. noise. a green award for sustainable tourism operations or a manual for tour guides. To date. Indicators start to make a difference even before they are fully developed as new concepts are explored and lessons learned. economic. See the section 5. Action taken as a result of monitoring is perhaps the most obvious difference indicators can make.

As was noted in Part 1. urban centres or districts relative to certain indicators. indicators are intended to be a central component of a planning and management process. total arrivals. The publicity given to the negative effects of some world events (e. The WTO issues statistics on international tourist arrivals and revenues globally and regionally.. As the issues which . and participation by all of these organizations is desirable.. anomalies (area where the most is spent by tourists. showing in different colours the value of selected indicators (e. Regular review is required both to see whether the information is indeed making a difference to users and helping solve key problems and also to determine whether the issues have changed. colourful mapped data can be a real aid in displaying important trends. contribution of tourism to GNP.52 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Despite the growing work on indicators at all levels. the role can also be carried out by stakeholders of the tourism industry. Monitoring and Evaluation of Indicators Application Indicators are not meant to be a one-time exercise. to competitors. providing a challenge in interpreting the information. While the local planning authority is the most frequent responsible agency.17 Aggregate national reports Indicators can be used at many scales. the same approach must be followed in collection and interpretation of the data for each of the mapped areas. highlighting the location of specific issues (the data unit where the average occupancy of hotel rooms is the lowest. (See Box 6.g. which are widely used as an indicator of both importance of tourism as an economic sector and a monitor of changes related to tourism at a global scale. such indicators can be very revealing of national trends. Other indicators are gathered at specific destinations or for local jurisdictions. When aggregated. the impact of terrorism on global tourism or 9/11 on behaviour of outbound US tourists) has begun to change this. Often tabular reports are used to show the relative values of different destinations. Despite these issues. The example of how regional indicators have been developed and used by France is elaborated in the case study: Aggregated national reports: the case of France which delineates how regional indicators are used to show issues and to measure sustainability at the national level. regional anomalies and hot spots. Users will normally refer immediately to the status of their own destination relative to others. Some indicators are used primarily at the national scale (e. 377) for examples). Box 2. It should be noted that for some jurisdictions this can be difficult as spatial data units may vary greatly in size. Hong Kong or Toronto. SARS effects on tourism in Beijing. or ratio of tourists to residents in the geographic unit) for all of the different jurisdictions or tourist areas.26 Tourist Density in French Municipalities (p. 382) and the EU case (p. by a non-governmental organization or academic institute. area where the least is spent). 382). It is important to clearly identify who is responsible for the management of an indicators program and accountable for its completion and continuation. although the cooperation and support of the local authority is critical. total jobs in tourism). or to the national mean. there are few examples of indicators developed by or pertaining expressly to the sustainability of the tourism industry that have received similar public acceptance and use as those in use by other sectors. or the wages received by tourism sector employees is lower than the national average). Periodic review of indicator applications can lead to redesign and redirection of elements of an indicators program.g. and to highlight the importance and linkage of tourism to what occurs elsewhere and to other sectors.g. For this to be most useful. total tourist numbers. Step 12. (See France case p. Another effective means of reporting and portrayal is by maps. It should be noted that indicators that are collected for specific destinations can be aggregated for regional and national reports (See the France Aggregated Reporting case p. 385) for an example that visually portrays tourism data for all of France).

8. Accountability. Use of participatory processes. Monitoring application WTO consultative group visit castle site as part of field trip in Ugljan Island. Evaluation of feasibility/implementation. Indicators can then be the vehicle by which changes can be compared to the targets. reporting. Croatia. 7. The indicators development process is the first step in providing ongoing information that will improve decisions. . as they are likely to become more useful over time as the record becomes longer. Selection of priority issues.Part 2 . Identification of desired indicators. Definition/delineation of the destination. it will become clear which indicators are serving the purpose well. a monitoring regime must be kept in place to gauge success or failure in managing tourism at a destination in ways that continue to be sustainable. it is still worthwhile to revisit indicators every few years seeking improvement. In particular. With use.Indicators Development Procedures 53 destination managers must address change. While there is certainly a strong reason to retain indicators. Research and Organization 1. Implementation 9. 11. Data collection and analysis. and which will need to be updated or even replaced. Long-term vision for a destination. 6. Once identified and implemented. and build collaboration to deal with the principal issues of the destination. Indicators Development 5. Selection procedures. 10. communication and and evaluation of indicators ® 12. Inventory of data sources. 3. 2. The field visits to key assets and problem areas and on-site meetings with local stakeholders are part of the participatory approach to workshops on indicators. it is useful to set defined targets as part of a planning process. so do their needs for indicators. Identification of tourism assets and risks. 4.

The several case studies Part 6 help clarify which issues have proven important in different types of tourism destinations and what procedures and techniques have been used in indicators applications. Is there evidence of outcomes which have been influenced by indicators use? 11. indicators become performance measures of progress towards the sustainable development of the destination.18 Indicators re-evaluation checklist 1. but because it requires an ongoing commitment of resources. Do users now have other needs? 5. Monitoring systems need to be put in place to repeatedly gather and disseminate the priority indicators to those who need to know the information. (See template for re-evaluation Annex C 4 p. In Part 4 a selection of destinations is examined in detail to illustrate how specific indicators can be applied. but should serve as a menu for destinations and with ideas to create their own indicators.54 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Box 2. and will be the most useful to respond to the real issues it faces on the path to sustainability. Are the indicators being used – by whom and how? 2. Are the indicators in the right form. Are there new means to collect or analyze data for the indicators which might make production easier or more efficient? 8. The issues and indicators in these sections should not dictate which are to be chosen for any single destination. the indicators chosen by each destination will be its own. What are the barriers. and are designed to provide examples of how indicators have been used to address a number of issues most likely to be encountered by destination managers. This may help a destination to choose which issues to consider and provide examples of which indicators have proven useful to others.2 Use of Other Sections of the Guidebook within this Process This part of the Guidebook has provided a twelve step process that can guide destinations towards definition of their own issues. . Ultimately. likely in conjunction with a broader plan or policy review exercise. Establishment of the ongoing commitment and operational process needs to be both acknowledged and ideally clearly addressed during the indicators development process. The other sections of this book supplement this process. to be added? 10. and identification of which indicators are likely to be of greatest use in addressing these issues. it can be difficult to maintain over the long-term. This process is critical to sustainable tourism management. The review of indicators is ideally done as part of the periodic review of plans and strategies as a key building block for continuous improvement of the overall destination planning and management process. Do the users find the current set useful? 4. Is information now available which could permit indicators which were too difficult to produce. to ascertain whether the right information is getting to the right people. Which indicators are not being used? 3. 490). but which were seen as important. Similarly. Ultimately. if any. which have prevented optimal use of the indicators? This is a simple checklist – a more formal evaluation framework can be used. Are there new potential users? 6. 2. and ultimately whether tourism at the destination is more sustainable as a result. it is useful to monitor the overall process itself. Are there new issues which have arisen and which require indicators? 9. or are other output forms now needed? 7.

controlling tourism activities and destination planning. among others. For a suggested procedure of indicators development please consult Part 2. Means to use the indicator . issues featured on the baseline list are noted by the addition of the term: ¢ Baseline issue. Wherever possible. with their specific components identified and a set of indicators suggested.Part 3 Sustainability Issues and Indicators in Tourism This chapter provides guidance to indicators that respond to issues common to many destinations. Boxed inserts provide further examples or methods which may be of use. At the end of Part 3. © 2004 World Tourism Organization . problems and considerations of the given topic. Issues are grouped so that users of the Guidebook can find closely related topics in each section. These are marked with the term ¢ Baseline Indicator. Benchmarking – where possible. such as impacts on host communities. In the body of this chapter. It is a MENU. A total of some 50 common issues or sets of issues are examined. The indicators recommended for each ¢ Baseline issue have been selected considering their direct relevance to the issue and their relative simplicity to measure and understand. management of natural and cultural resources. a table is provided showing subcomponents issues and their related indicators. The Presentation of the Issues and Their Indicators Each issue section starts with an introduction detailing key trends. or how it can be collected. where similar indicators have been used or standards exist for comparison purposes. economic. a short list of selected Baseline issues and related Baseline indicators is identified as a suggested minimal set to be considered by destinations and which can allow comparisons with other destinations. rather to generate ideas to develop indicators to respond to the specific conditions and stakeholders’ needs of each destination. environmental and management issues related to sustainability of tourism. Reference to related ¢ Baseline indicators are distinguished in the issue/indicator tables in boldface. For those indicators considered to be central to each issue. Some other indicators which may be useful in addressing the issue are also listed without the same level of detail. a range of indicators is discussed in the context of each issue and examples are provided of cases where indicators have been used. It has not been developed to present a prescription for the indicator responds to the issue. It is important that destination managers set their own priority for issues and develop indicators that adequately respond to them and which are feasible to implement. information is provided regarding: • • • • Reason for use of this indicator . allowing planners and managers to select the issues most pertinent to their destinations and gain ideas for application from the suggested indicators and case examples.providing suggestions on how the indicator can support decision making and reporting processes.ISBN 92-844-0726-5 . covering a range of social. This extensive chapter and the wide range of issues covered DO NOT suggest that managers have to deal with all of these issues and their indicators. For most issues. Source(s) of data – where data can normally be found for this indicator.

The community can be impacted both positively from tourism through jobs. In extreme cases. This issue addresses overall satisfaction. etc.1 Local Satisfaction With Tourism ¢ Baseline Issue Attitudes.1 Wellbeing of Host Communities 3. Other communities serve nearby natural attractions. events. economic activity and improved social services and negatively due to stress or damage on local resources and cultural values. This is a direct measure of actual opinion. Community Reaction Small communities worldwide are hosts for tourists. mountains. cross references are provided to the other issues. A general questionnaire. it will be treated separately in each section. . access to jobs. repeated each year. or are the hosts for visitors to beaches. Individual substantive issues related to satisfaction (and which may be identified through complaints or use of surveys) are treated separately. Actions by the industry to maintain a positive relationship between hosts and tourists can anticipate and prevent incidents and negative effects. and is the most straightforward way to measure local opinion of tourism and its effects. etc. tourist sports fishing impact on the community fishery) should be used. and a means to obtain information about emerging problems or irritants before they become serious.1. where the indicator is focused differently or used in a different way.56 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Where indicators are common to several issues. sharing in benefits. interesting local practices and customs or experience the ambience. Dissatisfaction. Local satisfaction with tourism is critical for sustainability. The components of satisfaction cover a range of real and perceived issues – including crowding. 494). reaction to tourist behaviour.g. with customized questions on specific issues of local concern (e. the detailed description of indicators is not duplicated. In most cases. although in some cases. Some visit communities to see monuments. 3. Source(s) of data: While it is possible to obtain some information through interviews with officials or the use of focus groups (and these help considerably when it comes to understanding more quantitative data) the most effective means is through a community questionnaire (see model questionnaire in Annex C 6 p. The issues and indicators applications are further detailed and cross-referenced in Part 4 on Destination Applications.. community hostility has driven tourists away. Components of the Issue Level of community satisfaction Indicators • Local satisfaction level with tourism (and with specific components of tourism) based on questionnaire (see Annex C 6 Local questionnaire) ¢ Baseline Indicator Problems or dissatisfaction • Number of complaints by local residents Indicator of community satisfaction: • Local satisfaction level with tourism (and with specific components of tourism) ¢ Baseline Indicator Reason for use of this indicator: Changes in level of satisfaction can be an early warning indicator of potential incidents or hostility.

Benchmarking: Because the issues are likely site specific and unique. How can a community measure the effects of tourism. over two thirds of the community agree that tourism benefits the community) and changes over previous years (e. violation of norms.. Housing.2 Effects of Tourism on Communities ¢ Baseline Issue Community Attitudes. tourism may be an important source of benefits for a community.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 57 Means to use the indicator: Both overall level of satisfaction (e.g. Social Benefits. impact on cultural events. Where there is a surge in numbers complaining about a specific issue (e. Demographics Many communities perceive that with tourism comes a range of negative impacts on their community and culture. See Annex C 6 (p.Part 3 . some of these are addressed in greater detail under specific issue sections. At the same time. compare with previous years to show changes. 494). 3. providing the authority has a known place to register complaints and this remains constant over time. both positive and negative? . A specific question can be added to focus on a particular issue (such as access. and importance of specific irritants. Design issue-specific questions for the residents’ questionnaire to obtain objective information. Some report specific negative effects on community resources or cultural assets. Nilgiri Hills. Changes in Lifestyles. etc).. the percentage of residents who believe they benefit directly from tourism has fallen 20% in the past two years) are useful measures. perception may be more important than any objective measure. complaints to the local council about tourists throwing garbage in the streets) this may be a warning of an emerging problem.1. The monitoring of complaints is less representative of all opinion but can be an early warning system for emerging discontent and can help in the design of any questionnaire used to measure the issue more objectively. India. Source(s) of data: Local authorities may be the best source for complaints. Local residents.g. Indicator which signals areas of dissatisfaction: • Number of complaints by local residents Reason for use of this indicator: In terms of local reaction. whether or not they agree to be. doing their normal daily activities are part of tourism.g. Means to use the indicator: Simple counts of number of complaints are useful – particularly if a log of complaints is kept and classified. Benchmarking: The best comparative use of these data is at a local level – comparing two or more similar communities in the same destination or measuring trends over time in overall satisfaction levels.

This may challenge the community. skills. perceptions • and acceptance of tourism) • • • Social benefits associated with tourism • • • • General impacts on community life • • • . For example. Questionnaires can elicit attitudes and perceptions of community members (see ! Satisfaction with Tourism p. recent school graduates may be more interested in offering mountain biking tours than the lower key activities of their parents. Developing indicators and monitoring changes and trends can empower the community to make choices that suit it. Community attitudes to tourism • (including community agreement and • coherence on tourism. and will certainly involve change. The community. % who believes that tourism has helped bring new services or infrastructure. These are very important parts of local community wellbeing. but this approach does not capture some of the subtleties of community satisfaction with tourism. % of vernacular architecture preserved. Frequency of community meetings and attendance rates (% of eligible who participate). The extent to which local culture is incorporated into tourists’ experiences may be a contentious issue. Components of the issue Indicators See ! Local satisfaction with tourism p. per week etc.) that tourism can bring. % who are proud of their community and culture. while a rural. 56). schools. and with community support. If community-based tourism is to be sustainable. % locals participating in community events. Number of social services available to the community (% which are attributable to tourism) ! Baseline Indicator. This may happen without the opportunity for communities to decide whether they actually want change. possibly developed by some type of committee. Level of awareness of local values (% aware.58 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook The social. It may be simpler to measure economic benefits as an indicator of community socio-cultural benefits. agricultural community may not even recognize the interest tourists might have in their way of life. Some traditional or Indigenous communities may not want to share their culture with tourists at all. its culture and its tourism goals may change over time and may be affected by changing demographics and workforce immigration. Socio-cultural benefits to communities can be very difficult to measure. 56. communities can also benefit from improved infrastructure (roads. Accepting economic development often means accepting the cultural changes that accompany tourism development. sanitation. Existence of a community tourism plan. energy) and social services (health. (See related section which focuses on ! Economic Benefits of Tourism p. cultural and economic impacts on a host community are inextricably linked. Yet it is virtually impossible for communities to isolate themselves from visitors and impacts from other cultures in this ever-globalizing world. water. 65). Frequency of tourism plan updates (see section on planning and management issues). Number of tourists per day. 128) Besides economic benefits. Ratio of tourists to locals (average and peak day) ! Baseline Indicator. there need to be common goals. Number (%) participating in community traditional crafts. customs. There may be beneficial synergies or inverse relationships amongst the three impact areas and differing opinions amongst several community groups and individuals as to what constitutes a benefit and what is negative for the community. ! Baseline Indicator. %supporting). etc. or successful growth in tourism may bring new workers to the community with different backgrounds and values. number per sq km (see ! Controlling Use Intensity) See also the specific issue of Access p.

language. Frequency of community meetings and attendance rates (% of eligible who participate). community lifestyle. Number or % of residents continuing with local dress. Net migration into/out of community (sort by age of immigrants and out-migrants). Means to use the indicators: Average level of satisfaction/dissatisfaction on a scale. % of housing affordable for residents. Annex C 6). cuisine. Mode and average distance of travel to work or school. Level of awareness of local values (% aware. health. %supporting). Changes to resident lifestyles. positively or negatively with social effects –see specific sections. Existence of a community tourism plan. cultural change. correlation of key concerns and level of . sanitation) can also change. Local authorities may conduct regular surveys or consultations. Number of immigrants (temporary or new residents) taking tourism jobs in the past year. Note: Availability and access to some other services (e. % who are proud of their community and culture. music. list of concerns for residents to check. change in number of local residents participating in traditional events).Sustainability Issues in Tourism 59 • • • Ratio of tourists to locals at events or ceremonies. % of residents changing from traditional occupation to tourism over previous year(s). Perception of impact on the community using the resident questionnaire – with reference to specific events or ceremonies (see Questionnaire. Increase/decrease in cultural activities or traditional events (e. Reason for use of these indicators: Helps to measure key local concerns and helps to identify current and emerging issues.g. Source(s) of data: Questionnaire.g.g. customs. water. Local students may interview residents as part of a geography or tourism course. Number of tourists attending events and % of total. open-ended questions. • traditional occupations) • • • • Housing issues • • • • Community demographics • • • Indicators relating to community attitudes: • • • • • • See indicators for ! Local Satisfaction with Tourism (p. 128). Number of new housing starts and % for local residents Note: prices of other goods can also rise or fall (see also the ! Economic Benefits p. % of local community who agree that their local culture. Number of residents who have left the community in the past year. 56). Value of tourist contribution to local culture (amount obtained from gate. (cultural • impact. values and customs. amount of donations). Frequency of tourism plan updates (see section on planning and management issues). men and women.Part 3 . % of locals attending ceremonies). its integrity and authenticity are being retained. (e. religion and cultural practices. % of locals who find new recreational opportunities associated with tourism (local questionnaire See Annex C 6).

skills. e. Ratio of tourists to locals at events or ceremonies.C). Benchmarks or specific goals can be set with respect to key concerns. 65% of respondents are dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with the number of tourists in the town square on Sundays and this is considered to be excessive… we wish to take measures in order to reduce the % of dissatisfied residents to less than 30%). (E. schools).g. See also Security (p. Average length of stay. Means to use the indicators: The community may use these indicators to inform discussion of whether it is benefiting suitably from tourism. Benchmarking: A qualitative measure only. % of vernacular architecture preserved. medical services. . 192). number per sq km (see ¢ Controlling Use Intensity p. pollution and number of tourists from large buses have the greatest correlation with overall dissatisfaction. % who believes that tourism has helped bring new services or infrastructure. Indicators of social benefits for the community: • • • • Number and capacity of social services available to the community (% which are attributable to tourism) ¢ Baseline Indicator.60 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook satisfaction/dissatisfaction. (See Built Heritage. There are examples where these services are clearly attributable to tourism development (e. ¢ Ratio of tourists to locals (average and peak day). (See Annex. 56). Perception of negative impacts on the community using the resident questionnaire – with reference to specific events or ceremonies (see Questionnaire.g. % of local community who agree that their local culture. and this will require a community questionnaire to obtain the perception of benefits. its integrity and authenticity are being retained.g. Annex C 6). 128) and ¢ Local Community Satisfaction with Tourism p. customs. The noise. Reason for use of these indicators: To set targets or limits for the number of tourists a community believes it can sustain while gaining optimal benefits. p. 104). Number (%) participating in community traditional crafts. % participating in community events. per week etc. Public Safety Health (p. it is also important to evaluate the opinion of locals about these social services. 76) Reason for use of these indicators: To identify the degree to which tourism contributes to what are seen as social benefits or disbenefits for a community. Besides the facts on social services. Indicators regarding general impacts on the community: • • • • • • • • Number of tourists per day. general infrastructure development due to tourism investment or a hotel or tour operator donates to the construction of clinics and schools). 94) and Community Benefits (p. Source(s) of data: Local authorities should have data on the types and capacities of social services (e.g. (Part of a questionnaire or survey on satisfaction of locals) ¢ Baseline Indicator. Benchmarking: This is best compared over time for the community.

309). • Marriages between tourists and locals as a percentage of all marriages. This is a form of social carrying capacity – see the section on Controlling Use Intensity (p. and total number of Issues in Tourism 61 Source(s) of data: Often difficult to measure unless there is only one entry point.forth.iacm. • Number of local meetings to discuss issues before policies are implemented. • Rate of growth of population. Benchmarking: Communities can monitor the number of tourists during specific time periods or in certain geographic areas for comparison over time to note changes in visitation patterns. • Unemployment rates in the off-season periods. A comfort level may be established on the ratio of tourists to local residents. Surveys of locals help to determine whether the levels are considered acceptable. Box 3.Part 3 . environmental and socio-cultural context of a resort or a region.forth.1 Sustainable tourism indicators for mediterranean destinations The indicators proposed aim at offering a tool for evaluating the tourism development and the practices used so far in existing destinations linking tourism industry to the economic. • Availability of procedures for public and stakeholders involved to suggest changes in policies. Others can conduct surveys to estimate totals and number of days tourists stay in a community. • Public-private partnerships/investments. buses. Means to use the indicators: The community may use these indicators to provide hard data to help them decide how many tourists are too many or too few. . but not always reliably reported. A pilot application was done to test the indicators in Hersonissos Greece (http://www. • Divorces as a percentage of marriages.pdf See also the Issue section on Economic Benefits for economic indicators proposed for Mediterranean destinations. Local Participation • Existence of educational/informational programs for the public. Very small communities with low numbers of tourists may be able to do a simple count of number of cars. Hotel and accommodation occupancy rates are useful. 192) for additional indicators and means of calculation. • Ratio of local population to annual number of • Females employed as a percentage of the labour force. Source: http://www. The following indicators relate to socio-cultural issues: Socio-cultural • Ratio of local population to tourists in peak season. such as an airport for an island destination. See also Carrying Capacity and Limits (p.pdf ) with one of the key issues being availability of data – particularly to estimate multipliers and leakage. • Number of bars/discos per local population.iacm.

such as scenic location. employment and opportunities for their children. beaches etc. in a former fishing community whose beachside location becomes a resort. Religious or spiritual leaders may note changes in dress and customs. foodstuffs and cultural practices. These indicators are important for communities in destinations with high tourism values. Source(s) of data: Number of local residents working in tourism: a simple count in very small communities. and cumulative damage from large numbers are evident. Costs of repair and mitigation – where the hosts can document real costs of cleanup or repair associated with tourist activities. survey/business statistics for larger communities and towns. Change in number of residents continuing with local dress. or where local residents are being replaced by newcomers who may have different cultural origins. Likely to be of importance to residents concerned with youth continuing with traditions. • • • Damage to cultural artefacts and built structures – where graffiti. Increase/decrease in cultural activities or traditional events. local residents who still fish are dislocated from their huts and boats while others now service the tourism industry.g. Means to use the indicators: Change in attendance at traditional events is relatively easy to measure. Number of instances of damage to cultural assets (see Built Heritage p. Other indicators of interest to capture socio-cultural impacts from tourism for host communities: • • • % of housing affordable for residents. . Reason for use of these indicators: To allow community to monitor the impacts tourism is having on the socio-cultural fabric of the community. In some communities. Some may be comfortable with a faster rate of change if it brings improved housing. where the language of tourists is different than the local language. but should be used in conjunction with indicators on change (increase/decrease) in attendance by residents versus tourists. theft or vandalism. % of new housing starts for locals/tourists. Declines in cultural practices may also signal a potential decline in interest of tourists in visiting the community. good climate. Community leaders may report declines in attendance and participation at ceremonies and events. The small community may risk being taken over and being turned into a tourism town in which the original residents are marginalized and can afford accommodation only on the outskirts of their former village.62 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Indicators regarding cultural changes: • • • % of residents changing from traditional occupation to tourism over previous year(s). Distance to travel to work or school. customs. Others may wish to maintain traditions and see tourism interest in their lifestyle as an opportunity for their children to continue to practice traditional skills. language. Benchmarking: Communities need to set their own benchmarks for what is acceptable to themthe limits of acceptable change or social carrying capacity. 76). e. language capability can be an important measure. Surveys on tourist satisfaction might show changes they consider in the authenticity and cultural attraction of the destination (see Exit questionnaire Annex C).

with longtime residents leaving because their community or town has changed too much for them. Italy. Indicators that track the inflow and outflow of residents give a measure of the stability of the community and acceptable or manageable rates of growth and change. Net migration into/out of community (sort by age of immigrants and out-migrants).Sustainability Issues in Tourism 63 Indicators on community demographics: • • • Number of residents who have left the community in the past year. Tiny cliffside villages receive thousands of visitors during the July.August peak season. . and with new residents arriving to take up jobs and opportunities due to tourism. A community is rarely sustained by tourism alone and tourism needs to be considered in conjunction with other economic and social factors. Number of immigrants (temporary or new residents) taking up tourism jobs in the past year. Growth in tourism can lead to a significant change in the composition of local residents. Cinque Terre.Part 3 .

82 ____________ 0. noise and congestion. individual crime.07 ____________ 1. general prices for goods and services.51 ________ 2. organised crime. residents' pride in their settlement.91 ____________ 1. Negative impacts: Perceived increase of costs of living.40 ________ 4.21 ________ 4. Hungary Residents' mean response to tourism's effect on the region __________________________________________________________________________________ Variable __________________________________________________________________________________ General prices for goods and services __________________________________________________________________________________ Cost of land and real estate __________________________________________________________________________________ Residents' concern for material gain __________________________________________________________________________________ Congestion __________________________________________________________________________________ Settlement's overall tax revenue __________________________________________________________________________________ Noise __________________________________________________________________________________ Organised crime __________________________________________________________________________________ Individual crime __________________________________________________________________________________ Hospitality and courtesy toward strangers __________________________________________________________________________________ Residents' pride in their settlement __________________________________________________________________________________ Prostitution __________________________________________________________________________________ Gambling __________________________________________________________________________________ Littering __________________________________________________________________________________ Vandalism __________________________________________________________________________________ Politeness and good manners __________________________________________________________________________________ Residents' pride in their settlement __________________________________________________________________________________ Drug abuse __________________________________________________________________________________ Alcoholism __________________________________________________________________________________ Sexual permissiveness __________________________________________________________________________________ Honesty __________________________________________________________________________________ Mutual confidence among people __________________________________________________________________________________ Unemployment ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________ Mean ________ 4.97 ________ 3.85 ____________ 0.64 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Box 3.73 _________ ____________ Std.01 ____________ 1.71 ________ 4.57 ________ 4. residents' concern for material gain. Lake Balaton. gambling.46 ________ 4.03 ____________ 1.92 ____________ 0. ____________ 0.83 ________ 3.2 A survey on the socio-cultural impacts of tourism in the Keszthely-Hévíz Region. hospitality and courtesy toward strangers.36 ________ 4.73 ________ 1.91 ____________ 1.82 _____________ * .66 ________ 3. prostitution.69 ____________ 0. Perceived decrease of unemployment.77 ____________ 0.04 ____________ 1.97 ________ 3. Perceived decrease of mutual confidence among people.77 ________ 3.73 ________ 2. costs of land and housing.09 ____________ 0.01 ____________ 0.83 ________ 3.22 ________ 4.76 ____________ 0.28 ____________ 0.53 ________ 3.89 ____________ 1.56 ________ 3.95 ________ 3.12 ________ 3.82 ____________ 0.90 ____________ 0.67 ____________ 0.75 ____________ 0.Response range was 1-5. .15 ________ 4. the following impacts of tourism were perceived by local residents: Positive impacts: Perceived increase of a settlement's overall tax revenue. 1 = Significantly decrease 2 = Decrease somewhat 3 = Not make any difference 4 = Increase somewhat 5 = Significantly increase According to the Table. dev.89 ____________ 0.

launching charges). trails. and Hall. The survey also investigated residents’ opinion on a wide range of other factors. Source: Ratz. their mean (not above 4. G. housing conditions. Frequency of visits by locals to key site(s). Hungary. though in certain cases (where standard deviation is relatively high) the neutral average resulted from a co-effect of both positive and negative impacts. in the case of housing conditions. or natural resources may find its access changed. T. . income and standard of living. D. The local community which has traditionally used beaches. among others. 147) limits may be placed on those allowed access. Where protection of cultural or ecological resources is involved (see also the issue on Protecting Critical Ecosystems p. This issue is a specific subset of community impact of tourism and may be closely related to overall satisfaction. It is a frequent issue in new destinations. London: Routledge. cultural and leisure facilities. In some cases.Part 3 . where traditional access may be affected by new development and new rules. (see also accessibility issue with regard to access for persons with disabilities p.2 (cont. (2000): Residents’ perceptions of the socio-cultural impacts of tourism at Lake Balaton. (eds). the development of tourism can come at the expense of real or perceived access to key valued assets by the local residents.html 3. pp. 36-47.0) may indicate that the current level of tourism has had relatively less impact on them. formerly public shorelines or forests may become private.ratztamara. but they also considered that during the main season many families move out (even from their house to garages or cellars) in order to accommodate tourists. 90).Sustainability Issues in Tourism 65 Box 3. Cost of access expressed in hours of local wages.0 and not below 2. For example.. Number of complaints by local residents regarding access. Tourism and Sustainable Tourism Development. public security.) For the rest of the variables. hunting or fishing prohibited. Economic Barriers. Perception of change in accessibility due to tourism growth (see Local questionnaire annex C 6). and in the quality of new buildings due to increased financial resources. fees charged per day use). quality of life.1. general infrastructure.3 Access by Local Residents to Key Assets Access to Important Sites. http://www. In: Richards.g. or restrictions placed on the permissible uses (e. availability of real cultural identity. including employment opportunities. roads. Economic barriers to access Maintaining satisfaction with access levels • • • Local users may be displaced by visitors (no room at the tavern) or priced out of regular use (trail access fees. respondents perceived an improvement in interior design in order to meet the requirements of the tourists. Components of the issue Retaining access to important sites for local residents Indicators • • Access by locals to key sites (% of site freely accessible to public). Satisfaction with Access Levels In some destinations.

snowmobiling and use of off-road motorized vehicles. Source(s) of data: Site management normally can provide a fee schedule. the % of the site left open to the public is a good measure of access potential. yet a resort may take effective control of the beach by fencing access points. Reason for use of these indicators: These indicators measure potential access or limits to access and also measure actual behaviour of locals relative to site use. Means to use the indicators: At the planning stage. Indicators both of physical impacts and local and tourist attitudes are now part of the planning process for the Park and protected areas. 253). Significant changes may cause concern.g. The establishment of the protected areas has been accompanied by efforts to close many of the roads to reduce impacts on fauna and flora. Often fees are set to accommodate the purses of the visitors. 135). Many nations can . in many jurisdictions access below the high water mark is legally public. any dual fee system can lead to the creation of a grey market where locals sell their lower cost passes to visitors for a profit. or providing guarding or policing which can deter local users or deflect them to other areas for their beach activities). Back roads originally established by loggers were always used as access to the interior of the peninsula for hunting. entry control or ticket booths. Therefore the best comparative use of the data is relative to the same sites in previous years. In some destinations high fees may effectively exclude local residents. Local mean hourly wage is normally available from local or regional/national published data.. Some data for beaches may be available through the Blue Flag program (see Box 4. Benchmarking: These indicators tend to be very site specific.2 p. Source(s) of data: Site or destination managers. While dual fees are sometimes employed (e. (e. Frequency of visits by locals to key site(s). links between villages and along the park periphery) have also complicated the mix of values and objectives. or locals purchase passes at a lower price.66 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Indicators regarding site access and use: • • Access by locals to key sites (% of site freely accessible to public). The recent indicators study has recommended the use of a local questionnaire to both clarify the nature and extent of concern relative to the access issues and to monitor changes. The same access routes are key points of entry for tourists to the interior of the region. where a year long pass to the park costs the same as two or three day entries ). This has resulted in a degree of antipathy between local communities and the managers of the protected areas.g. the fees themselves can become significant barriers (see Tourism and Poverty Alleviation p. Canada The establishment of a National Park and adjacent Provincial protected areas over the past decades has had a direct impact on the use patterns of the traditional residents of the northern peninsula of Cape Breton Island. Box 3. Indicator regarding financial barriers to access: • Cost of access expressed in hours of local wages. and any measures designed to facilitate tourist use (coast trails. and a vehicle for greater local and industry involvement in a broader planning process. 355) Reason for use of this indicator: Where site access becomes subject to entry fees. (See indicators list from workshops in Cape Breton case p. The key indicators would include those related to extent and frequency of use and to perceptions of accessibility. How much access is sufficient? Real or perceived problems with access can lead to reduced use of the site by locals.3 Access to protected areas in Cape Breton.

If there is a specific site where access is considered to be a problem. Benchmarking: Because the specific issues of access are likely site specific and unique. providing the authority has a known place to register complaints and this remains constant over time.g. 281) which are also likely to be of interest relative to the access issue. Controlling Use Intensity (p. timing of use. it may be useful to frame a question which asks specifically about access to that site (the hotel beach. The questionnaire asks the residents directly for their perception of access.Part 3 . See the questionnaire in Annex C 6. Note: the indicators suggested above are related with local opinion on tourism. For comparisons with fees at other sites. Means to use the indicator: Express the result in the form of “it takes three hours work for the average resident to purchase entry to the attraction – up (or down) nearly an hour from last year”. Number of complaints by local residents regarding access. Canada: visitors unwelcome . 192) and the destination section on Small and Traditional Communities p. Quebec. etc. See Annex C for means to portray results of local survey information. An appropriate questionnaire may help to precisely locate sites or areas where there are problems – and permit a wide range of solutions which may include zoning. Design issue-specific questions for the residents’ questionnaire. Where no specific local data is available. local fishermen complaining that they no longer have room at the dock for their boats due to mooring by tourist craft) this may be a warning of an emerging problem. many sites have their own websites with posted fees. Indicators of satisfaction regarding access: • • Perception of change in accessibility due to tourism growth (See Questionnaire Annex C 6). These indicators measure changes in the perception of access. Local authorities may be the best source for complaints. Reason for use of these indicators: In terms of local reaction. Means to use the indicators: Simple counts of number of complaints are useful – particularly if a log of particular complaints is kept and classified. it is reasonable to use national or provincial data in most cases as a measure of mean hourly wage. Where there is a surge in numbers complaining about a specific issue (e. The monitoring of complaints is less representative but can be an early warning system for emerging discontent. compare with previous years to show changes. the access fee can also be expressed in terms of the hourly wage of that country). Source(s) of data: The indicator on perception requires use of a residents’ questionnaire (see Annex C 6). the indicator can be also benchmarked against the mean wage of visitors (where the greatest group of tourists is from a particular nation. A specific question can be added to focus on a particular issue or location where access is thought to be an issue.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 67 provide wage data at local levels. perception may be more important than any objective measure of accessibility or use. co-management. the park etc) Meech Lake. Benchmarking: While the best comparisons will be time series for the same site.

their relative seniority. They identified four main areas of concern in terms of tourism gender equity: family well-being (as a result of the long hours and demands of shift work).1. Women often suffer from loss of natural resources first. These issues are used to structure the discussion on possible indicators. training opportunities and possibilities for advancement. pay or benefits. Gender equity is not just about whether women are getting tourism jobs. Traditional Gender Vanuatu and Fiji (SPTO 2003). in collaboration with UNIFEM. and access to land and credit which defines who can play the lead role in tourism development. Equal Opportunities in Employment. safety and issues affecting female employees. In traditional societies. the South Pacific Tourism Organisation (SPTO). but at the same time may be the first to benefit from infrastructural improvements that often accompany tourism development such as piped water and electricity. Access to Land and Credit Gender equity is unlikely to appear on a list of top ten stakeholder concerns. % of operators who promote staff awareness of occupational health. % of tourism operators who provide transport for women returning from night shifts. % of tourism operators who have regulations/made commitments regarding equal gender opportunities. traditional gender roles in the community. Indicators Childcare • Health and safety • • Transport • Discrimination against women/men • . but it is nevertheless of significance to the movement towards socio-cultural sustainability. the issues of whether women and men have equal access to land and credit can be a key constraint on the ability of women to become tourism entrepreneurs. has recently conducted a pilot study of the social and gender implications of tourism in Samoa. but also how the impacts of tourism differ on the lives of men and women in the destination. equal opportunities in formal employment (for the advancement of disadvantaged groups). % of tourism operators who provide day care and other benefits for employees with children.4 Gender Equity Family Wellbeing. % employees who believe their gender has affected their job advancement.68 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook 3.un. In accordance with the CEDAW principles (http://www. Components of the issue Family wellbeing Stress • % tourism employees (male/female) suffering increased fatigue and stress as a result of work.

safety and issues effecting female employees. % of tourism operators who promote awareness amongst staff regarding occupational health. % employees who believe their gender has effected their job advancement. % of tourism operators who provide day care and other benefits for employees with children.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 69 Equal opportunities in formal employment Opportunities for Women • • • • • • Women/men as a % of all tourism employment. Ownership Rewards • • • Access to land and credit Land ownership • • • • • % women/men with rights to land in tourism development areas. Average income for women/men working in village-based tourism business. % bank loans issues to women/men for tourism ventures. % women/men employees sent on training programmes. % women/men in part-time employment. semi-skilled and professional positions in the industry. Training Traditional gender roles Community tourism • • % women/men involved directly (providing services) in village-based tourism projects. % donor grants issued to women/men for tourism ventures. . % women/men involved in village-base tourism satisfied with their work and rewards. Seniority Components of the issue Entrepreneurs Indicators • • • • % of owner-operator tourism businesses run by women/men. % of tourism operators who have regulations/made commitments regarding equal gender opportunities. % women/men owning/controlling village tourism businesses. % of women/men in different tourism income earning categories. Women/men as a % of all tourism informal occupations. pay or benefits. % of women/men in unskilled. % women/men involved indirectly (supplying goods) in village-based tourism projects. % of tourism operators who provide transport for women returning from night shifts . Women/men as a % of all formal tourism employment. % women/men tourism employees with formal training. Loans Indicators of family well-being: • • • • • • % tourism employees (male/female) suffering increased fatigue and stress as a result of work. % women/men defaulting on bank loans. % of tourism businesses registered under women/men.Part 3 . % women/men holding rights to tourism leases.

it is most effective to show data relative to overall statistics or to highlight differences between males and females (likely in different age cohorts or employment categories). stress and reproductive health. % women/men in part-time employment. For most of these indicators. Reason for use of these indicators: Depending on the destination. Indicators of equal opportunities in formal employment: • • • • • • • • • • Women/men as a % of all tourism employment. workload. Discrimination against female or male employees may affect the workplace and overall welfare. % women/men tourism employees with formal training. low paying. or similar. % of women/men in unskilled. 57). use employee surveys. women’s roles. . Women/men as a % of all formal tourism employment. and with little opportunity for advancement. women may fare differently from males in the tourism industry. Means to use these indicators: It should be noted that many of these indicators are the same as recommended for a range of social and economic issues (see for example. the issues on Economic benefits of tourism (p. Like other sectors. 128) and Effects of Tourism on Communities (p. Women/men as a % of all tourism informal occupations. national or regional data can serve as a benchmark – likely published by national employment authorities. both in terms of roles and benefits. % of owner-operator tourism businesses run by women/men.70 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Reason for use of these indicators: Tourism can affect the family. If not. Benchmarking: Compare with other sectors and between men and women over time. expose women to potential for harassment and require journeys to and from work for late shifts. The difference is that efforts are made to identify gender differences in the data. While benefits may be derived from the employment. employment in tourism may have impacts on family cohesion. semi-skilled and professional positions in the industry. These indicators can also serve to highlight differences between employment of women in tourism and in other sectors. % of tourism businesses registered under women/men. % women/men employees sent on training programmes. Seniority of women employees relative to their male counterparts and their relative pay and benefit packages may be less. Means to use these indicators: For these indicators. in many cases jobs may be entry level. and normally bring contact with other cultures or values. An employee questionnaire may be necessary for some of the information on attitudes of employees. to permit action where necessary to respond to gender issues. The demands of tourism can require odd hours. Benchmarking: Benchmarking can be done relative to overall statistics or to highlight differences between males and females (likely in different age cohorts or employment categories) and to show changes over time. Women often are underrepresented as entrepreneurs and owner-operators and training opportunities for female/male staff may not be the same. tourism. More than many other sectors. % of women/men in different tourism income earning categories. Source(s) of data: Labour statistics where available. Source(s) of data: The data for these indicators can be collected by employee surveys and employer surveys. tourism can be seasonal. Some destinations may already collect these data through ministries of employment.

Note: As well as those indicators suggest above. % women/men involved indirectly (supplying goods) in village-based tourism projects. % bank loans issues to women/men for tourism ventures. Indicators of access to land and credit: • • • • • % women/men with rights to land in tourism development areas. Reason for use of these indicators: There may be a difference between who has access and control of land in areas desirable for tourism development. but is most prevalent in developing countries where tourism has flourished but where it has provided few economic opportunities for local people. as can proportion of women participating in tourism decision-making and the relative rewards/pay structure for men/women working in community-based tourism venture. % women/men owning/controlling village tourism businesses. Average income for women/men working in village-based tourism business. acknowledging the need for gender equity in tourism monitoring can be as simple as making indicator data collection gender sensitive.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 71 Indicators of traditional gender roles: • • • • • % women/men involved directly (providing services) in village-based tourism projects. % women/men defaulting on bank loans. For example when monitoring local satisfaction from tourism. Prevention Strategies. % donor grants issued to women/men for tourism ventures. Benchmarking: Compare over time with the same destination.Part 3 . Means to use these indicators: Data will highlight changes in the relative position of males and females over time. % women/men involved in village-base tourism satisfied with their work and rewards.5 Sex Tourism Child Sex Tourism. Source(s) of data: May be difficult to obtain except via direct survey. Control Strategies Sex tourism exists in every region of the world.1. Education. Source(s) of data: May be available from credit institutions. note responses from male and female participants. % women/men holding rights to tourism leases. Means to use these indicators: Show relative percentages to demonstrate level of involvement and influence of women. Issues such as HIV/AIDs. Reason for use of these indicators: The respective roles of men and women in traditional communities providing tourism services can be a concern. The . This can help alert the monitoring team to gender equity issues they had not recognized. 3. disaggregating male and female responses. In many communities there are barriers to credit for tourism development for both men and women. especially women. Benchmarking: Compare genders over time. child abuse and human trafficking have given rise to outrage and global concern for the exploitation of women and children in tourism destinations.

child sex tourism is a clear and unambiguous violation of human rights. However the vast majority of children who are abused are vulnerable because of poverty. in beach huts. and the existence of adult sex tourism. However. only a small percentage ever gets into the hands of sex workers. corruption. Children who are victims of child sex tourism are not always poor or illiterate. 3. nationality or social status. Sex tourism feeds an extraordinary illegal economy of pimps. Some travel on their own and others travel with friends. (ILO Convention 182). The increased demand for sex services from domestic and foreign tourists. There is global condemnation of child sex tourism and the international travel and tourism industry has given their support to NGOs and governments who are working to eradicate the exploitation of children in tourism destinations. there are numerous research reports that show this type of offender can re-offend by justifying that they are 'helping' the local community. however. 6. men and women. 4.this person goes looking for an adult sexual encounter but doesn’t care too much if they are offered a child. Who are the offenders? Sex offenders can be any age.the 'it's not my home' mentality. those who have been trafficked. in private houses. in brothels and in public areas. physical or mental abuse or social exclusion. Most research identifies two specific types of offender: i) The client of a brothel or 'go-go' bar . lured or sold into the sex industry. nudity. Some of these factors include: 1. They may only do it once in their search for an 'exotic' holiday experience. The absence of police and social welfare professionals in tourism destinations. Organised 'child sex tours' purchased through travel agents or tour operators are a thing of the past. Both girls and boys are victims of child sex tourism but international research indicates that it is mostly girl children who are abused. is considered to be a manifestation of labour exploitation and included in the International Labour Organisation's (ILO) efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labour. Loss of traditional livelihood in and around tourism destinations. It is nearly impossible to estimate the numbers of offenders and children involved in or affected by child sex tourism. 2. including child sex tourism. bar and brothel owners. a third party is often involved to set up the contacts or procure the children. foreign and ethnic minority children who live and work on the streets or on the fringes of the tourist areas. relationships between adults and children. The erosion of traditional values and socio-cultural norms in tourist destinations related to dress. protection rackets and the corruption of officials and others. Child sex tourism involves the prostitution of children or paedophilia-related child abuse and now often involves the use of children in the production of pornography. Where does child sex tourism happen? Offenders go to places where they think they will not get caught. They include local. Child sex tourism Unlike the differing views of adult sex tourism. traffickers. Children are abused in hotels and guest-houses. . No integration of human rights and children's rights in tourism industry training or policy making.72 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook international travel and tourism industry can no longer turn a blind eye to the negative effects of sex tourism or the 'unclean' image and sullied reputation of a destination when sex tourism is allowed to exist freely. those who have been abused at home. Tourism is not the cause of child exploitation but the nature of the tourism environment can create an unsafe environment for vulnerable children. 5. Lack of responsibility of tourists . The commercial sexual exploitation of children. However. lack of law enforcement. regardless of the vast sums of money exchanged in sex tourism. apathy. those without access to education and those forced or made responsible to support the family. Child sex tourism is most likely to happen in and around tourist destinations where there is ignorance.

by using a variety of indicators. Mechanisms for checking ID of adult sex workers accompanying guests into rooms. Number of places where adult prostitution occurs in close proximity to the hotel/premises. Number of suppliers that create jobs for local people. especially in the vicinity of the hotel or other premises. Paedophiles network around the world. The travel and tourism industry can play an active role in preventing child sex tourism by developing policies and programmes that support local and international actions. Locations of police and relevant authorities’ telephone contact numbers within hotel/premises.but not always . share pornography via the internet and communicate with each other about the best places to travel where there is access to children. ground operations. Number of staff volunteering to help local communities in skills transfer programmes. tour operators. Number of NGOs or government services located in the destination. These indicators can be adapted to a range of government and private sector operations such as hotels. By using these indicators travel and tourism stakeholders can develop strategies to protect children and minimise the risk of abuse. They are motivated by their sexual desire and can spend long periods of time 'grooming' children and their families. Number and frequency of training sessions for staff/managers on how to protect children.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 73 ii) The paedophile . % of staff trained on children's rights and how to protect children from abuse. to look after the welfare of children. travel agencies and at the national level. They are neither paedophiles nor traditional sex tourists. Existence of a person in the company nominated as focal point and responsible for issues about children and community. police or other authorities about suspected abuse on the premises. airlines. Components of the issue Vulnerable children are at risk of abuse Indicators • • Numbers of children in vulnerable groups working in the destination. They travel to places where they can target vulnerable children. % of revenue given to support children's charities. Number of reports available to provide information on the economic and social development of local communities. Number of contacts made with specialised NGOs.Part 3 . Existence of policy on adult prostitution that reflects national laws. It is possible. Lack of knowledge about children's rights and how to protect children • • • • • • Children recruited through adult sex tourism establishments • • • • Children have no access to income and education • • • • . It often ..refers to a sex worker).this person has a specific sexual desire for children. There are also reports of a different type of offender . Number of times reports made by company to NGOs.the person who seeks out violent or deviant sexual behaviour with either women or children. Methods for registering ‘Joiners’ (“Joiner" is a term used for the 'guest' of a hotel guest who wasn't registered at check-in. to identify trends and issues relating to children in tourism destinations. especially within the vicinity of the hotel or other premises.

A large number of potentially useful indicators have been suggested in the table and Australian NGO Child Wise in order to develop awareness and training programmes on the protection of children. which respond to the range of issues which could be of importance to a destination. Other ACCOR activities include a fundraising event in Bangkok to raise funds to support child protection activities in northern Thailand.g. Box 3. 35 and 36) related to the exploitation of children (www. The ACCOR programme now covers three key actions: awareness and staff training. in-flight videos. ACCOR has subsequently been able to use some of the indicators listed above to measure their success. inspiration can be drawn from UNICEF on indicators related to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (articles 32. The integration of training as an in-house training product and adapted to Thai language and context has meant that ACCOR trainers in Thailand have also been in contact with local NGO and police experts to help strengthen their local knowledge on the issues. regional and international events to advocate for travel and tourism support for the campaign to end child sex tourism and continues to distribute information to staff and clients through their website. Research on child sex tourism is encouraged throughout the business and information provided to government agencies and NGOs for analysis. Sex offenders go to places where • they think they will not get caught • The international travel and tourism industry guidelines and declarations to prevent child sex tourism do not often get implemented at the local level • • • • The risk to children in tourism destinations is documented and shared • • Discussion of selected indicators: There has been no previous history of indicators for the protection of children specifically related to child sex tourism. 326) . Preparedness of travel and tourism business to openly condemn child sex tourism. Evidence that travel and tourism business has participated in multistakeholder meetings on child protection and children's rights issues. staff bulletin boards. and developing partnership with ECPAT and WTO to promote international efforts and good practices. ACCOR participates in local. Number of police stations in the vicinity of the hotel/premises that have trained child protection officers. (See also the Accor Environmental Sustainability Indicators case p. The Child Wise training focussed on a child rights based approach and encouraged ACCOR to develop actions that work to protect children rather than focus on the offender. displaying consumer information (posters). Evidence that travel and tourism business has advocated for children's rights in tourism industry meetings and conferences. and meetings. Preparedness of travel and tourism business to develop and implement policies and programmes to protect children.74 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Components of the issue Indicators Number of information points showing relevant policy of hotel/premises to protect children. However.unicef. -posters. 77% of ACCOR's 3863 staff in Thailand and Laos has received training through their Child Wise training programme. information packs. 34. registration forms. ACCOR acknowledges that the positive response from their staff and clients has encouraged the company to continue developing new initiatives.4 Accor hotels Asia program: An integrated program of policy and action In 2002 ACCOR Hotels Asia started working with the international NGO ECPAT (www. staff bulleting boards. Regular reporting of actions through company reports and websites. posters in hotels. a selection of those likely to be most important to managers is elaborated ).ecpat. staff rooms. E.

(World Tourism Organization and partners).org) child prostitution and tourism watch and partners (ECPAT. Evidence that travel and tourism business has participated in multi-stakeholder meetings on child protection and children's rights issues. Reason for the use of these indicators: Ignorance. The goal is to have 100% staff trained. (Number and percentage participating). training manuals. The project also acknowledges the diversity of tourism stakeholders and encourages all sectors to participate including tour operators. Source(s) of data: Staff development plans. Number and frequency of training sessions for staff/managers on how to protect children. Preparedness of travel and tourism business to develop and implement policies and programmes to protect children.thecode. airlines and government tourism ) Their objective is to raise and maintain awareness of sexual exploitation of children in tourism (SECT) and improve cooperation among governments. the application of the Code of Conduct for the Protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation in Travel and Tourism and its six criteria for tour operators. International Federation of Journalists and Terre des Hommes Germany) have implemented a series of interrelated projects funded by the European Commission over the period 2000 .world-tourism. Indicators of overall tourism sector response: • • • Preparedness of travel and tourism business to openly condemn child sex tourism. Policies and programmes must be built on current and accurate information. Reason for the use of these indicators: Leadership is required amongst the world's travel and tourism industry to condemn child sex tourism and to encourage action at the international. child rights campaigners. Means to use the indicators: Raw data will be the beginning of a training needs analysis. Periodic review of indicators will show progress toward 100% staff and management exposure to relevant issues. the incorporation of training modules on SECT in curricula of tourism education centres. Condemnation of child exploitation is also included in the WTO Global Code of Ethics for Tourism. the tourism industry. Showing leadership in the international campaign against sexual exploitation of children in tourism In recognition of the need to engage both governments and the private sector in the international campaign against child sex tourism the WTO (www. Box 3.2003. The main activities include the implementation of guidelines for focal points at national tourism administrations and local tourism destinations. the media and the tourists themselves. hotels. . fear and lack of knowledge of local laws create a culture of indifference. the improvement of knowledge about SECT among journalists and young people in Europe. Benchmarking: Benchmarks could be developed together with NGOs and government services that can provide training expertise and training tools.Part 3 . trainers.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 75 Indicators regarding training of staff in these issues: • • % of staff trained on children's rights and how to protect children from abuse.5 Child prostitution and tourism watch . The project succeeded in bringing the international tourism spotlight onto the exploitation of children and increasing the capacity of the travel and tourism industry to respond by providing training and information resources. (see www. NGOs.

Source(s) of data: Internal and external reports. designation by international organizations such as UNESCO for a place to be deemed as a World Heritage Site (see Box 3. Preservation The first Article of the Venice Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites (1964) acknowledges that an historic monument embraces not only the single architectural work but also the urban or rural setting in which is found the evidence of a particular civilization. and can also be a catalyst for development of tourist services.2. the official designation of structures or districts as sites of interest or for protection often proves invaluable in terms of establishing touchstones or themes by which an area can be marketed. monument or district. and Economic change: the commensurate reordering of national and international priorities during a recession. Indicators can identify effectiveness of awareness raising activities. media and public affairs reporting. Monuments. World Tourism Organisation (WTO) Focal Point reports. 3. This applies not only to great works of art but also to more modest works of the past having acquired cultural significance with the passage of time. Maintenance. national and local level. Means to use the indicators: Indicators can identify leadership in corporate responsibility and social accountability. Collaboration and coordination between government. is through its designation as a heritage asset worthy of conservation or preservation (designation at the local.76 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook regional. a significant development or an historic event. Local politics: balancing the desire of local constituencies to create jobs and economic development versus the retention of significant built and natural resources. NGOs. From a tourism standpoint. Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA). International Hotel and Restaurant Association (IH&RA).1 Conserving Built Heritage Cultural Sites. Designation. Designation can attract tourists. Damage. provincial/state. International Federation of Tour Operators (IFTO). From an international standpoint. The factors that individually and/or collectively determine the shape of change involving cultural assets include: Government development policies: particularly in developing countries that are often subject to external pressures such as structural adjustment and aid disbursement. while having no actual legal standing . Universal Federation of Travel Agents Association (UFTAA) and World Tourism Organisation (WTO). with those promoting higher value and use on a site. and as a means of garnering assistance for maintenance and financial support.2 Sustaining Cultural Assets 3. Tourism: a major income generator and image-maker often dependent on cultural assets in urban areas to draw visitors. private sector and NGOs is the most effective form of partnership to protect children. One of the key tools in signifying the inherent historic value of a built structure. Private initiatives: the determination of developers or individuals driven by the possibility of substantial profits to replace existing assets. Benchmarking: Benchmarks are the principles and guidelines on the protection of children by travel and tourism organizations such as International Air Transport Association (IATA).6). National Action Plans. or increased building and redevelopment in "boom" times. national and international levels).

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with the conservation laws of individual countries, provides a high profile listing and marketing role for tourism development around a duly-recognized monument or historic district. Hence, governments are often eager to provide financial support (if available) and assistance to maintain these assets and ensure that tourists have iconic images (e.g., Eiffel Tower, Taj Mahal) to be drawn to their respective countries.
Components of the issue Legislative basis for protection Indicators • Number and type of new legislation or amendments introduced to preserve structures at local, provincial/state/canton or national levels. Number and type of designation under which historic structures, monuments and districts are recognized; Percentage of eligible sites and or structures receiving designation. %/Amount of funds allocated to the restoration, preservation and maintenance of cultural assets on a yearly basis, (differentiated according to different sources of funding, such as visitor/entrance fees, tour operator fees, donations, government funds, private foundations, international financial and development institutions, NGOs, etc.); Voluntary contributions (number and duration of programmes, number of volunteers, estimated value of contributions); Tourism contribution to preservation (amount from each source). % change/number of electronic and print articles generated on historic structures, monuments and districts by local, regional, national and international media. %/change in the development of the surrounding area to a cultural asset, and whether maintenance or improvements have taken place; Condition of the building or site (cost of restoration per annum). Increase/Decrease in threats and their type to the original purpose and use of a site. (subjective classification); See also ¢ Controlling Use Intensity (p. 192).


• •

Funding for protection

• • Profile of the issue •

Condition of setting and environment

• •

Threats to the integrity and authenticity of the property

• •

UNESCO's partner, the International Committee on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) performs an important advisory and monitoring role of global cultural sites. Programs such as the yearly Heritage at Risk reports are intended to identify threatened heritage places, monuments and sites, present typical case studies and trends, and share suggestions for solving individual or global threats to the cultural heritage. World Heritage Site Visit Reports examine the elements of cultural asset presentation, interpretation, management and marketing and can be a source of information on each site. Indicator of legal basis for protection: • Number and type of new legislation or amendments introduced to preserve structures at local, provincial/state/canton or national levels.

Reason for use of this indicator: Legislation is important as a means for governments, preservation professionals and organizations, and tourism officials to ensure that there is legal standing whenever a structure(s) is under threat. Amendments to existing instruments and new legislation (and supporting programs) will help determine to what degree maintenance and support can be requested or is required for existing structures.


Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook

Source(s) of data: An inventory of existing legislation at the local, provincial/state/canton or national levels is necessary to determine the baseline, with follow-up monitoring on a yearly basis to determine if there are any changes or additions. The level of effort can be determined by the funds and human resources available, and the level of government undertaking the inventory and monitoring. Means to use the indicator: A listing at each level: local, provincial/state/canton or national of amendments and new legislation (or none) undertaken on a yearly basis, to demonstrate what legal efforts are being made to preserve and maintain historic structures, monument and districts. Benchmarking: Published government data is available at appropriate scales from many destinations – particularly mature destinations in Europe.
Indicators of designation: • • Number and type of designation under which historic structures, monuments and districts are recognized; Percentage of eligible sites and or structures receiving designation.

Reason for use of these indicators: The number of structures that are designated officially recognizes the value of individual cultural assets within a city, province/state/canton or country and where financial and technical support can be directed. Source(s) of data: An inventory of designated structures, monuments and districts at the local, provincial/state/canton or national levels is necessary to determine the baseline, with follow-up monitoring on a yearly basis to determine if there are any changes or additions. The level of effort can be determined by the funds and human resources available, and the level of government undertaking the inventory and monitoring. Means to use the indicators: A listing at each level: local, provincial/state/canton or national of amendments and new designation (or none) undertaken on a yearly basis, to demonstrate what legal efforts are being made to preserve and maintain historic structures, monument and districts.

Brimstone Hill World Heritage Site, St. Kitts

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Benchmarking: Published government data is available at appropriate scales from many destinations, or on a comparative basis, e.g. neighbouring countries, provinces/states/cantons, or cities.
Indicators of level of funding support for protection: • Amount of funds allocated to the restoration, preservation and maintenance of cultural assets on a yearly basis (differentiated according to different sources of funding, such as visitor/entrance fees, tour operator fees, donations, government funds, private foundations, international financial and development institutions, NGOs, etc.); Voluntary contributions (number and duration of programmes, number of volunteers, estimated value of contributions); Tourism contribution to preservation (amount from each source).

• •

Reason for use of these indicators: Funding is necessary for the maintenance and ongoing support of cultural assets. Decreases or increases in the allocation of funds may determine if a structure or monument can be restored or preserved, or conversely, eventually erodes or becomes structurally unstable. It is important to define how are funds, generated and received from different sources, used for the maintenance of the sites and monuments. Academic and research institution and their students often donate their expertise and time for restoration, preservation and maintenance work, which are important contribution to many sites where there are staff and financial limitations to deliver such tasks. Source(s) of data: There are published sources of data from governments, finance, private and non-governmental organizations, academic and research and institutions that are involved with cultural assets. An inventory of funding at the local, provincial/state/canton or national levels is necessary to determine the baseline, with follow-up monitoring on a yearly basis to determine if there are any changes or additions. The level of effort can be determined by the funds and human resources available, and the level of government or the authority/organization managing the site in order to undertake the inventory and monitoring. Means to use the indicators: A listing at each level: local, provincial/state/canton or national of in terms of funding and how it has been allocated can demonstrate trends, sources, and areas of concentration by funding bodies. This indicator can also be used to compare available funding to estimates of needs for restoration, maintenance etc. Benchmarking: Published government data is available at appropriate scales from many destinations – particularly mature destinations in e.g., Europe.
Indicator of profile of the heritage preservation issue: • Number of electronic and print articles generated on historic structures, monuments and districts by local, regional, national and international media.

Reason for use of this indicator: Media profiling is one of the most important ways under which NGOs, NGIs and preservation professionals can lobby governments to retain and support cultural assets. Depending upon its assessed level of significance, the issue pertaining to the historic structure, monument or district can be raised to the international level, impacting global opinion and tourism impressions. Source(s) of data: There are several online resources whith inventory on individual topics, tourism and public information administrations, or media clipping services. Sources include the Tourism Information and Documentation Resource Centers Database (INFODOCTOUR), an online access system to libraries, documentation services, information brokers and databases related to tourism worldwide: and CARL - the Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries:


Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook

An inventory of media coverage at the local, provincial/state/canton or national levels is necessary to determine the baseline, with follow-up monitoring on a yearly basis to determine if there are any changes or additions. The level of effort can be determined by the funds and human resources available, and the level of government undertaking the inventory and monitoring.

Means to use the indicator: An electronic and print clipping inventory at each level: local, provincial/state/canton or national of in terms of coverage, what it was specifically targeting, and whether it could be deemed as positive or negative in its intent. This can even be used to monitor a specific issue, such as public opinion on the potential refurbishment or loss of a historic structure, monument or district. Benchmarking: It is difficult to obtain published data of this type, but a research project could be taken over a period of time on a comparative basis, e.g. similar types of media coverage and profile in neighbouring countries or cities.
Indicators of condition of the site: • • %/change in the development of the surrounding area to a cultural asset, and whether maintenance or improvements have taken place; Condition of the building or site (estimated cost of repair).

Reason for use of these indicators: The senses of arrival and place are often key elements in setting the tone for visitor experience and expectations. Given the fact that sites can operate in evolving urban environments, or see development creep up to their edges, change in the surrounding environment is inevitable. Source(s) of data: Historic maps and photos can provide a visual representation of how a cultural asset and its environs may have originally appeared. These can be supported by cadastral maps and aerial surveys. On a qualitative basis, accounts and reports over time can provide a historical perspective on the change that has taken place. Site managers will often have studies which estimate costs of restoration or repair. Means to use the indicators: A baseline map or model can be employed, demonstrating the original condition of a site and its surroundings, with mapping layers or different coloured buildings demonstrating over time what has been added or lost in terms of structures, urban infrastructure, and interpretive elements and embellishments. There are a number of excellent Geographic Information System (GIS) and visual modeling software packages which could be helpful in this regard. Benchmarking: It can be difficult to obtain published data of this type, but a research project could be taken over a period of time to identify past state and stresses from published sources (maps, reports) and re-create measures of change.
Indicator of level of threat to the cultural assets of a site or property: • Increase/decrease in threats to the original purpose and use of a site.

Reason for use of this indicator: Processes such as adaptive reuse may assist with the retention of a historic structure, but the choice of colours, additions, "improvements" and use can compromise the heritage value of the site. Simultaneously, in developing countries, where land can be scarce, cultural assets can be carved into to subdivide a building lot, be overpopulated and overused, or be steadily weakened due the removal of structural materials to be used for building purposes elsewhere. This is a subjective indicator and may require establishment of a site specific scale. Source(s) of data: Historic maps and photos can provide a visual representation of how a cultural asset may have originally appeared. These can be supported by internal site plans, available from archives at the national, provincial/state/canton, or municipal level, identifying the original external appearance and internal layout of individual structures. The process would be both

Part 3 - Sustainability Issues in Tourism


quantitative and qualitative: tallying the amount of changes that have taken place applying the former, and determining on a subjective basis how these changes have affected the buildings use and heritage character with the latter.

Means to use the indicator: Photographic morphing over time can demonstrate the change of use and condition of a cultural asset and can demonstrate how far a site or collection of structures has evolved or distanced itself from its original purpose and use. Benchmarking: Where available, archives, local history departments and public libraries or museums can prove useful in providing the necessary photographic records to compare the past with the present and show the evolution in between. Where this is not available this process will be more difficult. There is no common international standard against which a given site can be benchmarked. Note: See also the Destinations section on Built Heritage Sites (p. 278)

Rila Monastery World Heritage Site, Bulgaria


Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook

Box 3.6 UNESCO: Indicators on protecting the world’s heritage
Angkor. Timbuktu. Everglades National Park. These names represent unique, high profile destinations whose valued cultural and natural status has caused them to be nominated and then named as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. They are also unfortunately marked with the status of "World Heritage in Danger", acknowledging the fact that they are threatened by man-made or natural hazards. Countries often depend on their iconic World Heritage sites to anchor their national tourism marketing efforts; any indication of these significant cultural and natural destinations not being well maintained or managed can tarnish those efforts. As of July 2003, there are 754 properties that the World Heritage Committee has inscribed on the World Heritage List (582 cultural, 149 natural and 23 mixed properties in 129 States Parties). Sites are either nominated or selected applying the natural criteria: sites which are of outstanding universal value from point of view of science, conservation or natural beauty, or the cultural criteria: sites which are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science. The key indicators are: • Uniqueness; • Outstanding example of a genre or style (i.e. cultural value represented by architecture or traditional human settlement, and natural examples of unique biodiversity or significant ongoing biological and ecological evolution); and • Representative of a specific era in human or natural history. Once a site has been named as a place of international value, it is assumed that World Heritage status will act as some kind of protective armour against predation or degradation. The reality is that conflict, political and economic decisions, neglect, natural disasters and the eroding effects of time are hindering the ongoing existence of a site's cultural or natural resource base. Recognizing this reality, the World Heritage Convention included a significant clause on "World Heritage in Danger" to characterize this designation and recommend steps for action. Consequently, there are currently 35 sites around the globe that have this designation (17 cultural, 18 natural). UNESCO's main indicators which are monitored and can lead to inclusion on the "World Heritage in Danger" list include threats to sites from: • Disappearance caused by accelerated deterioration, large- scale public or private projects or rapid urban or tourist development projects; • Destruction caused by changes in the use or ownership of the land; • Major alterations due to unknown causes; • Abandonment for any reason whatsoever; • The outbreak or the threat of an armed conflict; or • Calamities and cataclysms such as serious fires, earthquakes, landslides; volcanic eruptions; changes in water level, floods and tidal waves. The World Heritage Committee can make nominations for this endangered status at any time, in case of urgent need. The nominated site is then included as a new entry in the List of "World Heritage in Danger" and publicized immediately, to focus global awareness and support on the threat. The World Heritage Committee can then develop and adopt, in consultation with the State Party concerned, a programme for corrective measures, and the subsequent monitoring of the site's situation. Countries which do not improve the situation of these sites can then potentially have them delisted as a World Heritage site.

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Box 3.6 (cont.)
Removal from the "World Heritage in Danger" list has occurred in the past when State Parties have carried out remedial actions. Indicators on these actions include: • Outside assistance and funding obtained to repair sites; • Concessions made to divert threats such as pollution prevention or the creation of buffer zones; • Mechanisms installed, such as dehumidifiers or light shielding, to slow or remove degradation factors of monuments; • Protective legislation enacted and enforced; • Conflict ceased.
Source: UNESCO World Heritage Centre

3.3 Community Participation in Tourism

3.3.1 Community Involvement and Awareness
Information, Empowerment, Participation, Community action
The development of a sense of ownership and responsibility regarding sustainable tourism in host communities is a key issue for managers and planners. Neither of these elements is easily achieved in the short term without a strong focus on awareness building, engagement of community and ultimately, empowerment of the individual so he or she can recognise and understand the direct and indirect benefits of a sustainable approach to tourism and how to become involved. The key is a participatory approach which empowers the local community and the tourism industry so they can develop an appreciation and knowledge regarding local and individual issues and costs associated with developing tourism. That way the awareness and responsibility can be an outcome of the planning process.

Box 3.7 Building ownership: Kangaroo Island TOMM, Australia
The creation of a Tourism Optimisation Management Model (TOMM) for Kangaroo Island provided a focal point for the issue of sustainable tourism development. The Island has long been a major tourist attraction due to its abundance of wildlife and spectacular scenery. The TOMM process provided a platform on which to begin an awareness raising campaign regarding the issues associated with sustainable tourism development and specifically, promote the TOMM and the availability of information it generated on tourism impacts on Kangaroo Island. The long term aim of this process was to generate a sense of ownership of the future of tourism on the Island. Through the TOMM resident survey, (see Kangaroo Island TOMM case p. 391) indicator data has been collected on the local community knowledge of TOMM and what it is aiming to achieve. This has steadily increased since the inception of the project. Similarly, through success in tourism awards and ongoing promotion of the Model through the tourism industry, its application elsewhere is now generating a sense of pride amongst community members.


Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook

There is a need for a continuous engagement of local community stakeholders, through a series of actions, in order to develop responsibility in sustainable tourism development. Besides local stakeholders (See Box 2.2 regarding indicators development procedures) there are a number of other agencies that can have an influence on local decision making, e.g. national government authorities and educational institutions, tour operators (outgoing and incoming), transportation and other tourismrelated companies serving the destination, the media, the tourist market and the tourists themselves. Building awareness regarding sustainable tourism practice requires a strategic approach if long term attitudinal change and engagement is to be achieved. The challenge is how to quantify such change given its intangible nature. Information is the key for effective community involvement in tourism planning processes. The following aspects are considered essential for informed decision-making: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Availability of information: If people are aware of information relating to sustainable tourism practice or a specific management model, they will be more likely to try to gain access to it; Access to information: Making it as easy as possible for people to gain access to generic information will ensure a greater sense of interest in the process; Analysis of information: The information available has to be presented in a variety of forms depending upon the audience and in languages that are easily understood and relevant; Application of information: Understanding how the information on sustainable tourism is used by communities and agencies ensures it can be relevant. This element also identifies the potential for ongoing education and training so understanding is improved; Advocacy of information: The aim of any ownership is the advocacy that is generated amongst stakeholders. Having passionate people within the community that can pro-actively sustain the management process is essential; as they have the potential to not only inspire others, but feed back into the awareness building process due to their contact with the broader stakeholder groups; Action on the information: The awareness of and desire to make a difference – requires action if any results are to be achieved. Those promoting sustainable tourism practice intend ultimately to have an impact upon the actual behaviour of both visitors and stakeholders in sustaining the tourism asset and community / environmental resource. Through building awareness, a sense of responsibility leading to greater understanding and ultimately action, individuals can begin to make a difference in the development of sustainable tourism practice. These lead to a number of indicators to measure the level of access, impact and engagement:



Components of the issue Availability of information

Indicators • • Number and types of avenues/channels used to promote sustainable tourism (e.g. audiovisual and printed media, events, Internet); Number of places in the destination where information is available. Number /% of people accessing information; Frequency of access (per person). % of people that have a clear understanding of the role of sustainable tourism planning (e.g. a Model such as TOMM or what sustainable tourism means).

Access to information (per type of information ) Analysis of information

• • •

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Components of the issue Application of information

Indicators • • • Number of times information on sustainable tourism is used within the broader community context; Number of agencies applying information on sustainability aspects to their strategic planning processes; Degree to which the community is satisfied with the quality and quantity of information it receives re tourism issues and sustainability (% who approve); Percentage of partners and key stakeholders who are satisfied with access to appropriate information; Percentage who agree that the right information on sustainable tourism is available to me when I need it. (local questionnaire). Number of promotional opportunities relating to sustainable tourism practice; Number of tourism operators offering information on sustainable tourism practice (both general and for a specific planning process like TOMM where it is in place); % of visitors receiving information on sustainable tourism practices provided prior to their visit to the destination and at the destination.

• •

Advocacy of information

• •

Action/impact of the information

Accessibility of information • Number (%) of tourism operators providing interpretation on sustainable tourism practice; • Number (%) of tour companies in destination offering tours/guides with trained knowledge of sustainable tourism practice / information on local management plan; • Number of educational programmes / institutions incorporating sustainable tourism learning into curriculum; • Number (%) of self guided opportunities that educate regarding sustainable tourism practice. Level of demonstration of good practice • % of agencies incorporating sustainable tourism principles in to their strategic planning processes; • Number (%) of tourism industry operators applying sustainable tourism concepts within their business; • Number of operators certified by an environmental or sustainability scheme (and % of all eligible). Impact of tourism information • % of residents with an understanding of what constitutes sustainable tourism practice; • Number (%) of residents who support sustainable tourism for their destination (see also questions on specific elements in questionnaire Annex C 6); • Number of registered/reported incidents in respect to accepted codes of good practice (where in place); • % of residents who believe tourism is good for their community. (see Questionnaire Annex C 6); • % who believe that they or their family benefit from tourism.; • % actively participating in outreach/advocacy; • % who believe that they understand tourism and its impacts.

Because the sources and uses for most of these indicators are similar, to avoid duplication all of the components of the issue are treated together below.


Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook

Indicators of community involvement and awareness: (See table above)

Reason for use of these indicators: The degree of involvement of the community, and their attitude towards tourism, the planning and management of tourism in their destination and the impact on the community itself is a central part of sustainability – particularly in the eyes of the residents. These indicators help community leaders understand the level to which the community is engaged, whether the information they receive is appropriate, and whether it is affecting their attitudes and behaviour. Sources of these data: Data would be available from resident surveys, through ongoing media monitoring, access to educational institutions, particularly local schools which can use the sustainable tourism information and materials provided in curriculum programmes and local authorities using information within the strategic planning process. Local authorities which produce information will normally have some record of numbers of brochures, leaflets, other outreach materials printed, distributed, sold, etc, although use levels (by tourists or locals) may be harder to obtain. (See also Image and Branding p. 236). Means to use the indicators: Indicators showing successes are an important element in enthusing and motivating local communities regarding the benefits of sustainable tourism practice. They are used to determine the level of engagement and understanding of sustainable tourism practices by operators as well as the implementation of these in their operations. These indicators can be used as a performance measure for efforts to increase confidence in the process of sustainable tourism management. Results can feed back into the awareness building process and inform on opportunities to improve communication systems. Improvements in levels of involvement of the community may be leading indicators of either growing levels of concern, or the opposite, growing interest in participating in something seen as positive. These indicators are particularly useful for community leaders and agencies involved in sustainable tourism management, as they can be used as indicators for funding applications, strategic planning and communication and demonstrate community involvement or commitment. See also the section on ¢ Local Satisfaction with Tourism (p. 56). Benchmarking: Due to the specific nature of each community and awareness building process, comparisons with previous year’s data visitor and resident surveys will most effectively demonstrate changes. (See Local questionnaire, Annex C).

3.4 Tourist Satisfaction

3.4.1 Sustaining Tourist Satisfaction ¢ Baseline Issue Expectations, Complaints, Problems, Perceptions
Tourist satisfaction is central to whether tourists return, recommend the destination to others or conversely advise others to stay away. It is therefore a leading indicator of the longer-term sustainability of a destination. Tourist satisfaction is based on many different factors, including the range of attractions of a destination, its market positioning, the quality of services, the expectations of tourists, and the experiences of each tourist during his/her stay. Many of the elements which affect tourist satisfaction (e.g., cleanliness of accommodation, water and food safety, friendliness of hospitality) are at least in part within the management purview of the industry and destination managers. Others (e.g., weather, crime, acts of hostility) are less so.

¢ Baseline Indicator Perception of value for money. Many of these can be explicitly addressed in an exit questionnaire. 236). In case of negative answers. are neutral. agree. 2. safe and secure environment. Hospitality. the reasons for the opinion can be asked. 3. Expectations and interests. Quality of sites. I enjoyed my experience in “this destination”. This approach is used to attempt not only to measure satisfaction or dissatisfaction (those who would recommend it to their friends was down 15% this year from last year… I wonder why?). The central queries which address this issue are: (respondents are asked if they strongly agree. did the skier have good snow conditions. 5. ¢ Baseline Indicator Because satisfaction is so individual. I feel I received good value for money. “This destination” provided a good variety of experiences. Many individual responses depend on personal interests (did the birdwatcher see birds. 2. tailored to the needs of the destination (for model Exit questionnaire see Annex C 5). Components of the issue Determining whether tourists were satisfied upon leaving Indicators • • • Level of satisfaction by visitors on exit (Q) (including specific question re key activities and attractions) ¢ Baseline Indicator.Part 3 . Ratings by guidebooks/travel sites. but also to act as an early warning of emerging problems or issues which have caused changes in satisfaction levels. This could point to specific causes of dissatisfaction. Complaints registered. was the local festival interesting to the visitor. 3. 1. 4. attractions and services related to them. 4. Changes in average price paid per room. Complaints received. . the questionnaire provides a number of examples of questions regarding specific attractions/sites within the destination or experiences which can be used to determine why the respondent answered as they did. events. disagree or strongly disagree to these statements). was the food to the taste of the tourist?). Perception of value for money ¢ Baseline Indicator. % of return visitors ¢ Baseline Indicator. (See also – Image and Branding p. In addition. Measuring the impact of satisfaction levels on the industry and destination • • • • • Indicators of tourist satisfaction ¢ Baseline issue • • Level of satisfaction expressed on exit questionnaire. (See: Sample exit questionnaire Annex C 5).Sustainability Issues in Tourism 87 Satisfaction is the product of a number of factors: 1. the core indicators suggested for measurement of satisfaction are based on direct sampling of exiting tourists. Meeting tourists’ expectations. 6. Providing a sense of good value for money. Ensuring a clean. in order to take specific corrective action. I would recommend “this destination” to my friends.

The following indicators are also of use in addressing satisfaction. the most significant information is likely to be obtained by comparison with other years for the same destination. Other questionnaire data may be useful to help interpret the meaning of such changes. upon leaving at specific sites and attractions. and also cultural factors relating to relationship to authorities and therefore . ferries). Reason for use of this indicator: Complaints are a source of information about negative experiences and lack of satisfaction. airports. in hotels. Change in percentage who return signals changes which may be important. Rising numbers of complaints may highlight potential issues. summer students). If a questionnaire is too long.g.Often the best sites are at places where and when tourists are gathered. sampling. Source(s) of data: Some tourism authorities collect this information – usually through existing exit surveys or via providers of accommodation. level of knowledge that there is a place to register complaints. Many tourism authorities and establishments keep lists or books of complaints or document numbers and specific complaints received. this can be an alternative. but are often not representative of the majority of tourists who may not share these concerns. especially if the hotel caters for tourists travelling shorter distances or from the same region or country. at sites and attractions or other service providers (e. Some logistical advice on approach. Source(s) of data: Complaint books in tourist offices. according to the survey conditions and targeted tourists. These data can also be collected via a specific questionnaire. Indicator regarding impact of satisfaction: • % of return visitors ¢ Baseline indicator Reason for use of this indicator: The percentage of tourists who return is a strong indicator that they were happy with their experience in previous visits. and the nature of competing or intervening opportunities. but tend to provide less direct measurement than the questionnaire. hotel management and tour operators. the distance visitors must travel from their homes to the destination. Where it is not possible to collect information directly from tourists. Help can be sought from schools and researchers (e. some islands of the South-Pacific or Antarctic) can be a predominantly one-time visit for many tourists. particularly if paralleled with more or diminished tourism overall.g. Means to use the indicator: This indicator is best portrayed as a percentage – and monitored for changes from year to year. guides). timing etc is provided in Annex C 5 Exit Questionnaire.g. it may be useful to do the sampling on board). exclusive.g. accommodation. using a complete survey or random sample.g. many will be reluctant to respond. Indicator measuring levels of dissatisfaction: • Complaints received. (On longer ferry rides. whereas some more remote. particularly if they are waiting in an airport or ferry lounge or in line for ferries. package tourists etc. domestic visitors. This work can be done by local tourism authorities. The indicator is unique to any particular destination because of the differing mix of attractions. or long haul destinations (e. At the level of the individual hotel or resort. Note that the data may be influenced by the accessibility of the complaint book.) Benchmarking: While some comparison with other destinations is possible. independent travellers. hours of operation. transportation companies. examples exist where over 80% of guests are returnees.88 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Questionnaires can be conducted at exit points of transport (e. so questionnaire structuring has to be done carefully. international visitors from different countries and regions. transportation. It is also useful to sub-divide figures by different tourist segments (e. Complaints are likely to identify a strong negative response to some facet of the experience or the destination. restaurants. tourism students doing practical course work.

Benchmarking: Because of the unique conditions of each destination and its clientele. Ferry ride offers a 30 minute opportunity to survey visitors and in season to query those waiting in line. Means to use the indicator: This can be an early warning that there may be emerging issues but is not in itself a strong indicator of importance or representativeness.). or raise prices to take advantage of growing demand and high satisfaction levels. Use along with occupancy figures). Conde Nast. especially if there are repeated complaints on the same feature. See also – Image and Branding (p. This may be difficult to obtain in situations where there is not a group of operators with continuing linkage to the destination and destination authorities.. Complaints registered with outbound and inbound tour operators (travellers may wait until they return home to complain) can be also a useful source. Complaints can be classified and weighted according to topics.g. Michelin.Part 3 . Other potentially useful indicators related to satisfaction levels or perception of the levels of satisfaction of others who have visited the destination: • Changes in average price paid per room (may show that the destination has had to cut prices to retain visitors. “ten worst” etc. Ratings by guidebooks/travel sites (particularly where there is ranking relative to competitors on quality or popularity (e. this indicator is best compared with the same information over time for the same destination or for nearby destinations where the same complaint process is followed. 236). National Geographic Traveller. .Sustainability Issues in Tourism 89 willingness to complain. • • Kootenay Lake. Another factor is company policy or willingness of tourism establishment to share information on complaints. lists of “ten best”. Canada.

4. Older Tourists. or tours designed to not include inappropriate sites or accommodation for those with mobility impairments (e.g. as older persons and those with disabilities become a larger part of global tourism. many having more time and discretionary income than other groups. even to places which have not been easy to climb or traverse. Indicators can be established relative to access itself. and relative to measures taken to include provisions for disabled tourists in tourism information and publicity. rough paths etc to facilitate access for those who are less able to cope with Accessibility Mobility.90 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook 3. Thus demands for access. stairs. preparation of staff. One of the most rapidly growing demographics is the sixty and over group. facilities and infrastructure.. stop at the viewpoint where the scenery is visible from the vehicle rather than one which requires a hike up a path). one of China’s most famous tourist sites. . Many countries have specific programs designed to ease access to public sites and to encourage the modification of access points. transportation vehicles. Porters carry elderly tourist along ice covered stairs en route to his hotel at the top of Huang Shan. An international effort to remove barriers to those with disabilities is reinforcing this demand. The WTO defined guidelines to facilitate tourism for peoples with disabilities as early as 1991 (see WTO General Assembly resolution "Creating opportunities for handicapped people in the Nineties": This document is available on line at http://www. Persons with Disabilities The issue of access to destinations and attractions for those with impaired mobility is a rapidly growing concern.pdf ). and trained attendants. special handiang. are growing. There is an emerging subset of tourism providers who cater directly to those who need additional services (some custom delivered) – such as door to door pickup. washrooms.

which match the capabilities of the traveller • • • • • Number of tours to destination with specific program to accommodate persons with disabilities. safety bars etc. public washroom facilities (% meeting or exceeding standards). Number of persons with disabilities visiting destination and key sites. piers.g. safety bars etc. Number/% of hotels with rooms accessible to persons with disabilities (easy access. restaurants. Number(%)of access doors to buildings which have automated openers or attendants on the door. bathrooms that accommodate wheelchairs. (for longer tours/cruises) Presence of medical personnel. deafness. or with need for nursing and other • care) • Satisfaction by those with disabilities with the destination or attraction • Indicators of general accessibility: • • Existence of disabled-friendly policy. % of attractions offering alternative access for those with mobility concerns (e. ramps or walkways accessible to mobility assist devices). drop off points. including natural and cultural sites. hotels and tourist services • • • Access to tourist attractions. viewpoints. piers. airports.) % of attractions with wheelchair access. airports. (including some which have traditionally been accessible only to the fit) Access to tourist experiences. (for tours catering to persons with disabilities) percentage of staff with medical or paramedical training suitable to the range of needs of clients. Existence of public transport suitable for mobility of persons with disabilities (#//% transport vehicles).g. Existence of disabled access program including e. Access to public buildings. elevators.. lower sinks. hospital. sidewalks. See exit questionnaire ( the same questionnaire can be provided explicitly to groups of travellers with disabilities to identify their concerns).). larger stalls. including adventure travel Access to suitable tours. mobility restrictions. . heli-evacuation). hotels and public buildings with wheelchair accessible restrooms (level entry. % of key sites considered accessible or inaccessible for those with differing levels of mobility or fitness. Distance to nearest hospital (Km) or medical facility (Estimated time to nearest medical assistance – whether ambulance. sidewalks. Existence of disabled access program including e. bus stations. public washroom facilities (% meeting standards). Number of tour companies in destination offering tours/guides trained for persons with disabilities.g. bus stations.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 91 Components of the issue Indicators Access throughout the destination • • • • Existence of disabled friendly policy. paramedic.Part 3 . Assistance when needed (including • specialized assistance for those with disabilities such as blindness. % restaurants.

org/ . Benchmarking: For examples of destinations with accessibility programs for persons with disabilities search for “travel. elevators. See also ¢ Tourist Satisfaction p. Older and other less mobile tourists desire access.) Reason for use of these indicators: Access to restroom facilities. accommodation and food services is a key factor in every vacation and may be a prime concern for travellers with disabilities. bathrooms which will accommodate wheelchairs. and Venice. sedan chairs. Positive results can feed marketing of the destination or tour as friendly to those with disabilities. 86. persons with disabilities” or “travel. ramps or walkways able to accommodate mobility assist devices. Indicators of access to tourist attractions. safety bars). safety bars etc. Where no program exists.92 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook • • Existence of public transport suitable for mobility impaired (number of or % transport vehicles).sath. Canada. Destinations such as the US states of Minnesota and Virginia. including natural and cultural sites and viewpoints: • • % of attractions with wheelchair access. hotels and public buildings with wheelchair accessible restrooms (level entry. Vancouver. Where there is no program. particularly where there is a program in place to enhance access. Italy have websites explicitly designed to showcase their ease of access. Reason for use of these indicators: Some destinations can be considered friendly to those who have mobility constraints while others can have significant barriers. these data will normally be collected.g.) Reason for use of these indicators: The attractions are the reason for visits. . Source(s) of data: These data are likely to be kept by tourism or planning authorities and at a site level by attraction or park managers. data may have to be obtained through a survey of establishments or through hotel or restaurant associations. some with specific indicators. lower sinks. Number of tour companies in destination offering tours/guides trained for persons with disabilities. Benchmarking: Many destinations have set a target of 100% accessibility for persons with disabilities to public facilities. Source(s) of data: Where an accessibility program exists. hotels and restaurants. individual companies and establishments. Source(s) of data: These data are normally available from local authorities. Building authorities may also have the information. larger stalls. Means to use the indicators: These data can be used to show progress in accessibility and to advertise the range of accessible properties. handicapped access” on the internet. % of attractions offering alternative access for those with mobility concerns (e. % of access doors to buildings which have automated openers. motorized carts etc. carts or wagons pulled by animals. Means to use the indicators: These indicators can be used as a performance measure for efforts to increase accessibility for the destination as a whole. Indicators of access to tourist accommodation and public buildings: • • • Number and % of hotels with rooms accessible to persons with disabilities (easy access. This demand may extend to visits to some sites that have traditionally been accessible only to the very fit. it may be necessary to do an on–site survey. drop off points. The website of The Society for Accessible Travel and Hospitality links to standards and some indicators on this topic is http://www. to collect from public offices. % restaurants.

Reason for use of these indicators: Persons with disabilities are a growing segment of the tourism market. hospital. paramedic. Benchmarking: There is no specific Source(s) of data to benchmark these indicators. Means to use the indicators: Used to assure tourists that suitable assistance is available. As with other tourists. Benchmarking: Many national park authorities and attraction managers have set goals of 100% accessibility to popular sites.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 93 Means to use the indicators: These data can be used to show progress in accessibility and to advertise the range of accessible attractions. % of key sites considered accessible/inaccessible for those with different levels of mobility or fitness. Standards for access to less popular and more remote sites are not generally available. Use of the indicators may produce benchmarks for future use or comparison. Some may have specific medical requirements or needs for nursing and other care. Some tourism destinations are remote. Source(s) of data: Data may be kept by local tourism authorities. particularly where there is an accessibility program in the destination. Source(s) of data: Tourism authority or tour company. Means to use the indicators: These data can be used to show progress in accessibility and to advertise the range of accessible attractions and the success in serving persons with disabilities. Indicators of access to travel experiences: • • • Number of tours to the destination with specific programs to accommodate persons with disabilities. Use of the indicators may also reveal gaps which need to be filled. and mobility restrictions. Reason for use of these indicators: Persons may require assistance to deal with disabilities such as blindness. illness or accidents can occur while travelling. Indicators of availability of assistance when needed: • • • Distance to nearest hospital or medical facility(Km) (or estimated time to nearest medical assistance –ambulance.Part 3 . These vary greatly among countries and even regions within countries. Benchmarking: Most jurisdictions have their own standards for health care access. including demands for soft adventure travel and access to suitable tours that match the capabilities of the traveller. deafness. Number of persons with disabilities visiting destination and key sites. 94). Presence of trained medical personnel (number per 100 tourists) (particularly for longer tours or cruises). helicopter evacuation). See WHO website for further information (also see Health issue p. % staff with medical or paramedical training suitable to the range of needs of clients (particularly tours or establishments catering to persons with disabilities). . tours may travel to sites many hours or even days from medical facilities. Some destinations are now targeting persons with disabilities as potential visitors and investing in the facilities and products to serve their needs.

In the past . This section deals specifically with health and safety at the destination. alcohol. food poisoning and diarrhoea. gender. particularly in combination with the fatigue often associated with travel itself or with chronic health problems. temperature and time zones all create stress on our bodies than can result in illness.5. especially international travel. Food Safety. The most common problems are accidents.5 Health and Safety 3. Canada. crime and modes of transport at the destination such as hitchhiking). Additional risks associated with travel are determined by key factors which include: the destination. From the perspective of the tourist there are a range of health and safety factors involved in travel. 3. Health issues have always been crucial to international travel and are clearly among the most important determining factors of a sense of safety. exposure to changes in altitude. together with the health status. Additional to the well known problems are serious emerging health threats. Lanark County Ontario. micro flora. Worker Health and Safety This section deals specifically with health aspects of safety at the destination (not including air travel). standards of accommodation and food hygiene. age and experience of the traveller. length of stay. It can be approached from preventive and curative perspectives dealing with illness. which upset the equilibrium of our ‘normal’ environment – seasonal and climatic changes.94 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook A local community project provides wheelchair accessible walkways through Purdon Orchid Reserve. the industry and the local community. drugs. humidity. heart problems. Community Health. changes to air and water quality. accidents and other health related problems. nature of activities undertaken.1 Health Public Health. behaviour of the traveller (relating to sex. and malaria. Many physical and environmental changes are encountered during travel. Managing health issues in tourism is an important consideration with several dimensions: the traveller.

Health issues involve tourism industry personnel from various sectors before visitors leave home. contribute to reduction of arable land which may elevate-risk of malnutrition. swimming. carrying their own health supplies (including condoms. Health Formalities and Vaccinations). etc. (See: Epidemics and International Transmission of Diseases p. Most cases go unreported. etc. illness may occur after the visitor has returned home. the absence or reduction of problems being the main indicator. safe drinking water. including taking precautions such as immunization. Health insurance and assistance in International Travel.10) and now the Avian ‘bird’ influenza are causing high levels of concern amongst travellers. sun block. insurance and indemnity.g. sanitation.Part 3 . Many problems relate to collecting data for illness. 101). With the increase in telemedicine..) The WTO policy on health in tourism is defined in the instrument Health Information and Formalities in International Travel (Tourist health information.g. hygiene.) and comprehensive travel insurance. modify traditional cuisine and habits such as less healthy food. . tourism can make a useful contribution to health and wellbeing of those working in the industry (e. adopted by a General Assembly resolution (A/RES/310(X). insect repellent. often because they are minor in nature and treatment is not required. some more serious cases may be dealt with using non local services. increased discharge of sewage waste resulting contamination of water). insect bites. during their travel and at their destination. 2005). or. antimalarial drugs. Equally important is the impact of tourism on the health.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 95 year SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Box 3. and currently (2004) under revision to provide for consistency with the new International Health Regulations (IHR. Indonesia. common health and safety problems still frequently occur in relation to excess exposure to sun. medical treatment. medical care and water quality are of a high standard. and accidents related to cars and motor bikes and adventure activities. In destinations where accommodation. modified in 1996 in consultation with the World Health Organization. hospitals. However. Therefore even the best reporting mechanisms will give only a hint at the issues. which are at the focus of this section. Bali. Visitors have a clear responsibility for their own safety. well being and quality of life of local people. especially in the surf. the success of health promotion and preventive measures are even more difficult to assess. they may prefer to visit their own general physician on their return. if well planned and managed. accidents and crime. introduce and contribute to construction of sanitation infrastructure. safety. Visitors and the tourist industry can negatively affect local populations ( e. excess alcohol consumption. teach food hygiene and help improve health standards) and of local people (e. and loss of business and reputation. or self treatment is adequate. Equally. The World Health Organization and the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta USA collate notifiable data globally. fast food. 4-8 October 1993). transmit diseases. Additionally. On the other hand. From the industry perspective there are a range of issues relating to regulatory responsibility.g. risks are reduced considerably. the industry and health authorities.

• • • • • • • Reason for use of these indicators: According to the World Health Organisation. Types of tourism operations involved in cases/outbreaks of food poisoning (number). regulations • • • Number of illnes and death cases of tourists and the cause. often unprotected/unsafe sex. health warnings and the promotion of tourist health resources are all essential to protect the visitor and the industry. less than 5% need medical attention. food hygiene. Source(s) of data: Records from hospitals. the most common illness associated with travel is food poisoning. the level of sanitation. restaurants. trauma and emergency units. health clinics. As many as 75% of short-term travellers to tropical and sub tropical areas report some kind of problem. water quality are often defined by central authorities and control over these are the responsibility of the destination. age group and gender with highest rates of illness. Routine pest control (% of food and accommodation businesses with a pest management plan). Reports of communicable diseases. percentages of deaths and illnesses compared to total numbers of visitors. % of commercial food outlets (as above) with adequate temperature control for commercial food storage. doctors. Infectious diseases account for very few deaths (<1%). Water quality (See Baseline issue ¢ Drinking Water Quality p. accounting for 30 – 80% of morbidity. Food hygiene standards and regulations in place and monitored (% of establishments monitored. Illnesses could be self reported through exit visitor surveys at airports. 169). % of commercial food outlets including street vendors with provision of adequate hand washing facilities for food handlers (number of violations). Reports of food poisoning. the production of publications. types of businesses and activities with which highest incidence occurs. implement better . epidemiology reports (including WHO’s Weekly Epidemiological Record). Provision of awareness campaigns for food regulations and support to owners of food service operations (extent. Incidence of breaches of regulations. % of tourism businesses included in local tourist guide information complying with all relevant indicators above.accommodation and food outlets with staff training and detailed procedures that meet public health requirements). Promiscuous behaviour with fellow travellers and locals is increasing. accommodation providers with health services. While many health risks are the responsibility of the individual. % of food handlers receiving food hygiene training (including hotels. Number of visits by tourists to local doctors. Adequate cleaning procedures (% of enterprises .96 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Indicators related to visitor death and illnesses Components of the issue Visitor health and safety Indicators • • • • • Visitor health and safety: Prevention. Regular auditing. number per month and adequate reporting of findings). Malaria and sexually transmitted infections (including HIV) are an increasing problem. measurement of effectiveness through increased compliance). staff training and development. Use to inform level of training required and to develop strategies including visitor safety information. seasonal variations. Means to use the indicators: Trends over time. Cardio vascular disease in the elderly accounts for some 50% of deaths. take away and street vendors).

Accidents are the most common form of health problem for travellers. car and bike hire businesses. monitoring are routinely maintained. activities with which highest incidence occurs. Frequency of staff training on safety procedures. doctors. implement better reporting procedures amongst local tourism and health professionals. USA collate notifiable data globally. % of establishments with training programs. trauma and emergency units. Number of licenses and permits for tourism businesses requiring a risk management plan. Number of publications for visitors with health and safety warnings (% of businesses who actively distribute these and number distributed). Benchmarking: Given the unreliable nature of data on traveller illness benchmarks are not available. with alcohol frequently a contributing factor. emergency response and to develop strategies including visitor safety information. standards. Indicators related to visitor accidents Components of the issue Accidents Indicators • • • • • • • • • • • • Number of reported accidents involving tourists and their causes. % establishments with Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) programs standards and regulations in place and monitored. greater collaboration between tourism industry. . % of businesses in government endorsed/produced tourist brochures with good safety procedures. health clinics. Reason for use of these indicators: Accidents and trauma account for around 25% of mortality in overseas travellers. training and equipment. Means to use the indicators: Trends over time. facilities. Use to inform level of training required. % with formal monitoring of safety procedures/equipment.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 97 reporting procedures amongst local health professionals. Source(s) of data: Records from hospitals. Look for changes over time. accommodation providers with health services. % Staff in tourism businesses with first aid training. Accidents could be self reported through exit visitor surveys at airports. benchmarks are not available. Benchmarking: Given the unreliable nature of statistics.Part 3 . Frequency of monitoring or regular checking of OH&S measures and risk management plans. beach patrol/life saving reports. health departments and local government health and building inspectors. % of tourism businesses with a risk management plan. and at a rate of 2 – 3 times higher for 15 – 44 year olds compared to rates at home. Fatalities are most commonly due to traffic or swimming accidents. % of facilities with adequate safety signage. frequency of monitoring of safety procedures. Look for changes in the indicator over time. The industry and individual operators need to ensure appropriate training. The World Health Organisation and the Centre for Disease Control in Atlanta. percentages of accidents compared to total numbers of visitors. insurance companies. age group and gender with highest rates of trauma.

98 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Indicators related to community health and safety Components of the issue General community health and safety Indicators • • • • • • • % of tourism businesses with effective effluent treatment (see ¢ Sewage p. Level of protection of water for irrigation of food crops and food processing. Frequency of monitoring and compliance of effluent treatment with public health legislation. % of community protected by regulations eg. controlling tourist behaviour in proximity to residential and children’s play areas. % of workplaces with ‘Quit’ incentive programs. % using local foods in menus and souvenir stores). especially protein foods (% buying locally. % arriving international visitors reviewed for health issues – with appropriate quarantine procedures if needed. % of employees in tourism establishments with access to healthy in house food services (canteens. Existence of collaboration with public health/ promotion units to reinforce health messages (level of effort and successes). % of workplaces with family-friendly rostering ( work shifts and rotation). % of workplaces which are smoke free. Number /% of employees in hospitality and food service sectors provided with nutrition education. Number and coverage of health programs on drug abuse. 171). % of workplaces providing child care facilities. % of employees with employer sponsored comprehensive health insurance. cafeterias). % of local tourism sector employees receiving free/subsidised health checkups and clinics for staff and family members. Evidence of tourism training outcomes on hygiene being taken to the home or village setting. Number of education programs and policies on responsible service and use of alcohol (% of employees trained and any measures of effectiveness on local quality of life indicators and incidence of domestic violence). Access to health care • • Malnutrition • • • • • Quiet and safe neighbourhoods • Substance abuse • • Smoking • • • • Family support . alcohol consumption and loitering. congestion. % of local staff working in the tourism industry receiving development and training programs on personal hygiene. of noise. Volume of waste disposal and run off from tourism businesses (% of businesses decreasing the volume of waste per customer). % of tourism businesses supporting local agriculture and aquaculture to maintain fresh supply of accessible local foods. Level of malnutrition in hotel employees (relationship to overall level in community) (health survey based).

It is an area that each community needs to develop over time. production of excess solid waste and waste water with high levels of chemical. environmental degradation leading to loss of biodiversity. Sources: World Health Organisation 2003 International Travel & Health. can have devastating impact on health and draw heavily on low incomes away from essentials for children’s health and education. % of large tourism developments which include infrastructure in development to benefit local community (e. amenity and open space. Le Palud Italy .Sustainability Issues in Tourism 99 Components of the issue Education and training (see also ¢ Employment section p. Alpine climbers.. high fat.g. Tourism can also contribute to the introduction or incidence of non-communicable diseases caused by changes in diet and lifestyle. fast foods into developing countries. a sense of comfort that tourism is beneficial to their needs and future. In such cases. Geneva http://www. Access to safe drinking water. for example. Source(s) of data: An approach that integrates community wellbeing into tourism planning requires collaboration across various community. Benchmarking: No benchmarks yet exist.who. government bodies and the industry. The introduction of high cost. Extent of work programs for at-risk youth (number. Ironically ‘spa’ or ‘health’ tourism which may contribute significantly to the relaxation and wellbeing of the tourist in many cases is responsible for much a higher ecological load and excessive use of water. pathogen and nutrient load. it is also directly affecting the health and well being of local people. WHO. However. including provision of potable water. tourism can make a useful contribution to health and wellbeing. This is an aspect of tourism that has been generally neglected. Means to use the indicators: As a part of tourism planning process at the local government. It might involve formal survey work or be part of other processes such as social planning at the community level. sewage and waste disposal) level of Adventure travel brings additional challenges regarding health. displacement of agriculture and aquaculture. power and sanitation • Reason for use of these indicators: Tourism is often responsible for the over-consumption of scarce natural resources of water and energy. if well planned and managed.Part 3 . non government. %). Number of scholarship and training opportunities for local youth (% of total). The indicators chosen need to be specific to the local context and therefore sources of appropriate data will flow from these groups and the issues identified. safety and provision of services. ground cover and soil. to identify and highlight issues relating to non economic benefits of tourism and to foster improved resident satisfaction with tourism and hence support. 119) Indicators • • • Percentage of employees who are from the local community. and measure the goals of tourism planning and outcomes against the goals for community development as a whole. tourism is not only destroying the asset on which it is built.

Flora and fauna were depleted. market gardening. The resorts have directly and indirectly. women’s health and dental clinics. Sources: Andrew Fairley. Key indicators: value of donations. marketing and management of the resorts and a proactive role in skills transfer. This example shows how a single tourism business is able to make a significant contribution to the health and wellbeing of its local community as well as significant ecological restoration and conservation work. This includes planting over 1 million trees established from a nursery set up on the island. Key indicators: numbers treated. Turtle Island runs other health clinics including dermatology. With no natural streams. University of South Pacific. % cover in natural vegetation. created over 100 new sustainable jobs in the community. The vision also made a commitment to be one of the leading ecotourism resorts in the world. In 1992 the Yasawas Community Foundation was established to receive guest donations for special projects in the Turtle Island communities.000 Fijians have had their eyes tested. Some 90% of fresh fruit. This has halted erosion and provided habitat for birds and wildlife that are now rich in diversity and number. who remains as owner manager. providing specialist health services that would otherwise not be available. Mr Evanson made a commitment to restore the island. Turtle Island has implemented a range of innovative environmental and community based programs and activities to achieve these objectives. These include many native fruits. The interest free loan to establish these businesses will be recovered from the profits of the resorts built. . Turtle Island: to be a vital resource to their community. Local staff have been retrained in environmental management and rehabilitation. more than 9. soils eroded and the ecosystem including mangroves. philanthropic gestures are quite common. several dams have been built to ensure abundant supply.T 2002. Turtle Island plays an active role in the governance.8 Turtle Island. All biodegradable solid waste is composted on the island. Key indicators: number of new jobs created. Purchased in 1972 by Richard Evanson. complex carpentry and building. the island was uninhabited and degraded after decades of neglect.000 pairs of glasses have been issued free of charge. and 20 corneal implants. as well as work within the resort operations. Turtle Island has been augmenting the quality of health care available through the provision of health care resources including responding to the endemic problem of blindness due to cataracts and diabetes. Vegetation cover has grown from around 10% to over 82% across the island. level of funding. Turtle Island has provided funding under a social entrepreneurial program. and to be a vital resource to our community. Turtle Island and Berno. over 1.100 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Box 3. Eventually the resort opened in 1980 with a vision to provide a genuine and loving Fijian experience for caring people.000 operations have been performed (mostly cataracts). Due to the vision of the resort and the special visitor experience. % staff trained in key skills. expending over $1 million in the construction of three budget resorts. Key indicators: number of trees planted. Fiji: Tourism and community health Turtle Island is a 14 room five star luxury resort located on a 500 acre privately owned island (Nanuya Levu) in the Yasawas group of islands. Key indicators: % produce grown locally. number of students supported. number of businesses funded. vegetables and herbs are grown in the resort garden Reforestation has provided sufficient timber for building works. Fiji. coral reefs and beaches were damaged. The focus has been on secondary education. overgrazing and clearing. In this time more than 11.

Contingency Planning. Global infectious disease trends include increasing mortality in developed countries.2 Coping with Epidemics and International Transmission of Disease Facilitation. An important issue for the health industry is the problem of collection of data on preventative medicine and health promotion. New human pathogens such as HIV/AIDS and more recently SARS.5. and for those who are concerned with the impacts on their particular destination.who.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 101 3. It is not often feasible to collect statistics on % of incoming visitors who have had any one of a number of vaccinations or to determine how many have been exposed to potential disease. The planned facilities include putting in place a “situation room” to provide for instant and round-the-clock information on health emergencies worldwide. and travel to increasingly remote and undeveloped locations.Part 3 . Impacts on Tourism Changing social and environmental conditions around the world have fostered the spread of infectious disease. have focussed both medical professionals’ and others’ concerns on the impacts of these diseases. The World Health Organisation established a new division of Emerging Viral and Bacterial Diseases Surveillance and Control (now known as the Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Response unit). Given the role of travel in the spread of these diseases and the impact epidemics have on the industry. The WTO’s Recommended Measures for Tourism Safety (1991) urged to “develop reporting systems on health problems of tourists”. While the issue occurs at a global level. together with the increasing prominence of strains of pathogens highly resistant to current antimicrobial drugs. many jurisdictions are involved and the systems are not in place for coordinated gathering and exchange of information. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and recently. As with many tourism and travel related issues. it is vital that the tourism industry take responsibility for full co-operation and proactively work toward public health strategies to assist in halting these alarming trends. avian ) is to help establish an effective program involving all nations in the form of global compliance with the International Health Regulations (IHR. A major challenge for the World Health Organization (see website www. with death rates from infectious disease in the USA increased by more than 50% between 1980 and 1992. The resurgence of infectious diseases around the world has been attributed in large part to the massive increase in rapid international travel. . it is important as well for particular destinations. including new emerging communicable diseases such as pneumonic fever. 2005) providing for the notification of all events constituting a public health emergency of international concern as part of the legal framework for WHO’s global health security epidemic alert and response strategy. The indicators suggested below will be of use to managers who wish to keep abreast of the global trends.

Degree of collaboration between industry and health officials in affected destinations (number of tourism businesses distributing health warning information to customers. Number of tourists reporting infection/incidents. checking temperature of all arriving passengers). number of businesses undertaking voluntary quarantine procedures such as sending any ill staff to medical centre ). % travellers provided with information. % of tourists who fear travel to the destination (survey). % drop in room occupancies. Quarantine precautions for air travellers to and from affected regions (number and nature of quarantine measures eg. number of international companies such as airlines or hotel chains actively promoting affected destination). .. 71). Length of time taken to recover back to pre outbreak levels of visitation and room nights. number of travellers accessing information pre travel. warning and information Indicators • • Issue of travel advisories (number of destinations affected. number of businesses involved in other aspects of disease surveillance. Number of staff stood down. In addition to all above. collating and reporting the number of visitors requiring medical assistance or medication through in-house services. Effectiveness of surveillance and reporting of cases (number of air travellers arriving/departing identified as infected. essential precautions and treatment (Expenditure per annum on campaigns. % drop in visitor numbers. level of travel industry support to encourage return business after the outbreak). public health education campaigns to be disseminated through consumer channels about symptoms. • • • Contingency planning mitigation and response • • • • • Impacts on tourism • • • • • • • See also the section on Health (p. Strategies to support affected nations (Level of foreign aid given/received for this purpose. number of reported cases at the destination). Public health education to alert travellers and industry staff to effective personal protection and socially responsible behaviour to avoid further transmission (% of staff. An elaboration of the difficulties in collection of data on social and health issues can be found in the Sex Tourism section (see p. % of travellers who say they changed travel plans because of the epidemic. 94) for a number of indicators relating to illness in visitors and preventative measures.102 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Components of the issue Facilitation. Strategies to build consumer confidence (level of effort/expenditure by destination. Warnings about precautions and vaccinations (% of travellers receiving vaccinations before arriving at destination). number of public health training programs run for the tourism industry). number and type of tourism businesses involved in the dissemination process). visitation patterns to designated ‘at risk’ destinations). duration of travel warnings). Travel industry information disseminated on ‘safe’ and ‘at risk’ countries (% of travellers who have access to this information.

Benchmarking: WHO web site http://www.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 103 Reason for use of these indicators: Coping with epidemics requires the highest level of diplomatic cooperation between international agencies such as WHO. react. number of cases reported. and then rebuilding consumer and industry assessments the economic impacts of outbreaks such as SARS and comparisons are made of the impact on different destinations.Part 3 . IOM (International Organization for Migration). and can be used to both clarify risk and to measure performance in prevention and mitigation. mitigate and Source(s) of data: Information should be available through national tourism authorities who have access to information from WHO. In the past the industry has sometimes ignored or minimized such issues for fear of the economic implications. The indicators which measure tourism impact are” following“ indicators which serve to demonstrate the impact which has occurred . and directly from WHO and WTO. The economic implications arise anyway. national health departments.html provides data on infectious outbreaks. undertaking rapid analysis of the situation and the costs. in particular the WTO and others such as WTTC and IATA. to build consumer faith requires that the general public can trust the industry leaders. Box 3. assisting with travel advisories.who. it is essential that the leading international tourism bodies take a prominent role in viewing commercial concerns against the background of public health priorities and using this opportunity to provide both ethical and logistic leadership.9 The impact of SARS outbreak in international tourist arrivals 2003 (WTO) . Means to use the indicators: As these are global issues. spread of the disease. This is very short term thinking and an unsustainable approach. The indicators are core to facilitation of responses – level of effort to prepare. and are likely to be useful to show the importance of contingency planning and preventative measures. The World Travel and Tourism Council web site http://www. There is an important role in assisting with reporting and surveillance so that effective public health measures are not sacrificed for economic benefit. all of whom play a role in briefing the industry.wttc. and ICRC (International Committee of the Red Cross) national governments and the world tourism industry bodies.

Terrorism. The decision of where to go depends greatly on the perception of safety or danger. Impacts.East and South-East Asia.3 Tourist Security Risk. civil strife. bringing to an end the initial outbreak of a severe new respiratory disease that began in mid November. and dominated results of tourism in the Asia-Pacific region in 2003. as the perception of the travelling public towards the destination. causing around 50% decrease in international tourist arrivals during March-May of that year (WTO) (see graph Box 3.10 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak July 5th 2003 WHO announced the last known case of human to human transmission of SARS coronavirus. Facilitation Sustainability is threatened by man-made incidents and natural disasters which harm tourists. linked to contaminated sewage. driven by concerns over the economic impact of its spread. The SARS outbreak therefore had a serious effect on tourism. Civil Strife. Contingency Planning. redirection of tours to alternative destinations or closing of tourist facilities. Early reports and continued epidemiological data suggest an animal reservoir in southern China. natural disasters tend to affect not just the places where they occur. Its containment within 4 months of the first global alert was due to high level political commitment and co-operation. According to WHO data. destinations and their populations. changing of air routes. Terrorist attacks. The impact of events may cause the repositioning of cruise ships. Widespread perception of risk (real or not) can cause downturns in particular forms of The impact may last for months or years. Singapore and Viet Nam.html 3. It had huge implications for the tourism industry.5.9). Natural Disasters. rebellions. Canada. entire regions may see reductions in tourist arrivals due to incidents even two or three countries away. The latter included early detection through temperature surveillance. especially in destinations in North. A single event can cause immediate cancellations. and loss of access. In the countries already mentioned there were 908 deaths. may take a long time to respond when conditions change and order is restored. there were a total of 8422 cases in 29 countries. Travellers were recommended to postpone all but essential travel to areas of high risk. . A single infected guest in a Hong Kong hotel resulted in at least 16 cases and seeded the international spread. and expert public health measures put quickly in place. The rate of person to person transfer of the virus is unusually high. not just to specific destinations which may have been directly affected. including travellers passing through airports in the affected countries. 2002 in Southern China. while very quick to perceive risk. This measure became essential after the identification of a number of cases of in-flight transmission cases (27 cases linked to five flights). The most severely affected countries were China (including Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Taiwan). In Hong Kong the outbreak began in a single housing estate. and may affect the willingness to travel at a global scale. Management Response. Safety.104 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Box 3. http://www. but the species are yet to be confirmed.who.

Responsibilities defined and assumed by the public sector by area of competence and the private sector. etc. tourism companies and tourists.effective communication of possible risks and dangers to the parties concerned. The focus is on establishing the conditions. travel assistance. Adequate protection of tourism facilities and sites. formalities and information requirements at point of entry into a national destination (country).Part 3 . in adventure tourism. procedures.11 Characteristics of a safe destination in terms of facilitation (preparation. 3.requirement of risk management according to area of activity (for example.identification of possible risks and dangers of tourism for visitors. data on the geographic distribution and number of victims. Key elements of response can include: . sports activities. facilities and sites trained to deal with safety and security issues affecting customers and visitors. insurance services. .).reliable health services (facilities. Source: WTO WTO has initiated work to clarify how destinations can respond to these issues. personnel. Adoption of an information and education policy aimed at ensuring transparency and dealing with crises including: .expatriate services (access to consular and diplomatic representatives and collaboration with them). first aid. The focus of response lies in facilitation of sufficient information and services to officials. repatriation services. and for departure from the national destination. . and communication of tourism safety and security information including health information (outbreaks of disease.effective communication to the parties concerned of the services. materials). planning. facilities and measures available to assist visitors in case of emergency. information. other relevant standards specific to the destination. Adoption of and compliance with safety and security standards and practices at tourism facilities and sites regarding: fire prevention. 6. other health requirements specific to the destination. environmental standards. measures for compensation by the state. police services). General and specific commitment by the government to aid visitors who fall victim to safety and security problems. 8. 5. Staff at tourism enterprises. analysis. facilities and services available to assist visitors in case of emergency or difficulty: including immediate assistance (telephone help lines. particularly in cases of terrorism. and specific information according to the characteristics of the destination. emergency services) Indicators can be developed to measure each of the following principal characteristics of a safe tourism destination (existence and extent of these arrangements and services): 1.). food safety. as well as for travel within the national territory to reach the destination. 4. consumer protection. System for the collection. 2. Existence and effective access to emergency services: institutional. by activity.effective communication to the parties concerned of existing safety and security standards and practices. . etc. emergency services. 7. public and private measures.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 105 Box 3. suspected exotic pathogens. so that they can take appropriate measures to avoid risks. . prevention of illegal interference and violence (terrorism).

106 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook 1 Information. Number of tourists harmed. Number of % change in tourist arrivals. made available on websites. Number of % change in numbers employed in tourism. 2 3 4 Work by the WTO has begun to identify the key attributes of a safe destination in terms of facilitation (See Box 3. government websites (Number of countries posting advisories). government websites (Number of countries posting warnings). and at the point of entry into the national destination (transport at airports or stations. security). Conditions of travel within the national territory: management of links with local destinations via public or private transport. per annum and per types of incidents). % change in number of direct flights. health formalities upon entry. security measures. Departure formalities including all the corresponding services and measures mentioned under entry formalities. Rating (listing) of site on travellers advisory in principal countries of origin. Components of the issue Incidents Indicators • • • • • • • • • • • • • Number of incidents (per month. Rating (listing) of site on travel warnings. baggage controls. and protection of species and objects of historical or cultural value.11). management of processes for obtaining transport tickets. in travel magazines. in principal countries of origin. Rating of destination in magazines. Impacts of incidents on tourism sector Perceptual effects • . Opinion of travellers of safety of destination (% believing it to be dangerous) . Number of % change in tourism revenues. and coordination among entry services. guidebooks and other media dealing with places considered to be dangerous and risky. at embassies and/or consulates. Number of % hotels closed. others). as part of travel advisories. training of immigration officers. at tourism information offices. customs and currency importation formalities and exchange services. Number of incidents reported in international press. Entry measures including strengthened procedures for entry visas. access to banks/use of payment cards.surveys (e. Number of % change in occupancy rates. and establishment of requirements for notifying the police of whereabouts during national travel.g. and some of the steps destinations can take to establish and maintain improved levels of safety and security. enhanced safety of national transport . Frequency of mention of destination (or region) in international news of incidents (per media type).

ICAO and regional tourism organizations). fire prevention. and to measure recovery and the effects of actions to reduce impact or change security levels. enterprise).11 on Safe Destinations ) Indicators of direct impact on tourists and facilities (global and for specific destinations or regions): • • Number of incidents (per month. Number of /% hotels closed. Existence of safety and security standards for attractions and establishments. Indicators of indirect effects (impacts): • • • • • • Number of /% change in tourist arrivals. per annum). Number of % tourists informed of security levels (various methods). Existence of a contingency plan for tourists and visitors to the region in the event of incidents. environmental standards). preparedness or contingency planning. food safety and other health requirements. Level of security at borders (guards or officials per visitor). • (See Box 3.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 107 Components of the Issue Management or response to risks (level of facilitation of information and services) Indicators • • • • • • • Level of expenditure on security (nation. region. Source(s) of data: Data on incidents and damage are normally available from national and other security agencies. Number/% of tourism establishments complying with safety and security standards (e. Number of /% change in numbers employed in tourism. Number of tourists helped by tourist aid programs.g. These indicators can help to judge the severity of impacts. Reason for use of these indicators: These indicators measure the results of security issues and tend to be indicators showing the impacts of incidents which have occurred or of actions taken by tourists in response to real or perceived risks. Indicators of perceptual effects: • • Number of incidents reported in international press. Means to use the indicators: Normally these will be used to explain levels of change related or correlated with security incidents. Data regarding impacts can normally be obtained from tourism authorities at local regional or national levels (as well as international compilations from WTO. % change in number of direct flights. Frequency of mention of destination (or region) in international news of incidents (per media type).Part 3 . Number of tourists harmed. Number of % change in occupancy rates. Benchmarking: Long term trends are normally available at national and more local levels – and can show impacts of past occurrences (incidents or regional crises). Number of /% change in tourism revenues. . or to illustrate the need for emergency measures. Existence of emergency services.

Existence of safety and security standards for attractions and establishments. It is difficult to obtain comparative data from other destinations for security reasons. as part of travel advisories. . guidebooks and other media dealing with places considered to be dangerous and risky. Benchmarking: Compare over time in same markets relative to the destination and relative to competitors if multi-destination surveys are done. Existence of emergency services. Rating (listing) of site on travel warnings. Indicators of facilitation (level of management or response to risks): • • • • • • • • Level of expenditure on security (nation. and where to travel is often based more on perception than on any objective measure of risk. in principal countries of origin. fire prevention. Number of tourists helped by tourist aid programs. Rating of destination in magazines. region.108 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook • • • Opinion of travellers of safety of destination (% believing it to be dangerous) . Number/% of tourism establishments complying with safety and security standards (e. Reason for use of these indicators: The decision to travel.surveys (e. Source(s) of data: Scanning of key public sites – at international level. Level of security at borders (guards or officials per visitor). food safety and other health requirements. environmental standards). (see also Box 3. It is also possible to commission a survey in origin countries and to sample on a repetitive basis. safety or destination conditions. government websites (Number of countries posting warnings). others). Benchmarking: Compare over time for the same destination. Keep the public informed to the extent possible about risks and what to do if problems occur. Means to use these indicators: These indicators can signal emerging perceptions of risk – which may help direct responses to reduce the risks and/or to reassure tourists. and may lead to changed levels of tourism. enterprise). Source(s) of data: Direct information from national and local authorities re level of programs. Existence of a contingency plan for tourists and visitors to the region in the event of incidents.g. in travel magazines. Number of /% tourists informed of security levels (various methods). particularly in the principal origin countries for tourists for the destination. Means to portray or use these indicators: Show preparedness to public and to partners.11 on Safe Destinations) Reason for use of these indicators: These indicators essentially measure level of effort or preparedness of a destination to deal with incidents – both to try to prevent them and to demonstrate that action is being taken to respond to risks and be able to cope if incidents occur. The public has access to these sites and publications and widespread use of them leads to perception of risk… real or not.g. These indicators can be a warning of perception of risk.

surrounded by large numbers of people in a crowd or shouted at by local youth. most frequently associated with alcohol and drug abuse. Some tourists who live in a small quiet safe village in their own country may feel very uneasy in a milieu where they are besieged by vendors and touts. Perception of safety and security is also very much in the eye of the beholder. assistance. Harassment of tourists • • . ¢ Tourist satisfaction (p. monitoring and visitor information. resources. Visitors themselves can also be the perpetrators of crime. harassment. and number of reports of harassment by locals) but also to try to understand the level of unease perceived by tourists. and also constitute a risk to tourism in the destination. 236). Perception of severity of crime problem by visitors (Exit questionnaire Annex C 5 p. Tourists returning after unfortunate incidents will frequently inform others of their problems. Perception of local safety is also affected by broader issues related to international security (see p. The prevention of crime and facilitating adequate warnings to visitors of risks associated with particular places and activities are a responsibility of destination authorities and individual businesses. For this reason. 86) and ultimately in the overall sustainability of a destination. Similarly. often in public fora such as online chat rooms. Harassment. health. and tourism work closely with each other and with the industry to provide appropriate legislation and enforcement. sickness (see Health issue p. Maintenance of good public security is a key factor in a good image or brand for a destination (see Marketing for Sustainable Tourism p. Cost of destination security per annum. Tourists who are victims of crimes. Tourist Anxiety Public safety at destinations is particularly important for tourism. or TV shows. 491). Public Security. affect the decisions by others on whether to visit a destination. etc. Others may consider these types of experiences to just be part of local colour and perceive no threats. whereas others may relish the experience. 104). environment. attacked by fauna. tourists from densely populated areas may feel ill at ease on a mountainside out of sight of any other people or services – fears of getting lost. which will affect their experience. 94) or any acts which they perceive to be hostile or dangerous can ruin a trip.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 109 3. and hamper the transfer of economic benefits of tourism to the local economy. Risk. health or accident statistics. number of hikers lost. Components of the issue Crime Indicators • • • • Total number of crimes reported involving visitors (by type) (Number per thousand of visitor/tourist arrivals). 491). Licensed operators need to be responsible and observe safe service and sales of alcohol to avoid problems for other guests and the community.Part 3 . This issue is closely related to national and international security and as a result is dealt with in greater detail in the section on Tourist Security (p. it is important not only to document the objective incidence of safety problems (number of tourists robbed. Public safety is not measured only in crime. Clear visitor advice should be in place appropriate to local conditions and events. training. 228 and Protecting Image p. letters to the media.5. cost of local policing specifically aimed at tourism). Number of incidents reported (and per tourist day). per visitor/tourist (Where possible.4 Local Public Safety Crime. newspaper complaint columns. 104). Perception of level of harassment or anxiety (Exit questionnaire p. They require that government departments of police. Poor public security in destinations or particular sites can both directly harm visitors and locals. Number of visitors charged with crimes (by type).

(Where possible. 491). Reason for use of these indicators: Crime levels affect the visitor experience and are a high risk to reputation of the destination. Benchmarking: Look for changes over time. Indicators of harassment of visitors: • • Number of incidents reported (and per visitor/tourist or tourist day). age group and gender with highest rates of involvement. areas where highest incidence occurs and at what times of the day and night. Perception of level of harassment or anxiety (Exit questionnaire p.. Means to use the indicators: Trends over time and seasons. Crime prevention and control • • • Indicators of crime: • • • Total number of crimes reported involving visitors (by type). Number of visitors charged with crimes (by type). 491) with specific questions regarding level of agreement/disagreement with statements including: “I felt safe and secure during my visit” “Tourists were well protected in the destination” “I received good information regarding safety and security at the destination” “I was (or was not) harassed by the locals during my vacation” (Note these can be asked in the positive or negative . Level of policing (police per tourist). association with specific events. Source(s) of data: Police records. Level of information for tourists regarding crime and prevention. Both reported incidents and perception are important. Use to inform level of law enforcement required and to develop strategies such as alcohol free zones and other regulatory controls. or visitor against visitor. Use Exit questionnaire (p. 94).110 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Components of the issue Health Indicators • Number (%)of tourists reporting health problems (see additional indicators in Health section p. Exit questionnaire for visitor perceptions. (Number per thousand of visitor/tourist arrivals). per tourist.. • Perception of severity of crime problem by visitors (Exit questionnaire p. 491). Reason for use of these indicators: Local harassment can be an early warning of community problems which affect tourism. perpetrated by a visitor. to provide visitor safety information. percentages of assault and crime compared to total numbers of visitors. Cost of destination security per annum. Source(s) of data: Local hotels and tourist boards for complaints. cost of local policing specifically aimed at tourists/ tourism). cost of security specifically aimed at tourism). It can also warn of emerging problems which may affect the industry. Can be used in marketing where crime rates are low. but need consistency over time) . Cost of destination security per annum. percentage in which assault is against a visitor. per visitor/tourist (Where possible.

Product Diversity..Sustainability Issues in Tourism 111 Means to use these indicators: Use as early warning system for issues both for tourists and community. Where there are larger population centres nearby. storms). and festivals) to fill the calendar. particularly if high prices (sometimes eliminating locals. Even resorts which seek all-season status through a diversity of offers can have low seasons where it is difficult to justify operation. A growing trend is the establishment of four season resorts. rain. (e. Anse Aux Meadows World Heritage site where Vikings landed in Northern Newfoundland is a destination which gets nearly all of its visits in a ten week period in June to August each year. During the summer. 50% off lift tickets or free lessons. operators market directly to nearby residents with advertisements for low cost packages. many of the winter trail facilities are able to convert to mountain bike trails with converted ski lifts to carry bikers and their bicycles up the mountain. Cortina d’Ampezzo Italy) which attempt to diversify the tourism product and serve a range of different niche markets in different seasons (skiing. High seasons with optimal weather at destinations can be affected by warmer and more favourable weather conditions in source countries. Peak Season. especially in beach tourism. Infrastructure. Benchmarking: Measure over time for the same destination.6. since few tour operators will take the chance that the snow will be there early or late in the season. 3. Whistler British Columbia. For example. warmer summers in Northern Europe can result in tourists choosing destinations closer to home and fewer of them leaving for the Mediterranean region. conferences.1 Tourism Seasonality ¢ Baseline Issue Occupancy. smaller towns or venues will bolster their income by advertising mainly to locals. swimming. students etc) are charged in peak season. During the shoulder seasons for skiing at many Rocky mountain resorts.g. are largely dependent on climate and weather patterns both at the destinations and at the source markets (“push-pull factors”). Low seasons reflect unfavourable weather conditions at destinations (cold. Some destinations experience extreme seasonality. sometimes offering discounts to attract domestic tourists in shoulder or off seasons. Shoulder Season.Part 3 . Such discounts can also help to keep local residents content. .6 Capturing Economic Benefits from Tourism 3. excessive heat and humidity. golf. bicycling. Employment Very few destinations have consistent tourism throughout the year. Tourism seasons.

% of all occupancy in peak quarter ( or month). Number of facilities offering alternative activities during shoulder and low season (capacity and use levels per activity type). most of whom stay at least one night. In summer. even to pay those who are needed to maintain it if it is built. Seasonality of use.12 The local impacts of seasonality. participants). During the January and February peak season. streets are crowded. Often jobs in the brief peak season are filled by students. In the winter. and locals complain that the services are there mostly for the tourists. auto services. many key services are closed. hotels. the year-round economic base is often insufficient to support the infrastructure needed to handle the peak periods. See also the exit questionnaire (Annex C 5) which can be used to ask what would cause the respondent to visit outside peak season. Ratio of number of tourists in peak month to lowest month. % tourism authority budget spent promoting off-peak and shoulder seasons. Funding allocated for the operation and maintenance of infrastructure. In communities like these. only a small percentage are open year round. Special events (e. % of annual tourist arrivals occurring in peak month. Jobs in these regions are also seasonal.g.000. % of water. Lake Balaton (Hungary). there are lines for seats in restaurants. % accommodation and services open all year (can be further subdivided into e. 128). attractions.examples from WTO indicators study sites Villa Gesell (Argentina) is a beach destination with a local population of about 25. While the summer peak has brought Villa Gesell a wide range of tourist-related services. conferences) held during shoulder and low season (number of events. Strengthening shoulder season and • low season tourism (measuring the level of effort designed to reduce • seasonality) • • Provision of sufficient infrastructure • year-round (especially services for • tourists in high seasons and for local communities in low seasons) • • . with serious gaps outside the peak season.112 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Box 3. restaurants etc.. ¢ Baseline Indicator. in peak quarter.000 visitors at a time. Occupancy rates for licensed (official) accommodation by month (distribution throughout the year) ¢ Baseline Indicator. electricity. (See also ¢ Community and Destination Economic Benefits p. and residents of Villa Gesell may have to drive long distances to obtain them. and entry to parking areas. especially in high seasons. with the peak day reaching 200. and the north coast of Prince Edward Island (Canada) show the same pattern. Inquiries at tourism information centres by month (ratio peak month to lowest month). the small town among the dunes hosts over 100. The key components of the seasonality issue and corresponding indicators are the following: Components of the issue Measuring degree of seasonality (And the results of management actions to respond this issue) Indicators • • • • • • Tourist arrivals by month or quarter (distribution throughout the year) ¢ Baseline Indicator. and many leave the area for any upward mobility.000. % of main attractions open in shoulder/off seasons.). or migrants from other areas who stay only for the season – themselves stressing the available accommodation during the time when it is most heavily used.g. % of business establishments open all year. sewage and garbage system capacity used for tourism and for locals. festivals.

Source(s) of data: Tourist counts where arrivals/departures are directly measured (easiest for sovereign states. Indicators measuring degree of seasonality (and the results of management actions to respond this issue): • • • • • Tourist arrivals by month or quarter (distribution throughout the year) – see also Use intensity ¢ Baseline Indicator. portable toilets are brought in from hundreds of miles away to serve the event. In Sturgis. islands. low and high periods. Inquiries at tourism information centres by month (ratio peak month to lowest month). with related issues of lack of training. the population expands immensely during the annual cyclists rally. controlled access points). . These indicators can show both stress on accommodation in season and potential economic problems in low seasons and can show progress in programs aimed at lengthening the season. Note: Peak day may be associated with particular events. An alternative source can be providers of officially recognized accommodation based on records of occupancy (below). Benchmarking: This can be compared to other destinations as many collect these data. and subjective adjustments may be needed to make the information useful. Users of this source will need to recognize the existence in many destinations of unofficial accommodation and also day-visitors that stay outside the destination. % of annual tourist arrivals occurring in peak month. Data for the opening dates of tourist establishments may be available from local governments. Also the indicators show changes in services available to local residents over the season. Indirect measures may be done through sample counts.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 113 Components of the Issue Short term and seasonal employment. For example. making provision of basic services an issue. % tourist industry jobs which are for less than 6 months. Occupancy rates for licensed (official) accommodation by month (distribution throughout the year). and planning for the event is a major yearround activity. a quiet town in the Black Hills of South Dakota.13 below. A useful form of benchmarking is against similar destinations or similar accommodation classes. or tourism associations. Local unemployment rate in off-season. Tourism authority websites are a useful source for published data on occupancy rates. Ratio of number of tourists in peak month to mean and to lowest month (and % of all occupancy in peak quarter. retention of good employees. percentage of visits concentrated in peak season show stress on the destination. Peak absolute numbers (peak day). in peak quarter.Part 3 . services. Means to use the indicators: Monthly distribution of tourist arrivals throughout the year helps identify peak. as in Box 3. it is easy to portray in graphs. attractions. provision of career paths Indicators • • • Number and % of tourist industry jobs which are permanent or full-year. ratio of peak to average may be better measure regarding decisions on infrastructure. Reason for use of these indicators: These indicators are direct measures of seasonality and can show the economic impact of seasonality on the key sectors of tourism. or month (can be subdivided by type) ¢ Baseline Indicator. Accommodation is the easiest to measure in most jurisdictions.

000 to 300. % of main attractions open in shoulder/off seasons. then covered themselves with leather and rain gear for the 70 temperatures at the end of the week. They sweltered in the 108 heat early in the week.Sturgis. Reason for use of these indicators: Many factors can affect the seasonality of a destination. RV. It was the 2001Sturgis Rally.13 Sturgis South Dakota Motor Cycle Rally .g.114 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Box 3.000 in 2000 but the 200. festivals. Benchmarking: Compare over time for the same destination. This can also show some reasons why tourists do not arrive outside peaks. conferences) held during shoulder and low season (number of events. Number of facilities offering alternative activities during shoulder and low season (capacity and use levels per activity type). See also the exit questionnaire (Annex C) which can be used to ask what would cause the respondent to visit outside peak season. participants). They watched concerts racing. These show level of effort to address the issue and identify many of the factors which may enable or impede efforts to lengthen seasons.” Source: www. Source(s) of data: Local tourist authorities.000 was a comfortable rally.000 to 600. Means to use these indicators: Can be a public measure of efforts to attract tourists in off season. plane and Indicators regarding strengthening shoulder season and low season tourism (and measuring the level of effort designed to reduce seasonality): • • • • • % of tourism authority budget spent promoting off-peak and shoulder seasons. . Tourist guidebooks often show dates of opening for attractions and hotels and can be a source of comparative information about competing destinations. Special events (e. rode in the Black Hills and met new and old friends. The numbers were down from the 400.An example of extreme seasonality “They came by train.

Seasonality of use (see ¢ Energy p. 165. In extreme cases. See also ¢ Effects of Tourism on Communities (p. as well as having social and economic impacts on the destination. 173).Part 3 . Source(s) of data: and attractions are closed except for the June to August summer season Governments normally when the beach is crowded. Funding allocated for the operation and maintenance of infrastructure. it will be overstressed in peak season.. or be persuaded to provide the data for use. They also relate to seasonality of demands for labour and services. ¢ Water Availability p. hotel records can be used. USA in May 2004. 152. In many destinations the employment of undocumented workers may make data collection difficult.. sewage and garbage system capacity used for tourism and for locals. it may be unused off season.g.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 115 Indicators relating to provision of sufficient infrastructure year-round (especially services for tourists in high seasons and for local communities in low seasons). restaurants etc. If insufficient is built. 57). • Reason for use of these indicators: Tourism can place stresses on facilities ranging from private businesses to infrastructure. an industry association may be able to collect and aggregate data from members. attractions. In the absence of a government data program. Means to use the indicators: These indicators show a form of carrying capacity (See p. 309) and what is being done to suit capacity to tourism and community needs. For destinations without formal employment records. Local unemployment rate in off-season. If capacity is built to serve peak levels. but may not be able to separate jobs by sector. collect employment data on a monthly basis. but many establishments may not collect these variables. % tourist industry jobs which are for less than 6 months. tourist communities may virtually shut down in the off season. municipal authorities. Source(s) of data: Local business associations. ¢ Sewage p. Indicators regarding the effects of seasonality on employment: • • • Number and % of tourist industry jobs which are permanent or full-year. % of accommodation and services open all year (can be further subdivided into e. Old Orchard Beach Maine. hotels. Most accommodation services . electricity. % of water. ¢ Solid Waste p. and even those residents who choose to stay may have to leave the community to obtain basic services. • • • % of business establishments open all year. Reason for use of these indicators: Tourism seasonality is a factor in unemployment. especially in high seasons. seasonal employment and turnover of staff. 171.

Desirable trend : Stabilise the values along the year. IBAE. Description: this index measures the labour seasonality using monthly occupation data and monthly averages.14 Index of labour seasonality: Balearic Islands. Data sources for the indicator: • Evolució Econòmica de Sa Nostra.116 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Means to use the indicators: Both raw data and percentages/ratios are useful to show changes in the nature and seasonality of the workforce. Caixa de Balears. Observed trend : The labour occupation is higher in the summer months than in autumn and winter. Source: Centre d'Investigacions i Tecnologies Turístiques de les Illes Balears (CIT TIB) . Benchmarking: Published government data is available at appropriate scales from many destinations. seasonality is still the same: employment increases in summer and decreases in autumn and winter. INEM.14) Box 3. Methodology: the index of labour seasonality results from dividing the monthly occupation by the annual average occupation. • Instituto Nacional de Empleo. • Institut Nacional d’Estadística. INE. It is desirable that the occupation remains stable throughout the year. (See the Balearic example of labour seasonality indicators Box 3. • Institut Balear d’Estadística. Spain Socio-economic Indicator Status: Indicator Scope: Balearic Islands Period: 1989-2000 • Although labour occupation has increased over the last years.

which requires building a reliable domestic supply chain for goods and services that otherwise would be purchased externally.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 117 3. capital. and others may become welcome and encouraged. While certain inputs from abroad and imports cannot be avoided. including those used in tourism activities. The particular tourist segment catered to may require. former Chairman of the Board of TUI. In package travel a simple method often used is comparing the price paid to the tour operator with the payment for destination-generated resources and services. are entitled to fair remuneration or payment abroad. A serious indication of leakage can be seen in decreasing foreign exchange receipts per visitor arrival or tourist overnight irrespective of increasing numbers of arrivals and the total volume of For a comprehensive account. 70 percent in Thailand. Internal Leakages: Internal leakages primarily arise from tourism through imports that are paid and accounted for domestically. and to source-market tour operators. organic produce. According to Ralf Corsten. labour. Where in place. Key indicators will therefore focus on measurement of these flows. and 40 percent in India. The term “leakage” suggests the existence of a weak economy or the lack of control over the tourism sector performance. excessive or simply unnecessary portion of the revenues obtained through tourism “leak” away from the economy in a visible or “invisible” manner or that obtaining such revenues is taking place in detriment to its tourism resources and potential or at a high domestic and social cost which can be measured in economic terms. Foreign Exchange. modern heating and airconditioning systems. and satellite television access. ideas) are imported and that such factors. reducing leakages is essential for maintaining vital local economies. wine and name brand alcoholic beverages that are produced elsewhere. 134) in combination with the indicators in the leakage categories explained below can significantly help in comprehensive measurement. Invisible Leakage Leakages are broadly defined as the loss of foreign exchange and other hidden costs deriving from tourism related activities (Perez-Ducy de Cuello 2001). External Leakage. commodities. Monies which flow to external intermediaries for bookings. insurance and travel assistance companies. etc. services. al 2003): should be considered: External Leakages: Represented by earnings which accrue to foreign investors financing tourism infrastructure and facilities. hotel quality linens and mattresses. and for the overall sustainability of destinations. Particularly .6. or flow back to the source markets via imports” (see www. universally accepted methodology to do so. Some studies (UNEP) have revealed leakages as high as 85 percent for the African Least Developed Countries (LDCs).19. three leakage categories (from Gollub et. Some of these imports may be fundamental for the appropriate use of tourism destination resources or for determined tourism activities. each making it possible that a significant. foreign airlines. and other forms of foreignowned transportation. TSAs measure foreign exchange payments along the entire tourism value chain for imported goods and services. tour operators were reported to have received between 45 and 50 percent of prearranged tourism booking prices (Economist Intelligence Unit 1992). These leakages can be tracked with reasonable reliability through Tourism Satellite Accounts (TSA). p. For example. for example. sophisticated security equipment. scuba equipment produced to international safety standards. Internal Leakage.Part 3 . but using the Tourism Satellite Account methodological framework (See Box 3. The extent of internal leakages in any destination is largely a function of tourist demand for level and quality of leisure services and entertainment-related and retail goods. through repatriated profits and amortization of external debt. Tourism leakages are difficult to measure and there is no single. in 1992 in South America. Approximation to measuring leakages in tourism is possible in various ways. cruise ships. 80 percent in the Caribbean. under “Quality and Trade”). In an open economy it is normal that certain factors of production (goods. “at the beginning of development… 80% of the revenue do not reach the destination in the first place.2 Leakages Imported Goods.

and other tourism assets over time in ill-planned and ill-managed tourism development. software. cultural. indicators should address: • • • all relevant tourism characteristic activities (largely external and internal leakages). Foreign exchange loss due to sales of non-licensed and un-taxed services. sundry). Value of imported goods for visitor use and consumption including of agricultural products. Remittances of profits and dividends. Quantification of lost market/lost business value. Invisible leakages are those losses or opportunity costs that are not documented reliably. and also lead to depreciation of a destination’s value as an attraction over the longer term as well as to the deterioration of the quality of life for local residents. historic structures or districts) may negatively impact tourism arrivals and expenditures over the short term. Leakage can also occur due to the social costs caused by visitor consumption of scarce resources (e.118 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook in small or less developed tourist destinations. One major source of invisible leakage is financial. wildlife. informal currency exchange transactions. and off-shore savings and investments. but which can exert cumulative and significant effects. restitution. Foreign exchange value of deteriorated resources (repair/rehabilitation/recycling costs). water availability and quality. also “invisible leakages”). b. Facility/activity creation Indicators • • Value of imported goods (construction materials. Foreign exchange loss equivalent of social costs caused by international visitor consumption of scarce. subsidized and financed by public authorities or external aid. Value of imported services (systems. Another source of invisible leakage arises from the non-sustainability of environmental. spare parts. Remittances due to foreign debt servicing (originating from general tourism development loans and related to specific facilities/activities). beaches. forests. etc. architects. Leakage indicators can be developed to address the various aspects of leakages that are relevant to tourism activities at a destination. experts. each of these goods and services will likely need to be imported. In a comprehensive approach.). destination management organizations will note that some indicators will be more or less relevant or may be more or less important than others in the particular case of their destination. Components of leakage Import content of services (external and internal leakages) a. relevant tourism-non specific activities (largely external leakages.. including insurance. etc. consultants. Value of imported services. The table given below contains a comprehensive set of such indicators. associated with tax avoidance. to coral reefs. Depending on the activity concerned. relevant tourism-connected activities (largely external leakages). Remittances abroad by expatriate staff.g. subsidized and imported resources financed by international aid. Foreign exchange loss due to differences between official and market exchange rates. Resource depletion and damage (for example. equipment. Foreign exchange costs of marketing and distribution abroad. historic. water. energy). Facility operation and carrying out of activities • • • • • • Invisible leakages (estimates) • • • • • .

Quality. but the objective measure will remain to be rewarding fairly. if there are no qualified employees to provide the services and to operate the facilities. as answers will vary from destination to destination. Cost opportunity studies can help establish a “leakage break-even point” as a function of the destination’s economic capacity to serve different types of tourism and eventually choose the type most suitable for a project or country. Leakage analysis will also help identify and enhance options for developing linkages or activities leading to the reduction of leakage. including total value of foreign investment to create facility/activity (direct foreign investment (FDI). The WTO deals with these issues under its Quality and Trade in Tourism programme (http://www. five-star accommodations. portfolio investments) and international nonrefundable aid. agriculture. futher information on this topic can be found at: Tourism in the Least Developed Countries (WTO/ tourism at the destination will not be in financial terms.Part 3 . As well. which in turn affect the economic sustainability of tourism.storefront/EN/product/1170-1 Leakages and Linkages in the Tourism Sector: Using Cluster-Based Economic Strategy To Minimize Tourism Leakages (WTO. the destination resources. 2003).world-tourism. There are many issues that contribute to the quality of employment in tourism. and superb amenities. Comparison to other productive sectors (other services sectors.htm 3. costs and losses thus calculated should be compared to: • • The overall or specific activity-related foreign exchange revenue from the supply of tourism services concerned. Skills.3 Employment Training. commodities) in terms of both manufacturing and trade is also necessary as it may well happen that other sectors’ activities may have higher or lower leakage incidence compared to tourism. in particular labour and natural resources. http://www. 2001) http://www. The evidence of foreign exchange investment. goods. good weather.6.worldtourism. Pay Levels A tourist destination can have many of the ingredients for success: interesting Issues in Tourism 119 The value. Turnover. However. The key components of the employment issue and corresponding indicators are the following: . This may indicate whether tourism is a better or worse development option. It cannot a priori be established in general which level of leakage is sustainable or justified with respect to tourism activities.

air transportation etc. restaurants. • • • • • • • • • Lack of skilled labour Indicators of employment numbers and quality of employment in tourism (turnover. Local unemployment rate in off-season. Income analysis. development. Cost of living surveys (Note: most jurisdictions do salary surveys. Complaints (by employers. seasonality. Number of workplace accidents (and cost of compensation). % labour imported (from outside region. seasonality. occupation and location (See ¢ Community and destination economic benefits p. Employee satisfaction. pay levels): • Total number employed in the tourism sector by industries (e. but many do isolate service sectors. restaurants. Local unemployment rate in off-season. Retention levels of employees. Possibility of on-the-job training. traveller accommodation. from other countries).g. environment. traveller accommodation . ) occupation and level. type of work. (See also ¢ Seasonality (p. 86). although many do not disaggregate data so the tourism industry is not easy to identify. Number (and %) of employees qualified/certified. etc. Number (%) of employees qualified/certified. full year. or resulting waste (with value calculated where possible).). • • • • • Reason for use of these indicators: To determine whether tourism sector employees are earning an adequate income in comparison to other sectors. Promotion. Percentage of jobs that are full time.) The authorities who . or specific parts such as hotels or food services. 128). Training funds spent per employee.g. safety. Percentage of jobs which are full time. Total number employed in the tourism sector. air transportation etc. Income levels (absolute and compared to other sectors). Tourist dissatisfaction (See ¢ Tourist Satisfaction p. • • • • Professional and personal development • • • Contentment from work including. Measures of errors. by industry (e. To measure sector changes relative to other industries and to other competitive destinations re factors affecting the quality of employment.120 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Components of the issue Number and quality of employment in the tourism sector (turnover. frequency of training programmes and level of participation. and to assess whether tourism sector employees are earning an adequate income in relation to the cost of living and maintenance of an adequate quality of life. 111) • Income analysis. Ability to influence change/improvements in business processes. full year. Source(s) of data: Salary surveys. Retention levels of employees. by tourists). pay levels) Indicators • Total number employed in the tourism sector.

Training funds spent per employee. its contribution to destination and national economies. It is useful to differentiate seasonal or part time employment from full-time jobs in this analysis.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 121 collect basic employment statistics will often be able to disaggregate subsets. etc. safety. Means to use the indicators: In some countries the labour market is very competitive.Part 3 . environment. employer records. such as length of employment. national or local authorities. Source(s) of data: Employee surveys. or union/industry associations.: • • • • • Employee satisfaction. Promotion (rates. Source(s) of data: Where possible. seasonality. or that 70% of all guides or hotel clerks receive appropriate qualifications by 2005. the goal may be that 80% of employees in an organization be qualified officially via courses or on-the job training. Means to use the indicators: Speaking directly to the employees is a key method of understanding what they believe to be the quality of tourism employment. If these are not available. In others. trained) individuals. For example. Benchmarking: Benchmarks will likely be national or regional. in comparison with other sectors. development.g. Any analysis should take into consideration the raise of inflation and increased cost of living per year in the destination. Ability to influence change/improvements in business processes (use employee survey). reflecting the nature of the job market. Number of workplace accidents (and cost of compensation). Moreover. and the tourism sector may be at a disadvantage relative to other competitors for trained staff. and the relative rates of other sectors. of tourism companies and establishments. The income made. and direct measure of the opportunities and employment levels/types in the tourism sector. surveys may be required. frequency of training programmes. Income levels (absolute and compared to other sectors). There are various methods for . tourism may be seen as a good sector. % per annum). relative to more traditional employment in e. is very important. resource industries. Means to use these indicators: Tracking the number of employees trained and qualified can be used as a numeric illustration of the professional and personal development in which employees have been involved and the general level of training of the workforce. Targets can be set for the adequate number of employees qualified in occupations for which there is an official qualification or certification program. Benchmarking: Benchmarks can be obtained from national industry statistics where collected. a sample of employees in the industry may have to be surveyed. If unavailable. Possibility of on-the-job training. industry databank of qualified (certified. the ability to make an income that allows the employee to live within the local cost of living is vital. Reason for use of these indicators: In order to understand the quality of tourism employment it is important to consider the opinions of the employees working in the sector as well as to assess their opportunities and risks. Reason for use of these indicators: A key measure of the economic importance of the sector. Indicators of professional and personal development: • • • Number (%) of employees qualified/certified. particularly in very seasonal destinations. Indicators of employee contentment or satisfaction regarding work including type of work. licensed. and pay level or job type.

6 million people with 563. In 2001. Moreover. etc are provided regularly to government ministries and are a visible part of the policy and program management process. In order to ensure sustainable tourism in Canada. cost of insurance claims or compensation). The results of the analysis of tourism labour force data feed policy decisions related to human resource training nationally. sectors or destinations.3% of overall Gross Domestic Product for Canada.122 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook structured surveys and questionnaires that can be used. http://www. sporadic hours. Attracting labour is an issue for most Canadian sectors. tourism accounted for 2. supplying the tourism sector with adequate labour (and in particular skilled labour) will become more and more challenging. and limited career advancement opportunities. including: low wages. As competition increases for labour and tourism continues to grow in Canada. seasonal work. Similar to many other economically prosperous nations. one time per year). if employers are not investing in their employee-base to continue to develop their skills. including tourism. Canadian Tourism Commission. Training funds spent per employee. Number of workplace accidents (and where applicable. not only will employees . Benchmarking: Employee surveys can be conducted at regular intervals (e. The existence of regular indicators gives the tourism sector the ability to influence programs of governments in the field of tourism human resources at many Canadian Tourism Facts and Figures 2001. If there is a large turnover rate. Tourism already faces many challenges attracting labour to the sector. Implementation of changes to business processes suggested by employees can have positive effect on profit. then employees may not be content in their jobs or they are able to find more appealing employment in other sectors.500 people employed as a direct result of tourism spending. Total tourism sector employment growth outpaced the employment growth rate for all industries. Cumulative results can be compared to chart improvements and declines. Box 3. Canadian Tourism It also relates to the ability to recruit and retain good employees.canadatourism.g. the tourism-related industries in Canada employed 1. These indicators are important to illustrate the quality of tourism employment because they demonstrate the type of work environment. 2001 Tourism Performance.pdf Source: Canadian Tourism Human Resources Council Other indicators of interest to level of contentment from tourism sector employment: • • • Retention levels of employees (% turnover per year). training. Indicators regarding labour force..15 Assessing tourism employment in Canada In 1998. If the employees are not content then the quality of employment may be poor. Benchmarks in each category can be set in order to identify standards for employee satisfaction and comparison with other enterprises. the quality of employment offered in the tourism sector must be improved. Canada is facing an overall labour shortage as the retirement of the baby boomer generation is met with a smaller population to follow in their footsteps. generating $22 billion in taxes for all three levels of government. perception in society. http://ftp.canadatourism. Indicators are maintained to measure the above attributes/challenges and to support analyses of tourism labour force trends relative to other sectors. especially in larger companies and establishments.

between species and of ecosystems” (Convention on Biological Diversity 2002). Famous fish head soup. demonstrating an unsafe work environment. this includes diversity within species. Tourism can be a threat to conservation. how and where it develops is of importance to biodiversity conservation. which has been experiencing a rapid growth. China. and at its main event. Because it is based on an enjoyment of the natural and cultural environment.htm. See also ¢ Community and Destination Economic Benefits (p. 3. 128). But in a growing number of cases. and provide an economic incentive to protect habitat that might otherwise be converted to less environmentally friendly land uses. tourism delivers benefits for conservation and provides those in the especially local people. the World Ecotourism Summit: http://www. Well trained workers can be the key to the tourism experience. Biodiversity is a mayor asset for naturebased tourism.4 Tourism as a Contributor to Nature Conservation Financing for Conservation. Constituency Building. can play a positive role in awareness raising and consumer education through its vast distribution Tian Mu Hu. terrestrial. with an economic incentive to protect biodiversity.6. because biodiversity is a critical component of the natural environment that tourists enjoy. tourism can be motivated to protect them. Monitoring is an essential element of . marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part. If there are a number of accidents in the workplace. Note: See the section on ¢ Seasonality (p. Local Economic Alternatives. particularly when tourism development occurs without management standards and hence the importance for monitoring the industry and indicators to help track the industries impact.Part 3 .Sustainability Issues in Tourism 123 become dissatisfied but the quality of the skills will deteriorate. The relationship between tourism and biodiversity may not always be positive. The mutual benefits between sustainably managed tourism and nature conservation have been also recognized throughout the International Year of Ecotourism 2002. inter alia. 111) for an indicator on % of seasonal jobs and also on unemployment off season. Tourist Participation in Conservation The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) defines biodiversity as “the variability among living organisms from all sources including. then it could be surmised that the quality of employment is sub-par. It is clear that tourism has significant potential for contributing to biodiversity conservation.

% of businesses in the destination or near the site contributing to conservation. rather than just inputs e. All stakeholders need to learn and measure biophysical and social conditions of the industry. especially those that permit interaction with local people and their issues and that reveal how ecosystems function. the impact of the industry on nature and quality of the experience).g. Value of contribution from operators (concession fees. WTO and UNEP (2002) includes the following suggestions about the use of indicators to monitor tourism in protected areas: 1. Indicators should try to identify conditions or outputs of tourism development or protected area management e. 4. (Note that the latter are covered in greater detail in the sections on Protecting Critical Ecosystems. Indicators. at parks). 192).. including quantity and quality of interpretative programs. In the following table. and ¢ Controlling Use Intensity p. ”friends of the park”) both locally and in foreign lands. increased support for conservation/development projects and an increased level of commitment and activism.g. conservation site budget originated from tourism activities (cash. The suitability and relevance of indicators should be reviewed from time to time. value of in-kind contributions).g. 147.g. and the level of effort and results associated with controlling negative effects. Step 8 pXXX). 207. the proportion of the park impacted by human activity or annual labor income from tourism. and tourists satisfaction with them. Value of donations received from tourists. donations.. indicators are suggested which document both the positive contributions made by tourists and the industry. Number and % involvement in support clubs (e. include: donations to local conservation projects. % of conservation projects where tourism financial contribution is a component. (i. 3. the money spent on a program.. Value generated through visitor fees (e. They should be relatively easy to measure.) • • • • • • • . The guide on sustainable tourism in protected areas. 2. services provided). published by IUCN. though sometimes difficult to document. % of tourism products (tours etc) with specific contributions built into the price or surcharges. continued correspondence between locals and visitors. depth). % of the protected area. ¢ Development Control p. and Initially only a few key variables be selected for monitoring.124 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook any planning or management of tourism business. Source of financing for biodiversity conservation and maintenance of protected areas (Note need for benchmarking for funds or value of contribution to conservation. (see also Indicators Selection Procedures.e. They should be descriptive rather than evaluative. and issues or conditions that influence tourism activities. p. or income from tourism invested in conservation programs. Indicators should be identified early and should be related to tourism impacts at natural sites. Components of the issue Measuring potential impact of tourism on the natural environment Indicators • • • Reports on a scientific understanding of potential environmental (number. according to the changing conditions. % of projects where tourism impact is evaluated. An indirect indicator would measure the levels of educational and interpretative experiences for visitors.

% of tourists contributing to conservation (by type of contribution: fees. Survey questionnaire re satisfaction (% filling out questionnaire. Value of infrastructure investment by tourism enterprises. Existence of customer code of practice and guidelines (% receiving. 147) • • Provision of opportunities for participation by tourists in conservation (these provide a means of participation in support for conservation) • • • • • • • • . Number (membership) in local programs (lists of supported programs or lists of membership). Level of effort to engage locals in protection activities (number of meetings. Number of conservation organizations coordinating for tourism activities at conservation sites. % of stakeholders for whom materials are in their native language. Percentage compliance (Refer to specific issue sections on each of these impacts). % of the local community employed in conservation activities. clean up days. etc. Number and percentage of locals actively involved in conservation programs.Part 3 . % of the local community employed in tourism. and educational programs). equipment. Level of activity designed to engage tourists in protective activities (measure each appropriate type: information. in-kind. 83. Vehicle and other powered equipment user codes (% receiving. % increase/decline in after visit correspondence from former visitors. waste disposal.g. (Could be in form of "thank you letters". notes in suggestion box. donations. % of tourists who receive conservation materials. construction methods and materials. Number of conservation programs/activities open for tourist participation (level of participation) (e. Number of tour operators offering conservation activities as part of tourist programs (and level of participation). mode of transport. energy efficiency. programs. % compliance). etc) designed to minimize negative impacts. % of tourists aware of importance of conservation site. % who receive. volunteer time). noise pollution. respond. % of tourists participating in protection activities. % of locals who receive conservation materials .).Sustainability Issues in Tourism 125 Components of the issue Economic alternatives for local people to reduce exploitation of wildlife and resources Indicators • • • • • Value of receipts or invoices of funding for local groups. % noting contribution if asked). Applied codes of conduct (group size. Level of cultural sensitivity of educational materials (will require focus groups or textual analysis). % complying). citings on internet websites posted by former tourist visitors. guided learning events). % of goods and services purchased locally. Value and % discounts or incentives for locals. expenditure) – See also Community Involvement and Awareness p. "how can we help letters". staff. % of tourists receiving marketing materials which provide contribution opportunities. % who read. • • • • Constituency building which helps promote biodiversity conservation by tourists • • • • • • • • Site-specific regulations (See also Protecting Critical Ecosystems p. interpretive efforts. respond.

(see the suggested Exit questionnaire and Local questionnaire in Annex C). For information on the reaction by tourists or locals. The results can help direct programs to better engage them in conservation and measure the level of response. there is no single source for information. funding mechanisms and sources of revenue. a questionnaire method will be necessary. donations. One challenge is to identify the broad range of indirect and related contributions made by tourists and the tourism industry. The indicators in this section are designed to document the level of opportunities available to the tourists and the industry to be part of conservation solutions and participate in related activities. in-kind. Means to use the indicators: These indicators help both measure the level of engagement of tourists and their contributions. Park entry Lao Shan. % of tourists participating in protection activities. conservation site budget originated from tourism activities (cash. While many destinations and sites have specific programs to obtain tourism support. Source(s) of information: The information will normally be found in the records of the protected area or in information produced by conservation organizations and local authorities. For greater detail on the benefits that can be associated with tourism. Financial Aspects of Tourism in Protected Areas.WTO. the opportunities to mobilize both tourists and the industry as a whole to support conservation objectives will also grow. China – park fees help pay for protection. % of the protected area. donations). see Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas 2002 (IUCN. and managers will wish to select those most suitable to their destination and their programs. the degree to which they take up the opportunities and the results that are obtained. Reason for use of these indicators: As tourism grows. Chapter 9. volunteer time). % of businesses in the destination or near the site contributing to conservation. donations.UNEP). % of tourists contributing to conservation (by type of contribution: fees. value of in-kind contributions). Benchmarking: Benchmarking will generally occur on a sitespecific basis over time showing changes in level of engagement or support.126 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Key indicators directly measuring contribution are: • • • • • • Value of contribution from operators (concession fees. etc). Value received from tourists ( fees. . The list is long. Shandong.

Botswana Conservation International has been supporting the development of Gudigwa Camp. Biological surveys of pre-determined transects are conducted during each of the Okavango Delta’s distinct seasons in order to monitor the diversity and number of wildlife. a community-based ecolodge development owned by the Bukakhwe Cultural Conservation Trust (BCCT). and. firewood collection. 6. Behavioural. camp guides and community members chart the following indicators when completing a biological survey: 1. Nests. Fresh spoor (both domestic and wildlife). biological surveys.16 Monitoring the Gudigwa Camp Project. The aim of the BCCT is “to achieve a long term and sustainable means of generating income for the Gudigwa community so that traditional culture and nature is conserved. These include: 1.). General demographic data of BCCT members and Gudigwa Village. 4. 3.Part 3 . what was the level of damage. Land-use mapping of the areas surrounding the camp and village record changes in local usage patterns for cattle grazing. structured and unstructured interviews with community members and camp staff. 2. 3. Wildlife (type. Changes in local land-use patterns and how they maybe impacting on biodiversity. and socio-cultural impacts from the newly present tourism in the area. CI-Botswana’s Community Development Officer. and key focus group discussions with representative community members and the BCCT board. Socio-economic benefits to the community. Development of organizational and business structures in the Gudigwa Village.” In order to measure the success of the Gudigwa Camp enterprise in achieving these goals. . Molefe Rantsudu completed its first annual socio-economic and cultural impacts survey of community members in Gudigwa shortly after the opening of Gudigwa Camp. and socio-economic and cultural surveys. local people are educated and trained. birds. 5. number. 6. Methodologies used include secondary research. The camp itself is located 5 kms outside of Gudigwa Village and is one of the first community-owned and operated businesses of its size in the area. Decision-making in households. and our standard of living is raised. etc. Conservation International established a monitoring program. 5.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 127 Box 3. burrows. Socio-cultural and economic roles of community members. Together with the University of Botswana. and tourism activities. Evidence of poaching (traps). Cultural knowledge. 2. 3. Gudigwa Camp opened in March of 2003 and caters to upper end tourists on safari in Botswana. The report will provide the baseline for annual monitoring of the following key indicators: 1. Health and diseases developments. 2. Fire scars (when did the fire occur. sex. agricultural. how long has it been there). and plant species in the area. which tracks a number of critical issues related to both CI and BCCT’s objectives. These issues are monitored using three main instruments: land-use mapping. Wildlife carcasses (what animal. behaviour at sighting). attitudinal. etc. 4. With guidance from CI-Botswana’s Senior Biodiversity Officer.

Are just a few people profiting.16 (cont.6. Ideally the measurement of economic benefits would be integrated with socio-cultural benefits with a full social benefit/cost analysis (see related section on ¢ Effects of Tourism on Communities p. 10. Is the community as a whole making economic gains?. The potential economic gains for the community through tourism employment.) 7. (See Leakage p.19 and http://www. These economic considerations also have a socio-cultural element. Tourism Revenues. on taxes earned from tourism businesses. tour bus operations. Work on satellite accounts for tourism (See Box 3. 5.5 Community and Destination Economic Benefits ¢ Baseline Issue Capturing Benefits. Taxes. hunting. What are the economic multipliers? Communities can estimate their economic inputs and outputs to demonstrate spin-offs in other business generation beyond tourism. outsiders may own the major hotels. Changes in perceptions towards wildlife. crafts and construction. 3. for example. To what extent do outsiders (not-resident at the destination) control tourism businesses and profits? For example.storefront/EN/product/1194-1 for details and methodology) will help to clarify the economic contribution of tourism.128 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Box 3. 57). and. in direct and indirect jobs created. Tourism may also bring indirect economic benefits through the development of support services and increased opportunities in other industries ranging from food and agriculture to hardware. business development and revenue must be weighed against community expenditures that support tourism and the possible increase in the cost of living or change of lifestyle for residents. or attractions. or are the benefits widely spread?. Tourism Contribution to the Local Economy. but in practice it often tends to be complex and costly. On the negative side. What is the economic leakage? How much tourism revenue is leaving the community? Smaller and less developed communities may show greater economic leakage if many goods and services have to be brought in from the outside. 3. Socio-cultural impacts i. 6. Such an analysis may yield indicators such as the net benefit of each additional tourist to a destination. 1. A community needs to evaluate the return on its own investment in tourism. accommodation owners and other suppliers. 8. and any increase in asset value (land and infrastructure prices). Community Investment. Questions to consider include. 9. on revenue earned from tourist spending. Communities need to consider how much tourism (and how many tourists) they want and what assets they have to make the community a destination. Satellite Account Tourism can bring investment and employment opportunities to a destination. Business Investment. 177). and tourism. Impacts of tourism on employment and household economic economic leakage may result in much of the economic benefit being siphoned off to outside tour operators.e migration. . A balance must be found between the overall welfare of the community and that of the tourism industry. How is tax money from tourism spent?. Perceived benefits from the camp. creating diversified local economies. 4. It can also bring investment in public sector infrastructure and services. and efforts to implement such procedures are under way in many countries.

Number of tourism businesses in the community. Local GDP and % due to tourism (see Box 3. etc. transportation. Average tourism wage/average wage in community. % increase/decrease in average family weekly income. Ratio of tourism employment to total employment.). Tourist numbers. Ratio of the number of local to external businesses involved in tourism. human resources development. Revenue from business permits. Annual expenditures on tourism (% of total tourism revenue). Asset value of tourism businesses and % owned locally. Cost of tourism advertising and promotion per number of tourists. and % owned locally. Revenues generated by tourism as % of total revenues generated in the community ¢ Baseline Indicator. Amount and % of infrastructure expenditures for tourism. energy. Tourist spending/spending per tourist. food production. Total fees collected by community for access/use of community attractions.19 on Tourism Satellite Accounts). Number and type of business permits and licences issued. Longevity of tourism businesses (rate of turnover). air quality. licenses or concessions and taxation. % of tourism jobs held by local residents.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 129 Components of the issue Employment (see also issue section on Employment p. Business investment in tourism Tourism revenue Community expenditures • • • • • • Net economic benefits • • Changes in cost of living • • • . leisure etc. Net tourism revenues accruing to the community. Average tourism employee income (and ratio to community average). roads. Ratio of part time to full time employment in tourism. % increase/decrease in expenditures (groceries. Amount and % of total annual operating expenditures for tourism . % increase/decrease in land and housing prices over time.Part 3 . Occupancy rates in accommodation establishments. Existence of tourism budget/plan. waste management. Amount and % contribution of tourism revenues to the cost of water. 119) Indicators • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Number of local people (and ratio of men to women) employed in tourism ¢ Baseline Indicator. sewage. Economic Multipliers: Amount of additional revenue in other businesses for every dollar of tourism revenue (based on satellite accounts where available).

(p. The following economic indicators have been proposed by a research team at the Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas.pdf See also the issue section on ¢ Effects of Tourism on Communities (p. Average tourism employee income (and ratio to community average). 119) for additional indicators related to human resources for the tourism industry). Heraklion Greece for use at the local scale for Mediterranean destinations: Economic Indicators • • • • • • Employment in tourism as a percentage of total employment. Reason for use of these indicators: Employment is a key factor in many decisions to support and invest in tourism. communities can compare their achievements and make decisions to improve tourism throughout the region. Average tourism wage/average wage in community. municipal or industry By working together to monitor tourism. Ratio of tourism employment to total employment. Leaders and politicians are often heard to quote the number of jobs tourism development will bring. Benchmarking: Tourism employment indicators can be used as benchmarks for comparison with other sectors and as a guide to the community’s dependence on tourism. Source: http://www. . Number of “locals” employed in tourism as a percentage of total employment in Revenues generated by tourism as a percentage of total revenues generated in the area. Source(s) of data: Employment/unemployment statistics from local.17 Sustainable tourism indicators for Mediterranean destinations: Economic measures Destinations and communities in a geographic area often have much in common. Box 3. Ratio of part time to full time employment in tourism.pdf ) with one of the key issues being availability of data – particularly to estimate multipliers and leakage. Income multiplier for the tourism sector as estimated in an input-output table. Means to use the indicators: Employment numbers and ratios. % of tourism jobs held by local residents. Revenues exported as a percentage of total revenues in the business establishments owned by foreigners. Compare over time for the same destination. wage rates and income levels are key indicators in the assessment of the benefits of tourism to a community or destination.130 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Indicators regarding employment: • • • • • • Number of local people (men and women) employed in tourism ¢ Baseline Indicator. Business establishments offering tourist services and owned by locals as a percentage of all business establishments.iacm. 57) for the related socio-cultural indicators proposed for Mediterranean destinations. (See also the Issue section on Employment.forth. The indicators suggested here help put tourism employment in perspective with other industries. A pilot application was done to test the indicators in Hersonissos Greece (http://www.

contribution to GDP. Longevity of tourism businesses (rate of turnover) (% over one year.Part 3 . community financial statements. Indicators regarding tourism revenues: • • • • • • Tourist spending/spending per tourist. ¢ Tourist numbers. multipliers and leakage is very complex and may require satellite accounts and detailed economic studies). and to community revenue. commercial accommodation.g. five years in business). Business registration data. Source(s) of data: Local. Asset value of tourism businesses and % owned locally. Reason for use of these indicators: As a basis to monitor the increase/decrease in tourist spending. 134). Revenues generated by tourism as % of total revenues generated in the community ¢ Baseline Indicator. Ratio of the number of local to external businesses involved in tourism. Total fees collected by community for access/use of community attractions.pdf .Sustainability Issues in Tourism 131 Indicators regarding business investment in tourism: • • • • • • Number of tourism businesses in the community. e. Actual calculation of contribution (net gain. Revenue from business permits and taxation. Source(s) of data: Business income filing records. municipal or regional business directories. and % owned locally. For information on visitor spending survey techniques see both the material on exit questionnaires in Annex C and the WTO document “Measuring visitor expenditure on inbound tourism” at: http://www. Means to use the indicators: Show the commercial investment in tourism. Local gross domestic product (GDP) and % due to tourism (according to satellite accounts if possible (See Box 3. tax records. net benefit/cost. Positive changes can become a further stimulus to assist communities to attract new business investment or to encourage new local entrepreneurs. licensing and quality control for tour operator licences. (See http://www. retained from total expenditures) See WTO website re leakage and multipliers. Benchmarking: Communities can set benchmarks to monitor the successful establishment of tourism businesses and to measure the extent to which the tourism industry is broadly or locally and the dynamism of the industry. or concessions under community control. The number of opening and closing ventures can give information on the stability of tourism-related businesses (rate of turnover).19 p. Revenue retention (% exported. Comparisons can be made with investment in other sectors. Number and type of business permits and licences issued at the local level.pdf) for some guidance on how to approach this indicator. Reason for use of these indicators: Knowing the extent to which community members have invested in their own region is important to determine how and if a community should encourage local or outside tourism development or if they should slow down development.

Economic multipliers may be available as industry standards or national level estimates but need care in use due to variability between places. This information can also serve as a reference for the setting of fees or tax rates. These indicators should be used in conjunction with other indicators on non-economic and socio-economic benefits. Amount and % contribution of tourism sector to costs of infrastructure. Benchmarking: Best done in conjunction with information on net economic benefits (tourism revenues less expenditures or use of satellite accounting for tourism). Amount and % of infrastructure expenditures for tourism. Economic leakage may be similarly difficult to establish. Economic multipliers (attributable to tourism) – from tourism satellite accounts where available. Amount and % of total annual operating expenditures for tourism. Indicators of net economic benefits: • • Net tourism revenues accruing to the community (see Box 3. or a detailed social benefit cost analysis to be done to obtain the information.19). . Reason for use of these indicators: A community needs to know how much is being spent on the provision of tourism services and infrastructure and who pays for what. Benchmarking: Economic experts may be contracted for input-output analysis to establish net economic benefits. Benchmarking: A basic budget should be set as a benchmark for operating. Where the destination is not a discrete spatial unit with the ability to measure border costs and benefits (or inflows and outflows of investment and goods and services) it may not be possible to create these indicators. Means to use the indicators: Expenditures need to be used in conjunction with current and forecast revenue projections as a way to establish the level of investment or the sense or viability of continuing to invest in tourism. These indicators are often raised by destinations to help understand whether the net benefit of existing or new tourism is positive. local authorities or tourism organizations. Indicators relating to community expenditures: • • • • • Annual expenditures on tourism.132 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Means to use the indicators: Help inform decisions on types of tourism and tourists that are likely to give the best economic return to the community.18 and Box 3. or if more spending for provision of tourism infrastructure would be needed. The indicators can help answer whether it would be better to spend money on something else like alternative employment or welfare programs for example. Reason for use of these indicators: To help determine if it makes economic sense to invest in tourism infrastructure and services. leakage and multipliers. Cost of community advertising and promotion per number of tourists. Source(s) of data: Often difficult to obtain meaningful data on net tourism revenue. It is advisable to set capital expenditure and public investment plans for mid-term periods (at least a five year time frame). Means to use the indicators: Use as broad measures of economic benefits. Note that these indicators are very complex and may require a tourism satellite account to be created. Source(s) of data: Community records. Access to commercial revenue data may be limited due to lack of collection or confidentiality.

This means that there was $4. Box 3. See website for more examples from this source. So the estimated total expenditures of visitors is $ then retail tax revenues from tourists would be $11.000 + $80.000.000 x .000 x . % increase/decrease in price of tourism and other business real estate.000. If the city retail tax is also 2 percent.000/$250.000 on taxable retail items. (From Julie Leones and Douglas Dun: Strategies for Monitoring Tourism in Your Community's Economy (1999) . Total direct revenues from tourists are $222.000. Bed Tax: This community has a 2 percent bed tax and collected $80. . % increase/decrease in average family weekly income and expenditures (groceries. See also the issue on “Tourism and Poverty Alleviation” (p..02 = $222.135) for other indicators related to lifestyles and economic benefits. changes in costs of living and their components (e.pdf. leisure etc).18 Estimating direct revenues and direct costs from tourism.000 = $ Note: for information on visitor spending survey techniques see both the material on exit questionnaires in Annex C and the methodological website at: www.000 in bed tax revenues.worldtourism.Part 3 .2.100.pdf).200.61 = $11. page direct revenues more than cover the direct promotion costs of $250.e.. City Retail Tax: The same survey shows that 61 percent of all visitor expenditures are on taxable retail items (i. accommodation). In this case. Visitors spent a total of $18.000.g. Estimate of Visitor Spending: Let's say that a recent survey tells us that 22 percent of visitor expenditures are on lodging.arizona.000 in lodging expenditures in the community.000 = 1. groceries are not included). The ratio of revenues to costs is then $302.: http://cals.000.100.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 133 Other potential indicators: • • • • % increase/decrease in land and housing prices over time.22 = $18. Promotion and Operation Costs: Let's say the annual costs for tourism promotion and operation of the visitor center plus other local public service costs are $250. transportation.

it becomes more practical to calculate and use complex indicators such as the following: • • • • • • • • Tourism’s contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Source: WTO Basic Concepts of the Tourism Satellite Account. information on the characteristics of human resources in tourism. using a common method which will permit comparisons over time and with other countries.134 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Box 3. Tax revenues generated by tourism. like tourism. data on tourism related to a nation’s balance of payments. food and beverage services. Many of the most important economic indicators have proven difficult to extract from traditional sources of data. the Organization has been actively promoting the development of National Systems of Tourism Statistics through training programmes and technical assistance. or 624.19 Tourism Satellite Accounts (TSA) Satellite accounts are a procedure to measure the size of economic sectors which. As increasing numbers of countries establish TSAs.200 were employed in tourism-related industries in France in 2000. 2. A Tourism Satellite Account (TSA) is a means to calculate tourist consumption of these goods and services supplied within a country. Initiatives are now under way to try to develop regional and destination level tourism satellite accounts. that are not defined as industries in national accounts. See also the WTO website at: http://www. 119). The Tourism Satellite Account represents a principal field of activity of the World Tourism Organization. is an amalgam of industries such as transportation. Tourism’s ranking relative to other economic sectors.5% of GDP in Australia in 1997-98. a powerful tool to help design economic policies related to tourism development. and total value of tourism to an economy. Tourism’s impact on a nation’s balance of payments. Tourism. Indicators important to tourism include leakage (See Leakage p. for example. Canada. allowing similar measures at a more local level. and countries such as Australia. WTO was instrumental in developing a conceptual framework and a standardized methodology for TSA that was approved by United Nations Statistical Commission (UNSC) in 2000.html . Characteristics of tourism’s human resources. 117) employment in tourism (See Employment p. 3 4. The number of jobs created by tourism in an recreation and entertainment and travel agencies. Tourism consumption. among others. Tourism Satellite Accounts are designed to provide: 1. The amount of tourism investment. 5. New Zealand and the United States now are able to report such results as tourism counted for 4. Work on TSAs has focused on the national level. accommodation. Chile. Based on this framework. France. a standard framework for organizing statistical data on credible data on the impact of tourism and the associated employment.

poorer parts of urban communities may not be in a position to benefit from tourism which occurs in their urban Sustainable tourism strives to contribute to the ecological. Providing paid employment in the community may not be the only (or the best) way to improve livelihood standards. SMEs Tourism is an important economic base for many of the world’s poorest nations. are often a better indicator of poverty reduction.Part 3 . . generating foreign exchange earnings.6. Box employment and funds for development. the positive value of tourism is perhaps best observed at the local level in Least Developed Countries (LDDs) where the real contribution of tourism can be measured directly in terms of poverty alleviation. tourism management in protected areas.). however.html http://www. launched at WSSD. Marginalised and indigenous communities are often located in isolated rural areas that have not benefited from traditional forms of development. Capacity building and training seminars on poverty reduction through tourism development and related issues (e. The main activities of this programme include: • • • The Sustainable Development – Eliminating Poverty (ST-EP) Initiative.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 135 3.Johannesburg 2002). Tourism development may be able to not just increase cash income but also support the community’s livelihood priorities. It can also be an important revenue generator for less developed areas within developing and developed countries. Reduction of poverty through the sustainable development of tourism has become a central issue in the work of the Organization since the Summit on World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD .6 Tourism and Poverty Alleviation Equity. etc. economic and social well-being of all destinations. Country missions to identify tourism projects that can specifically target poverty reduction.20 The World Tourism Organization’s programme for poverty reduction through tourism WTO has been assisting developing countries to strengthen their national and local economies through tourism development since its foundation in 1975. possession of tools) rather than an income. considering their rich natural and cultural heritage that provides a good potential for tourism development and operations. business ownership. Assets. Micro Enterprises. More information: http://www. Employment and Income Opportunities. in pursuit of the UN Millennium Development Goals. Many developed and less developed countries have a comparative advantage in tourism resources. indicators. (% home ownership. Similarly. as a growing asset base provides greater stability and more opportunity to diversify income-generating

legal conditions. income per hour worked). 1. Ratio of time dedicated to tourism versus tourism income (i. 2. contract). accommodation and catering. % local workers employed at different skill levels (unskilled. e. administrative. or community based enterprises • • .g.g. technical. Capacity building for establishment and improvement of MSMEs: number of programmes/events. middle/senior management. etc. level provided/used.storefront/EN/product/1349-1 Components of the issue Stabilising and improving the community’s income Indicators • • • • Annual total income generated by the community. 6. guiding. tour operation. Number of tourism-related MSMEs operating in the community (subdivided by types. special credits. Incentives for MSMEs (e. Investment in infrastructure stimulated by tourism also benefiting the poor in the locality.e.). Tax or levy on tourism income or profits with proceeds benefiting the tax grants. More information: http://www. small and medium sized enterprises (MSMEs). 7. Indicators can be established to monitor activities related to these practical approaches.21 How can spending associated with tourism reach the poor? The WTO publication “Tourism and Poverty Alleviation: Recommendations for Action” identifies seven ways in which the poor can benefit directly or indirectly from tourism. Establishment and running of tourism enterprises by the poor . 3. % indigenous people employed directly by tourism (if appropriate). % full time. level of participation. 5.136 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Box 3. Total number of workers in the community (% workers in the community directly employed by tourism. Direct sales of goods and services to visitors by the poor (informal economy).e. • small and medium sized enterprises (MSMEs). etc. Supply of goods and services to tourism enterprises by the poor or by enterprises employing the poor. transportation. Ratio of income attributable to tourism versus traditional income generating activities. Ratio of local to “outsiders” directly employed by tourism. Voluntary giving/support by tourism enterprises and tourists. Ratio of men to women employed directly by tourism.): availability. or community based enterprises (formal economy).g. Employment of the poor in tourism enterprises. 4. % part time). micro. Improving local employment opportunities • • • • • Operation and support of micro. directly or through support to other sectors. Ratio of time dedicated to tourism versus traditional income generating activities.

• • • • Evaluating less tangible. how much was attributable to tourism and the percentage of time that was dedicated to each income generating activity. Ratio of income attributable to tourism versus traditional income generating activities. decreased vulnerability to external conditions. natural resource may be a challenge to extract statistics for poor cohorts or poor districts.¢ Effects of Tourism on Communities (p. Annual audit of the contribution of different activities to household needs. Number and type of development programs in place (education. Infrastructure development stimulated by tourism also benefiting the poor in the locality (directly or through support to other sectors): amount of investment. Reason for use of these indicators: To directly measure tourism’s contribution to community earnings. 65). 119). extension of new infrastructure. Employment (p.g. Annual financial contribution by tourism to community projects (common fund. top 5%. Source(s) of data: Survey with community members (particularly leaders) to determine how much income was generated over the last year. Community survey assessment of the usefulness and success of the various development programs. training. Government employment statistics may be available. decreased vulnerability to external policy. See also issue sections on Access by Local Residents to Key Assets(p. 128). Ratio of time dedicated to tourism versus traditional income generating activities. ).Sustainability Issues in Tourism 137 Components of the issue Achieving equitable distribution of tourism funds / benefits across the community Indicators • % workers in the community directly employed by ratio of the top to the lowest paid local tourism worker (cohort distribution of income from tourism – e. 57) and ¢ Economic Benefits (p. health. cultural values and physical security). livelihood priorities • • Other related issues • Indicators re stabilizing and improving the community’s income: • • • • Annual total income generated by the community. conservation etc. noneconomic.Part 3 . bottom 5%). ability to meet cash needs. . tourism taxes or net value of programs). the inter-relationship with traditional income earning activities and time versus tourism earnings to measure if effort results in profit. Survey of household capacity to fulfil livelihood priorities for the year (rating level of food security. local empowerment. Ratio of time dedicated to tourism versus tourism income.

are often reluctant to report their earnings. Ratio of locals working full to part time or casual. agriculture due to drought) can be compensated by other activities (such as tourism). Maputo. indirect indicators can be more suitable. The ratio of time dedicated to tourism versus other traditional income earning activities is important in assessing the reliance of the community on tourism. % local workers employed at different skill levels ranging from unskilled. Community members. ability to send children to school etc. It is possible to discover from tourists what they have been spending and where. as surveying on direct indicators can be intrusive. Similarly it is a relatively easy matter to identify from the tourism industry the amount of money that is being spent in the local community. Source: Final Report of the Seminar on Planning. Time invested in tourism versus tourism earnings will determine how effective (and efficient) local efforts are in producing tourism-derived profit. Indicators re improving local employment opportunities: (see also the section on Employment 128). http://www. 2002. Mozambique. it is important that locals continue to invest time in each income generating area. % indigenous people employed directly by tourism (if appropriate). % workers in the community directly employed by tourism ¢ Baseline Indicator (see ¢ Economic Benefits p. Surveys of tourist expenditure can reveal a great deal about community benefits without having to investigate household earnings in rural communities. senior management to self .138 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Box 3. 119) • • • • • • • Total number of workers in the community. especially women. Reason for use of these indicators: It is often assumed that tourism will generate employment opportunities for local people but this is not necessarily the case. Development and Management of Ecotourism in Africa. For this strategy to work. better housing. technical. Another possible approach is to measure household income and other community indicators from the demand side. Ratio of men to women employed directly by Regional Preparatory Meeting for the International Year of Ecotourism. 5-6 March 2001. Further analysis could help the community to identify longer-term patterns.e.employed. Benchmarking: Over time the community will obtain baseline data that enables a year’s earnings to be benchmarked against that of previous years. The proportion of income derived from tourism directly outlines the real net economic benefit of tourism in the community. as tourism companies may bring in their pre-trained staff to run operations rather than invest in training locals. Diversification of income generating activities creates a buffer from external threats whereby shortfalls in one area (i. set goals and strategies to maximise income generation.22 The challenge of monitoring household earnings Monitoring of household earnings in rural communities can have constraints. middle management. and from this information to make good estimates of the amount of money flowing into local communities from tourism. If women are required to reveal their earnings from tourism they often lose their control over these family resources. These indicators . Other. in that they are in the public domain: for example the number of bicycles. Ratio of local to “outsiders” directly employed by tourism. administrative.htm (see section on “Events” and “WTO Regional Ecotourism Conferences and Seminars”) Means to use the indicators: The total income is an indicator of the economic well-being of the community that can be assessed year to year.

Ratio of the top to the lowest paid local tourism worker. Source(s) of data: Local government records. accommodation and catering. Means to use the indicators: Indicators on the development and operation of enterprises in poor communities provide baseline information on local economic development and they can serve as performance measure of support programmes. women and indigenous people. enhanced quality standard of services and access to support programmes and incentives. Data corresponding to the other indicators may be available from tourism business employee records. if education and training programs are enabling local people to move into more senior roles and to see if programs for women or indigenous peoples result in their greater integration into the industry. e. showing trends over time at destinations and project sites. Indicators re achieving equitable distribution of tourism funds / benefits across the community: • • • % workers in the community directly employed by tourism (as above). Benchmarking: Between destinations. . but the formation of small enterprises is vital for more stable economic activities. special credits. The first three indicators measure the direct contribution of tourism to employment generation in the community. Incentives for MSMEs (e. those most vulnerable to poverty. who is getting these positions and how many people are leaving their traditional activities to participate in tourism. Also calculate relationship between poorest cohorts (e. % total tourism income received by the most highly paid cohort in local tourism. grants.): availability. development and support programmes. Benchmarking: Best done as comparison over time for the same destination. transportation. Indicators on operation and support of micro. Means to use the indicators: These indicators can show need for action to address employment access issues. and improvement of MSMEs: number of Reason for use of these indicators: Poor communities can benefit through direct sales of goods and services to tourists in the informal economy. industry registers. etc. amount provided.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 139 help the community to measure tourism employment in terms of new jobs. The fifth identifies whether the opportunities are full time or must be complemented by other income generating activities. types of jobs. The final two indicators address the equitable distribution of employment opportunities within the community by specifically targeting information on traditionally marginalised groups.g. The fourth indicator aims to measure the employment options tourism is creating for the local people (also infers income levels available to local people). Capacity building for establishment programmes/events.g bottom 10%) and overall data. or community based enterprises: • • • Number of tourism-related MSMEs operating in the community (subdivided by types. and to measure progress towards resolution. community groups and leaders. tax advantage.g.Part 3 . tour operation. The community can see if tourism measures up to its promises but also target employment towards specific sectors of their community. level of participation. etc. local authorities. for example. The community can measure itself over time to see.). small and medium sized enterprises (MSMEs). guiding. Source(s) of data: Development and support programmes/projects. census data or community leaders should be able to provide the total number of workers in their community.

in order to fulfil broader community development objectives. Details of the different programs may be obtained from the project coordinators. and then assess. Benchmarking: The community can compare the data over time or use it to establish goals to improve the distribution of tourism income within their community. Source(s) of data: Tourism businesses should be able to outline employment details and the different levels of income within their organization. tourism taxes or net value of individual programs). The closer the ratio between the incomes of the top paid worker(s) to the lowest paid worker (i. It is effectively an audit of development programs enabling the community to review. They may provide information on their community projects or this may be available from local community groups and leaders. These indicators address economic and social accountability. Means to use the indicators: In most cases. vulnerability to external conditions. should have data on their operations.e. Survey of household capacity to fulfil livelihood priorities for the year (rating level of food security.140 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook • • Annual financial contribution by tourism to community projects (common fund. the economic and non-economic value of these programs. Also to evaluate indirect benefits. the total annual financial contribution by tourism to the fund (transparency) and assessment of the utility / success of programs. Common funds and community programs enable the positive influence of tourism to extend beyond those directly involved in the industry. for the purposes of responsible management. the more evenly financial benefits are shared. Discussions around the allocation of community funds will be easier when the community knows how many of each type of program exists and can choose to support the most successful (as determined by community surveys). Reason for use of these indicators: Provides a non-economic assessment of development achievements within the community. . extension of new infrastructure. non-economic. 2:1 instead of 8:1).. vulnerability to external policy. the community benefits when tourism income is shared across the community. conservation etc. cultural value and physical security). Managers of community funds. ability to meet cash needs. livelihood priorities: • • Annual audit of the contribution of different activities to household needs. health. Indicators re evaluating less tangible. local empowerment. accruing through infrastructure development stimulated by tourism investment. Ideally tourism should be challenged to increase its contribution to shared funds and this can be measured year to year. natural resource management. training. the greater number of people will share in tourism income. • • Reason for use of these indicators: To measure the distribution of tourism-derived income from direct employment. The greater the % of the community working in tourism. Infrastructure development stimulated by tourism also benefiting the poor in the locality (directly or through support to other sectors): amount of investment. and to then audit the amount of money tourism contributes to common funds and community-level development objectives.). The % total tourism income gained by the highest paid individual is another indicator of whether tourism reaps benefits for all or a select few. Surveys and interviews would be required to assess the broader community opinion on the successes and downfalls of the development programs. Community survey assessment of the usefulness and success of the various development programs (community Questionnaire Annex C). Number and type of development programs in place (education.

Land tenure issues can also be important relating to community control over their lands. Means to use the indicators: An annual audit of the contribution of different activities to household needs firstly identifies the basic needs of each household and then ranks the contribution of tourism compared to other activities but it is a “level of importance” rather than an “economic” ranking. by evaluating where households fell short of achieving their goals. positive economic and social outcomes. indicates in which areas development programs should target their poverty alleviation strategies and how tourism can contribute to them. Note: some of the indices can be complex and may not be easily obtained without explicit surveys. Note that the ratings may require professional analysis and community level research to obtain data. It is a guide to the social acceptability of tourism among workers. relies heavily on tourist interest in culture. focus groups. Therefore several of the indicators used to address other issues will also be of interest. 57) ¢ Economic Benefits (p. 65). as it Bongani South Africa. 128). Sustainable development of tourism. . 119). ownership of local land (is it being sold to outsiders?) and. useful for strategic planning. these data may be obtainable from government or NGO sources who undertake such surveys. particularly those related to Employment (p. Benchmarking: The community can review how different needs have been addressed over-time and determine where weaknesses still lie in their development programs. community meetings and discussions with community leaders.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 141 Source(s) of data: Community surveys. access of locals to their community spaces. ¢ Effects of Tourism on Communities (p.Part 3 . If poverty is an important issue. The household survey. Local performers benefit from relates to poverty alleviation. (See Access by Local Residents p. importantly. amount of land that tourism is subsuming each year.

carefully considered each livelihood factor. nor other tourism developments. The community decided to go ahead with the tented camp because there was less risk to the potential cash income (as the company was well established) and also because this proposal did not jeopardise current income generating activities (as grazing rights were secured. Low risk – well established company.23 Tourism and poverty alleviation in Namibia In Namibia. the main livelihood priorities were: to increase food security.000 per year. Unclear ownership at end of contract. instead. Access to a larger mixed-use area. signed and implemented. Comparison of the tented camp and lodge proposals Proposal 1: Tented Camp Likely community income of N$ 50-70. These examples show that a number of factors are involved in the selection of alternatives. decrease vulnerability to external policy and conditions (including drought). exclusive lodge. In the Torra Conservancy. foster cultural values and maintain the physical security of residents. Plans changed. as was full access to important drought water resources). Proposal 2: Lodge Possible community income of N$100-200. and also define some of the values which it will be useful to monitor over time with indicators.142 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Box 3. Wanted 30 year contract. Community free to develop trophy hunting if area agreed with the company. Contract negotiated. No other lodges/camps in large area. increase local empowerment. Exclusive use of a small tourism-only area. Clear on what was wanted. London. Area included a spring useful for droughts. Decisions were based on the details provided in each proposal. meet cash needs. a 16-bed tented camp was determined to be more appropriate than a small. in contrast the lodge required a 30 year contract and post-contract ownership of the facility was unclear. goal posts moved. According to livelihood priorities. Wanted rights to both tourism and trophy hunting. Overseas Development Institute. The contract period was less for the tented camp and long term ownership was retained by the community. 2000. residents negotiated with two tourism companies but selected only one project (even though the projects were not mutually exclusive). but plans for the latter remained unclear. Draft contracts negotiated but did not proceed. Exclusive use of large area: no livestock or people. summarised in the table below. Source: Ashley. Local tourism decision-making did not place emphasis on cash income but. High risk – no tourism track record. UK. . The impacts of tourism on rural livelihoods: Namibia’s experience. for example. 10 year contract with 5 year renewal. C.000 per year. Community gains ownership in years 11 – 15.

and external crises forced upon destinations.g. 3. 4. 2003 A successful competitive tourism strategy will yield above average returns for a destination when compared to others. Long-term Profitability Unlike most of the other issues discussed in this section.6. the competitiveness of a destination is a relative measure. niche tourism products and markets). national or international basis. CABI Publishing. but it must also consider socio-cultural. political competitiveness. Brent Ritchie & Geoffrey L. 6. even though there may be many changes. If tourism at a destination is to be sustainable. the renaissance of the city-state. Indicators must be collected and valid over many years to show long-term profitability and stability at a destination. Business Cooperation. For example. Box 3. The dimensions of tourism competitiveness considered include: 1. The natural and cultural assets and advantages of a destination need to be protected in the long term and not exploited in the short term. how a destination’s tourism profile compares to others. socio-cultural competitiveness.Part 3 . Contributing factors in this evolution include the travel experience demanded by tourists.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 143 3. and other factors. 2. and environmental competitiveness. how it competes on price or quality. some significant and unexpected. environmental.24 The dimensions of tourism competitiveness A recent publication suggests that the nature of tourism competitiveness and sustainability is evolving. technological competitiveness. Source: The Competitive Destination: A Sustainable Tourism Perspective J. Specialization. some gradual and planned. or a focus strategy to serve a particular target better than more broad-based competitors (e. 5. The key components of the competitiveness issue and corresponding indicators are the following: . demographics. Measuring success can be difficult. Any indicators of competitiveness relate to how well a destination is doing compared to others. not only must it be economically profitable over the long run and compete successfully with other destinations on a local. Crouch. competitive advantage is achieved because of cost advantages (and hence price). Differentiation. Oxford. differentiation (a unique product or bundle of products and services or perceived uniqueness).7 Competitiveness of Tourism Businesses Price and Value. or the extent to which it is carving out its own niche to differentiate itself from other destinations. Competitive strategy economic theory suggests that at the core. Vitality.R. Quality. economic competitiveness.

level of participation in support schemes. ¢ Occupancy rates for Accommodation (See ¢ Seasonality p. costs of services and supplies. a perception of exclusivity may allow higher prices to be charged) Specialty niches/focus strategy Narrowing the focus for tourism products and target markets. branding of the destination. Intangibles.. standards perceived or psychological advantages (e. See also Image and Branding (p. Benchmarking is critical for competitiveness. Strength of membership in tourism industry associations (number. Research.g. overheads & premiums. destination “appeal” . Business clusters around a theme e. a “food and wine cluster” involving accommodation.g. environmental and political factors (and issues) addressed in other parts of this book are important. 111) Vitality of the industry • • • • • • • In a nutshell. branding. image. and vice-versa.g. Attractiveness compared to similar destinations. The longevity of tourism businesses (rate of turnover). most of the social. Expectations met or exceeded.. Level of participation by business in tourism strategy development. Annual profit of tourism businesses.144 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Components of the issue Cost advantages. • • • Measure of uniqueness.4.g. tourist “experiences” . cuisine. Re-sale value of tourism businesses (average for type of business). training. training. because competitiveness . %). attractions. and marketing initiatives. % of tourism revenue due to niche products or clusters.. chefs. Value/price rating by tourists.5) in the country (in the world) offering. Sustainability is in some ways a synonym for competitiveness – in that those enterprises which are competitive over the long term are more likely to be sustainable. Inherent attractions. retaining) transportation costs Differentiation Unique products and experiences. restaurants. e. Amount and % of public authority budget designated for supporting business development. wine merchants Cooperation/overcoming fragmentation Cooperation amongst businesses. • • • • • % of tourists attracted to destination because of unique features (questionnaire). destination is the only location for………(a specific type of activity. 236). a successful competitive strategy yields better profits – over time. support for small businesses Indicators • Cost/Price ratios (including gross margin) of accommodation. destination is one of only 2 (or 3.. % of marketing expenditures in cooperative initiatives (e.. as they will affect the bottom line..(specify). positioning the destination. Number (or %) of tourism businesses and support services within a “cluster”. human resources costs (hiring. • • • • % of tourism businesses that have integrated their goals and objectives with the destination tourism strategy. attraction). through private associations and joint public-private initiatives). cycle tours. % of tourism business participating in cooperative marketing. quality. common marketing. price and value Input costs: employment. Rating of destination by tourists. As a consequence. taxes. Tourism revenues (growth rates).. specialty book stores. tours or packages compared to industry norms or ratios for similar products at other destinations. vineyards.

. Ritchie and Crouch 2003) suggest a compound competitiveness indicator that combines yearly profitability with environmental and socio-cultural indicators of significance to the destination – such complex measures can be done but may be very difficult to support for most destinations). and what the critical elements of features of the destination are from a tourist’s point of view.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 145 is inherently a comparative measure demonstrating that the destination or enterprise is better (or not) than the average. etc. Gross margin (direct cost of sales as % of revenue).g. the others. Note that some authors (e. Benchmarking: A destination wishing to stay highly differentiated (e. Some features may be of minor importance or lose their appeal over time. and higher percentages of tourists attracted by uniqueness as benchmarks. % of tourism revenue due to niche products or clusters. Benchmarks provide comparisons to other similar destinations. Some tourism industry associations may share information amongst members. These indicators give a measure of the effectiveness of competing with niche products for specific target markets. Ways to use the indicators: To determine if the attractiveness of the destination is enduring over time. Indicators of price and value: • • Cost/price ratios. Indicators related to attractiveness: • • • % of tourists attracted by unique features. Reason for use of these indicators: To determine cost as a percent of sales as an indication of cost advantages or the need to trim costs to compete. Uniqueness ratings (from questionnaire). Value/Price measures (from questionnaire).g. but these ratios tend to be business confidential. but perhaps negatively impact the opportunities for wildlife watching or birding enthusiasts. others may be more important or gain in importance. For example a rainforest area may increase the number of general interest nature tourists. a specialty niche) will refer to higher measures of uniqueness. key competitors. Benchmarks may be used across a range of features at a destination or within a tourism cluster – these will likely have to be collected directly from the tourists.Part 3 . If a destination is successful in a given niche. there may be a tendency for more generic tourism to develop. perhaps changing the nature of the destination. Source(s) of data: Tourism business financial data Ways to use the indicators: Ratios can be compared to industry norms.. Source(s) of data: Questionnaire to tourists on location or after their visit. Ratios may be an aggregate for a company’s total sales or based on prices charged and costs for the specific tourism products sold. It may be useful to ask tourists to compare to other destinations relative to their perception of uniqueness or value for price. Reason for use of indicators: To assess the extent to which a destination’s unique features are core to attracting tourists and delivering a satisfying experience for the price paid. Benchmarking: Various input costs such as labour and transportation provide benchmarks against which to measure success in minimizing cost/price ratios. Other indicators of factors related to competitiveness: • • Number (or %) of tourism businesses and support services within a “cluster”.

Source: http://www. • Product Quality: shortfalls in the tourism sector (particularly small hotels. it may take the use of several of these indicators to support dialogue on the issue in a given • Commitment: shortfalls in commitment to the importance of tourism and the absence of strong tourism awareness programs. Both these indicators tracked over the long term give a destination a measure of its competitive success. rather than competing against each other.25 Caribbean Program for Economic Competitiveness: Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) Key Competitiveness Issues A study of the OECS tourism sector identified five key competitiveness issues. Box 3. These relate to: • Competitive Positioning: the need to develop and implement regional marketing programs. positioning the Caribbean region in the context of other major world destinations. % of marketing expenditures in cooperative initiative. environmental) (see Ritchie and Crouch 2003 for an example). The second is a complex composite indicator which tries to model overall competitiveness and will likely be difficult to use for most destinations due to data requirements and analysis. ¢ Occupancy rates for Accommodation (See ¢ Seasonality p. %). social. 111) Because competitiveness is a relatively complex concept. • Environment: environmental and resource management concerns at both destination and tourism facility levels. so destinations may have to rely on other indicators such as the following to provide some information on strength of the tourism sector: • • • • • • The longevity of tourism businesses (rate of turnover).cpechrd. and marketing initiatives. Tourism revenues (growth rates). Unfortunately business profits tend to be confidential. However. • • Annual profit of tourism businesses. Re-sale value of tourism businesses (average for type of business). attractions and services). % of tourism business participating in cooperative marketing. Strength of membership in tourism industry associations (number. The study notes that it is generally acknowledged that larger hotel properties are making headway in the competitiveness environment they face world-wide.htm . A compound competitiveness indicator (economic. • Cooperation: the need to foster increased local participation in the tourism sector.146 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook • • • % of tourism businesses that have integrated their goals and objectives with the destination tourism strategy. These indicators are a good measure of the extent to which tourism businesses are cooperating to maximize the competitive differentiation of the destination. of particular concern to most countries is the difficulty local entrepreneurs face in achieving viable participation in the tourism sector. Level of participation by business in tourism strategy development.

7 Protection of Valuable Natural Assets 3.Part 3 .1 Protecting Critical Ecosystems Fragile Sites. 192). the area protected (existence. (See Ecotourism p. Reason for use of these indicators: For known areas of fragility or important habitats. For more detailed information on indicators see the Natural and Sensitive Ecological Sites. also can focus stresses on the most fragile sites. according to IUCN categories). according to IUCN definition. 269. The number and extension of protected areas has been constantly increasing through the past decades. zones with limited tourist access and buffer zones with more intensive use for visitor facilities. there were around 44. p. depending on local. Extent of protected area(s) – square km (classified by level of protection. Ecotourism as well. national or international regulations. according to IUCN categories). Governments are making increasing efforts to protect natural areas and there have been numerous reserves established by NGOs. community organizations and private companies. number. There are several different levels of protection used. Breeding success rates for selected species. while intending to tread lightly.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 147 3. Components of the issue Area protected. Tourism contribution to protection and restoration. If impacts are very . (See ¢ Controlling use intensity p.000 sites registered as protected areas. Endangered Species Rare flora and fauna and unique ecosystems are significant attractions for tourists. level of protection/status. 263 Parks and Protected Areas sections p. that cover around 10% of the land surface of the Earth (data by UNEP and WCMC cited in IUCN/WTO/UNEP 2002). often for ecotourism purposes.7. Health of population of key indicator species (counts. Extent of protected area(s) – square km (classified by level of protection. sightings). often with core conservation zones. The growth of niche tourism which focuses on experiences and visiting fragile sites to observe or study these species and ecosystems both enhances learning about environments and brings the risk of damage to them. Intensity of use Disturbance to species and fragile systems particularly specific impacts on rare and endangered species Costs of maintenance of protection • • • • • Cost of protection/restoration. in Part 4. Zoning of protected areas defines specific uses and protection levels. Indicators for protection: • • Existence of protected area(s) at the destination. ranging from complete prohibition of use to various forms of controlled access. and to what degree Indicators • • Existence of protected area(s) at the destination. 268) Worldwide efforts are being made to provide protection for the world’s ecological treasures even as the demand to visit and experience them grows. spatial extent) can be an important measure of potential protection of the key species (assets for tourism). In 2002.

org/themes/wcpa/pubs/guidelines. In some sites. marsupial possums in New Zealand. Reason for use of these indicators: In many destinations. Lofoten Islands. bird-watching groups. Harm to the species can derive from impacts of tourism or other sectors. predators. Tourism can be a partner in protection through sensitive products. there may never have been studies. Yacutinga p. and tourists can be involved in monitoring activities as well (e. These indicators are often most effectively used at a very local or site level. such as jaguars). 453). . 440. etc. turtles and vipers in the Mediterranean) can be a crude surrogate for population health where no other measure exists. monitoring of tracks can be used.g. Means to use these indicators: Percentage of the critical site or habitat which is protected to different levels is probably the most useful categorization. the greater the numbers of members of the species. with reference to species status in global Red Book. Peninsula Valdes) Red Crested Cranes (coastal China). Another may be % of site open to tourist use.g. Note that it may be difficult to relate any changes to tourism. Cape Breton.. certain species are the reason why tourists visit. Source(s) of data: Local authorities. also called “flagship species”. rare orchids or unique ferns. (See Uganda Heritage Trails p. Benchmarking: The IUCN designation for protection is an international standard for levels of protection. deer in Canada. Benchmarking: This is a unique indicator related to specific species populations and best used in time series against past years in the same site or destination. 123). are the principal draw. or %/area under restricted access.g. Source(s) of data: Data are often collected by environmental agencies or through studies from institutes or universities. Indicators regarding ecosystem health: • Health of population of key indicator species. If animal sighting is difficult. It is also important to track changes over time regarding the extension of protected areas and their designated use zones. In some sites. In some countries frequency of road kill of animals (e. and the tourism industry may have to be the catalyst for such research to be done. parks and protected area managers. Knowledge of the health of the species is therefore invaluable from both the point of view of the ecology and the tourism industry.iucn. Species such as whales (Gulf of California. Ironically. tour guides. trained guides. especially in the case of low population density for certain species (e. access may be limited or denied to the tourism industry. Species counts of many birds. wildflowers. See their website for publications on this guideline and on certain applications: http://www. megafauna.148 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook severe. conservation volunteers).) • Breeding success rates for selected species. and there exist sophisticated remote sensing techniques as well. the higher the road kill toll. and effective controls as well as a contributor to programs which support conservation (see Tourism as a Contributor to Nature Conservation p.. These basic indicators on protected areas can be easily compared between different sites within national and regional jurisdictions. (One or more species to be selected based on status in destination. Means to use the indicators: Species counts for the same area showing increases or declines. rhinoceros in many African nations.htm . as well as other species can be done by protected area personnel. there may be only a one-time study which may serve as a baseline for repetition.

Benchmarking: While some data on levels of expenditure are available from e. the desired budget) can reveal important changes in the ability to sustain the systems and may be a signal of need for new programs or fundraising. Perception of Water Quality A majority of the world’s tourism is located in coastal areas. 123). Beaches are the target for a majority of those who visit coasts. Viñales. IUCN or UNESCO for selected heritage sites. but other activities such as fishing. Rising needs may be a sign of increased damage to assets that may point to need for a range of preventive or restorative actions. budgets are established for protection and restoration where necessary. diving. Means to use the indicators: Trend lines in expenditures may reveal increased costs of repair or protective activities (e. budget documents. Reason for use of these indicators: The impacts of tourists (and sometimes other sectors’ activitiessuch as acid rain. regional authorities. Unique limestone formations. boating or nature viewing are also affected if water quality is compromised. Cuba 3. ten new wardens hired to stop poaching. Where sites are managed. two tourist rangers hired full time to prevent damage to the bamboo grove by visitors). the conditions are very different from destination to destination and the most useful benchmark is likely to be the data for the same site over time. leachate from mines etc) may harm species and their habitats. Source(s) of data: Financial records. noise from transportation.g.7. . or annual plans/submissions of protection agencies.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 149 Indicators regarding protection costs and expenditures: • • Cost of protection/restoration.2 Sea Water Quality Contamination. Tourism contribution to protection/restoration (see p. The trend line in this budget (or where there is insufficient funding. For many destinations the quality of the beach and in particular the water itself is a significant factor in choice of destination.g.Part 3 .

253) provide more on how this issue can impact on a destination. shellfish and fish habitat). • Tourist perception of quality of seawater. campylobacter). Level of contamination of seawater (heavy metals). particularly in coastal zone destinations: beach cleanliness. campylobacter). Alternative proxy indicators where laboratory testing is difficult: . Note alternative proxy indicators which can be used where laboratory testing is difficult or too expensive: • • • Frequency of algae blooms. 171). 250). 251). See also the sections on Cruise Ships (p. Turbidity of water (simple tests). Gradual degradation of water quality from cumulative effects of industrial. . fragile reef and coastal wetland systems. reefs (p. 297) where these are relevant. They are also relatively easy to measure. Turbidity of water (simple tests). and many are now also collecting data on campylobacter. Loss of tourism custom associated with contamination or changes in seawater quality (including changes in such factors as water temperature. See additional indicators in the issue section on ¢ Sewage Treatment (p. Beach Destinations (p. 250) and Cruise Ships (p. Most health authorities use e-coli. corals. turbidity or salinity) Note the related issues which may be of interest. Level of contamination of seawater (heavy metals). corals). Indicators of water contamination: • • • Level of contamination of seawater (faecal coliforms. The destinations sections on Coastal Zones (p.150 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Components of the issue Contamination events which may harm the health of bathers or damage coastal ecosystems (particularly marine fauna. 171). and density of use of coastal zones. erosion of coastal areas. perception of beach quality. urban or agricultural effluents. See also the indicators in the Health issue (p. Reason for use of these indicators: Among all potential pollutants. 94) where health effects quality are a concern. Source(s) of data: In many jurisdictions these are systematically collected by environmental authorities or health departments. # days beach/shore closed due to contamination events. and Small Islands (p. Local institutes also can readily collect samples where there is no broader program. Indicators • • • • • Level of contamination of seawater (faecal coliforms. .frequency of algae blooms. sea-urchin).counts of dead fish or birds on shore. Frequency counts of indicator species which are particularly vulnerable (sponges. 247). 297) and the issue section on¢ Sewage Treatment (p. (p. Impacts on reefs. these are the most frequently used as indicators of contamination levels. .frequency counts of indicator species which are particularly vulnerable (sponges. algae. Counts of dead fish or birds on shore.

smell. even more than the presence or absence of specific contaminants.) This is a very public indicator – measuring direct effects on the public. etc. Source(s) of data: Local beach managers. algae blooms. Australian. If no-one is collecting it. even in the same jurisdiction). For detail ed water standards from the World Health Organization. This is a very graphic portrayal of levels of contamination/quality in terms accessible to and meaningful to the public). (Note that the US Environmental Protection Agency has a very simple standard for portraying the quality of water under the terms: “drinkable”. oil spills. Reason for use of this indicator: This is a simple measure reflecting the need for action to close beaches or limit shore use due to contamination events. Mediterranean Tourism). close or limit use of shore zones. Tourist perceptions of seawater quality may be affected by such factors as water clarity. a tourism authority or industry association can easily document incidents itself..unesco. Benchmarking: Benchmark against other destinations (Data for many beaches can be obtained on line from many (then type “indicators” in the search box). colour etc.g. including tourists. Indicator of how tourists view the seawater quality: • Tourist perception of quality of seawater. The results can also be portrayed at regional/national level as % samples exceeding safe limits/standards (e. Indicator of contamination impact on tourist use: • Number days beach/shore closed due to contamination Black Sea coast of Romania . health authorities. Means to use the indicator: Simple information on number of days each year (overall. Costinesti youth “swimmable”. providing many sources of benchmarking. “fishable” and “boatable” with the worst . and in swimming season) the beach was closed to swimming. Beach crowd. The actions taken by tourists are affected by these perceptions.htm#18. or other shore activities. Reason for use of this indicator: The perception of seawater quality may have a greater impact on tourist decisions than more scientifically obtained information. Results are normally used to determine/announce which activities are safe to do in the water. (Note that results from other beach monitoring sites provide a rough benchmark as standards may not be applied in the same way in all destinations.blueflag. environmental agencies. temperature.who.“not boatable” -being too contaminated even for boating activities. US national summaries are available from regardless of source (sewage releases. see http://www. jellyfish invasion.htm which provides access to other beach monitoring sites). Benchmarking: This is a very common indicator. Perhaps the best measure is changes over time against other years for the destination.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 151 Means to use these indicators: The indicator is usually used by authorities to open. Canadian and Hong Kong beaches. (See also the Blue Flag program which uses E. Another which may be of use is “A Reference Guide on the Use of Indicators for Integrated Coastal Management“ from the same source.Coli as one of the criteria for attaining the Flag (www.Part 3 . turbulence.3 A coastal indicators website is also available for some benchmarking and additional indicators http://ioc.

the industry itself can be a major component of consumption. beach management. wind. and on the introduction of energy efficiency and saving programs. The most useful benchmark is likely to be changes over time in the specific destination. Impacts on reefs. Health (p. trains.1 Energy Management ¢ Baseline Issue Energy Saving. number of complaints registered at local authorities. Renewables Significant levels of energy are consumed by the tourism sector both through fixed assets (buildings etc. Efficiency.8.). through cost savings to individual enterprises. Cruise Ships (p.) and mobile assets (motor vehicles.152 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Source(s) of data: Exit questionnaire – (see Exit questionnaire Annex C). hydroelectric. coal) and renewable (e. 297) in Destinations. natural gas. the use of alternative (renewable) sources. etc. diesel. in the form of reduced demand for energy (a particular issue where sources are fully utilized. Energy is produced from a variety of sources. Other indicators of interest relating to seawater quality: • • • • See issue section on ¢ Sewage Treatment (p. ferries etc. Means to use the indicator: The % of tourists who agree that the quality of the seawater is good or very good can be a signal to authorities that action is needed. . 3.g. primarily through reducing consumption of natural resources and lowering associated greenhouse gas emissions. 171). or where the main source of energy is imported fuels.g. or a positive factor to tell tourists. biomass. including non-renewable (e. (Box 4.) In tourism destinations. gasoline. Efforts to reduce its consumption can be beneficial not only to the industry. solar heat.8 Managing Scarce Natural Resources 3. 94). but can also bring benefits to the destination as a whole. Benchmarking: There is some potential to benchmark against other similar destinations which use the same questionnaire. 250). A reduction in energy consumed will have a positive impact on operational costs of enterprises (and can reduce pressure on utilities) and have major environmental benefits. hotels.1 p.) Indicators regarding energy therefore focus on consumption.

Number.350 kWh of electricity used North of the Daintree River within Douglas Shire is created from renewable sources of energy. • It is estimated that 367. Use of Renewable Energy sources ¢ Baseline Indicator. Savings in energy expenses. Components of the issue Measuring energy use and conservation Indicators • Per capita consumption of energy from all sources (overall. August 2001). Percentage of businesses participating in energy conservation programs.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 153 Box 3. Queensland. 2000 cited in Report on Douglas Shire Baseline Data. • Further incentives for energy efficient buildings are due to be introduced into the new planning scheme being prepared for the Shire. Australia Douglas Shire Council has attempted to minimize the overall consumption of energy for the Shire whilst promoting greater use of renewable energy resources through the highlighting the following initiatives: • A Domestic Remote Area Power Scheme (DRAPS) subsidy for residents unable to access mains electricity. • Residents are being given incentives to introduce solar hot water systems through rebate grants. hotels) using renewable sources. (Source: Daintree Futures Study. These systems consist of Photovoltaic panels.26 Energy consumption – Douglas Shire.27 re energy sources).g. • • . Consumption by source. These systems contribute around 40% of the average domestic energy consumption. batteries and a back up diesel generator. • The Mossman Central Sugar Mill produces renewable energy as a by-product of the cane crushing process.Part 3 . of % of establishments (e. Indicators of consumption/conservation: • Per capita consumption (Total energy consumption (MJ) per annum / Person years per annum) This can often be isolated for the tourist sector through utility records. and by tourist sector – per person day) ¢ Baseline indicator Note: can also be used as derived indicator of energy use per resident relative to energy use per tourist. This project was undertaken in collaboration with Douglas Shire Council as part of a wider research project by the Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism. and 326 mWh was exported to the national grid during the 2000 crushing season. establishments) ¢ Baseline indicator. or applying energy saving policy and techniques Energy management programs • ¢ Baseline indicator Use of renewable energy sources • • % of energy consumption from renewable resources (at destinations. generating own energy (see Box 3. permitting derived indicators such as ratio of per capita use tourists/locals ¢ Baseline Indicator.

geothermal. conservation will occur at an establishment level.g. and domestic ones (overnight visitors and same-day visitors). any energy program or environmental protection agency (government data). as they have . Measure success relative to any conservation initiatives. such as diesel.g generators.There are a number of energy calculators available which will readily do this e. it may be feasible to measure changes in the source mix. Reason for use of these indicators: Minimize overall energy consumption and encourage greater use from renewable energy sources. hydroelectricity. Electricity(this should include domestic. the Green Globe energy calculator (www. Electricity consumption is often quoted in kilowatt hours (kWh) and other sources. liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and natural ) which was developed by the CRC for Sustainable Tourism. Box 3. etc. Note it may be difficult to ascribe specific energy sources to particular uses. 10. 8. Source(s) of data: All energy sources used within the destination should be used to calculate the total energy usage. as once energy is in an electrical grid. For more detailed calculations regarding energy sources. 16. 7. nuclear) If it is possible to document the source. 20. 11. a source table can be compiled for the destination. 14. Indicators relating to consumption of resources and production of wastes. (e. Box 3. local hydro.greenglobe21.154 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook • Percentage of businesses participating in energy conservation programs. 21. Data should be available either from the top down via the major fuel suppliers or from wholesale fuel suppliers. Normally overall electricity consumption can be calculated at tourist establishments and businesses. commercial and industrial figures) Aviation turbine Bagasse (cane waste) or other local fibres (corn. by volume. 15. Note that where independent sources of electrical power are used. 9. reeds etc) Coal Diesel Gasoline(automotive) Gasoline(aviation) Geothermal Hydro Kerosene (lighting) Liquefied Petroleum Gas Methane (animal sources) Naphtha Natural gas Nuclear Oil(fuel) Oil(heating) Solar Town gas (or coal oil) Wind Wood Renewable or Non-renewable (may be produced from either renewable or non-renewable sources – SEE BELOW) NR R NR NR NR NR R R NR NR R NR NR NR NR R NR R R Suggested Data Sources These data should be available through the local energy supply authority (note that electricity has different sources – ranging from oil.27 outlines a common list of energy sources used in destinations. 19. natural gas. 6. 5. 12. or applying energy saving policy and techniques ¢ Baseline Indicator. petroleum. Other appropriate sources would include the bureau of statistics. 4. which are calculated on a per person per annum basis. solar power) the user may have their own purchase and operational records. 18. 2. need to take into account both residents and visitors . it is essentially interchangeable and therefore substitution (obtaining more from wind power and less from coal) will usually occur at a utility-wide or destination level. 3.. 17. percentage deriving from renewable or less contaminating sources. However.27 Energy Sources Energy Sources 1. All should be converted to megajoules (or a common unit for comparison purposes). wind. Ideally this has already been done by the utility serving the destination or by a regulating authority.

The industry is also likely to be affected significantly by changes in climate both globally and locally.8. ski operation etc) or for a larger unit such as a destination or a community. Extreme Climatic Events. it may be possible to calculate separate budgets for each energy type used. There are many cases of good practices on energy efficiency. heating. Energy Use The weight of evidence supports concern that the global climate is changing. Where tourist properties (e.2 Climate Change and Tourism Mitigation. 327) Traditional water mills in Slunj. Tourism-specific data at a destination might be accumulated from companies. means to reduce energy use in laundries etc. Impacts on Destinations. both in causing an increase in greenhouse gas emissions and in changing the buffering capacity of the natural environment to absorb (sequester) carbon.Part 3 .g. Note that individual establishments may produce their own energy and may undertake direct substitutions. resort. Greenhouse Gas Emissions. . or rely on fossil fuels for e. hotels) have their own independent generation sources. The use of energy (and conservation) can therefore be calculated for an individual establishment (hotel. or space heating. Croatia: Energy and water are themselves a tourist attraction 3. reduction and use of renewables at companies and establishments. resorts. Many guidebooks exist which show a wide range of approaches to energy use reduction (timed lighting. Adaptation. systems which turn off utilities when visitors are not in their rooms. its use trends can be compared with other sectors. Tourism activity is a significant contributor to global production of greenhouse gases – through transportation. Most of the change is attributable to the impacts of human activity. and cooling and other forms of energy use. laundry.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 155 meters and pay for consumption.g..) Means to use the indicators: These indicators are useful to display trends in energy consumption and allow the destination to monitor performance and measure any changes in mix and use levels. Measurement of consumption is not just important at destination (municipality) level but at operations and establishments as well. Users are directed to a range of hotel and other initiatives aimed at more environmentally sound practice for examples of how to obtain energy savings. (See Accor Case p. Benchmarking: This indicator can be benchmarked in two ways: over time for the individual destination and its tourism establishments or by using comparative data from certification systems that verify energy use at destinations and tourism facilities. Where data can be isolated for tourism. heating. Transport. Hotels may use solar sources for pool heating. Risks.

and flood-prone areas. tourism is impacted by climate change. much tourism infrastructure is located in vulnerable areas. Maldives. Northern European territories and coasts can be increasingly attractive for summer vacations. April 2003). natural and cultural heritage and host communities. The First International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism (Djerba. Climate changes can affect tourist comfort levels and the range of activities. For example. convened by WTO. Climate change affects natural habitats and the biodiversity of species. the Djerba Declaration on Climate Change and Tourism. significantly altering tourism demand flows. The Conference Final Report. which are attractions for nature-based and ecotourism. mountain. Through their initial communications on climate change.156 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Both the adaptation to potential changes and the reduction of tourism’s contribution to climate change are concerns for the tourism industry worldwide. The changes in demand patterns can cause major effects in socio-economic conditions of destinations (e. Climate impacts can bring both problems and opportunities for tourism destinations.g. recognizes the complex two-way relationship between climate change and tourism.and post high season periods or wintertime. opportunities and risks presented to the tourism sector as a result of changes in the world's climate. Rising sea levels and temperatures are threatening coastal and island destinations and marine sites. especially through emissions resulting from transportation and the use of Climate-related natural disasters harm infrastructure. Alterations in precipitation patterns and the hydrological cycle can affect the availability of freshwater resources at destinations. causing a possible decline for Mediterranean destinations. Tunisia. The main outcome of the Conference. offered a unique opportunity for tourism interests and scientists to exchange views on the consequences. most nations have begun to identify the potential to reduce emissions by each sector. which is a basic asset for tourists. including the Djerba Declaration text is available at: http://www. The entire nation is considered vulnerable to climate change as nearly all of the country is within two metres of sea level and already affected by storm surges .htm The potential impacts of climate change on tourism Climate change can impact tourism in many ways: • • • • • • • • Changing and more erratic weather patterns are making tourism planning and operations more difficult. especially considering tourism destinations in coastal. On the one hand. Diminishing snow conditions are directly affecting mountain and winter-sport drought. producing knock-off effects in related Kurumba. and to adapt through changes in planning and construction so as to reduce potential damage from weather related events. due to global warming. which in turn could be more frequented during pre. Climate-induced changes in general health conditions can affect visitors and insurance practices. or mitigate potential negative impacts. employment and social services). tourism is also contributing to the causes of climate change. on the other.

Components of the climate change issue: adaptation Level of damage related to extreme climatic events Level of exposure to risk Indicators • • • Frequency of extreme climatic events.e.g. cyclones. 165). other) located in vulnerable zones. As well. and remove the possibility of skiing in many other resorts which at best have short or marginal seasons. scarcity of species). tornados. tourism is a significant consumer of water. skiing. In consequence. Percentage of tourist infrastructure (hotels. wildlife and nature based tourism generally) require specific sets of weather conditions. Value of damage to tourism sector. Source(s) of data: Normally these data are kept by environment departments or weather services and emergency measures organizations and where they exist. Value of tourism infrastructure in coastal zone below estimated maximum storm surge levels or equivalent.g. and may show trends important to the industry and the destination. will eliminate the lower slopes from most of the ski resorts in the Alps. transportation). habitat loss. agriculture. Small rises in winter temperature for example. dead coral. Many tourist activities (e. drought events. Changes in precipitation patterns may alter water supply. blizzards. change migration paths and the location of habitats where wildlife may be found. Degree to which key tourist zones are covered by contingency or emergency planning (existence of plan. beach activities. If there is no government program. limiting the numbers who can be supported. the infrastructure of tourism and the perception of a destination. % ski areas or ski-able terrain with snowmaking equipment. The response of tourists to the impacts of climate change may produce adverse impressions of a destination’s attractiveness (i. particularly for remote destinations where the .Part 3 . Reasons for use of these indicators: Extreme events (hurricanes. even without climate change. have supply problems. swimming. temperature extremes) can all affect individual tourists. (See ¢ Water availability and conservation p. some data can be kept locally by the industry itself. Temperature changes may also alter biodiversity. often in destinations which. % of tourist area and infrastructure with sea defences (could be classed by level of protection). Degree of planning for climate change impacts Impact on seashores • • • • Impact on mountains • • Impact on wildlife and biodiversity • Indicators of climate related damage: • • Frequency of extreme events. there is a need to develop adaptation measures to reduce the vulnerability of tourism destinations. Value of damage to tourism sector. Both the frequency of such events and the damage caused are measures of impact. % of tourism dependent on viewing species (% of key species considered vulnerable to changes in climate). flooding. (use IPCC warming scenarios for the destination). % area included). Value of damage annually due to storm events or flooding. % of developed ski area which would lack access to ski-able conditions with warming.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 157 economic activities (e. typhoons.

Means to use the indicator: Use as % of beds. Comparison with extent of coverage. Many identify vulnerability by sector (and many nations where tourism is important provide data for tourism). although data on related infrastructure or services such as restaurants and entertainment facilities etc may be less readily available. coastal zone maps. degree of preparation over time is likely to be most useful. (e. In addition to the more general indicators. flooding. earthquakes. Means to use these indicators: The value of actual or potential damage can be expressed in monetary terms. Reason for use of this indicator: As much of the tourism industry and its assets are located in areas vulnerable to storms. value of infrastructure or number of tourism sector jobs) which are considered vulnerable. and many of the attractions ( major flood events etc) which may increase in frequency and/or severity. the most meaningful information is that of changes over time in the destination. % of hotels (and if available. Source(s) of data: For most nations these data are available from the country’s initial Communication on Climate Change. (major storms. Often land use or ownership maps.. Means to use the indicator: The existence of a plan is in itself an indicator of some degree of planning or preparation. there is no single benchmark. % area included). The tourism contingency plan will likely be related to overall emergency planning and response that may be in place to deal with all emergencies. Indicator of level of planning for potential impacts: • Degree to which key tourist zones are covered by contingency or emergency planning (existence of plan. area subject to inundation in storm surges. fires etc) whether or not they are related to climate change. It may also be possible to relate this to the existence of structural controls. Benchmarking: While it is possible to compare with weather data worldwide. Indicator of level of exposure to risk: • Percentage of tourist infrastructure (hotels. Reason for use of this indicator: Shows the degree of exposure of the industry to significant storm events (hurricanes.158 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook weather may not be similar to that at government weather stations. the weather at the top of the mountain). Source(s) of data: Local authorities (or emergency measures organizations where these exist). Within 100 year flood line. flood zone maps exist which will define zones at risk (e. other) located in vulnerable zones (as defined in each country’s climate change program or equivalent). several more specific indicators are suggested for particularly vulnerable destinations including: . Benchmarking: See the UN site http://unfccc. Tourism authorities normally have an inventory of hotels and resorts by location. area considered to be unstable for earthquake or land slips).g. storm surges.. whether or not they are signatories to the Framework Convention on Climate Change.g. which is easily understood by tourism stakeholders. ski slopes) are climate/weather dependent it is useful to have in place some form of contingency planning to cope with possible impacts. Benchmarking: Because of the unique nature of risks to each site or destination. erosion etc.html which contains National Communications from most nations. design requirements which are designed to mitigate extreme events or to reduce potential for damage.

% of tourist area and infrastructure with sea defences (could be classed by level of protection). 263) Note that the indicator Number of rooms with climate control . (See also the Mountain destinations section p. % of key species considered vulnerable to changes in climate. % of developed ski area which would lack access to ski-able conditions with warming.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 159 Impact on seashores which have the majority of tourism infrastructure: • • • Value of tourism infrastructure in coastal zone below estimated maximum storm surge levels or equivalent. One of the potential impacts of climate change can be the alterations in tourist season so the indicator % visitation in peak season/shoulder season may be useful to measure changes due to climate change. (Use IPCC warming scenarios for the destination).AC or heating. (See also Coastal Zone destinations p. While the top of mountains will still have snow. 247) Impact on mountains where many activities are climate dependent and where access and infrastructure can be vulnerable: • • % ski areas or ski-able terrain with snowmaking equipment.Part 3 . 111). (See also the section on Natural and Sensitive Ecological Sites p. The information can be obtained from planning authorities and from the national communications. and may affect planning and protection policies. 259) Impact on native wildlife and biodiversity. See also the section on ¢ Seasonality (p. . outlined in the following mitigation section is also a useful indicator of adaptation – as a measure of level of preparedness should the temperature become warmer or cooler. many lower ski stations in the Alps will be below the snow line under many of the climate change scenarios. Value of damage annually due to storm events or flooding. a major draw for tourism: • • % of tourism dependent on viewing species.

benefit/cost ratio of snowmaking. involving international. In the wider area of the sustainability of tourism. mitigation actions should address tourism activities through the complete supply chain. Snowmaking is the most wide spread climate adaptation and has become an integral component of the ski industry in eastern North America during the past 30 years. Northeast 101-136 days and Southeast 78-110 days. in particular alpine skiing.000 in 2001/02 (for an average of 252 acres). cost of weather insurance. notably road and air transport. Mitigation of the Impacts of Tourism Tourism’s impacts that contribute to the causes of climate change: While concerns about tourism's polluting effects can influence many aspects of a tourist's activities. Key indicators: length of season. For example. Scott et al. (2003) estimated that snowmaking had extended the period with a skiable 30cm snow base by 33% to 830% during the 1980s and 1990s. The ski industry in North America has used a range of adaptation strategies that reduce their vulnerability to climate variability (and consequently any climate change in the future). all ski areas in the Province of Ontario have snowmaking systems that cover 100% of the skiable terrain. In addition to its current importance. In eastern Canada. The average skiable terrain covered by snowmaking varied in these regions. to 95% and 98% in the Southeast and Midwest regions. including the implementation of snowmaking systems. cost of snowmaking. from 62% in the Northeast region. is highly weather-sensitive and experiences considerable inter-annual variability in operating conditions. research has documented the importance of snowmaking as a climate change adaptation strategy. Destinations can respond to the climate change issue through a variety of mitigation strategies. and the effects that tourism can have on flora and fauna. including: . Ski areas in eastern Canada and the Midwest.28 Snowmaking as an adaptation to climate variability and change The winter tourism industry. while in Quebec snowmaking coverage varies in the 50-90% range of skiable terrain. In their analysis of one ski area in central Ontario. % covered by snowmaking. GHG emissions through the use of transportation. In addition to infrastructure costs. A study that examined the potential impact of climate change at six ski areas in Eastern Canada and the US found that ski season losses were drastically reduced by snowmaking technology (Scott et al. respectively. the primary issue relates to travellers' consumption of transport services. Tourism contributes to greenhouse gases (GHG) primarily through transportation and heating and cooling of accommodation. In 2001-02. national and regional transportation systems. both of which may use fossil fuels. as well as local accommodation. between 1982-83 and 2001-02 the length of the ski season in the major ski regions of the United States has varied as follows: Pacific 109-151 days. Midwest 78-105 days. Southeast and Midwest ski regions of the United States had snowmaking systems. 2004). To reduce tourism’s negative impacts.160 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Box 3. the impacts of tourism contributing to climate change can be related to tourism's high per capita consumption of water and energy. Rocky Mountains 121-145 days. Northeast and Southeast regions of the US have invested million of dollars in snowmaking technology and operations. transportation and other service providers at destinations. there is a need to implement measures by applying advanced environmental management techniques and technologies. business diversification and the limited use of weather insurance. outgoing and incoming tour operators. accommodation and other tourism services occur from the beginning of a tourist’s trip until she/he returns home. Therefore. the average operational cost of snowmaking at ski areas in the Northeast US ski region was US$728. area of ski-able terrain. all of the ski areas in the Northeast.

Note that energy consumption itself will not be expressed in tonnes … you will need to calculate energy consumption in kWh or M3 and then convert to CO2 tonne equivalents to reflect the local energy mix. solar or hydro). 2.g. The tourism industry can contribute in partnership with e. 3. Additionally. These figures should be available from the bureau of statistics in your country or your local tourism authority.Part 3 . A second strategy is using fuels that produce less greenhouse gases such as liquid propane gas (LPG) or ideally moving towards greater use of energy from renewable sources (e. The use of less carbon intensive fuels. application of this “cleaner production” or “ecoefficiency” approach takes time. 210). many operations within the community (the tourism industry or the local community that tourism is situated in) may already be energy efficient and/or further significant reductions in energy from non-renewable sources may not. However.g. need to take into account both the resident and the transient (tourist) populations. solar). One important strategy to reduce greenhouse gas production is to introduce more efficient equipment and procedures. • • Energy consumption related to temperature control Coverage of natural areas • • % of natural area coverage in the territory of the destination (change over time). A third strategy includes involvement in carbon sequestration projects (a process where plants as they grow capture and store the carbon in the gas carbon dioxide (CO2) in biomass) as an immediate move towards offsetting greenhouse gas production. for operational and commercial reasons. 152). wind. forestry firms. which are calculated on a per person per annum basis. Carbon sequestration and trading. Consumption of fossil fuels by the tourism sector (see also ¢ Energy p.g. Number and % rooms with air conditioning and/or heating. conservation organizations to the preservation of natural areas as one means to offset its greenhouse gas contribution..while enhancing the tourism resource base. Total consumption of fossil fuels in the destination for tourist transportation (note also issue section on Transportation p. Components of the climate change issue: mitigation Greenhouse gas emissions by the destination and by the tourism component Transportation fuel use Indicators • • Total CO2 produced due to the community’s energy consumption.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 161 1. Many communities are making significant efforts to utilize energy from renewable sources (e. be feasible. Greater energy efficiency. thereby conserving resources and minimizing greenhouse gas emissions. Total consumption per capita of fossil fuels for transportation. Consumption of fossil fuels by the tourism sector (tonnes). (Tonnes per person per year) Indicators relating to consumption of resources and production of wastes. Indicators of Greenhouse gas emissions: • • Total CO2 produced due to the community’s energy consumption (tonnes). wind. .

particularly by the tourism industry. 400) which identifies approaches to greenhouse gas reduction by North American ski resorts.162 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Reason for use of these indicators: To support efforts to minimize the net production of the greenhouse gas. Identification of the contribution of the tourism sector may lead to actions by that sector. energy use is monitored by sector. Benchmarking: The best use of this will be comparison over time. Means to use the indicators: Overall use The table provided with the ¢ Energy issue (p. . the Green Globe energy calculator (See: www. See also the UN website http://unfccc. they may be aggregated for easy use. Reduction of fossil fuel use is a mainstay of plans by most nations to respond to climate change.g.greenglobe21. 152).com) or the International Hotels Environmental Initiative (www. Benchmarking: This indicator can be benchmarked in two ways: over time for the individual destination or by using comparative data from companies such as Green Globe (www. and where there is an initial communication on climate change from the country. 152) outlines a common list of energy sources used in destinations which can be used to estimate total use and to identify the percentage that is based on fossil fuel consumption. although often tour buses are licensed or regulated separately from local transport. heating and cooling (see also ¢ Energy p.benchmarkhotel. Surveys of use by sector were done by many nations in the preparation of their Initial National Tourism use of transport (both to get to the destination and within the destination) can be a major component. This indicator is useful to display trends in greenhouse gas emissions and allows the destination to monitor and act on their performance. There are a number of energy calculators available which are capable of estimating the amount of CO2 produced per person using the energy balance figures e. particularly where facilities are used widely by both locals and tourists.pdf Note: see also the Keep Winter Cool case in Part 6 ( All energy sources used within the destination should be used to calculate the total energy usage.greenglobe21. tourism as a percentage of national and destination energy use. Indicators of transportation fuel use: • • Total consumption per capita of fossil fuels for transportation. (Note also Transportation p. and fossil fuel use per capita are all useful. particularly if used in relation to programs designed to reduce energy consumption for transportation. the destination can also estimate the amount of CO2 produced per person (and per tourist). Transport mix data may also be available Means to use these indicators: Both raw data and per capita consumption. It may not be easy to isolate the component of transportation associated with tourism. Both overall use and use per capita are relevant. Total consumption of fossil fuels in the destination for tourist transportation. http://uneprisoe. as well as the UNEP publication “Transport and the global Environment: Accounting for GHG reduction on Policy Analysis (UNEP 2001). 210) Reason for use of these indicators: Destinations have their own programs to respond to the need to reduce fuel consumption. Tourism is a significant consumer of fossil fuels for transportation. Source(s) of data: These data will likely be available from transportation authorities. Source(s) of data: In some By using the same energy balance produced to assess the destination’s energy consumption. carbon dioxide (CO2) from energy consumption.

the existence of units with climate controls can act as a form of adaptation to potential effects of climate change (e. Additional potentially useful indicators: • • The percentage uptake of renewable energy systems (see ¢ Energy p. Lower numbers of heating/cooling units will contribute to reduction of energy use (and in most cases fossil fuels).Sustainability Issues in Tourism 163 Indicator of energy consumption related to temperature control: • Number and % rooms with air conditioning and/or heating. Benchmarking: These data are not normally collected and reported systematically but may become so with growing emphasis on climate change. both through energy efficient design. there seems to be an emerging de facto standard that has all 4 and 5 star (and a growing percentage of 3 star) accommodation with room climate control. or from hotel associations. Majorca. to point out the fact that actions from all stakeholders are required to cope with climate change. Depending on the targeted stakeholders. . Means to use the indicator: As noted above. At the same time.29 Tourism and climate change: Adapting indicators to targeted French stakeholders Indicators are a way to make environmental information more easily understandable and accessible to the users. This same indicator could also be calculated for a selected destination (as the Municipality of Calvia. cold spells. in the French experience (see France case study p. heat waves) and may also help lengthen shoulder seasons. as well as a short methodological note. climate control is more likely to be found in tourist accommodation than in the homes and businesses of locals. Source(s) of data: These data are likely available from the local tourism authority. ministry in charge of building.Part 3 . to ensure a transparency of the process and avoid challenges to the results. and conservation initiatives (such as efforts to turn off air conditioning when rooms are not in use). At the same time. It was also calculated for a specific Paris/ Nice trip. according to the mode of transport. 152) Percentage of accommodation with Environmental Management Systems or certifications ( p.g. to promote individual responsibility by tourists.. For example. Reason for use of this indicator: Use of energy for air conditioning and heating is an important area of energy consumption. 318) Box 3. this indicator cuts two ways. the same information can be presented in different ways. Spain did for a tour operator. 382) the contribution of tourism transportation to greenhouse gas emissions was first evaluated for the whole tourism sector at the national level. The tourism sector has a comparative advantage in efforts to reduce consumption of energy for these purposes. it is important to provide sources of data used. In all cases where indicators are used publicly. In many destinations.

from hydraulic power (0 or near 0) to coal (47) . Cars. Airbus Industries. type of journey (motorway or main road). Domestic tourism road transport is responsible for 5. Variables: type of energy used to produce electricity for a TGV . Variables: age. Range: from the most to the least polluting vehicle in each category. The total contribution of tourism transport to French CO2 emissions is roughly about twice as large. water vapour. In this example for a Paris/ Nice trip.) An indicator for national decision-makers: • The contribution of French tourism road transport to CO2 emissions. five times more than with a train. according to the mode of transportation. Source: Tourism Environment Consultants. IPCC. In this case. and the other for the impact on the greenhouse effect of all pollutants emitted during the flight . which are well known. Planes. a family will have contributed three times more to global warming with an airplane than with a car. European Environment Agency (Copert III and MEET programmes). EDF. An indicator for tourists and business operators : • Contribution to climate change of a family Paris-Nice trip. based on SNCF. Remarks.164 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Box 3.5% of French CO2 emissions. sulphur oxides and jet trails are all taken into account . Airbus Industries. horsepower. the effects of nitrogen oxides. variables: type of airplane. Two estimations are given: one for the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2). IPCC. European Environment Agency (Copert III and MEET programmes). Trains. EDF.29 (cont. Source : Tourism Environment Consultants. based on SNCF.

recaptured or recycled) ¢ Baseline Conservation initiatives and results • • • indicator. and a contentious issue with local residents over allocation and pricing. % waste water or grey water recycled. Shortages Water is a critical resource for tourism. % loss from reticulated system. Seasonal shortages Water shortages • • • Allocation of water among users • – such as agriculture. water can become a constraint to development. In many destinations. Note that for some destinations that are without a formal . flush systems. reusing of towels). 169 and ¢ Sewage p. (See also the related issues of ¢ Drinking Water Quality p. Water Pricing.g. advising guests on water saving. 171) Indicator of water use: • Water use: (total volume consumed and litres per tourist per day) ¢ Baseline indicator. a limit on tourist activities. Total use as percentage of installed capacity. import. Conservation is one means to reduce or mitigate demand. Total use by each sector (Tourism as a % of all users).g. % water supply imported to region. # shortage incidents per year or number of days per year where there are supply shortages. The provision of services to tourists is heavily water dependent: studies have shown that consumption of water per capita by tourists is typically double to triple that of residents of destinations.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 165 3. recycling treated wastewater (e. This indicator can be a key measure of physical carrying capacity for water-poor destinations and also can provide warning of potential limits or stresses on the supply system.3 Water Availability and Conservation ¢ Baseline Issue Water Supply. Number of establishments participating in water conservation programmes. New (additional) water supplies can be difficult to obtain and costly (e. • tourist accommodation. Reason for use of this indicator: Responds to the need to manage supply and demand of water. Water saving (% reduced. applying water conservation policies and techniques. Components of the issue Overall water use relative to supply Indicators • Water use: (total volume consumed and litres per tourist per day) ¢ Baseline indicator. Source(s) of data: Data to support this indicator is normally available from the utility which provides the water (where there is a reticulated system). (see following Water Quality issue where this is treated separately).8. Particularly for areas where water is in short supply. the records of utilities are sufficiently detailed to separate tourist use (at least for official hotels and apartments or specific major tourist uses such as water parks or sports and cultural facilities) from other domestic. or desalinization). and often • specific large users such as water parks or golf courses Cost and pricing of water Quality of water • Water price per litre or cubic metre. local residents. Recycling.Part 3 . hotels using water saving shower heads. (note consumption by key users – derived from consumption data). agricultural or industrial uses. water issues. for irrigation purposes.

Total use statistics (percentage of capacity of system being used) can be a useful indicator of levels of stress on system capacity and a signal for attention to infrastructure or conservation issues. domestic consumption rates. Means to use the indicator: Water use (litres per capita per day) can be shown for tourists relative to locals.166 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook water utility (e. hotels using water saving shower heads. This indicator will often be used in concert with the use per capita indicator to show performance which may be attributable to conservation programs. Benchmarking: The International Hotels Environmental Initiative is one potential source of comparative data for large properties. Number of establishments participating in water conservation programmes. (Note: for many destinations peak tourism season coincides with the low rainfall months – potentially amplifying shortages) It is recommended that data be expressed in litres consumed per day for comparison with other sites.g. The first indicator is a means to express savings (total or %) over time. where possible. Conservation of water is likely to both save money through water charges (see following indicator) and promote a “green” image in the marketplace. Benchmarking: This figure is available from many destinations and comparisons can be made of consumption per tourist. Indicators of water conservation: • • • Water saving (% reduced. advising guests on water saving. An alternative data source can be records of participating establishments – and provision of such data could be a requisite of participation in such programs.g. applying water conservation policies and techniques. Source(s) of data: Water utility data. tourism often has greater opportunity to show water savings than other sectors. The second indicator can be obtained from the same records. Benchmark as well against overall consumption averages for the destination and. reusing of towels). for irrigation purposes. many rural and remote sites obtain their water from independent sources) data may be available only from selected accommodation. It is built on the same base data as water use per tourist – (above) but may require greater detail in data to differentiate between those participating in programs and those outside such programs if attribution is sought. Total savings of water and also savings expressed in monetary terms (cost of production of additional water or savings from reduction in consumption) can be a meaningful number both for local use and portrayal of tourist sector efforts to other stakeholders. . as well as seasonal differences. % waste water or grey water recycled. recaptured or recycled) ¢ Baseline indicator. water issues. This can become a performance measure for water conservation activities of the tourism industry.. Reason for use of these indicators: Conservation is an important opportunity to relieve pressures on water supply and water systems and an opportunity for the tourism sector to show leadership. an alternative can be to measure differences in overall water consumption by season or month – attributing the difference in the tourist season to additional consumption by the tourism industry and tourists. While this is a possible source of information. Because of the amount of discretionary use. Where data is not collected in a way that segregates different types of users. per tourist day. Means to use these indicators: Can be used to demonstrate savings in water or water costs (see below) and could be a performance measure for the tourism industry and/or the water utility for its conservation initiatives. recycling treated wastewater (e. flush systems. Green Globe also publishes some data for member destinations and properties. the indicator may not be representative of all users or meaningful for the destination.

It should also be noted that water price and water quality will in many cases be linked – as supplies of good water are depleted. Means to use the indicator: Show trend lines in price per litre. Beruwala. The WTO workshops and case studies in Cozumel. the price for new water reflects the difficulty to obtain it. although some does find its way back into the aquifer. Where water is priced. and the cost is affected by distance to new sources. 345).org/watsan/ and many municipal sites which feature current pricing.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 167 Indicator of cost of water: • Water price per litre is a potential supplementary measure for water supply. Box 3. Data on rates is published by many water utilities. The sole water supply for Cozumel. Villa Gesell. (See Balearic Case p. the water infrastructure is aging with much leakage. Because of the sensitivity of the tourist industry to water. The 51 sq km island had 57. This can be a good leading indicator for water shortage as supplies become more difficult to access. As well. and import by pipeline or tanker. losses due to leakage from the system.000 permanent residents in 2000 and was host to nearly 400. The freshwater aquifer floats on salt water from the surrounding sea. There appear to be opportunities for water conservation as water is not priced by volume used and there is little incentive to conserve or even turn off running taps. See for example World Bank web source – which has regional water supply pricing data for municipalities in different regions: http://www.worldbank. effectively ran out of water nearly every May as pumping resulted in salinization from sea water influx to replace the fresh water drawn out of the aquifer. and potential (and hopefully actual) . Source(s) of data: Water utility records. Reason for use of the indicator: New water sources are frequently more expensive than current supplies. competition can cause price changes and reallocation of supplies. The Cozumel study recommended that the tourism industry cooperate with officials to measure and report water use. Note that where grey water may be available for some uses (such as watering gardens and golf courses or recycling to flush toilets) there can be dual pricing – with the real price of grey water being significantly lower than potable water. The water authority was forced to shut off water periodically to residential areas. Fresh water frequently runs out at the end of the dry season. normally the hotels were not cut off. which coincides with the peak tourism season.Part 3 .000 tourists. is annual precipitation captured in the underground aquifer. Other possible benchmarks for these indicators are the Mediterranean Tourism Indicators program (several measures of consumption and conservation per capita) and the Balearic program which also measured water recycling. Where readily available sources such as shallow wells. depth to tap alternative underground sources. Nearly all of the tourist impact is concentrated in and around the town of San Miguel. deep wells. and/or the cost of taking poor water and making it clean enough to be used for the desired purpose. water bills for specific properties. surface streams or lakes are exhausted. The island is quite dry receiving 1. The WTO study of Cozumel revealed that the island’s sole water source.30 Water supply for Cozumel Cozumel is a small island off the coast of Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula.500 mm of rain annually. like that of many small islands. Benchmarking. It is potentially useful to monitor both the actual cost of provision of water. and its sale price. Peninsula Valdes and Cyprus all identified water supply as an important issue and suggested indicators to respond. who see the hotels (and tourists) as a cause of the problem. the aquifer underlying the island. This is considered unfair by many locals. water can still be obtained through methods such as desalinization. mostly from May to October in the rainy season with little falling in the peak tourist season of December to March. not counting the over 1 million cruise ship visitors who landed from up to a dozen ships at a time.

169). (particularly old systems with significant leakage). these are often linked to quantity. some of which could be returned to the aquifer when sprayed on fairways possibly helping to replenish it. use with water cost to examine the benefits of recycling) (See also the indicators on Drinking Water Quality (p. Reference: WTO 1999 Other indicators which have been identified to address water supply issues include: • • • % loss from reticulated system. Number shortage incidents per year or number of days per year where there are supply shortages (See Cozumel Box 3. especially where these coincide with peak use/tourist seasons).30 (cont. This is an indicator of short to medium term stress on the water system.168 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Box 3. Water and energy supply is also a tourist attraction . Total use as percentage of installed capacity. instead of being lost to the sea through outfalls. waste water or grey water recycled (use along with total water use to calculate net use of new water. Water availability (and recycling) also became important in discussions regarding creation of a golf course on the island which was being planned to use recycled grey water. particularly where high use causes destinations to rely on lower quality sources or depleted aquifers). Canada. Quebec.30). • • Saguenay Falls. as well as an indicator that expansion or conservation programs may be required.) gains through conservation or use reduction. particularly in desert regions or areas with significant dry seasons. Water supply imported to region as percentage of installed capacity (Importation by tanker ship or truck is often done in water-short destinations.

including the World Health Organization website. • Indicators of drinking water purity: • • • Percentage of tourism establishments with water treated to international potable standards. an alternative indicator of water safety may be used. ¢ Baseline indicator. ice cubes. Number of incidents of violation of water standards. International benchmarks can be found for many water authorities on the Internet. environment or health . (Note: where entire system is on reticulated clean water systems this indicator can be redundant – and simply advertising that the destination system meets these standards may be the best use of a simple public fact (or indicator) See alternative indicator at end of this section on number of violations/incidents. ¢ Baseline indicator.g. Benchmarking: Many mature destinations have 100% of properties on systems which meet international standards. Perception of cleanliness of food and water (Exit questionnaire – see Annex C). public works. ¢ Baseline Indicator. National or regional agencies responsible for water supply and/or water quality will likely have data which can be used as a benchmark. Frequency of water-borne diseases: percentage of visitors reporting water-borne illnesses during their stay. and to show safety where good water systems are in place. (e.8. % of local population with access to treated water (UN Sustainable development indicators).4 Drinking Water Quality ¢ Baseline Issue Purity of Supply. (Note that this indicator may be less relevant as secure supplies of potable water become available through bottled water. Source(s) of data: Local water utility. Illness will spoil a vacation. The key use is to show safety of water supply. Number of incidents of violation of water standards. The image of a destination where visitors are likely to get sick can deter tourists. Where there is no utility. although it still may be relevant where food services have limited access to clean water supplies for food preparation.. cutlery etc) . (This is difficult when there is no agency or utility in control of the water supply). Components of the issue Purity of the drinking water supply Indicators • • • Impact of contamination on tourist health Impact of water related contamination on image of destination • Percentage of tourism establishments with water treated to international potable standards.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 169 3. or tourists need to be wary of water while brushing teeth washing hands. Drinking water quality is one of the most important factors in tourist wellbeing and poor drinking water quality is implicated in intestinal diseases afflicting many tourists. frequency of waterborne diseases – locals and tourists) Means to use the indicators: Useful to advise tourists of risks. Reason for use of these indicators: To measure progress in potable water service in a destination. (Typically part of a ministry of infrastructure. % of local population with access to treated water (UN Sustainable development indicators).Part 3 . Contamination Impact on Tourist Health and Destination Image Most tourists are very risk averse.

• Indicator regarding tourist health: • Percentage of visitors reporting water-borne illnesses during their stay. . Benchmarking: Use over time for the same destination. ¢ Baseline indicator. This limits the ability to benchmark between destinations.conversely the percentage who disagree can also be used to illustrate perception of problems). Where a very high percentage agrees that cleanliness is good. this can also be used in marketing. . Source(s) of data: Questionnaire-based – from exit survey. # of incidents of violation of water standards . Reason for use of this indicator: This is an indicator of impact due to problems with water supply (or food contamination from sources including water). It identifies a risk to both health and the image of a destination.a risk measure. Not all those experiencing illness (particularly mild forms) will necessarily report it. which suggests a means of obtaining visitor perception of quality of their experience. Reason for use of the indicator: Often perception of conditions or of risks is a stronger predictor of tourist behaviour than actual statistics on such risks. signalling the degree to which water may be safe (where destination has a normally potable reticulated water system this may become a key indicator). Other useful indicators regarding access to clean drinking water are: • % of local population with access to treated water (UN Sustainable development indicators) a general measure of the destination’s quality of water in a range of areas. this also relates to community wellbeing in destination. (See the questionnaire in Annex C. with specific reference to perception of cleanliness. Means to use the indicator: This indicator can be used to market safety for destinations meeting all standards and with low risk (benchmark against WHO). Benchmarking: World Health Organization website on drinking water quality at: http://www. Means to use the indicator: This can be an early warning indicator of changes in perceived quality – related to food and drink.170 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook although in many jurisdictions delegated or carried out by more local authorities or private suppliers). some of which may be visited by tourists. (Refer to World Health Organization publications and websites for standards). health etc).int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/en/ Indicator of perception of risk: • Perception of cleanliness of food and water (% who “strongly agree” or “agree” that food and water quality was good. This is also a key risk indicator for many destinations.who. Source(s) of data: Normally national or regional health authorities will collect this data. although there is inconsistency in reporting and even definition of which diseases are monitored.

1 Sewage Treatment ¢ Baseline issue Wastewater Management. contamination has resulted in virtual closure of resorts (e. Australia which is featured in many tourist guides around the world.g. A $24M upgrade of the sewage treatment plant is due to be completed in early 2004. air pollution. In particular water is a scarce resource given the region is prone to drought. Water consumption was up 44%. Extent of System. With a permanent population of around 30. waste. cholera) and beach closures on all continents due to e-coli or other contaminants can virtually close down destinations and harm the image and tourism arrivals for years. rivers.Part 3 .9 Limiting Environmental Impacts of Tourism Activity 3. While the destination does not have a formal indicators program.9. disposal of waste water is expensive. Byron Bay Council has a number of issues relating to landscape. This example shows how important water is to a community. the plant will still be unable to cope with peak tourist periods. oil spills. noise. Reducing Contamination The management of liquid waste (sewage) is a key concern for tourism. lakes. Australia The town of Byron Bay is a very popular tourist coastal resort on the north coast of New South Wales. Effectiveness. costs and pressures are important signals which can lead to action relative to key elements of destination sustainability. breakdown of sewage infrastructure was a key contributor to the closure of several Iberian beach hotels in the 1970s and abandonment of Black Sea resorts in the 1990s.000 visitors attend a local music festival. more than 20.000 Byron regularly receives influxes of tens of thousands of visitors. In extreme cases. and may also contribute to disease and damage to wildlife and natural resources. and how indicators relating to use. Pollution both from resorts themselves and from local communities and industries can degrade the destination. In relation to the impacts of tourism. it is monitoring some important trends. community ambience and local economics.) .g. Widely publicized incidents (e. but if tourism numbers continue to rise sharply. The industry has frequently been harmed by contamination of its key resources – beaches. biodiversity. As well. water. in January 2002 flows into two treatment works servicing the town were up 24% on the main-holiday month in the previous year.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 171 Box 3. 3. According to the local authority.. Over the Easter long weekend alone.31 Monitoring scarce water resources: Byron Bay.

Means to use these indicators: This is related to destination quality and also to standards like Blue Flag. Where there is no reticulated system. for irrigation).g. Means to use the indicator: (same as above).g. tertiary treatment levels and calculate separately for tourism sector if possible) ¢ Baseline indicator. their own treatment facilities. Benchmarking: Benchmarking is essentially done over time for the same destination although national. Number of reported pollution or contamination events per annum (by month) in watercourses receiving effluents. . • Extent of sewage treatment systems • • % of treated sewage recycled (e.172 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Components of the Issue Sewage receiving treatment Indicators • Percentage of sewage from the destination/site receiving treatment (also break out sewage from tourism sector if possible) . national standards for treatment for many nations). approved septic and cesspool systems) Source(s) of data: Data is likely available from local planning. regional and international standards exist which can be used (e. community wastewater systems may not be available for many. ¢ Baseline indicator. % of treated sewage recycled (e. Percentage of tourism establishments (or accommodation) on (suitable) treatment systems ¢ Baseline indicator. This indicator identifies the overall percentage of establishments which have approved treatment systems (community systems. 149) Effect of sewage treatment • Indicator of treatment levels: • Percentage of sewage from the destination receiving treatment (Measure each of primary. the tourism industry and the overall economy can be significant.g. secondary. Percentage of the destination served by storm water systems (separating sewage from runoff and surface drainage). data can often be obtained from individual properties which have their own treatment systems. Benchmarking: Over time for the same destination. • Reason for use of these indicators: The key assets of tourism can be damaged by sewage releases – either from the tourism sector or from others. Source(s) of data: These data are normally available from environmental or health authorities or from the utilities themselves for most destinations. Indicator of extent of sewage treatment systems: • Percentage of tourism establishments (or accommodation) connected to (suitable) treatment systems ¢ Baseline indicator. Impacts on the environment and implications for the communities. Reason for use of the indicator: Because of the dispersed nature of many tourism properties. building or environmental authorities. From the point of view of the tourism industry it is essentially an early warning indicator of potential risk to their product and a stimulus to action to improve their own or community systems. for irrigation). Blue Flag. See also indicators in section on Seawater quality (p.

4.9. Due to problems of contamination and negative impacts on both the environment and often the image of the destination. which can contaminate nearby waterways. Waste is generated in nearly all activities that humans undertake. A live demonstration was done of the regular flushing of the holding tank. Box 3. All of these can damage tourism and the destination. Those at the outlet saw thirty seconds of foul black water run across the beach. it is increasingly necessary for destinations to measure waste production and to manage its treatment. Reuse. the main solution to managing this waste has been to throw it away – most frequently where there is a waste collection system to bury it under the ground in a landfill. In places where there is no system. Hazardous Substances Solid waste is a major source of pollution for the planet. Generation of leachate.Part 3 . or someone is paid to take it “away”. Reduction. Beach boys contended that black sewage flowed across the beach from one hotel.2 Solid Waste Management ¢ Baseline Issue Garbage. waste material is frequently just abandoned where it is created. Used or waste materials sent to landfill represent a loss of resources. Problems with old-style rubbish heaps and landfills include the: 1. The WTO group further examined the holding tank. By the time the environmental manager made it to the outlet from the valve he had turned on. 3. Attraction of vermin and concomitant disease. Percentage of the destination served by storm water systems (See also Sea Water Quality for destinations where the sea is the recipient of effluents p. adding a length of pipe to raise the outlet was all that was needed to remedy the problem and bring the system more into compliance. Emission of greenhouse gases. No such black water event was noted. . Recycling. out of mind’ solution has not been very effective and has created a new set of problems that need to be dealt with. and their replacement will increase greenhouse gases during both their production and transport. Production of offensive odours. Deposit. and the environmental manager showed the group the report done daily of outflow clarity. The hotel manager showed the group the treatment plant. Collection. A cheap fix. 2. the visiting experts became aware of an issue regarding sewage. the water was flowing clear. Thus sludge was flushed in the initial water release each time. 3.32 Beruwala Sri Lanka Waste: The Beach Boys know where the effluents flow During the field work for the WTO indicators study in the beach resort of Beruwala. 149).Sustainability Issues in Tourism 173 Other indicators which may be of use relative to wastewater (sewage) management include: • • Number of reported pollution or contamination events per annum (by month) in watercourses receiving effluents. The experts and some beach boys were at the outlet when the release commenced. The ‘out of sight. followed by clear water. To date. and found that it had been poorly installed with the outlet at the bottom.

4. % of destination area (especially in urban sites) covered by solid waste collection services. or if not possible. deposited in landfill. recyclable bottles etc.g. serving in edible containers. Where the waste was generated. What the waste actually consists of and the quantities of each type of material. Percentage of tourism establishments covered by waste collection programs.). people tend to use more disposable products than at home. 2. Waste assessments also identify environmentally viable alternatives to landfill for the waste that cannot be eliminated. Using this information it is possible to target activities and industries (such as tourism) producing significant amounts of waste going to landfill.g. recycle. Waste volume produced by the destination (tonnes) pa / Person years pa (by month) ¢ Baseline Indicator. Components of the issue Managing total waste collected in a destination Indicators • • • • Total amount of waste collected.g. and identify sources and destinations. to then consider reuse. e. The first step for the destination should be to look to reduce quantities of materials consumed (including packaging). reuse. landfill. It is valuable as it tells you: 1. Destinations need to quantify waste volumes.g. food bought may be heavily packaged. etc. composting plants. you need to measure your waste in order to manage it. Waste attributable (by month or season) to tourism. Tourism establishments can also seek means to substitute less wasteful procedures (e. recycle. residual treatment. This can be done at many scales (See results of one audit in the destination section on Convention Centres p.174 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook There is a widely recognised hierarchy for minimising waste: reduce. Waste disposed by different methods (specify. That is. incinerated. Number of tourism establishments collecting waste separately.g. Volume of waste recycled (m3) / Total volume of waste (m3) (specify by different types) ¢ Baseline Indicator. residual disposal. etc). Number of tourism establishments recycling their own waste (e.). 286) A waste audit is simply an assessment of waste. 3. How much waste there is in total. It also helps to identify where reducing waste at the source is going to be most practicable and effective. no local facility) and waste used for energy generation systems may be a better route for some destinations. Consideration should be given to the options that have the best local environmental impact. so effectiveness of future management strategies can be monitored. While on vacation. incineration. obtaining both energy and a reduction in the weight of waste disposed. Recycling may not always be the best option (e. Reducing waste produced • • • Providing waste collection services • • . Where it ends up (e. capacity of collecting separated waste from local residents. composting).

volume of use over time). recycling waste where possible and committing waste to landfill only as a last resort. composting organic waste). efforts of tourism facilities are diminished. catering and other tourism establishments to reduce. it is also important to collect information on waste generation and processing from tourism establishments as well. e. Indicators relating to consumption of resources and production of waste. Box 3. As well. which are calculated on a per person per annum basis.Douglas Shire. Without adequate municipal infrastructure. % of these substances for which appropriate management and disposal policies and programs are in place. Queensland. Image of cleanliness of destination (questionnaire based). reuse and recycle waste. effluent from the sewage facility is used for golf course irrigation The program is targeted at all sectors. Quantity of waste collected from public areas and streets. and inform them adequately on municipal activities. Indicators of waste production: • • • • Total amount of waste collected.g.g. incinerated. Quantity of waste strewn in public areas (garbage counts) Maintaining clean image for the destination • • • ¢ Baseline Indicator. need to take into account both the resident and the transient (tourist) populations. An integrated waste management project was put into operation in 2002 to provide best practice waste management and aims to reduce landfill by up to 65%.g. There are examples of hotels with excellent environmental management systems. There are also examples where the hotel maintains a good relationship with the local community.).Part 3 . etc. where the carefully separated waste ends up in the same landfill. engineers trained in emergency spill handling).g. Waste disposed by different methods (specify..Sustainability Issues in Tourism 175 Components of the issue Hazardous substances (reduction. Municipal services of waste collection and processing have to be coordinated well with accommodation. reuse of packaging where possible. % of employees informed and trained in the use and disposal of the substances they use (e.33 Solid waste reduction . by collecting different types of waste separately. bottles) in their households. and residents reuse specific waste items (e. Tourism establishments can also have their own waste processing facilities (e. cleaners knowledgeable of how to deal with waste cleaning fluids. Recycling includes old tires and grease trap waste. due to lack of processing capacity at the local destination. bins. however. handling) Indicators • • • Number and volume of hazardous substances in use (for key substances. For the above reasons. with tourism as a major participant. Recycling and reuse should start at the source of waste (establishments). deposited in landfill. Waste volume attributable (by month or season) to tourism. Waste volume produced by the destination (tonnes) pa / Person years pa (by month) ¢ Baseline Indicator. Australia Douglas Shire is a local authority on the Queensland coast where tourism is a major part of the economy. Results are monitored. Douglas Shire Council actively encourages a reduction in the quantity of solid wastes being generated through approaches such as avoiding excess packaging. .

Therefore. Source(s) of data: The information which the destination needs to collect is the weight of solid waste being sent to landfill. this can then be converted to a weight using weight to volume conversion factors depending on the amount of compaction. recycle. If the local refuse transfer station has a weigh bridge the weight of waste can be sourced from here. and subsequently to collect waste separately. although the relationship is not always easy to show. The first step for the destination should be to look to reduce quantities of materials consumed (including packaging).g. Where there is no official collection. or if not possible. Means to use these indicators: These indicators are useful to display trends in solid waste production and allow the destination to monitor and act on their performance. especially where waste collection and recycling is not organized centrally at the destination. Number of tourism establishments recycling their own waste (e. This can be done in a number of ways depending on what facilities are available in the area. Indicators of waste reduction: • • • Volume of waste recycled (m3) / Total volume of waste (m3) ¢ Baseline Indicator. or if not possible. If there is no weighbridge. or access private waste audits. to then consider reuse. Percentage of tourism establishments covered by waste collection programs. The basis of recycling is separating different types of waste. recycle. Benchmarking: This indicator can be benchmarked over time for the individual destination or by using comparative data from other sources such as regional or national authorities. Means to use these indicators: This indicator is useful for displaying trends in recycling allowing the destination to monitor and control their performance. . and their replacement will increase greenhouse gases during both their production and transport. which is best to start at the source. Number of tourism establishments collecting waste separately. Reason for use of these indicators: The first step for the community should be to look to reduce quantities of materials consumed (including packaging). Benchmarking: This indicator can be benchmarked in two ways: over time for the individual destination or by using comparative data from other destinations. capacity of collecting separated waste from local residents. Tourism establishments can be also. disposal firms and also from the local disposal sites. such as total pressures on a particular site.176 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Reason for use of these indicators: Used or waste materials sent to landfill represent a loss of resources. it may be necessary to survey properties to obtain estimates of volumes. other methods of calculation include calculating the volume of waste being sent to the landfill. to then consider reuse. the change in number of trucks collected for the destination or for a particular site have been suggested as a potential indicator of tourist volumes in season). it is important to monitor. Source(s) of data: The information can be sourced from the data collected during a waste audit. Note that waste volumes can also be used as rough indicators to measure levels of activity if there is no direct indicator ( in some WTO case applications. whether separate waste collection is conducted at tourism establishments. If an audit has not been carried out it will need to be collected from records from recycle operators. good sources of information. Indicators of adequacy of waste collection services: • • % of destination area (especially in urban sites) covered by solid waste collection services. composting). or if there are facilities (bins) that allow local residents to deposit their waste separately. They can sometimes be used as a proxy measure for other stressors.

and therefore little regulation or service provision. Means to use the indicator: Shows development of waste services. Besides the contamination effects.Part 3 . contributing to poor image. gardens (and some attractions such as golf courses) and in some cases.g.. Once a thorough inventory is done. Benchmarking: Ideal is 100%. cleaners knowledgeable of how to deal with waste cleaning fluids. mainly as cleaners. although some toxic substances are in use. and occasional biologically hazardous materials (for example waste from clinics in hotels or cruise ships) . pesticides used on lawns. engineers trained in emergency spill handling). lubricants. % of these substances for which appropriate management and disposal policies and programs are in place. % of employees informed and trained in the use and disposal of the substances they use (e. Particularly in new destinations or destinations where attractions and accommodation are widely scattered. 286 where such an inventory is included in their environmental management system). volume of use over time). This may be provided through local authorities or private collection services. 241) or a hazardous waste program. it is possible to monitor (and hopefully reduce through substitution and efficiency) the use of such substances. Source(s) of data: Local authorities where they exist. inappropriately and illegally deposited waste has severe visual impact at tourism destinations. or poll of establishments. Other potential indicators: • • • Whether or not the enterprise or attraction has an environmental management system (see p. paint. percentage of enterprises with toxic waste management programs. or demons-trates need. For destinations. % of hazardous waste generated in the community which is collected in a special waste program. fuels. (See for example the box in the section on Convention Centres p. It can also include ash from boilers and heating systems and sewage sludge from cesspools and septic systems.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 177 Reason for use of these indicators: Some destinations do not have waste collection services. Reason for use of these indicators: Compared to other industries. Source(s) of data: The key to waste management of hazardous substances is a thorough inventory of the substances in use or produced. . Indicators relating to handling and disposal of hazardous substances: • • • Number and volume of hazardous substances in use (for key substances. there may be no local authorities. ingredients in fire control devices. tourism generates little hazardous waste.

Benchmarking: Measure changes over time for one destination or for different sites within a destination. Few tourists are prepared to enter or leave the water via the sewage outlet ..g. (e. Canada) through a combination of public education and cleanup programs. Source(s) of data: Debris counts in public areas. Measure collection volumes from collectors.cdc. Compare to other sites: . Reason for use of these indicators: Waste that is not managed can accumulate. Means to use these indicators: Can measure both effects of programs to reduce litter and dumping and results of cleanup programs. Quantity of waste strewn in public areas (Garbage counts on key sites) ¢ Baseline indicator.note that some destinations have effectively achieved near zero waste in public Image of cleanliness of the destination (questionnaire based). creating environmental and health issues and also disturbing tourists and affecting the image of the destination. Northern Europe.html. Indicators of impact of waste on the destination: • • • Quantity of waste collected from public areas and streets. Specific chemical safety fact sheets for most commonly used toxics are available in many languages on line at http://www. (loads of waste from streets and public areas).178 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Means to use these indicators: These indicators can be used to show compliance with laws and regulations and as a signal of risks. Benchmarking: Guidelines for hazardous waste management are available from on-line sources.

Activities implemented in the two-year program include: • A waste separation scheme for the municipality of Side. recycling companies have been identified and pick-up times set for participating hotels. organized a workshop in the Municipality of Side in Turkey’s Antalya region.276 tons of inorganic waste. were held for managers and staff at hotels. excursion providers and local travel agencies as well as UNEP. • Training sessions on solid waste management and waste separation techniques.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 179 Box 3. sanitation managers and association presidents. apartment hotels and pensions. • Waste separation bins for organic and recyclable waste have been placed in Side for use by residents and tourists. and a locally based coordinator was appointed. The meeting was attended by the Mayor of Side. www. and representatives of the private sector. and hotels and restaurants post signs at their entrances. organized with technical input and background material from UNEP. the new land fill area has been identified and approved and it will be in operation in Fall 2004. individual hoteliers.102 storage batteries collected from hotels.34 Waste management through multi-stakeholder partnership in Side. Indicators demonstrate the significant progress achieved in waste management: • Over 100 hotels and all local shops and restaurants participate in the waste separation scheme. Moreover. representatives of WWF Turkey. financed by the Side administration and the Side Tourism Association (TUDER). It is in operation. in the Ali Ihsan Barut elementary school and in the Tourism Hotel Vocational High School. was identified as an urgent matter. For more information on TOI and its indicators program see Box 3. • The Side Tourism Association has placed containers for collecting used batteries in every Side hotel. . where TOI members and their local partners bring approximately 300.000 tourists each year. Turkey The Tour Operators Initiative (TOI).org Twenty waste bins were placed in the town of Side to separate organic and inorganic waste . .47 p.978 batteries collected from hotel desks. 243.11. members of the Garment Association and of the Bar and Restaurant Association.Part 3 . • Waste collected during the last seven months of 2003: . Source: UNEP.toinitiative. comprising over 20 inbound and outbound tour operators. The meeting gave the participants the opportunity to share their views on the main threats to sustainability in the Side region and ways to address these. UNESCO and WTO. • The local recycling company posts signs on its vehicles to promote the Side initiative. hotel technical services and primary school. a detailed plan of action was developed. Side Municipality sanitation workers. During follow up meetings with local stakeholders. Among the three priority actions waste management (with a focus on waste separation and recycling).

Reaction to garbage can be very individual. Source(s) of data: Exit questionnaire (Annex C). Benchmarking: This should be compared over time to exit survey results for the same If there is a strong negative response. Reason for use of this indicator: If a destination has a poor reputation for cleanliness. The latter two are summer Olympic sites. Tokyo. Means to use the indicator: This is an indicator of risk to the destination deriving from tourist reactions to garbage. a reading of 50 parts per million in a North American city draws a public health warning to avoid strenuous exercise and for those with respiratory conditions to remain inside.euro. Seoul. 3. when pollution from industry and traffic are concentrated near their sources. or specific reasons for negative reactions. including Mexico City.pdf which provides detailed standards for different airborne substances. related primarily to the levels of industrial contamination in the outdoors. At a more localized level. Perception by Tourists Air pollution has become an issue for many destinations.3 Air Pollution Air Quality. Pollution from Tourism.) Readings exceeding 1000 parts per million have been recorded in some urban tourist destinations. Tourism itself can be a contributor to air pollution. The World Health Organization publishes standards for air pollutants at http://www. particularly in the still summer months. Athens and Beijing. some travellers may avoid it.who. Buses left running while tourists visit monuments can be significant factors in urban centre Santiago de Chile from the Andes through the smog pollution and in damage to buildings.180 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Indicator of perception of destination cleanliness • Image of cleanliness of destination (questionnaire based). the centres of many major cities have raised levels of contaminants. Health. Travellers’ advisories have been posted for some popular tourist destinations. Many jurisdictions now publish air quality data on a regular basis – for . Sao Paulo. sulphur dioxide and volatile organics. Air pollution is also considered a major contributor to degradation of cultural heritage (acid rain effects on limestone monuments) and natural heritage (harming species and altering ecosystems). Those most affected by air pollution warnings are the elderly and those with respiratory ailments and allergies.9. Many jurisdictions provide public warnings when readings reach levels considered to be harmful to health (e. and is related to conditions in the tourists’ place of origin. further questions should be used to pinpoint problem areas. Many governments have established air quality standards related to concentrations of key contaminants such as particulates. ground level ozone. Perception of cleanliness may figure more strongly in the decision regarding whether to return to a destination or recommend it to others than actual conditions.g. and concern has been raised that the levels of contamination may exceed safe standards and affect athletic performances.

Use with the above indicator.. . Some destinations are acting to shift polluting industries outside the most affected cities. the hot summer season with photochemical fogs).g. Means to use the indicator: Use to show risk. Cost of repair to buildings and cultural sites. Indicators regarding impact of air quality on tourists and residents: • • Incidence of respiratory problems (local and tourist). including those for foreign visitors. replace old factories and vehicles to reduce pollution loading. Many nations have their own criteria for when warnings are issued.Part 3 . Reason for use of these indicators: This is an indicator of risks. the heating season in a city which uses coal fires. Number of health problems reported by tourists (See Health p. Santiago or Beijing have thwarted many of these initiatives. and altitude of the destination can affect the impact on tourist and local health. or permitted access days related to the numbers on licence plates but overall growth in car numbers in cities like Mexico City. China provides graphs showing urban air quality for major cities on a weekly basis in major newspapers. This can also help pinpoint which seasons are of greatest concern (e. Number of health problems reported by tourists. Reason for use of this indicator: Uses existing standards in destination to show levels of concern and changes over time. limited to access on certain days. particularly when there is a pollution emergency. Benchmarking: Compare over time with jurisdictions using the same standards and monitoring systems.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 181 example. Number of warnings regarding the air pollution of the destination in major publications and guidebooks (would be done by a survey of these print sources). Impact of air pollution on tourist assets Impact of tourism sector on air quality • • Contribution of the tourism industry to greenhouse gases. change fuel sources for heating and power generation to less polluting ones. International standards for most chemicals are published by WHO. Some cities have moved to reduce car use: for example cars are banned from city centres. Indicator of air quality: • Number of days exceeding standards. and limiting trucks and other traffic in cities. Local conditions – such as length of time a pollution event lasts. Perception of air quality by tourists. Incidence of respiratory problems (local and tourist). 94). Components of issue Quality of air Impact of air quality on tourists and residents Reaction of tourists to air quality Indicators • • • • • Number of days exceeding standards. also use to demonstrate improvements or show potential visitors that there is little risk in certain seasons. Source(s) of data: Existing monitoring programs (often health or environment departments).

g. For general perception of pollution of a destination. not just of those who have visited. See also – Issue sections on Tourism and Climate Change p. Perception can be very individual.182 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Source(s) of data: Health department statistics (See Health p. Means to use these indicators: Measures progress in overall health in the destination with emphasis on diseases known to relate to air quality. Sometimes noise and air pollution go together in a destination . some tourists are much more sensitive to poorer air than others. the hotel was just downwind from the sewage lagoon or near to the fish market). Tourists from very clean cities may react more to bus fumes and strong smells than those who are used to them at home.000 each and. As a very rough surrogate. but will be a reasonable indicator of changes in visibility of the issue over time. A search by the authors found Paris. and Environmental Management Systems p. Additional indicators which may be of use relative to air pollution issues: • • Cost of repair to buildings and cultural sites (see p. 94) An alternative may be WHO data (aggregated from nations) or insurance firm data related to numbers of health problems among travellers. The message delivered to other potential tourists may reflect the reaction rather than any specific air quality measure. 76) which can help measure some of the costs associated with air pollution damage. a web survey of frequency of mentions of the destination along with the terms “air pollution” could also be instructive. Auckland with 8000 entries. Number of warnings regarding the air pollution of the destination in major publications and guidebooks (would be done by a survey of these print sources). 160) which can help the industry understand its own role in air pollution and other related issues.000 entries. Benchmarking: Use WHO data. 152. Indicators of reaction of tourists to air quality: • • Perception of air quality by tourists. Energy p. national data among destinations within a country. 241.. Means to use these indicators: This is an early warning indicator that tourists may find the air a problem. for indicators relative to tourism sector contribution to air pollution. Beijing and Sydney with about 30. Source(s) of data: Exit questionnaire. Benchmarking: Compare over time for the same destination. (e. Reason for use of these indicators: Perception of air quality may be as important to tourism as the actual physical data on contamination. This is a rough measure with some difficulties of comparison due to linguistic issues. 155. It is primarily of use to stimulate work to remedy the issue. Contribution of the tourism industry to greenhouse gases (see p. it may be necessary to conduct a broader survey. Los Angeles and Mexico City each with more than 100. and ultimately to measure progress. The broader response of tourists can affect the decision of whether or not to visit the destination.

Part 3 . Noise levels will tend to be quite site specific. Tourists will likely be less directly affected unless they spend long periods under the same conditions.nlm.g. 78dB to 94 dB as traffic noise conflicts may occur. Some urban centres have real-time decibel monitors at key intersections (e. There is a well established measure. Indoor air quality is fundamentally an issue for workers. . noise standards for outdoor areas tend to be more subjective. noisy motor vehicles. the young and older tourists or the tourists who wish to party until dawn and the longer term or local residents who wish to sleep at night. For example loud on one street where there are late night clubs. cooking smoke. hotel rooms which meet high standards of air quality. Some may not visit cities where smoking is permitted in restaurants. the decibel. related to the use of toxic substances in construction of or cleaning of buildings. can be a health hazard. For further information on this issue. Particularly in beach destinations noise levels draw complaints: this is often an indicator of cultural conflict between e. outdoor attractions. who spend many hours daily in the same environments – where toxic fumes. used to monitor noise levels.hotelair. or hotels with posted standards regarding use of organic or green cleaning supplies. Noise level limits may need to be as precise as this due to the fact that noise levels decline with distance from the source. Some travellers may seek “safe” environments with filtered air.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 183 Box 3. informative sources are: An American medical site: http://www.html A Swiss hotel school site: http://www. etc. many Chinese cities) which show the actual decibel level. as audible from nearby hotels and apartments. Rome and Tokyo have identified noise as one of the key issues harming the tourist experience.4 Controling Noise Levels Measuring Noise Levels. the use of scents in shops and enclosed spaces. and to issues related to smoking. particularly beach resorts. Loud radios. related to hearing loss and health impacts. Both actual noise level and perception of noise are relevant. Where a destination is shared among different market 3. the City of Honolulu has set a standard of 68dB (no more than 10% of the time can noise exceed this limit) for noise produced from the Waikiki band shell..35 Indoor air pollution Indoor air pollution is an emerging issue. others may avoid cities where they are not allowed to smoke in bars and restaurants. For example. and raucous tourists are the main sources of unwanted noise in many destinations.g. What is acceptable during the day will be much less welcome at night. outdoor restaurants or a major intersection and much quieter two blocks Perception of Noise Noise has arisen as an issue in studies of many urban destinations and heavily used seasonal sites.g. Some cities like Bangkok. Concern for indoor air quality is an issue for some tourists.. including hotels.asp A commercial site: http://www. and you can watch it rise from e. The noise tolerated and even expected at a rock concert or amusement park would be intolerable elsewhere (or to those within hearing range who do not enjoy that form of music). and may influence their choice of establishment or destination related to their perception of health issues. While there are well established standards for noise levels in workplaces.html World Health Organization indoor air quality site: http://www.

as well as season will be important. If large numbers or cohorts Heavy city traffic 85-92dB find the noise objectionable. Source(s) of data: Fixed decibel meters on key sites.184 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Components of the issue Actual noise levels Impact of noise on tourists and locals Indicators • • • Noise levels at site in decibels (also can be reported by time of day). time of day or day of week. this may Gas lawn mower 98dB have more direct impact on their Jet airliner (150m overhead) 115dB opinion of the site (and of the whole Thunder (close by) 120dB destination) than any objective assessment of decibel levels. Where high agreement levels are received. limits” and Rustling leaves 20dB look for a site or community similar to Quiet room at night 32dB your own). compare the same sites for both average and maximum levels from year to year. Complaints received. Loud orchestra in large room 82dB Beginning of hearing damage Reason for use of this indicator: Different groups will perceive noise due to prolonged exposure 85dB differently. complaints may not be a good indicator. probe for where and why. Benchmarking: Many jurisdictions have established maximum levels allowed (for example no more than 70dB between midnight and 6AM). Raw data may reveal specific sites at specific times exceeding desired levels.36 Typical decibel levels (dB) keywords: “noise. Quiet street 50dB Indicator of noise impact on tourists: Ringing alarm clock (1metre) 80dB • Perception of noise. To reveal whether sites are becoming noisier over time. Note that Ambulance siren 120dB this indicator will probably relate as well Pain threshold 135dB to number of complaints received.htm Source(s) of data: Exit questionnaire (and resident survey) (See Annex C). night) in decibels. These are very specific – often with different levels permitted in residential areas or near parks etc.lhh. Perception of noise. Reason for use of this indicator: Actual noise levels can be monitored or sampled using a Indicator of physical noise levels: • Noise levels at site (day. bylaws. activity specific. but Rock concert 110-140dB because noise tolerance is very site specific. Calculate the percentage who agrees that: “I was bothered by noise”. . (For typical bylaws search on the web using the combination of Box 3. Means to use the indicator: Graph of monitoring data can be very useful. but can demonstrate the need for monitoring or a more specific questionnaire approach. and culture specific. More information and examples: www. and/or sampling using mobile decibel meters. Note that for mobile measurement. Typical levels are shown in the box above.

and therefore should be integrated into the landscape and architecture. Construction. mobile telephone towers. in turn. Colour. If noise has been a problem. The following principles should be given particular attention in addressing such issues as physical context. if it is done well. incorporating cultural motifs and traditional styles of vernacular architecture wherever possible. climate and culture.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 185 Means to use the indicator: Can show whether noise is a serious irritant and may affect return or opinion of the destination. Form. The use of an area’s vernacular architecture helps assimilate buildings into the local cultural context. Cultural context: A facility should demonstrate the same level of sensitivity to the cultural context as it does to the physical context. satellite dishes etc can cause serious visual impacts in nature areas and at historic monuments. The presence of the facility should not disturb or intrude upon its natural setting. whether they are synchronised with the landscape or not. it can enhance the tourists' experience and appreciation of the local cultural forms and styles. Architectural design of facilities must demonstrate unique responses to the local environment. This. 3. Design. It should be designed in keeping with its natural surroundings and should not violate or intrude upon the physical landscape as a foreign structure. The design of the facility should be congruous with the cultural environment in which it operates. orientation and space and are a response to the relative climatic environments. The facility should interact with the natural ecological/geological features.5 Managing Visual Impacts of Tourism Facilities and Infrastructure Siting. Therefore. It is also important to take into account any existing architectural forms in the region. and here the facility can serve two additional roles: First.Part 3 .9. Landscaping Tourism facilities and their related infrastructure too often violate or intrude upon the environment with visual pollution. Benchmarking: The strongest benchmark will be changes over time for the destination. 3. it can help reduce any feelings of cultural intrusion that may be felt toward the facility by local traditional peoples. sensitivity to the local environment and culture are essential to a sustainable facility that has low visual impact on its surroundings. 1. it can be used to measure success of mitigation and reduction activities. 2. Integration with the surrounding landscape. power lines. Two of the fundamental considerations in designing a facility are physical and cultural context. These local building forms have evolved over hundreds of years and normally make the most efficient use of local materials. . would render the design visually sustainable. aiming to blend into them as much as possible. as it would act as a timeless piece of architecture and an organic feature of the natural landscape. Physical context: A facility should be designed within the natural physical context of the area in which it is situated. The use of vernacular architectural principles in the design will allow the facility to reflect the local cultural history and be visually and culturally sustainable over time. but should be harmoniously integrated with the environment. Infrastructure such as roads. the architectural and the related infrastructure of the facility should not compete with the natural landscape and the surrounding vegetation. Secondly.

and are so well situated in the kopje (rock outcrop) that it is difficult to determine where the natural landscape ends and where the buildings begin.Design for reducing visual impacts An outstanding example of physically sensitive uses of form in lodge design comes from the Serengeti plains of Tanzania. Some of the techniques and approaches used in the design of Lobo Lodge include the use of existing natural rocks for structural purposes. and existing rock contours to create a swimming pool. or vice versa. natural rocks to define internal space. Lobo Lodge reflects sensitivity to the site and the natural surroundings. . glass detailing to create inside-outside relationships.37 Lobo Lodge. The built structures harmonize with the physical environment.186 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Box 3.

and size of signposts.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 187 Components of the issue Design and construction of infrastructure Indicators • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Total length of roads. See ¢ Development Control (p. Grand Canyon National Park some very popular sites i. Total run of overhead electrical cables (Km). Existence of aesthetic considerations in planning approval process. Slopes (% built on slopes). Height (and visibility) of water tank. Number. Erosion on the side of roads (% eroded). Texture (% matching vernacular). Presence of communications tower. Sewage ponds (size. Color (% matching or coordinating with vernacular).. Height of buildings (average and maximum).Part 3 . % of landscaping done with native species. Against the natural light – reflections. Presence of satellite dishes. No. of indigenous plants removed for development. Provision of transport hubs and public transport systems will be necessary to limit these . Density of buildings per hectare (footprint and floor space per unit area). 207). Total run of overhead electrical cables. and size of signposts. Reason for use of these indicators: In several parks around the world. vehicular routes are being closed and reclaimed and shuttle systems have been introduced i. % of site cleared for development. % of site covered by indigenous plants. Yosemite. siting). Erosion on the side of roads (% eroded). Night lighting Physical form Planning / Building permits • • • • • • • • • • • • Material selection Siting and orientation Integration with the landscape Indicators regarding infrastructure: • • • • • • • • Total Length of roads (Km). Presence of satellite dishes (number). Quality in viewing the night sky (in natural areas). Presence of communications tower (also height and visibility). Height of water tank. Sewage ponds – area and visibility. Denali National Park. Soil Erosion (% and total area eroded). visitor impacts have reached critical levels. Ridgeline or coastline continuity (% intrusion on ridge and coastline). No. Number of buildings (area covered) exceeding height of natural vegetation (like treetops).e. Shapes of signs (% matching vernacular style or natural environment). Shapes of buildings (% matching vernacular). Number of light fixtures that throw direct light.e.

Source(s) of data: Site review or assessment. They should be a minimum of 5-8m (16-26 ft) distance below the ridgeline. Ensure that water runoff from the road does not create erosion channels. Box 3. Clearly mark vehicle access and parking areas and limit it to those locations.g. Benchmarking: The box above implies standards against which a design or a constructed facility can be compared. providing interesting and pertinent information. avoid locating roads on ridgelines since this scars the landscape.188 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook impacts by reducing traffic and thus the necessity of extending the infrastructure and increasing its visual impacts. An asphalt road (hidden by trees in the foreground) designed through a steep slope in the Nyungwe Forest National Park. Appropriately signpost all roads.38 Selected guidelines for infrastructure design 1. On hilly areas. Measures of impact (e. and also encouraging suitable behaviour. See International Ecolodge they should be returned as closely as possible to their original sites. Design roads using the topography to minimise visual impacts and create dynamic variation in views and orientation. 6. 2. 4. Consult an engineer if there is doubt about building gravel sinks or other drainage tool. erosion) or of management (adequate signage) can be seen a performance measures which can change over time. 3. Rwanda has caused erosion and the resultant visual impact spoils the visitor experience. . inventory and move plants and topsoil that could be disturbed by construction activities. review of plans. which mars the natural Means to use the indicators: Some of these can be used as simple checklists. Avoid excessive signposting. endeavouring to stimulate appreciation of the natural and cultural environment. 5. (www. After road gradation has been completed. Prior to construction of the roads.

Quality of viewing of the night sky (number of stars or constellations visible – use astronomical standard). Source(s) of data: direct measure of lighting levels and visual impacts at night. Shapes of buildings (% matching vernacular). Box 3. together with the local wildlife (and. Reason for use of these indicators: Site lighting should be limited and controlled to avoid visual disruption to the nocturnal cycles of wildlife. Means to use these indicators: Some jurisdictions have established standards.39 Means to limit light pollution 1. .Sustainability Issues in Tourism 189 Indicators regarding lighting: • • Number of light fixtures that throw direct light (and % of site lit) at natural sites. Shapes of buildings (% matching vernacular. Some sites may be ideally adapted to tree house type tall structures and this may reduce ground footprint. which constitute the main attraction. The degree of overhang or extension of the roof beyond the building line can provide better integration with the landscape. Number of buildings (area covered) exceeding height of natural vegetation (like treetops).epa. Review outdoor lighting to assure that neighbouring properties are protected from the view of bright light sources and plant screening shrubs to protect the facility from off-site light pollution. See for example www. this being the case. Shapes of signs (% matching vernacular style or natural environment). the local cultural environment). Shield all landscape fixtures through plantings. 3. but such designs can also gain protection against intense weather conditions. 2. Buildings and other structures should not dominate the landscape and/or surrounding vegetation. Consider essential driveway lighting attached to low bollards. Avoid building high structures. number of distinct shapes). Density of buildings per hectare (footprint and floor space per unit area). Eliminate all upward radiation of light through use of full cut-off luminaires. and Reason for use of these indicators: Architects should draw on the beauty of the existing landscape as a vital theme for the facility's form. Avoid disturbance on the horizon so stars are clearly visible at night. Indicators of structure: • • • • • • Height of buildings (average and maximum height).pdf for light indexes which can be used for both day and night measurement). Benchmarking: Compare to published standards or to other sites nearby. and so light the minimum area for the minimum time at the lowest wattage. Designers should conceive the shape of the buildings and roof to be a function of activities inside the buildings. enhances itself by such interplay. The facility should be planned and designed such that it follows the contours and forms of the natural landscape features.Part 3 . directed downwards only and spaced along the edges. All-night illumination to areas with all-night use or extreme security concerns should be limited and simple timers or photocells can be used to turn lights on and off at seasonally appropriate times. 4. so that the architectural form does not stand out above the vegetation or surrounding rock formations. There are not only aesthetic benefits.

Use colours that blend with their surroundings and be inspired by the rocks. for example to the “white cities” of southern Spain. the sea. In colder climates. Reason for use of these indicators: The colour and texture of exterior finishes are particularly important design elements for any facility. Draw upon local precedents for determining the relationship between structure and environment. Means to use these indicators: For sites where a large percentage of architecture matches traditional. . Means to use these indicators: Often used to draw tourists. these indicators can be used to market authenticity.. On the other hand. are the main attractions.. plants and distant mountains. which.such as the leaves. etc. (e. Reason for use of these indicators: From the lessons learned through the site analysis process. At natural sites. This can also be used as a performance measure for efforts to encourage preservation of character of communities. and can enhance the feeling of harmony and unity between the final built form and the natural environment. barks. wind directions are a major factor when siting facility units. (commonly referred to as earth tones) which soften the presence of the built form. Indicators of siting and orientation: • • • • Ridgeline continuity (% intrusion on ridgeline). soil. or the colourful buildings in the Caribbean and Latin-America. inventory of structures for existing sites. Source(s) of data: Plans and design drawings. To achieve this. Indicators of external materials: • • Colour (% matching or coordinating with vernacular). Against the light – reflections.g.190 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Source(s) of data: Design drawings for proposed developments. The facility should be planned around natural features rather than imposing typical resort design solutions. Buildings should not try to compete with the surrounding plant and landforms. Benchmarking: These indicators should be compared over time to the same site. a site plan should be designed whereby the buildings are in harmony with the landscape. Soil erosion (% and total area eroded). Benchmarking: Compare over time to the same destination. Texture (% matching vernacular). and though it may cause comfort inside the facility it may provoke annoying glare outside and may clash with the surroundings and detract from the effects and appreciation of site. Remember that white reflects solar radiation. and can create a feeling of intrusion upon that environment. Slopes (% built on slopes). after all. no structures in the Maldives are permitted to exceed the height of palm trees). The wrong colours can sharply contrast the shades of colour found in the natural landscape. rocks. one of the primary techniques would be to protect sensitive habitats from development. colour can diminish the feeling of the physical context if used incorrectly. Planning agencies may hold these data. the colours used for a facility should be drawn from shades found in the surrounding elements . desert sand.

Avoid using plants with forms and colour from outside the area. Preserving the existing landscape should be a priority. especially near the entry. attract native bird and butterfly . and in some cases.. and perennials help to preserve the character of regional landscapes. Benchmarking: These are key performance measures for results and mitigation of visual impacts of construction. Source(s) of data: Plans for new developments.Part 3 . Means to use these indicators: This is a performance measure for efforts to conserve or enhance natural environments. Note that the recommended indicators can help measure the degree to which these guidelines are shrubs and trees) and rocks should be laid out in an informal. Groundcovers should begin this transition. 3. 5. 2. site inventory. Indicators of integration with landscape: • • • % of site cleared for development. % of landscaping done with native species. which should progress to larger shrubs closer to the building walls. Integrate the facility into the surrounding landscape through the planting of various indigenous trees and shrubs whenever and wherever possible. 2002) www. 6. For further information on design see:” International Ecolodge Guidelines” (TIES. Reasons for use of these indicators: The built structure of any facility can be made to blend in with and appear as an extension of the natural environment through carefully designed minimal landscape Benchmarking: Compare with the same destination over time. % of site that is landscaped. inventory of existing structures. Landscape designs that emphasise native trees.g. Use a natural landscape approach and concentrate your planting efforts adjacent to the facility. Avoid superfluous landscaping and the use of exotic plants. shrubs. Means to use these indicators: Use these as a performance measure for efforts to promote good siting and orientation.edsaplan. Use plants which are native to the area (endemic) since they will be in greater harmony with the existing surroundings. natural manner. vines. Design a simple massing concept. 4. www. Box 3.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 191 Source(s) of data: Plans for new developments. as this is generally more successful than a complicated planting scheme. The landscaping should be guided by the patterns of the existing natural landscape as much as possible and native vegetation (e.40 Guidelines for sustainable and sensitive landscaping 1. require less maintenance. be well adapted to the local climate and soil conditions. Remember that simplicity is the desired result.

policing or guiding capacity) to establish some points of reference. Tourist Numbers. over 50 examples were encountered of indicators used to measure or calculate tourist density. or at least the maximum capacity of key infrastructure (such as toilets. and to determine when standards or thresholds are likely to be reached. space standards. Ideally. The measure of stress on sites and systems can be both an indicator of potential damage.1 Controling Use Intensity ¢ Baseline Issue Stress on Sites and Systems. It is set into the cliff.192 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Prizewinning Kandalama Lodge (Sri Lanka) is a big facility with around 300 rooms. Often this occurs through a process of trial and error as site managers discover that damage has occurred. 3. estimates of maximum carrying capacity (ecological limits. Often. Nearly all sites monitor tourist numbers.10. Crowding How many tourists are too many? The issue which has probably received the greatest attention by destination managers is that of tourist numbers and intensity of use. The numbers and density of tourists are understood to be a driving factor in many of the other issues related to site or destination management. In the research to develop this Guidebook.10 Controlling Tourist Activities 3. or the system has been stressed through what is considered excessive use. something is known about the capacity of a site in ecological or cultural terms. The objective of most applications is to measure tourist numbers relative to desired levels of use. the indicators have been used to compare use levels to specific goals. and one of damage already done. lifeguards. and therefore indicators relative to this issue will be one of the key management tools for destination managers. however calculated. and intensity of use of sites and destinations. or seating space) or management (e. .g. is almost invisible from the air and harmonizes well with its surrounding thanks to the vegetation cover using local plants. infrastructure capacity etc).

. Reason for use of this indicator: This is a basic information requirement for nearly all forms of tourism planning and management. services can alter the capacity of a site or a destination. a tourist riding on an off road vehicle has many times the potential impact on a site than a birdwatcher. % of total capacity used (average and peak). new roads. Note: many other issues are subsets of the use intensity and crowding issue.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 193 In part 5 there is a detailed description on the application of the concept of carrying capacity with some practical approaches (See section 5. • Levels of use relative to design capacity/other capacity measures Perception of use levels and crowding (same as for above issue of density) • • Percentage of tourists who believe that the destination is too crowded (exit questionnaire) and local residents who believe it is too crowded (local questionnaire).g. day visitors from cruise ships outnumber significantly the tourists who stay overnight in destinations such as Cozumel Mexico and some Greek islands). some discrete destinations may also accommodate a great deal of day use. although the relationship is much more complex (see for example Carrying Capacity (p. peak) (categorized by their type of activity) ¢ Baseline Indicator. Destination managers may wish to use a participatory process or focus groups to assist in discovering which limits are most important. and therefore which of these may require a specific indicator. Nevertheless. boats per minute on canals. mangrove tours. it is not as simple as it may seem. Components of the Issue Total numbers of tourists visiting the destination or key sites. monthly. day bus and car visitors outnumber overnighters in most of the major North American national parks. and the indicators proposed for them address specific symptoms of stress. boats per square Km on watercourses.mean number/peak month average/peak day ¢ Baseline Indicator. particularly those which are built. Fundamental to the understanding of stress on a site is the simple monitoring of numbers of users. jeeps per hour in a wildlife park).4 p. and these day visitors can significantly augment the pressures on destination facilities. Each tourist is not equal.Part 3 . monthly. While the usual definition of tourist for a destination implies an overnight stay (and the WTO encourages destinations to use this definition at the destination level to measure tourism) it can often be complicated by other factors. peak) (categorized by their type of activity) ¢ Baseline Indicator. Indicator of level of tourism: • Total tourist numbers (mean. It is therefore . as can changes in levels of control or management. For example. Measuring and managing use density for specific heavily used sites within the destination • Density counts for vehicle use of site (cars per minute on park roads. and the behaviour of each can also alter the impact. 309). The impact of each tourist or day visitor is cumulative. Note also that limits may not remain the same over time. (E. 309). • Number of tourists per square metre of the site (per square kilometre of the destination) . Ratio of number of vehicles per parking space. peak numbers of tourists stressing the limits of capacity Measuring and managing the intensity of use of the destination Indicators • Total tourist numbers (mean.

transport data (ferry passengers to an island). Means to use the indicator: Both potential density (number of persons on the island who could be at the beach or plaza). with some study done to try to document how this relates to total numbers. . It is also a vital component for many other indicators measuring per capita impacts. Monaco). Benchmarking: Benchmark against other years for the same destination using the same data source. or counts on site (use of photography is very helpful for crowded sites) may be necessary.e. Source(s) of data: While some destinations (and managed sites within destinations) have managed entry points where those who enter are routinely counted (and in some cases classified as to local or foreign. Source(s) of data: Data are readily available for sites or destinations where access is controlled or entry is sold. 21). cultural sites. open access beaches.. Density of use is understood to relate to and in some cases help predict stresses on ecological and cultural assets. Readers are reminded that accommodation occupancy counts or vehicle counts may not capture all visitors (particularly day visitors whose impact on a site is added to that of tourists. or small states which can be considered to be a single destination can monitor arrivals at borders (but even this can be difficult for small states which are part of a larger customs union or which have open borders (e. Means to use the indicator: This indicator is used to measure % changes in visitation – and is useful as raw data. adjusting for % who stay outside the destination. water use per tourist.g. One concern is the definition of the boundaries of the destination (see Part 2 of this book for recommended procedures p.g. Disneyland. actual level of crowding in the plaza) are meaningful. sample data (at entry points).g. Pirate Beach doubled its tourism numbers in only five years whereas the other destinations in the region took more than ten years for the same growth). both extent/boundaries and the calculation of tourist numbers may be more difficult. daily records are likely the best source.mean number/peak month average/peak day ¢ Baseline Indicator. this can be easily done and is likely known by managers. the peak day will show maximum potential stress. While specific sites (e. % who stay in unofficial accommodation). For others. garbage produced per tourist).g.. A further alternative may be occupancy records of accommodation. student or elder etc) many destinations do not have this easy means of documentation.g. The overall numbers indicate average stress on the destination. (i. For controlled access parks. and may in some cases because of numbers be much greater than that of tourists who stay overnight). the Acropolis. beaches. and actual (density of actual beach use. (e. Island states. many national parks and historic sites) have access control or sell tickets. Indicator of density and use intensity: • Number of tourists per square metre of the site (per square kilometre of the destination) . For other destinations. public squares).. Total numbers are fundamental to the calculation of the density data as well as the derivation of many other indicators. Total number of tourists (and tourists plus day visitors) is a key piece of data to address potential stress on a destination and on specific sites within the destination. etc. Reason for use of this indicator: This is a baseline indicator for management of any destination or site. or as the basis for calculation of per capita derived indicators (e. infrastructure. others are open or have limited controls. densities etc. and several aspects of longer term sustainability. Compare as well to the growth rates in other destinations of the nation or region as a whole.. For some sites without access control it may be necessary to do sampling and/or photo counts of densities (e.194 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook recommended that both overnight visitors and day visitors be monitored where the impact on sites is significantly affected by day visitors. For controlled sites. levels of management and mitigation needed.

as well as changes in these densities over time can provide useful information. In Bentota Sri Lanka. receipts from vehicle operators and/or parking/access control points will be a useful source. control numbers. Source(s) of data: For most controlled sites. See for example. this is best compared over time to the same site or destination. and may be controlled by one specific factor such as water supply.Part 3 . capacity data will likely be available from local authorities.. (see Annex B References p. Indicators of use density for specific sites: • • Density counts for vehicle use of site (cars per minute on park roads. nearly all of which use the persons per square metre or Km indicator. issues of low use relative to built capacity etc. the number of seats. For other sites a specific count may be needed. Often a single limit (spaces.g. the density of vehicles may be more important in terms of crowding. . 475) Some studies have reported beach densities on peak use days of less than one square metre of beach per bather.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 195 Benchmarking: Use intensity has been calculated in many studies. 309). Reason for use of this indicator: Many sites have known or defined capacity limits. related to e. boats may collide due to congestion in the narrow mangrove channels. toilets. or boats per square Km is sufficient. Where peak use reaches or exceeds regulations or design limits. or number of instances where capacity limits are reached or exceeded. vehicles per space. or the UEC standards for community tourism (Thailand) as reference examples. % use of total capacity. number of parking spaces. Means to use the indicator: Use to show percentage of capacity used. Indicator of stress on site and facilities capacity: • % of total capacity used (average and peak) Note that site capacity measures will be specific. or a known ecological or culturally based limit which has been established for the site. this information can be used to support a range of responses – from means to spread use. when bicycles and motorcycles are hung from trees to make their own parking space. Benchmarking: Because capacity is unique. While it may be possible to also measure vehicle occupancy. boats per minute on canals. Reason for use of these indicators: Many sites are visited primarily through use of vehicles. boats per square Km on watercourses. the capacity of infrastructure. Benchmarking: Use time series for the same site. 192) Indicators of reaction to crowding: • • Perception of crowding by tourists (exit questionnaire). the WTO study on Villa Gesell an Argentina. or policy based standards. or change built capacity. Source(s) of data: Tourist numbers are noted in the above indicator. Average use can be used to show the need for new infrastructure. the Mediterranean Tourism Indicators study. Means to use the indicators: Simple portrayal of data as vehicles per minute. mangrove tours. fire regulations) will be the key capacity constraint. kilometre long waiting lines occur as cars try to access Cinque Terre in Italy in August. (See Carrying Capacity p. Perception of crowding by locals (community questionnaire). Ratio of number of vehicles per parking space. jeeps per hour in a wildlife park). fire regulations. Hundreds of paddle boats may crowd Bei Hai park in Beijing on a sunny weekend. trends data relative to capacity. Buses may have to line up waiting to park in national parks in North America and Europe. See also the section on ¢ Controlling use Intensity (p.

see Manning and Prieur 1998) Benchmarking: Compare with time series data for the destination. waste management. Means to use the indicators: Show as a percentage. Changes in perceived crowding may be a leading indicator of concern relative to either local or visitor satisfaction with the destination. As a result.2 Managing Events Sport Events. Festivities.Crowds are considered normal by local residents. Crowd Control Events are both significant for tourism and also bring challenges to event organizers. behavioural modification etc. concerts. especially major ones like the Olympics. Shanghai . It is interesting to note that some tourists may perceive a destination to be too empty while others at the same time perceive it to be too crowded relative to their expectations and/or comfort levels.41) but the impacts they have on a destination parallel many of the impacts of tourism events in general. as well as for large concerts. It may be possible in some cases to identify subsets of tourists or locals who feel most strongly. 342). For example common issues include. with a large variety of organizers and participants. The locals may have significantly different perceptions of what is crowded than the visitors. 3. the World Cup. (For a more extensive examination of these tools.196 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Reason for use of these indicators: All tourists do not perceive the same densities as problems. The competitors and spectators who attend sports events are all visitors from a tourism point of view.10. The box in this section shows an approach to managing major sports events (see Box 3. perception of crowding may be at least as important an indicator as actual density of use. and managing. Source(s) of data: Exit and local questionnaires (Annex C) Note that specific questions can be added on key sites which may have crowding issues. Events vary from pilgrimages to cultural festivities. benefits to the community. Those used to the densities of a Shanghai street market will likely be much more tolerant of crowds than those from places where crowding is rare. Fairs. and other outdoor events. crowd control. (See also ¢ Tourist Satisfaction p. Nanjing Road. this may be a signal for actions ranging from site design. conferences and sports. and protecting ecosystems and built sites. those who feel the site is too crowded/uncrowded/empty. interesting to many tourists and frightening to others. 86 and the Arches case study which demonstrates another method to measure visitor response to crowding p. or Formula One racing. Indicators are being . fairs. If a significant identifiable cohort is dissatisfied. There are also very specific issues related to the sustainability particular kinds of events.

41 Excerpts from: Sustainable sport management: Running an environmentally. • Consumption of natural resources (water. • Consumption of non-renewable resources (fuel. • Promote healthy conditions for sport (i. • Involve suppliers. temporary booths. donors and sponsors in the “sustainable event” initiative. finally. • Waste generated from signs.Part 3 . recycle. transportation). Box 3.). etc. published by UNEP Sport events of any size can be planned and managed sustainably. metals. • Publicize environmental efforts and achievements in the community and to a broader audience through the media. wood. • Promote conservation of energy and water in facilities and during operations. • Reduce the amount of private car use by participants and spectators by emphasizing and facilitating the use of public and active transport means. and music presentations. A basic action plan • Develop and approve an environmental policy. air and water quality) at venues and in the community. While the “green games” initiatives of major events like the Olympics may have garnered most of the publicity. whether single-sport or multiple sport. cannot implement an environmental program and capture the benefits. The following box addresses issues of particular interest to managing sustainable sports events. there is no reason why a smaller local event or a medium-sized regional event. • Creation of greenhouse gases (electrical. • Spectator waste sent to landfill. fairs. • Soil erosion and compaction by spectators. socially and economically responsible organization by David Chernushenko with Anna van der Kamp and David Stubbs. • Adopt “green office” practices in all stages of planning and organizing: reduce the use of materials. The lessons will also pertain to other forms of events like parades. • Paper consumption by media. banners. • Protect sensitive green spaces and water bodies from development and excessive or inappropriate use. • Develop a waste reduction strategy for all venues.). . etc.e. etc. • Define specific objectives and targets (measurable where possible) to deal with each priority issue. • Air and noise pollution from movement of people/goods.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 197 developed to monitor these impacts. Some common ways in which sport events affect the environment • Impacts from facility construction/ operation. incinerator and sewage plant. re-use wherever possible and.

unep. • Organic materials (food and beverage. containers and pallets. • Food and beverage containers. More and more sports governing bodies are and should be developing their own sustainability charters and associated guidelines. Examples include golf clubs promoting biodiversity. mountain biking clubs actively organizing trail maintenance and user education programs and ski resorts tackling the range of challenges associated with fragile alpine environments and working to reduce their ecological footprint. 286). (p. partnership programs and restoration projects. Partnerships Greater sustainability can rarely be achieved without working closely with other interested parties. etc. see also Conventions and Convention Centres in the Destinations section.). machinery and vehicles. whether as members of a committee or as designated “watchdogs”. Examples of powerful partnerships include: • Involving host communities. • Appliances. • Inviting respected environmental groups to play a positive role in all aspects of running an event or facility.greengold. • Packaging materials. practices. • Merchandise for sale or For specific issues related to convention centres and urban events. grass clippings. and • Working with sponsors/donors/suppliers to ensure that issues such as packaging waste and recyclability are considered from the earliest stage. • Office supplies and equipment. • Hazardous and medical wastes. • Leaving behind a positive legacy for the community. .ca United Nations Environment Programme www.198 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Waste The most common types of materials that are brought into a sport organization pass through and ultimately emerge as materials/wastes to dispose of might include: • Construction and demolition materials of all types. Trends Sports that rely heavily on the natural environment for their appeal are becoming active in multistakeholder initiatives to protect and even restore that environment. Partnerships involving all stakeholders with a vested interest in improving the sustainability of a sport organization or operation will attempt to make the maximum use of the resources (physical and intellectual) brought by all parties. seeking input that will lead to events/facilities that are better for the community and the environment. Sources: David Chernushenko www.

participants. Number of waste bins (bins/spectators). vehicle and pedestrian congestion) Impact caused by participants in the event . disturbance of wildlife . site improvements. Ratio of expected number of spectators to actual. Increased use of site after the event.use of site by area residents (before and after the event) . permanent of involvement of local citizens and businesses . competitors.Part 3 . complaints).types of transportation . % of site permanently changed by the event.intensity of use of site and specific areas Impact caused by spectators . graffiti. Impact caused by vehicles . % increase in number of vehicles. Level of facilitation of information related to safety issues (e. vandalism) . % local population who support the event (questionnaire). km new trails. access. availability of services. at peak viewing areas.litter . Weight/volume of waste produced. Number of security personnel (as % of spectators). Density of spectators: over total. at fragile sites. Area for parking. Number of recycle bins for plastic. . % of site changed.damage to built environment (e. noise. % spectators using public transport.distribution and movements of spectators . trails or structures added/changed affecting local use. % increase/decrease in use of the site after the event. safety issues of buildings and spaces. Energy and water demand (absolute amount and % increase). (soil compaction. 104) • • • • • • • Number of participants in/at the event. vehicles. spectators.g. Area impacted/loss of natural habitat/landscape.Features of the site including ecological fragility. • Social sensitivities – Impact on local communities .parking.increased use of water and power • . Number of WCs (or portable toilets) (spectators/WC).Sustainability Issues in Tourism 199 Components of the issue Site environmental sensitivity: .g. loss of ground cover. infrastructure and service). soil compression . animal habitat. organizers.g. organic waste.waste water Impact due to infrastructure: . clear information on event scheduling. Number of spectators. damaged vegetation.impact on community during the event (access to usual facilities and services. Number of circuits/repetitions per area or length of track (sports).gasoline and oil spills/leaks • • • • Catering • .human waste Safety and security (see also Public safety p. place. Number of incidents (arrests. • • • • • • • • • • • • Existence of a spectators management plan (Y/N). Area cordoned off for/from spectators. 109 and Security p. etc. Ratio of numbers of spectators to population. erosion/soil loss. aluminum. noise. Existence of a participatory planning process for events. e. habitats protected for event and beyond).damage to natural habitats. permanent (related to physical impact on the site and social benefits) • • % of catering waste which is recyclable and recycled. Number of medical/first aid posts. sensitive periods for flora and fauna Indicators • Total area of site used by those at the event (artists. paper products.traffic jams .air pollution.production of waste • .) Number of vehicles. smell .

For example. Temporary structures may leave permanent damage while planned permanent buildings may be a benefit to the community and may be sited in areas where impact is minimized. % of total area restored to its former (or better) state after the event and % of total area damaged by the event support organizers in their bid for future events and as a guide to mitigating damage. but a major sports event or festival can be a divisive issue with political and legal ramifications.g. The indicators respond to the need for event organizers to plan and manage physical stress to the site. Source(s) of data: Local or regional maps for the total area of the site. and protected areas. 192) and on specific types of sites impacted for additional information on appropriate indicators. e. it may be acceptable to harden off 5% of the site for vehicular and pedestrian access. while others may be unforeseen and damaging. facilities and services. See the sections on ¢ Controlling use intensity (p.200 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Several of the general indicators of site stress are the same ones recommended for any situation where large numbers converge. Management plans for the event. Ratio of numbers of spectators to population. while another 5% damaged by trampling or parking can be readily repaired by soil aeration or laying new turf if crowds significantly exceed the number expected. Reason for use of these indicators: An aggregate measure of the total physical impact the event has on the competition site. % protected and % with competitor and spectator access are measures to demonstrate intent to protect important habitats. Means to use the indicators: Total area used by the event. % of site permanently changed by the event. % increase/decrease in use of the site after the event. trails or structures added/changed affecting local use. though types of impacts are ideally assessed by event planners. For example. Residents nearby a proposed Grand Prix race track for example may . Indicators of social sensitivity: • • • • • Existence of a participatory planning process for events. % local population who support the event (questionnaire). spectators. parking. These would usually indicate the areas for vehicles. yet crowds may surge onto fragile areas for a better view or to take a shortcut. Note this is an indicator of the area impacted rather than the degree of positive or negative impact. Site inspections before and after the event may note the percentage of areas that have been impacted by the event. The following are specific to events: Indicators of site sensitivity: • • Total area of site used. The changes to the site may be planned and considered positive. % of site changed. Benchmarking: The state of the site before the event is the base for measuring change. Reason for use of these indicators: A small local sports or cultural event may go largely unnoticed by local people with no direct connection to the competitors or participants. Organizers and community representatives need to know the extent to which the population supports the event and what will be affected. parking areas and trails may be hardened off to minimize impacts. A benchmark may be set as the % of change that is tolerable and/or repairable given the resilience of the site and financial budget for repairs and restoration. competitors.

Means to use the indicators: The percentage of population who support the event may be given as a simple percentage of those in favour or against. A more complex questionnaire could elicit the percentage on a scale from definitely against. A content analysis of local media may reveal prevailing attitudes of the population. Number of WCs (or portable toilets) (see ¢ Sewage p. Similarly radio or television “talk-back” shows can act as straw polls. the amount and type of coverage in the local media can be a guide as to whether the majority supports the event of not. 192). If there is no questionnaire conducted. (If not. For free events an estimate of the crowd can be made. others may be severely perturbed by the noise and pollution. Some within hearing of a loud concert may appreciate the experience while others resent the intrusion. Similarly. say 60% of the population in favour of the event. food and beverage services. For a recurring event. Number of vehicles (and per parking space). Number of spectators/WC. or set a target to be reached pre and/or post event. 173). supply their needs and manage their waste. Benchmarking: An initial benchmark. Event plans should list the number of waste bins and toilets available or brought into the site. organizers may seek to increase the percentage by 5% per year. and internet-based voting sites can give an indication of support for an event. Source(s) of data: A questionnaire to determine support for a major event may be done by local governments. 171). the next elections may give the population’s opinion by proxy). Indicators regarding impact of attendees: • • • • • • • • Number of participants and spectators (see ¢ Use Intensity p. event participants descend on the destination in big numbers over a short period of time. fairs and festivals may concentrate very large numbers in small destinations stressing the infrastructure. Ways to use the indicators: The absolute number of visitors to the event gives a plain statement of number of people that need accommodation.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 201 be pleased to have a free track-side view. may serve as the level of support organizers require to go ahead with planning. The number of tickets sold or receipts at the entry gates plus free passes gives the total number of spectators. their support teams and spectators are an important measure as a guide to the destinations ability to host them.Part 3 . to neutral to very strongly in favour.3. Number of recycle bins. Consider for example the case of any local resident within a two kilometre radius of an event who is likely to be out-numbered 5:1 by spectators from out of town. Number of waste bins (bins/spectators or attendees). toilet facilities. (See the example of Sturgis Box. It also gives a basis for decisions on security and crowd control. Issue/reason for use of these indicators: Unlike tourism which brings tourists year round or seasonally. Volume of waste produced (see ¢ Solid Waste p. Area cordoned off for/from spectators. while others may take the economic opportunity to rent their houses to competitors or spectators. Source(s) of data: The number of expected participants and spectators should be available from the event organizers. . The wider population may think such an event is in conflict with their city’s “green” image while politicians may think it a superb opportunity to put their city “on the map” with international television exposure.13). For sports events the absolute numbers of competitors. etc. The percentage of these visitors relative to the population has relevance as well.

Level of facilitation of information related to safety issues (e. Thousands of tourists visit Ottawa. availability of services.). This benchmark can also be the basis on which alternative or emergency plans are developed should numbers exceed expectations. .000 including access and facilities. Safety and security is a central preoccupation for those holding major sports or cultural events. Issue/reason for use of these indicators: Events have become a focus for safety and security issues ranging from vandalism and crime to threats of civil disorder or terrorism. and records from other events can be used as benchmarks. A more graphic or dramatic benchmark can be related to the number of toilets required. place. Ministries charged with security. Provision must be made for more than 100. Organizers should have clear documentation of level of preparedness and contingency planning as well as records of level of effort expended to provide information. etc. Source(s) of data: The number of expected participants and spectators should be available from the event organizers. safety issues of buildings and spaces. Indicators regarding safety and security: • • • • Number of security personnel (as % of spectators). Means to use the indicators: These indicators help to demonstrate preparedness for all forms of emergencies. (see also Local public safety p.g. the benchmark may simply be a measure of the success in achieving the expected number of visitors. as should numbers of personnel involved in provision of safety and security. Number of incidents (arrests.g. access. 104). Benchmarking: A destination needs to set a benchmark for the number of visitors it has the capability to manage to ensure the sustainability of the destination. “one thousand people per portable toilet “ or “a 100 porta-pottie event”!). Canada from all over North America for national day celebrations.202 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Benchmarking: A destination needs to set a benchmark for the number of visitors it has the capability to manage to ensure the sustainability of the destination. Alternatively. complaints). (e. clear information on event scheduling. Number of medical/first aid posts.109 and Tourist Security p.

% open country etc. dry weather. Amount and type of waste with guaranteed reclaiming.. www. % of spectators using public transport: a measure to show success in minimizing vehicular impact (See Transportation p. audit and review protective measures for important environmental aspects Establish and implement a traffic plan Establish and implement a spectator management plan which respects the environment Catering: favour suppliers who reclaim and recycle their products and waste Establish and implement a waste management plan • Number and type of substances over which agreement is reached with suppliers in the specifications (e. Number of parking spaces. % new. % of catering waste which is recyclable and recycled: this indicator is a good measure of ability to manage waste produced at the event. Number of measures adopted. recycling or re-use. Number of collection points and their position on site.).ch Recommendation Select or create courses with respect for the environment Indicators • • • • • • • • • • • • • Meters of course affecting environmentally sensitive sites. wood.uci. Size of security service. Good data should be available if organizers require • • . recycled or re-used. % existing. % waste water (sewage) treated before disposal.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 203 Box 3. Number of parking spaces. main types: glass. glass. Amount and type of waste being reclaimed. plastics etc. aluminum. Define. Area of protected zones. km of tape.g. guidelines of the International Cycling Union. % spectators using public transport. where indicators are used to respond to specific guidelines or recommendations. Average distance between parking areas/station and competition sites. • • • • • Restore sites to their original condition • Other indicators of interest to managing large events: • Number of vehicles: this indicator may be even more important in terms of highlighting potential environmental damage and pollution as well as social dissatisfaction due to traffic congestion. Number of spectators expected. cardboard. aluminum. route markings and barriers. wood. Number/frequency of shuttle buses. Availability and amount of human and financial resources for restoring the sites. % accessible to the public after the competition. 210 for more details). plastics etc. wet weather (hard surface). 210). Switzerland.Part 3 . Number of fixed/mobile toilet factlities.42 Indicators for mountain bike competitions Selected examples excerpted from UCI Guidelines. PET. PET. (See Transportation p. Number of audits carried out. apply.

173). noise or crime can cause local and tourist distress.g. ¢ Solid waste management (p. This is especially useful mid-way through the planning cycle.204 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook caterers and concession holders to provide agreements in advance and if recycling bins are provided. Protection of Image (p. approaches to tourism planning have evolved from rigid master plans. Over the years. ¢ Effects of tourism on communities p. Results of Plan Implementation From its very beginnings sustainable tourism has been associated with the need for tourism planning. Air pollution (e. strategic plans with a strong component of local participation. provide important economic data. 236). Indicators can be used to evaluate tourism plans in terms of their sustainability. and can also increase the depth of analysis. this more adaptive approach to planning needs to be supported by up-todate information about environmental. 183). waste. . An unruly event for example with pollution. Monitoring can assist tourism planning in three main ways. 104). Major events have similar impacts to those related to tourism impact at destinations in general. the UN Commission on Sustainable Development.11 Destination Planning and Control 3. and negatively impact the image of a destination. the idea being that with careful destination planning. social. 3. The following issues are likely to be of particular importance: • • • • • • • ¢ Sewage treatment (p.1 Integration of Tourism Into Local/Regional Planning Information for Planners. Indicators can help highlight priority considerations in terms of environmental planning. and similar principles are stressed by Agenda 21 for the Travel and Tourism Industry. Noise (p. to more flexible. See also the destination section on Conventon centres for similar use of indicators for major events). Plan Evaluation. The Charter for Sustainable Tourism adopted by the Lanzarote World Conference in 1995 identifies the need for ‘integrated planning’ as a key principle of sustainable tourism. 2. This saves time for planners. cultural and economic issues and priorities affecting the destination. and act as a filter for development projections and product development possibilities. 180). • (See indicators on ¢ Solid Waste Management (p. giving planners a chance to reassess goals and objectives in the light of developments that have taken place in the intervening period. For the sake of greater sustainability. regular review and monitoring using performance indicators. and many other recent WTO documents. 171). many of the adverse impacts of tourism could be avoided. 1. 57). 173) for more detailed discussions of waste management issues. keeping in mind the intense use of the site over a short time. motor sports and tourist vehicles)( p. inform the impact assessment section of the plan. An indicators program and monitoring process allows for the information generated by indicators to feed directly into the planning process. Security (p.11.

165). 86). 128). reduction of fish populations). 210). ¢ Visitor/local water usage (p. understanding of sustainable tourism objectives in government departments and in the private sector. 56). particularly the first category which is basic information relating to the industry. ¢ Ratio tourists to locals.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 205 3. Evaluating elements of a tourism plan: Existence and implementation of an up-to-date tourism plan. measuring level of public participation in the planning process. Environmental threats (logging. Traffic generated from tourism (p. the indicators here relate primarily to the degree to which the planning process is responsive to the issues and inclusive of all key elements. Assessing the planning and policy environment/framework: Existence of environmental and planning legislation. ¢ Local satisfaction with tourism (p. Average length of stay. threats to tourism from other areas. The principal areas of interest to the planning process include: • Information for planners on the issues and areas of concern: Performance of the tourism industry. 117). Visitor expenditure per day. ¢ Satisfaction of tourists (p. Attractiveness of sites and facilities. quality of the tourism product. impacts of tourism on the destination. Economic dependency on tourism -Contribution to GDP. Impacts of tourism on the destination Quality of the tourism product Threats to tourism from other areas . Crime rate per capita. (Other risks unique to any specific site – use procedure detailed in Part 2 to identify risks and suitable indicators).Part 3 . Leakages from the economy (p. flooding). Indicators can be used to assess the sustainability aspects of the planning and policy environment/framework in the destination. Environmental vulnerability (storm events. completion/plan for of mid-term review of the plan. Number of sites damaged by other development. Revenue generated from tourism (p. % returning visitors. Components of the issue Basic information for planners Performance of the tourism industry Indicators • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ¢ Tourist Numbers over time/purpose of visit. • • While many of these overlap on the subject matter of other issues covered in this book. evaluating level of monitoring of the plan. assessment of environmental and socioeconomic components of a plan. involvement of stakeholders in tourism authority activities. industrial pollution. See the specific issue sections for information on individual indicators. existence of indicators and monitoring framework.

social. % of plan objectives which have been met. dissemination channels and other consultation mechanisms used. Degree of stakeholder participation in the planning process (e. % that have completed an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). level of participation). Budget designated/spent for consultation and public participation. % Tour operators and hotels with environmental strategy or policy. Plan review completed or scheduled. number involved). and monitoring the policy . Number of incidents of non-compliance with regulations. Sustainable tourism indicators developed and monitored (Y/N) (see Reporting and Accountability in Part 5 p. Level of staff resources assigned to planning. social and cultural aspects of tourism completed (yes/no or measure re standard). to supplying information to planners. number of meetings. Impact assessment of environmental.206 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Components of the issue Evaluating a tourism plan Indicators Existence of tourism plan or strategy Costs of plan • • • • • • • • • Up to date plan exists. Budget designated/spent for research and formulation. Budget designated/spent for plan implementation. Existence of performance indicators designated for evaluating the plan developed and used. social. evaluating the planning process and content. Involvement of stakeholders in tourism development activities of tourism office (% of activities. Public participation • Government understanding of sustainable tourism • • Private sector cooperation for sustainable tourism • • Reason for use of these indicators: Ideas on linking indicators to planning have therefore progressed in recent years from “does a tourism plan for the destination exist”. advisory panels etc). % tourism facilities and service providers regularly inspected for environmental health and safety. Number of environmental. Impact assessment and balance of actions Public participation • • Monitoring of plan implementation • • • Assessing the Planning and Policy Environment for Sustainable Tourism Legislation • • • • Monitoring sustainable tourism • % of accommodation units using primarily local architecture. cultural actions recommended in plan which have been implemented. Plan budget. % tourism managers with environmental training. 312). Level of tourism sector involvement in public policy (advisory bodies. review panels etc). % public sector employees with tourism training. % environmental.g. Degree of stakeholder participation in the process of implementing plans (numbers/% involved in review. cultural and economic actions recommended in plan (% in each sector).

Benchmarking: The most pertinent benchmarking for the operational indicators will be the internal records for the destination and its process. Many examples of unfortunate development exist. and the policy environment can in most cases be based on the operating records of the planning authority. the community and the tourism industry may have little ability to influence the outcomes they desire for their destination. If several destinations are planned under the same legislative framework.Part 3 . and this can be used as an internal checklist by the destination planners.2 Development Control ¢ Baseline Issue Control Procedures. some cross-comparison between them may be possible. creating densities incompatible with ecological limits or infrastructure capacity. (See Box 3. The model can range widely.11. Enforcement If there is no control process for development. or to signal that new plans or activities are required. Means to use the indicators: The specific indicators shown in the above table are in many cases the same ones as defined relative to the other issues described in this section. Maldives: The Maldives have one of the most comprehensive tourism development planning processes of any nation. Property Management.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 207 environment in which it is to be implemented. from building too close to shorelines. there is a capability to guide development towards desired futures. or the first year’s data collection. but may be used in different ways – to help planners respond. and the way in which they are used will frequently be internal – to help direct the planning process. See the appropriate section on the specific issues important to the destination for detail on each of the substantive indicators. Male. and to influence the location. . type and density of development.1 Indicators and Planning Procedures p. or juxtaposition of uses where each adversely affects the other. Where planning systems are in place. Publishing the results of planning process evaluation is important information for tourism stakeholders and the general public at tourism destinations in order to justify government efforts and expenditures and demonstrate results.43) 3. See also Box 2. 23) Sources of information for indicators regarding the planning process: The indicators regarding the planning process itself. Land Use. Most of the information to use these specific indicators will be collected during the planning process.

footprint of buildings to occupy no more than half the property) as a regulated limit.43 Planning and control in the Maldives The Maldive Islands have in place one of the most comprehensive planning and control systems used for tourism development.g.g. zoning or site plan violations. and monitors many site specific indicators on a regular basis. form and content.208 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook from simple indicative zones with little formal control to. No more than 20% of the surface area of any island can be built. site visits. etc. % building proposals receiving environmental review. environmental and social. There is no commonly used indicator which will allow quality of the planning process to be easily assessed. All resort property belongs to the state. 435). such as maximum numbers of hotels/beds. densities. Number of charges for plan. occupancy quotas. including tourism (can be categorized by degree to which it expressly covers tourism. no changes can be made to shores or reefs. height controls. Existence of review procedures (e. evaluations). indicative zoning which defines the desired character of a destination and uses some form of review procedure. Most destinations which use indicators relative to this issue have settled for a simple yes/no indicator of whether a comprehensive development or land use plan exists for the destination. and there are many different specific control criteria (growth rates. densities. Two related elements are important: the planning process. and the degree and means of enforcement. specific criteria for tourism properties). The nation uses indicators such as occupancy levels to decide when to allow new resorts. land use planning that includes zones for tourism development. design. ) used in different combinations and enforced with different levels of rigour (see Tunisia case p. and even permitted and banned behaviours. failure to comply can result in loss of the lease. Components of the Issue Whether any land use or development planning process exists explicitly incorporating tourism. . Each development is placed on an unoccupied island. Land use plans and development controls can vary greatly in extent. but it is important to clearly identify the implications for tourism activities. % denied or sent for revision. No building is allowed to be higher than the palm trees (in effect 2 storeys) and trees must be left between the buildings and the shore. No new development is permitted until existing occupancy is at 80%. for buildings. Existence of specific criteria for tourism development control in plans. with some also identifying whether it has explicit application to tourism. % of area designated for tourism purposes. buffer areas. site planning. no more than 40% of the coast to be built to more than one storey. design controls. A range of tools can be used including prescriptive zoning which designates specific uses and densities for each site. systems which prescribe specific uses. • • Extent and effectiveness of monitoring and control processes • • • Whether or not there is systematic enforcement of the plan and its criteria • • . ¢ % of area subject to control (density. etc). Indicators • ¢ Existence of a land use or development planning process. Box 3. and is leased to tourism developers. No tree can be cut without permission. e. There are some destinations which have also used indicators on area protected and to what extent or level of control. or establishment of density limits (e. at the other end of the spectrum. Construction and operations are closely monitored. % of site built. density standards. design control. etc. Local reaction to the impacts of tourism (using questionnaire in Annex C) may help assess whether the current plan or lack of it may be causing stresses in the local community or is responding to key plan goals or expectations of locals or tourists.g. or undergo environmental impact assessment (EIA).

Density or design controls may apply to only some zones or to areas where access is controlled. Once a regional. land use plans may be in place only for parks or designated areas. . Canada. % denied or sent for revision. Many jurisdictions have review procedures which are strong on paper but seldom enforced – due to lack of political will. Means to use the indicators: These indicators are. Means to use the indicator: This indicator is of greatest use as a means to show authorities that. or for built communities rather than for all of a destination. lack of trained monitors and inspectors. the other indicators below may become more important. site or land use plan is in place. Means to use the indicator: % of destination subject to each form of control. For example. Indicators regarding extent and effectiveness of monitoring and control processes: • • • % building proposals receiving environmental review. Benchmarking: Compare over time for same destination. Aggregate the data for several destinations or sites in a nation or province to show percentage or area which is collectively under control or protection of different levels. performance measures for local planning. greater differentiation can be sought using other indicators. even in developed nations. Indicator of extent of application of planning: • % of area subject to control (density. Source(s) of data: Local planning authority. or systemic failure. if no plan exists. Over time as planning is put in place. this can be used to identify what percentage of destinations or sites have plans or development controls in place. This is a very simple indicator.g. Reason for use of these indicators: Often land use plans are easier to write than implement. level of protection p. it is considered desirable to have one.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 209 Note that the indicators used to measure e. urban. At the national or provincial level. US. Source(s) of data: Information on planning status is normally available from the national provincial or local planning authority. Reason for use of this indicator: Many destinations. Source(s) of data: Local authority – enforcement data is often kept. zoning or site plan violations. 147) may also be of use relative to the impacts of such plans and controls. ¢ Use intensity . Reason for use of this indicator: Often the limits of a destination exceed that of an authority..Part 3 . in effect. design.. and protection (area protected. 192).tourists per square Km (p. Benchmarking: This is likely to be most useful over time to show the progress towards establishment of planning for all destinations in a country or region. Indicator relative to the planning process: • Existence of a land use planning process [involving tourism](yes/no) ¢ Baseline Indicator. Argentina) has been primarily urban in focus. or the planning process has been applied only to selected areas. Number of charges for plan. are outside the formal land use planning zoning and control process which in many countries (e. etc) ¢ Baseline Indicator.g. Standard of plans may vary greatly. rather than for any specific destination.

infrastructure development. Transport to/from Destination The success of a tourist destination is critically linked to the issue of accessibility and mobility and also linked to the preservation of the very ‘environment’ to which visitors require transport and access. This situation results in growing pressures on the environment: greenhouse gas and air pollutants emissions. comfort. In-Destination Transport. Note: a questionnaire approach could be used to document level of concern with the planning process and with certain effects of its implementation. and deterioration in the quality of landscapes. time. Safety. intensified consumption of land.210 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Benchmarking: Measure local changes over time. An important step towards the implementation of improved quality in the public passenger transport sector has been the creation of a European standard on service quality (EN 13816). This section has been divided into two sub parts.3 Tourism-Related Transport Mobility Patterns. energy use. cars and airplanes remain the most used forms of transport for tourism. Mobility within the destination on the other hand has a different action radius and different effects. security. the latter being primarily regional and local. the first deals with transport to and from destinations and the other focuses on transportation impacts within the destinations. there must be a significant improvement in the quality of service of public transport. both at the local level within the tourist destination itself and at the regional. accessibility. .int/ .eu. The development of sustainable tourism therefore has at its core the need for environmentally sound transport planning. each with its own set of suitable indicators. and even international level. Historic trams in Valparaiso. customer care. to name a few of the most obvious negative effects. 3.11. This standard is an important tool to assist authorities and operators in the definition of quality criteria for service contracts as well as in the formulation of key performance for“transport service quality“) which provides a framework for establishing quality agreements and covers eight fundamental aspects of service quality for all modes of public passenger transport. (see website at: http://www. Chile have become a form of tourist transport to viewpoints in the hills above the harbour. information. In order to achieve this objective of shifting the balance between the modes of transport from road and airplanes to more sustainable modes. Efficiency. Transport Systems. and environmental impact. national. noise pollution. namely availability. While tourism is the main driver behind the increase in demand for passenger transport. An item could be added to a local questionnaire (Annex C) addressing the level of satisfaction with local planning and control and with certain of the effects of planning or lack of planning. Approximately 90% of energy used in tourism is spent on access and return travel.eionet.

as well as air. Level of facilitation of information and services (e. sea and air transport). Ratio of travel expenses by public versus private transport to reach destination. . Human health effects associated with outdoor air pollution) • • • • Number of transport accidents and fatalities (land. Ratio of public passenger transport versus private transport speed to reach destination in peak holiday periods to lowest periods (per modes of transport per main markets). coach. 192). other). other). Number of modes required. roads) (route kms per km 2). Total of km traveled per tourist per trip. Annual number of same-day visitors (see ¢ Use Intensity p. coach. Airport saturation results in less traffic security. etc. Annual number of same-day visitors (see ¢ Use Intensity p. noise and water pollution traffic congestion and emission • • • • Safety (Traffic congestion. Impact on local health (see Health p. and airport infrastructures. Time of travel by passenger to destination (hours). aid and emergency services. Trends in the number of days per year on which fixed air pollution thresholds are reached. Density of public transport (route kms per km 2). % passengers contacted (see Tourist Security p. bicycle. walking.level of resourcing. 94). ¢ Seasonality of tourism and length of stay. number of cities served by direct flights (and % passengers arriving without stops). Annual levels of investment in public transport compared with road infrastructure. Access to the holiday destination (Availability / enhancement of road network. Modes of transport used by tourists to reach destination (airplane. stress. rail. air and maritime) during peak holiday periods to lowest periods. unpredictable traffic conditions. car. unfamiliar weather conditions and unfamiliar road layout result in more traffic accidents. 192). Total of km traveled per tourist per trip. Level of air and ground emissions for passenger transport during peak holiday periods to lowest (per passenger-km). rail. capacity of services and use levels (land.Part 3 . 104). walking. car. Indicators of mobility patterns: • • • • • ¢ Tourist numbers visiting site (including one-day visits).g.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 211 Transport to / from destination Components of the issue Knowledge of tourism related mobility patterns Indicators • • • • • ¢ Tourist numbers visiting site (including one-day visits) .g. fatigue. provision of information on road and traffic conditions – e. Modes of transport used by tourists to reach destination (airplane. Frequency. p. Level of noise pollution (see Noise. State of accessibility to the area in terms of public transport) • • • • • • • Journey time and reliability (Road / air / water traffic congestion with related issues of long journey times for tourists. railway’s. bicycle. on website . Density of roads (highways / motorways. Number of direct flights. 183). .). port. ¢ Seasonality of tourism and length of stay.

Frequency of direct and indirect flights to the destination. length of stay. relevant data. Benchmarking: Difficult due to the problem of determining the relevant geographic area. a clear diagnosis and understanding of the level of accessibility as well as the current situation and forecasts of future tourist mobility patterns are needed. Time of travel by passenger to destination (hours). Means to use the indicators: Use total figures per year if available. supported by a set of common definitions. Reason for the use of these indicators: Reducing pollution and congestion by means of increasing road capacity is now proven not to be the best option. etc. sea. It is useful to monitor the extension of roads against the extension and improvement of passenger public transport. sea and air transport). tourism and sustainable transport databases (e. For successful planning. Dobris Assessment. The cost of construction of road (and parking) capacities in densely populated areas continues to increase even though studies indicate that improving and extending road infrastructure results in more journeys overall as road users make use of the new or improved facilities. etc. groups). and indicating seasonal variations. Indicators should lead to establishing a forecasting mechanism of future tourism mobility trends. Data published at national level and by many international research groups.cfit. public authorities responsible for public passenger transport systems and tourism. air. (and % passengers arriving without stops). Means to use the indicators: The proposed indicators should contribute to assess the general state of accessibility and highlight the efforts done on reinforcing public passenger transport services as an alternative to the use of private cars. peak OECD. Benchmarking: While many countries and destinations collect these data. Also important is the assessment of the increase of transport pressure caused by tourism: modes of transport. Annual levels of investment in public transport compared with road infrastructure. Number of modes required. Average passenger journey time and length per mode. list % share of each mode: car. the definitions and sources are often so different that it is very difficult to compare the trends in different countries in a consistent manner. See for instance the Commission for Integrated Transport . existing national and international mobility. Indicators of journey time and reliability: • • Ratio of public passenger transport versus private transport speed to reach destination in peak holiday periods to lowest periods (per modes of transport per main markets). Eurostat. Frequency. . percentage in case of guest surveys or estimates. and of compound budgets and variety of public bodies responsible for roads.g. If possible. capacity of services and use levels (land. Source(s) of data: National statistics agencies. Indicators of access to the holiday destination: • • • • • • Density of roads (highways / ARTIST. research groups.212 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Reason for the use of these indicators: The nature of the tourist mobility demand for transport choice needs to be fully understood. roads) (roads kms per km2 per types). This requires comprehensive. coach trips. Compare instead over time for the same destination. charter flights. Density of public transport (route kms per km2). tour operators (e.Research Reports . rail.g EcoNETT.). WTO. Source(s) of data: Public authorities responsible for public passenger transport systems and/or land planning.European Best Practice in the Delivery of Integrated Transport (http://www.

(Note: see issue section on Climate Change p. Indicators of traffic congestion and emission: • • Level of air and ground emissions for passenger transport (per passenger-km and by mode). national and supra national environment agencies i.eionet.. Road traffic congestion on Western countries’ main holiday routes greatly reduces speed of travel by private car causing environmental damages. Aircraft greenhouse emissions will continue to rise and could contribute up to 15% of global warming from all human activities within 50 years (Intergovernmental panel on climate change – 2001).pdf Means to use the indicators: For NOx. ferry). 0. Reason for the use of these indicators: When the priority for tourists is to minimize journey time between home and the holiday destination.e. Vehicle kilometres or passenger journeys per incident (accident. UNEP (Transport and the global Environment: Accounting for GHG reduction on Policy Analysis. providing a perceived sense of greater reliability and predictability of journey and arrival time than public transport (i. UNEP Definition. Benchmarking: Measure over time and compare to results in same destination. less vulnerable to delays. to widely communicate to tourists and holidaymakers (awareness campaigns). to better appreciate the real cost (internal) of these modes of transport on society. (See quality standards: European Standard on Transportation Services – Public Passenger Transport – Services travel by private car may be seen as the fastest option.047 kg/km by boat (i. time lost at interchanges and technical problems). 183).17 kg/km for air travel.14 kg/km for travel by car. to develop initiatives that move towards fairer and more efficient pricing (polluter pays principle). environmental Impact Assessment studies.Part 3 .e.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 213 • • • Average speed per mode per km. 183). Use Decibels for noise (See Noise p. Air and ground traffic at major airports can lead to pollution levels as high as city centres. For a typical journey under 500km (i.e. % adherence to timetable. Aircraft cause about 3.052 kg/km for rail and 0. It is important that adequate air and noise quality monitoring is carried out at major destinations and airports to ensure that national standards are achieved (Kyoto protocol). Source(s) of data: Public authorities responsible for public passenger transport systems and / or environment. 0. injury). . 155 for additional information on indicators of contribution to greenhouse gases).e. Source(s) of data: Public authorities responsible for public passenger transport systems. London to Amsterdam). Noise pollution (see Noise p. volatile hydrocarbons (VHC) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for passenger transport (per passenger-km and by mode).5% of global warming from all human activities. Reason for the use of these indicators: Road transport contributes to about a half of NOx and SO2 emissions and is strongly associated with CO2 and volatile organics in the urban environment. sulphur dioxide (SO2). national or regional environment agencies. national statistics Means to use the indicators: It is necessary to have good reference data in order to devise methods for accurate assessment of pollution levels directly linked with tourism and to identify potential efficiencies. thereby giving positive pricing signals to more environmentally modes of transport. Benchmarking: Can be benchmarked as many countries / regions / airports collect these data. Targeting and Measurement ref pr EN 13816:2000. Aircraft emissions have also a significant effect at ground level. CEN/European Committee for Standardization. European Environment Information and Observation Network (EIONET) http://www. the amount of CO2 produced per passenger is 0. and again. http://uneprisoe.

waste. water. Number of passengers transported by local public transport for tourism / leisure purposes (also compared to number of tourists using individual transport). tourism. (See also Air Pollution p. health and environment pan-European program (THE PEP). social issues. traffic management issues. The proposed indicators can become performance measures for developing methods and tools for health impact assessment (HIA) and to support authorities at appropriate levels in the definition and management of mobility policies beneficial to health (promotion of healthy transport modes. Number and extent of issues covered by the action plan (transport. and improvement of modal split. Development of less environmental • damaging transport system for tourism travel) . tourism facilities and other tourist attractions accessible by public transport (less than 10 minutes walking distance to nearest station/stop). Health issues should therefore be assessed and considered when formulating transport policies. management of tourism related transport demand. It is also a good measure of local communities’ quality of life.thepep. Action taken to formulate interregional transport plans(Y/N). OECD. public transport passengers and car drivers/passengers during peak holiday periods against low season. economic issues. land use and biodiversity.180). • Tourists’ demand management regarding mobility within destination • • Access to the amenities within the • holiday destination (Public transport. Benchmarking: Can be benchmarked as many countries / regions collect these data. Indicators • • • Implementation of an integrated environmentally sound transport planning strategy (yes / no).htm Means to use the indicators: Fatalities refers to deaths occurring at the site of an accident or within 30 days following an energy. World Health Organization. Transport. promotion of integrated approach to road safety). The figure covers the total fatalities of pedestrians.). http://www. air and maritime) during peak holiday periods to lowest periods. motorcyclists. Reason for the use of these indicators: Promoting healthy and sustainable transport alternatives lessens negative effects of transport on human health. Transportation within the destination Components of the Issue Spatial and transport planning. Tourists’ and visitors’ perceptions and demands of local or regional transport supply and services (by transport mode). Strategy translated into an action plan (yes / no). % of accommodations. cyclists.214 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Indicators of transport safety: • • Number of transport accidents and fatalities (land. Extra means of transport especially set up for tourists: type of transport and number of passenger places available during peak times. Trends in the number of days per year on which fixed air pollution thresholds are reached. etc. Source(s) of data: Public authorities responsible for public passenger transport systems and / or health.

accessible. unfamiliar weather conditions and unfamiliar road layout result in more traffic accidents Indicators • • • • • • • • % of death. other low energy use options). Existence of public transport service information on the Internet or mobility centres (yes / no). trams. Existing safety standards (yes / no). Number of door-to-door services for visitors and tourists. walking. Existence of multi-modal platforms (yes / no). stress. Ratio of number of incidents including visitors and tourists in peak holiday periods to lowest periods. 109 and Tourism security p. . visitors and tourists. Total expenditure on building / maintaining dedicated cycle and walking routes. Strategy translated into an action plan (yes / no).Part 3 . fatigue. reliable information about services/ timetables/ ticketing before and during the stay • Door –to-door services • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ratio of annual public expenditure on information services for public transport users to specific information services for holidaymakers. Length of cycle and walking paths. Level of facilitation of access to information on emergency measures and contingency plans (see issues on Local public safety p. electric vehicles. Number of staff on duty/surveillance system. Existence. capacity of environmental-friendly vehicles and transport modes (e. Parking capacities and use levels.). Intermodality / Integration of services • Links between long-haul and local transport networks • Seamless journey for the tourists • Use of new technologies to maximise co-ordination between transport modes • Integration of public transport services/fares Ease of access • Clear.g.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 215 Components of the issue Safety and security • Traffic congestion. Existence of integrated public transport fares (yes / no). 104). Use of electronic booking for public transport (yes / no). Promotion of environmentally friendly transport modes as part of the holiday and measures to give public transport priority Indicators of transportation planning: • • Implementation of an integrated environmentally sound transport planning strategy (yes / no). Availability and % of reserved public transport lanes and parking spaces Existing measures of restricting car access or parking spaces (yes / no). % of the tourism related vehicle fleet meeting specified air and noise emissions standards by mode of transport. Level of pedestrian infrastructure (area or %). Extent and capacity of public transport. Provision of park-and-ride and bike-and-ride facilities: number of parking spaces (public and private) for cars or bicycles at public transport stops/stations serving tourist amenities. Existence of integrated public transport services (yes / no). Energy consumption and emissions per passenger. or serious injuries due to road accidents during peak holiday periods. etc. availability of bicycle rental services. % of travellers using alternative transport (bicycles. metro. Level of support for low energy alternatives to vehicle transport.

A good example is the ALPS MOBILITY initiative. energy.). Extra means of transport especially set up for tourists (type of transport and number of passenger places available during peak time). This indicator is therefore best measured over time for the same destination.216 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook • • • Number and extent of issues covered by the action plan (transport. Often it is difficult to measure extent and quality of plans or cooperation. etc. Initiatives taken to formulate interregional transport plans (yes / no). The effectiveness of sustainable tourist related transport planning depends on good coordination with other policy areas: tourism and environment. social issues. Source(s) of data: Ministries responsible for tourism. Source(s) of data: Ministries responsible for tourism. and integrated with the concept of the tourist (and local community) as clients of transport services. Monitoring of the success of the strategy as part of an iterative process in which performance is continually improved.alpsmobility. land use and biodiversity. Means to use the indicators: Measure performance against strategies and piece of information required for an area. Moreover. mobility and environment. Austria and Italy) for environmentally sound travel logistics linked with electronic booking and information systems in alpine tourism regions (http://www. Indicators of access to the amenities within the holiday destination: • • % of accommodations. water. waste. An appropriate coordination with land-use planning and information and communication technologies are particularly important tools. Reason for the use of these indicators: Importance of establishing a coherent. Action taken to formulate interregional transport plans(yes/no). It is an essential part of the understanding process. tourism. An assessment of the tourists’ and visitors’ perceptions and demands of transport supply and services within the destination linked with the value of the economy of these visits is a basic. clearly linked with wider transport policy objectives that includes clear statements about the environmental and socio economic impacts of actions to be taken. Benchmarking: Many destinations collect such data and can provide information for comparison. tourism facilities and other tourist attractions accessible by public transport (less than 10 minutes walking distance to next station/stop). yet significant. Indicators of tourist demand management regarding mobility within destination: • • Tourist and visitor perceptions and demands for local or regional transport supply and services. Number of passengers transported by local public transport for tourism and leisure purposes. transport. transportation and environment. promoting trans-national pilot projects (Germany. integrated strategy. Reason for the use of these indicators: There is an obvious need to understand the issues: the nature of the tourist mobility demand and reasons for transport choice need to be fully understood. economic issues. Benchmarking: This information is not widely collected. public authorities responsible for public passenger transport systems. Use “destination transport planning” in a search engine for a range of websites. Means to the use the indicators: Existing dedicated sustainable transport policies in addition to general transport policy actions. in which consideration is taken of partnership and cooperation between all stakeholders (public and private). There are also regional initiatives to foster more sustainable transport policies and practices. this indicator is difficult to benchmark to other destinations due to the local factors (elements taken into account in the visitors’ perception questionnaire). . and yes/no measurement may be all that is available. public authorities responsible for public passenger transport systems.

Existing safety standards (yes / no). Data on cycle and walking paths is widely available from destination tourism authorities and policing bodies. Total expenditure on building / maintaining dedicated cycle and walking routes. ambience and quality of life for local communities. Level of pedestrian infrastructure. and thereby reduce some of the risk associated with non-car travel. place. Objective and subjective safety is a key element to achieve such a shift in behaviour. % of tourist attractions accessible by public transport and linkages of peripheral areas with central zones through public transport can be a useful indicator of quality of life of local communities. initiatives and services required to enhance safety (objective and subjective).) located in peripheral areas to inter-modal stations or central zones. reducing the need for private car use both for local communities and tourists. Benchmarking: While data on crimes and incidents are collected in all destinations. modes). Ratio of number of incidents including visitors and tourists in peak holiday periods to lowest may be a good measure regarding decisions on amenities.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 217 Reason for the use of these indicators: Acknowledging and improving the concentration of leisure / tourism services and amenities at stations along public transport corridors will ensure a high density of trip-attracting activities in central areas well served by public transport. land planning and transport strategies within destinations (synchronization between the system and tourist demands).Well-designed. The total expenditure on building / maintaining dedicated cycle and walking routes and paths will highlight the efforts done on reinforcing soft mobility services as an alternative to the use of private car. 109). It is important to consider both safety on public transport facilities and vehicles as well as for other modes of mobility. Source(s) of data: Public authorities responsible for public passenger transport systems and land planning. theme parks. (See also Local Public Safety p. transport operators. and local police. public passenger transport systems and / or land planning. Means to use the indicators: Assessment of statistics on crime and other incidents concerning customer and staff safety and security.Part 3 . historical sites. Monitoring pedestrian areas in city centres give a good measure of level of vitality. . Reason for the use of these indicators: The key challenge in promoting more sustainable forms of transport is how to build trust in alternatives to the private car. it will not necessarily be broken down by type of passenger. Benchmarking: Data available in many destinations for comparison. Indicators of safety: • • • Number and % of deaths due to road accidents during peak holiday periods (road deaths relative to all deaths). Number of staff on duty/surveillance system on transport vehicles or system.e.) Indicators of security: • • • Ratio of number of security incidents on public transport including visitors and tourists in peak holiday periods to lowest periods (type. Also important is the linkage of central areas or mass tourism infrastructures (i. Means to use the indicators: Performance measure of efficiency of tourism. Source(s) of data: Public authorities responsible for tourism. Note: Indicators are similar to those for transport to / from destinations . etc. dedicated cycle and walking routes can also provide a safer environment for tourists.

timetables and mobility related transport services within the destination of their choice. Number of parking spaces (public and private) for cars or bikes at public transport stops/stations serving tourist amenities. integrated ticketing systems make travelling easier for passengers as they are able to purchase a ticket at the start of their journey which is valid throughout. The simplest form of a multimodal platform is the park-and-ride. thus enabling cyclists to fully utilise public transport.) are a great incentive to use public transport. Indicators of accessibility of public transport services: • • • • Ratio of annual public expenditure on information services for public transport users to specific information services for holidaymakers. which allows for the interchange between the private car and public transport. transport operators. public passenger transport operators. Reason for the use of these indicators: Fundamental to achieving a shift in perception and subsequent behaviour towards sustainable modes of transports is the provision of high quality user-friendly services that match the mobility demands and needs of tourists and holidaymakers. covered parking for bicycles. however. visitors and holidaymakers are kept informed before and during the stay about what is available in terms of transport choices.218 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Indicators of inter-modal capacity: • • • • • Existence of multi-modal platforms (yes / no). Ideally such facilities should offer secure.e. This requires comprehensive. Existence of integrated public transport fares (yes / no). It may also be possible to measure the percentage of the network served in one integrated system. It is essential that tourists. Number of door-to-door services for visitors and tourists (number using the service). Source(s) of data: Public authorities responsible for public passenger transport systems and land planning. . visitors and tourists. Note that most of these are yes/no. number using). The best comparison may be over time for the destination. relevant data. bus stop on demand. luggage logistics. Provision of park-and-ride and bike-and-ride facilities (yes/no. Reason for the use of these indicators: The effective integration of individual modes (including walking and cycling) and public transport services is crucial to reduce traffic flows in destinations. These indicators will also give a good measure on expected higher modal share of means of transport. Benchmarking: Data is available for many destinations. Source(s) of data: Public authorities responsible for public passenger transport systems and tourism. Existence of integrated public transport services (yes / no). the definitions and sources are often so different that it is difficult to compare the trends in different countries in a consistent manner. or number of park-and ride spaces). Use of electronic booking for public transport (yes / no. Door-to-door services (i. etc. While multimodal platforms allow for the speedy and easy change between these different modes. Existence of public transport service information on the Internet or mobility centres (yes / no) (number of users. Means to use the indicators: Assess level of coordination between central zone and peripheral areas. Means to use the indicators: Report on the efforts done to promote sustainable modes of transport among visitors and tourists within the destination and measure of the delivered quality. % using). supported by a set of common definitions.

related to levels of service and access. and effects on the destination itself. Means to use the indicators: Assessment of policies designed to reduce the negative impacts of passenger transport on the environment as well as the dominance of cars in tourist destinations and improvement of conditions for pedestrians and cyclists. Planning and Security Thirty-nine percent of international tourists arrived by air in 2002 (WTO). Measure the quality of life of local communities (air pollution and noise). transport passenger operator. Some measures giving priority to public transport also have the effect of restricting access for cars or restricted available car parking spaces in central zones. the air transport industry has a number of characteristics which can have implications for sustainability. Per passenger.4 Air Transport . public transport. Energy consumption and emissions per passenger kilometre. In some small island destinations. Air transport and routings can also be very volatile. rail transport. Public passenger transport is more sustainable in environmental terms.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 219 Benchmarking: Data are available in many destinations although conditions and criteria may be different. 3. In terms of land use. % of the tourism related vehicle fleet meeting certain air and noise emissions standards (alternative fuels-especially bio-fuels. % of reserved public transport lanes. Indicators of promotion of sustainable transport modes as part of the holiday and measures to give public transport priority: • • • • • • Length of cycle and walking paths. Level of support for low energy alternatives to vehicle transport. and change rapidly in the face of changing circumstances at the origin or destination. As well. Bus lanes or reserved tramways allow public transport to avoid the congestion caused by other traffic. Source(s) of data: Public authorities responsible for public passenger transport systems. short-distance sea-shipping and inland waterways. The airline industry is a major consumer of fossil fuels. other low energy use options). there needs to be a shift away from the use of the private car to the increased use of cycling.11. freeing the space for public transport. demands on infrastructure.Part 3 . which has important effects for promoting public transport. Ideally this should be linked to the provision of park-and-ride facilities in the outer zone. Reason for the use of these indicators: Environmentally-friendly modes of transport can be encouraged. particularly those with programs aimed at alternative transport. Data on air pollution show that emissions of the main urban air pollutants per passenger km are between four and eight times less for public transport and use five times less energy per passenger than cars as well as causing less noise and pollution. the airport which provides access is a significant user of land and can occupy a significant percentage of the total area of the destination. At a global or national scale. To reduce impacts.Responding to Changes in Patterns and Access Environmental Impacts. buses require only 5% of the road space required for cars. walking. existing measures of restricting car access or parking spaces (yes / no). Benchmarking: Data is available in many destinations. or with the fortunes . public transport again demonstrates advantages. and it has environmental impacts ranging from atmospheric pollution to noise and conversion of land from other purposes to airports. natural gas and hydrogen) by mode of transport. there are specific considerations related to the effects on individual destinations. % of travellers using alternative transport (bicycles.

or from regulatory bodies. emission per passenger km). an per passenger). % or number of access roads with severe traffic congestion (beyond design capacity or in state of failure). New aircraft used for the same routes generally consume less fuel than older aircraft with less efficient engines. % of annual costs (operations and capital) covered by revenues at airport from different sources. Components of the Issue Environmental impacts of air travel Indicators • • Energy consumption (total consumption and consumption per passenger Km) (see ¢ Energy management p. Reasons for use of these indicators: Energy consumption and efficiency is one of the most important air transport indicators relative to sustainability. Congestion: Number of hours spent by average tourist using airport . Cost of safety and security measures (total and per passenger). 152). Noise from aircraft is one of the most disruptive noise sources (See also Noise p.183) Aircraft contribute to pollution in populated areas as well as to overall global greenhouse gases. Land occupation (% of destination territory within airport boundary. In Ottawa Canada. . Atmospheric pollution (total emission of greenhouse gases by airline/flight. direct charter flights to Cuba or Cancun have diverted much of the traffic from other destinations in the Caribbean where travellers must change planes to go there.220 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook of the air carrier. Impacts of airports and related infrastructure • • • • Socio-economic concerns related to air travel • • • • • . Cost of skills and training for airport personnel. Source(s) of data: These data are generally available from airlines – often from annual reports. Total public expenditure on airport infrastructure (as % of total destination budget. % of territory altered). Atmospheric pollution (total contribution by airline/flight to greenhouse gases). Loss of direct scheduled flights from key markets can make marketing to these cities much more difficult. Number of employees to be trained in the air transport system per tourist. The indicator has to be linked with distance and type of aircraft. Means to use these indicators: These indicators can serve to show progress in reducing impacts of air travel at an international level – likely in support of efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (See Climate change p. 220) Indicators related to environmental impacts: • • Energy consumption (total consumption and consumption per passenger Km). it can have a pronounced marketing advantage over destinations where transfers are required. See also the section on Transportation (p. for example. Noise (area affected by noise around airports and runways). 155) Benchmarking: Airline websites can provide benchmarks related to their environmental programs. Where a destination has direct flights.

The other indicators can be used to measure change over time related to changed plans or development in the airport area. and per passenger). %/number tourists who arrive on charter flights. Source(s) of data: These data are generally available from the local authorities and airport management. Cost of safety and security measures (total and per passenger). Number of employees to be trained in the air transport system per tourist. Number of incidents at the airport. Issues related to socio-economic impacts on the destination: • • • • • • Total public expenditure on airport infrastructure (as % of total destination budget.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 221 Components of the Issue Access Indicators • • • · • Number of cities served with direct flights to/from the destination (scheduled. Security • • • • • • • Indicators related to land and urban planning: • • • Land occupation (% of destination within airport boundary. where serious. Level of emergency services. Guards or officials per traveller. Number of airlines serving the destination (number of flights per day. Congestion: Number of hours spent by average tourist using airport (Also. per month). Noise (area affected by noise cone of airport runways). (See questionnaire Annex C) Benchmarking: See the issue on Noise (p. Reason for use of these indicators: There are direct impacts on tourists and locals associated with the impact of air travel and how it is planned and managed. Seasonality of service (ratio of peak month flights to low month) See ¢ Seasonality p. monitor number of complaints from tourists and local residents and opinion using questionnaire). Number of flights per day and number of passengers. Level of expenditure on security. terrorism.Part 3 . charter). Cost of screening of passengers and luggage for issues related to health. Cost of skills and training for airport personnel. % of annual costs (operations and capital) covered by revenues at airport from all sources. . Means to use these indicators: These indicators address the level of impact of air travel on communities – and should be used with other indicators relating to the local reaction to tourism. Existence of a contingency plan for the airport in the event of incidents. Some have direct monetary costs while others indirectly affect lifestyles. Total public expenditure on road access to airport. 111). crime. % hardened). #/% tourists informed of security levels at airport. 183) to benchmark that concern.

org/index. Indicators related to security: • • • • • • • Cost of screening of passengers and luggage for issues related to health. Reasons for use of these indicators: Security is a rising concern and cost.htm ). % of tourists who arrive by air. crime. Benchmarking: See IATA website for several sources (http://www. Source(s) of data: Local air transport authorities Means to use the indicators: These indicators can be used to show level of effort and may also become performance measures for effectiveness of screening programs. Guards or officials per 1000 travellers (or travellers per guard). per month). As well. . the focus of marketing.htm and. Benchmarking: Websites of IATA – International Air Transport Association. Number of airlines serving the destination (number of flights per day. Existence of a contingency plan for the airport in the event of incidents. Number of incidents at the airport. Source(s) of data: Local airport authority Means to use these indicators: Use for annual planning purposes. Seasonality of service (ratio of peak month flights to low month).iata. % tourists who arrive on charter flights. Reasons for use of these indicators: For many can provide some comparative data.. training and overall management. ICAO and IATA websites which can provide early warning of some air route changes and international agreements. national air transport authorities Means to use these indicators: This is a key indicator for those who seek to establish stable relationships with origins for tourists. charter). #/% tourists informed of security levels at airport.International Civil Aviation Organization Changes in the ease of access for tourists can affect the number and type of tourists. related primarily to air transport. Source(s) of data: Local tourism authority.icao. DER or Expedia.222 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Reasons for use of these indicators: For many destinations the provision of airports and the infrastructure to support them can be a major public investment.g. Level of expenditure on security. ICAO . It also can help to target marketing programs Benchmarking: Comparisons can also be done using on-line reservation sites such as Orbitz. Flights per day (and total passengers). but which can also affect other transport means. air transport is the key means of access for tourists. Level of emergency services. or from travel agent’s destination reference books. and the sustainability of the destination.iata. Caribbean and Indian Ocean islands from European capitals) Loss of direct access may mean loss of the market. (e. operating an airport can involve continuing costs related to maintaining the capital assets. terrorism. http://www. Indicators relating to access to the destination: • • • • • • Number of cities served with direct flights to/from the destination (scheduled. Charters may change the pattern of access – some destinations are easily accessible in season with direct flights from major cities but relatively inaccessible outside peak season.

food. and scenic routes. local culture. Box 3. linkage zones to provide connectivity for biological and/or tourism purposes. Individual tourism elements (attractions and services) are promoted together as a destination and communities benefit by working together. signs and visitor centres) and the development of new product packages (bundling the different attractions and places to stay along the route). based on conservation. core tourism development zones. cooperation and integration.) Excerpt from: http://www.44 Biodiversity and tourism corridors in Swaziland: The Swaziland Biodiversity Conservation and Participatory Development Project (BCPD) The Swaziland project's development objective is to promote environmentally. core conservation/protected areas. 3.12. The creation of routes often requires some infrastructure development (e. or they may be natural features. wise use of its rich biodiversity resources and local participation in resource management. Creating and maintaining markets requires ongoing operational funds for promotion and organizational support. One of the key challenges is raising and sustaining funds for product development and marketing. Routes and circuits may be deliberately branded and promoted for tourism.Part 3 . Other typical themes include food and wine. The route may be linear taking them from a beginning destination to an end. Circuits and routes can be thought of as being at the top of the tourism planning process. or a circular route linking several destinations. on a boat or train or even on foot or by bicycle or canoe or other means. the Ruta Maya is a tourism brand that links five countries in Central America. Tourists may plan their own unique itinerary or follow a historic trail such as the Silk Road or a branded route promoted by participating For trip circuits and routes to contribute to sustainable tourism. arts. agriculture. Many communities turn to the public sector or development agencies for support.g. road improvements. The key components of the Managing Tourism Circuits and Routes issue and corresponding indicators are the following: . and 4. economically and socially sustainable development in the rural areas of Swaziland. exploring Mayan heritage. support zones in which investment in improved natural resource management will support the conservation and tourism objectives and areas. as part of a group in a bus. marketing. Links. The choices for tourists are still varied but fall within a geographic region often with a theme. with a particular emphasis on enhancing the country's participation in regional tourism markets. activities etc. This will be achieved through a participatory. Cooperation Tourists often follow a route that links different attractions and tourism services. accommodation. For example. man-made routes or historic paths. transportation. history. 2.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 223 3.12 Designing Products and Services 3. the focus for indicators needs to be on overall organization. travelling by car.1 Creating Trip Circuits and Routes Corridors. leading to the development and implementation of an Integrated Corridor Management Plan (ICMP) plan for each of two "Biodiversity and Tourism Corridors" (B-T Corridors) on a geographic scale that captures essential ecological and economic Tourists can follow ancient Mayan routes. They pull together attractions. integrated spatial development planning (ISPP) process. Note B-T Corridors will include four main categories of land use: 1.

marketing and other joint activities. members of route tourism association. % of local business supplying services to tourists along route. volunteers in visitor on circuits should harmonize with tourism at destinations along the route . website visits.amongst communities . % of towns and communities along the route participating. p. % of funds/investment allocated to each community. is tourist spending distributed along the route Indicators • • • • • • Existence of a multi-stakeholder tourism plan.complementary not competing attractions . signage Community Conflicts or Cooperation . limits of acceptable change. per season). % of towns and communities along the route participating.different modes of transportation Conflicts on route/circuit . ¢ Tourist satisfaction (p. cyclists on country roads at risk from tour buses Intensity of Use Environmental issues and impacts. buses. land-based and water-based circuits Economic Impacts .common quality standards . etc.). boats.on towns and communities along the routes .)(measured against planned or acceptable figures). Number.g. • • • • • % representation from each community in organizing team/ ssociationM Number and participation level of coordination meetings and use of other mechanisms. See ¢ Use Intensity p. % tourists stopping at interim sites along the route versus passing through.g. e. bicycles.common branding. % of tourism and related businesses participating in/ contributing to product development. Revenue earned attributable to the existence of the route. 192) • • • • • % of tourists in the region attracted because of the circuit or route (questionnaire. cars. information inquiries. on-route interviews). Number of accidents on route (per year. Average stay per tourist at stops on route. Number of stops per tourist on route. Number of reports/complaints from tourists and tour operators. all-terrain vehicles etc. 236) % of local populations supporting tourism on the route (questionnaire). snowmobiles. e. • Average and peak seasonal number of users and types of users (people. .support and funds for organization . 86)(questionnaires. carrying capacity. Local Support • • • Indicators regarding integrity of the route: • • • • Existence of a multi-stakeholder tourism plan. Amount of infrastructure and operational funds Money spent on marketing the route or circuit (and % contribution of each community). Number of community members actively participating.different types of users.224 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Components of the Issue Integrity of the Route Destination and Product Coherence . Amount of infrastructure and operational funds. hikers versus mountain-bikers. Money spent on marketing the route or circuit (and % contribution of each community). (See also Protection of Image.

per season). Indicators of economic benefit: • • • • • % of tourists in the region attracted because of the circuit or route. Number of accidents on route (per year. Tourist visitation numbers from managing authority. and how much funding is available (and from what sources) to develop and promote the route. Indicators regarding conflict and cooperation: • • • • • % representation from each community in organizing team/association. See ¢ Use Intensity (p. Number and participation level of coordination meetings and use of other mechanisms (see Community Involvement p. Revenue earned attributable to the existence of the route. Source(s) of data: The route tourism association Means to use the indicators: Tourism associations can use these indicators to gauge the level of support for the route. % of funds/investment allocated to each community. Benchmarking: Comparisons can be made with other destinations with trail systems. Means to use the indicators: Show changes over time for the destination.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 225 Reason for use of these indicators: Participating communities need to know how much support there is for the tourist route. 192). the need to raise more funds or involve more local people.Part 3 . . Reason for use of these indicators: These indicators can be both measures of cooperation or the potential for conflict amongst communities. Benchmarking: Comparisons can be made with other destinations successfully promoting routes Indicator of intensity of use: • Average and peak seasonal number of users and types of users. Number of reports/complaints from tourists and tour operators. Source(s) of data: The route tourism association. Reason for use of this indicator: Primarily an environmental indicator to monitor impacts from intensity or volume of use by different types of tourists and modes of transportation. % of local business supplying services to tourists along route. 57). Source(s) of data: Traffic counts for vehicles. Best comparisons will likely be time series data for the route to gauge annual increases or decreases. Socio-cultural impacts from tourist volumes are also important (See ¢ Effects of tourism on Communities p. local government agencies or chamber of commerce. Average stay per tourist at stops on route. 83). Means to use the indicators: To show the financial and community support for the route and for annual comparisons of funding gains/losses and requirements Benchmarking: A benchmark might be considered for the minimum number of participating communities or funds required for the route to be considered a viable tourist attraction. Number of stops per tourist on route.

Small destinations have often worked together to provide variety (e.g. Number of businesses involved in promotion of route (and money spent). See also Protection of Image.12.. Number of community members actively participating. p. e. the issue of limited variety has proven particularly important to small. communities may contribute funds and in-kind support. Relevant indicators include the following: • • • % of local populations supporting tourism on the route (questionnaire). Other useful indicators: • Tourist satisfaction (questionnaires. Often. As well as support in principle.226 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook • These indicators are similar to those in the section on ¢ Economic Benefits (p. 134). volunteers in visitor centres. regional cuisine. 402). wildlife watching. and the level of quality or consistency of products and experiences along the route. local history. members of route tourism association. local theatre. Some routes are designed to slow tourists down.) may find the overall experience more rewarding. (p. rural or remote destinations (e. (See Cape Breton Case p. on-route interviews): Questionnaires can be designed to give feedback on tourist perceptions of the route overall. particularly if rainy days.g. • Indicators of local support: Local support is important for cohesion amongst communities.g. potential walks and other attractions. to get them to stop and explore (and spend money). its importance in attracting them to the region. nature viewing. 3. greater variety will result in tourists staying longer to experience more. tourist routes – see Trip Circuits p. sunbathing etc). 86).g. Range of Services An issue for some destinations is creating or maintaining a variety of experiences. % tourists stopping at interim sites along the route versus passing through: This indicator shows whether the benefits of tourism are being spread across communities. scuba diving etc. 236) . Many will require a questionnaire (Annex C) to extract information on the behaviour of the tourists while en route. Destinations with little variety may find that tourists are disappointed. Tourism Satellite Accounts. Tourists who take advantage of a variety of experiences in a destination (walking. fishing. 210. This issue also relates to the issues of seasonality (where out of season the variety is much less) and to ¢ Tourist Satisfaction (p. see Kukljica case p. horseback riding.2 Providing Variety of Experiences Product Diversification. 355). Often national or regional authorities have published guidebooks to help tourists find variety en route – showing the location of crafts. rather than just rushing non-stop through a region to the next big attraction. storms or unsuitable temperatures prevent the tourists from enjoying the other experiences (e. interesting vistas. swimming. (Might need complex economic analysis. 128) and Transportation p. boat tours. skiing. 223).

“We get to visit ten art galleries or craft shops in the same village”). horseback riding.. Perception of variety by tourists (questionnaire). etc.. food.. It is likely to be of interest to those managing or marketing the destination. 111). game arcades. a theme park) with many components may easily overshadow several others. that sometimes a concentration of several similar attractions can also be a draw (e.g. repair for equipment (e. Reason for use of this indicator: This is a simple count of attractions to show degree of variety. Benchmarking: Because of lack of a standard classification and methodology to identity what qualifies as an attraction. Reason for use of this indicator: This indicator can be used to show changes in the number of key services available. bicycles.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 227 Components of the Issue Maintaining a variety of experiences Indicators • Number of different attractions in or near destination (classified by type of attractions. policing. Source(s) of data: These data can be subjective – dependent on the definition of “attraction”. Indicator of extent of services: • Range of tourist services available in the destination. and automobiles). craft markets etc and be consistent over time in their use. information and guiding.). transportation. Means to use the indicator: This can be used to show both total numbers of attractions and variety (e.g. cultural and natural heritage sites. events and festivities.e. local authority. 111). accommodation and catering. go-cart tracks.. two aquariums or three local museums etc. Range of tourist services available year round (in high and low seasons) See issue section on ¢ Seasonality (p.g. Means to use the indicator: This is a performance measure for efforts to provide services. Range of tourist services available in the destination (classified by type. etc. hospital or clinic. as should six skydiving firms. Note that variety may change according to season (see ¢ Seasonality p.g. Source(s) of data: Local business associations. boats.. The key is consistency over time for the destination. conferences and meetings. . Note. the best benchmarking will likely be relative to other years in the same destination using a custom definition which incorporates all of the types of attractions found there.) There is no standard in general use and one major “attraction” (e. e. Provision of the full range of needed tourism services • • Determining whether the tourists are satisfied with the variety of the destination • Indicator of variety: • Number of different attractions in or near destination. It is suggested that each instance of an “attraction” should not be counted separately – that is ten different wax museums should be counted as one attraction type.g.g. The services covered include accommodation.Part 3 . however. e. 20 different types of attractions). A consistent definition should be used (i. rental of equipment. leisure activities and sites. sports equipment and supplies. decide at the outset whether to count services such as boat rental.).

but because this question is being recommended for widespread use. Reason for use of this indicator: As noted above.3 Marketing for Sustainable Tourism Green” Marketing. the UK local indicators on services (English Tourism Council 2001). Managers seek information regarding the nature and extent of the marketplace. Means to use the indicator: The percentage who agree (and strongly agree) that the destination provided good variety can be monitored from year to year. there may be an opportunity to compare to other destinations. accommodation and attractions that contribute to sustainability is a concern for many enterprises and destinations which wish to take advantage of a perceived growing interest in this area. and the response to any marketing done to portray the destination or enterprise as “green”. tours. Indicator of tourist satisfaction with destination variety: • Perception of variety by tourists. Source) of data: Exit questionnaire (See Annex C). Respondents are asked whether or not they agree that “the destination provided a good variety of experiences”. because of the unique nature of destinations it is not easy to find standard definitions for what should be counted when assessing variety. . Benchmarking: The strongest comparison will be for the same destination over time.228 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Benchmarking: See for example. As a result. Marketing Effectiveness The creation and maintenance of markets for destinations. it is suggested that the perception by tourists of variety may be a stronger indicator – and may directly influence their decisions. the most useful point of comparison will likely be other years for the destination. Tourist Response. Products and Experiences Emphasizing Sustainability.12. Because of the unique mix in each destination. the degree to which there is a market niche or premium for environmentally sound and socially responsible products and practices. Market Penetration. to obtain results from resources invested in marketing and to judge the effectiveness of any marketing activities. to showcase environmental or cultural achievements. Environmental and social factors are increasingly important elements of enhanced quality of experience and visitor satisfaction. 3. While it may be easy to measure level of effort (using internal records of an enterprise) results (requiring measurement of factors and outcomes external to the organization) may be more difficult to assess.

46). Volume of marketing products divided by type (brochures. ecotourism and cultural tourism sites). Market penetration.Part 3 . exhibits. etc. company policies). posters. % visitors who arrive seeking “green” experiences (same as above on exit questionnaire). and the extent (quality) of this information (e. location).g. reservations. websites. in websites. % of visitors willing to pay extra for these experiences of enhanced value (exit Questionnaire). % of businesses that include information on environmental and social aspects of their operation (destination conditions. advertisements in different media. Cost of marketing (by type. arrivals. using entry and/or exit Questionnaire. Number of complaints (re specific issues about how sensitive or sustainable the product or experience was).46 p. hits in websites. Measuring degree of contact and reach of marketing • • Measuring response to any marketing • • • • . Number (%) tourists who are satisfied with the environmental and cultural experiences (exit Questionnaire). or conversion studies (See Box 3. response surveys. familiarization trips for tour operators). in response to specific ads or initiatives (e.g. guides and interpretation programmes. Number of requests to local tourism authorities related to environmentally or culturally sensitive products (hotels.g. logo) of the certification system in their promotional material. restaurants. Numbers of potential tourists contacted (by interest.). Measuring the image of the destination or products considering sustainability aspects • • • • Meeting client expectations re authenticity of products • • Measuring level of marketing effort • • • Targeting the right clientele. return of promotional coupons. Level of representation/contact (number of fairs.g. return of promotional coupons. % of establishments and operators marketing sustainable. % clients who arrive in response to specific ads or initiatives (reservations. occupancy. phone and mail inquiries. where possible by cost per contact). brochures. 235). % of certified businesses that include reference (e.45 . Box 3. Note: indicators on e. poll source of information on arrival). sensitive or green products or experiences. or questioned at the beginning of the programme).Sustainability Issues in Tourism 229 Components of the Issue Identifying the market for more sustainable (environmentally friendly or culturally sensitive) products Indicators • • • % of visitors who seek environmentally friendly and culturally sensitive experiences. (exit Questionnaire). etc). length of stay by source and type are all related to results but difficult to attribute to specific marketing initiatives (See Box 3. tours. journalists’ trips. % of clients who participate in activities while at the destination. % of clients who self-identify as “green” or eco tourists (interested in environmentally and culturally sensitive experiences).

in websites. brochures.g. EMS).). 236). % of establishments with green programs (certifications. Means to use the indicators: Use to determine trends in interest in sustainable or “green” products or experiences at the destination. Source(s) of data: Tabulation of requests. satisfaction. % tourists who agree that the reality matched what was advertised (See Protection of Image p. company policies). % tourists who perceive barriers to visiting the destination. Rank re other competing destinations – re quality. Price per room night (and ratio to industry average). guides and interpretation programmes. and the extent (quality) of this information (e. maximum days). • • . % of businesses that include information on environmental and social aspects of their operation (destination conditions. % of certified businesses that include information. sensitive or green products or experiences. (exit Questionnaire). sensitive or greener products: • • • % of visitors who seek environmentally friendly and culturally sensitive experiences.230 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Components of the Issue Evaluating client response and satisfaction Indicators • • • • • • • Occupancy rates in establishments promoting sustainable products (and ratio to rates for all tourism). % clients who are satisfied with their experience (exit questionnaire – ask specifically about green products). Number (%) of operators who request “green” products. Benchmarking: Best used to measure trends over time in the same destination. Market share (compare to other destinations) – will require survey in tourist home locations. ecotourism and cultural tourism sites). restaurants. Responding to external demands • • • • • Indicators relative to identifying the market for sustainable. Speed of response to complaints (average. Numbers of requests (numbers seeking “green” products). Number of complaints received (annual changes).) Number of requests to local tourism authorities related to environmentally or culturally sensitive products (hotels. hits in websites. or relative to other competing destinations who may be promoting sustainable forms of tourism. % of visitors willing to pay extra for these experiences of enhanced value (exit Questionnaire. % satisfaction with how complaints were handled. Indicators related to the image of the destination or products: • • % of establishments and operators in the destinations marketing sustainable. phone and mail inquiries. logo) of the certification system in their promotional material.g. % visitors who arrive seeking “green” experiences (same as above on exit questionnaire). etc. tours. environment. reference (e. Reason for use of these indicators: Managers of destinations properties or attractions can obtain information on the nature and extent of demand for more sustainable products. image.

Use with the exit questionnaire to determine if tourists seeking these experiences or products do indeed find them. Source(s) of data: Local tourism authority or tourism association. Source(s) of data: Exit surveys (see Annex C) and complaints registered at tourism authorities and establishments Means to use the indicators: Show as dissatisfaction (or satisfaction) levels. Reason for use of these indicators: Many tourists are dissatisfied with the level of environmental or cultural sensitivity of products advertised as being environmentally or culturally sensitive or “green”. posters. “green” or cultural tourism. it can be a signal of risk to the image (see Issue section on Protection of Image p. 236). If the numbers change. (See Box 3.Part 3 . Benchmarking: Use over time for the same destination. Level of representation/contact (number of fairs. and to promote particular types of tourism – such as low impact. Means to use the indicator: Best used in relation to results – as a performance measure for marketing. There is a risk to the product and to the destination if many are dissatisfied. Cost of marketing (by type. Source(s) of data: Records of marketing agency/tourism authority. where possible by cost per contact). Number of complaints (re specific issues about how sustainable the product or experience was). or alternative/sensitive (entry or exit questionnaire). more sustainable tourism activity. High levels of positive response can be used in future marketing. Reason for use of these indicators: Overall marketing effort is expected to yield results. Numbers of potential tourists contacted (by interest. Indicators of authenticity of sustainable or green products and services: • • Number (%) tourists who are satisfied with the environmental and cultural experiences (exit Questionnaire). it may be the basis for marketing or the result of past marketing. Indicator regarding targeting the right clientele: • • % of clients who self-identify as green or eco tourists. etc). journalists’ trips. advertisements in different media. Indicators of level of marketing effort: • • • Volume of marketing products divided by type (brochures. location). exhibits. .Sustainability Issues in Tourism 231 Reason for use of these indicators: If a destination has a green or culturally and environmentally sensitive image. in the form of greater stability.46 for issues regarding how to deal with attribution of results to marketing activities) Benchmarking: Compare over time for the destination or where available compare with competitors level of effort. Benchmarking: Compare over time for the destination or where available compare with competitors. Means to use the indicators: Can be used to show trends in demand for sustainable experiences and products.

Benchmarking: Compare over time for the destination or where available compare with competitors.46 regarding problems of attribution to marketing efforts). potential tourists see transport or administrative barriers to going to the destination) . but in tandem can show strength (higher occupancy at higher prices. image. Benchmarking: Compare with past marketing initiatives. length of stay by source and type are all related to results but difficult to attribute to specific marketing initiatives. Means to use the indicators: Each indicator can be used alone. Price per room night (and ratio to industry average). Mix of requests for information can show growth or diminished interest in specific sites or niches. Indicators of client response and satisfaction: • • • • Occupancy rates (and ratio to rates for all tourism). Source(s) of data: Records of tourism authorities and individual enterprises – re both levels of expenditure and response numbers. Market surveys (in key source countries) may help clarify perception of barriers and of comparative destination quality. although price per room night may be more difficult to obtain. so both should be used together. arrivals. internal comparisons can be done. % tourists who perceive barriers to visiting the destination. Source(s) of data: These data are normally available through tourism authorities. Note: indicators on e. Means to use the indicators: Use as an early warning of changing nature of tourist demands. Reason for use of these indicators: The ultimate intent of marketing is usually to obtain more custom at higher prices. better image of quality) or weakness (maintain occupancy only by reducing prices. Rank re other competing destinations – re quality. Means to use the indicators: These indicators show both numbers reached and numbers who respond. response surveys or conversion studies. environment. Reason for use of these indicators: These indicators can help gauge effectiveness of marketing (and can also be used as performance measures to measure response per dollar spent. occupancy. Indicators for measuring response to marketing: • • • Market penetration. This can also be used as a performance measure if a destination or enterprise seeks to expand green niche marketing. Source(s) of data: Entry or exit questionnaires.g. Satisfaction can be obtained through exit surveys. mix of requests for information. See Box 3. satisfactio. Higher occupancy may occur only through reduced pricing. Both can help guide new marketing.232 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Reason for use of these indicators: Growing or diminishing numbers who self-identify as green tourists or ecotourists can be a leading indicator which may require response in changes to the product or changed levels of environmental sensitivity in management of the destination. % clients who arrive in response to specific ads or initiatives (poll source of information on arrival). higher occupancy than similarly priced non-green products. These indicators can show strength and weakness of the market. Where part of a larger marketing program with other destinations.

% of establishments with green programs (certifications. This box is based on information from the WTO publication “Evaluating NTO Marketing Activities” (http://www. Conversion studies can be used to compare the relative performance of different advertisements and campaigns. EMS). When questioning people about past behaviour it is important that questions about amount of expenditure on a trip should be asked as close after the trip as possible to avoid both under and over estimates of expenditure. Box 3. trade events.45 Conversion studies Conversion studies are the most widespread methodology in use internationally for the evaluation of promotional activity and attributing cause to these activities. . “in the next two years” etc). the impact of different promotional events and etc. a TV or radio advertisement etc). how many were converted to visitors. “planning to take holiday at destination in the next year”.storefront/EN/product/1331-1). Where national or regional data is available it can also be used to benchmark performance. The method is designed to monitor the success of a specific promotional input through measured tourism impacts: to identify how many inquiries were generated by a single or multiple range of promotional inputs (adverts.46). The ROI analysis may involve calculations designed to arrive at estimates of: total revenue generated.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 233 Benchmarking: Compare over time with the same destination.Part 3 . Conversion studies also include questions that enable the organization to know how many people have actually taken a holiday. estimated average cost per inquiry (see further details on ROI in box 3. or how many plan to do so at some point in the future. The marketing organization or tourism administration then keeps the names and addresses of respondents and calls back on them after a specified time to find out if they have taken action (booked or planned to take a holiday) as a result of the promotional event and often this communication is used to provide further information on the tourism products.). Once questionnaires have been analysed. return on investment (ROI) calculations may be made by extrapolating the results obtained from the survey sample to the total number of people who originally requested information. A representative sample is usually done in order to specify causality from a conversion study. Indicators of external demand: • • Number (%) of operators who request “green” products and services. and to measure the cumulative effectiveness of a destination agency’s marketing and promotional efforts. A Conversion Study depends upon a destination agency keeping a database of people who have responded by requesting further information to a specific promotional input (a coupon. This report contains details on the issues associated with processing questionnaire results and suggests a range of methods and questions which may be of use to destination managers who wish to undertake conversion studies and other investigations to evaluate marketing activities. average revenue per inquiry. Questions on travel intentions to the destination should attempt to discriminate how far in the future the respondent’s holiday intention stretches to (e. There must be questions in the call-back questionnaire that elicit to what extent the campaign being evaluated was the sole or main reason for the respondent taking a holiday. in order to find out how the information affected their behaviour. and what the monetary value of those conversions was.

this can be used in marketing – both to operators and to tourists themselves. Wildlife is the focus of tourism marketing and product development in many destinations. or entire destinations which can demonstrate some form of environmental certification. Benchmarking: Some ability to benchmark can be obtained through certification programs. (See Certification p. Romania Bongani South. Means to use the indicators: The indicators both measure demand and industry response. particularly in cases where the authorities are promoting certification. Africa .234 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Reason for use of these indicators: Some inbound operators may seek properties meeting green standards. 318). Danube Delta. Where a high percentage of establishments (or in some cases entire destinations) has certification. Source(s) of data: These data are frequently available through tourism authorities. (see Certification p. 318).

The main problem is that there exists a time lag between the marketing activities and the actual visit. its own records will be the principal source. Despite the caveats discussed above. some tourists may not always be objective and may simply give the answer they expect is wanted. But measurement is not simple. Visitor surveys are not always successful. It is remarkable that VisitBritain calculates an ROI of around 1 to 30. tourists may be reluctant to admit that they were influenced. For monitoring the internal operations of a marketing agency.g. as practice has shown that it is extremely difficult for tourists to give an answer on the influence marketing has had on their decision making. “I just wanted to come” and “Information by friends or relatives” are most mentioned. 2003). Often the added value of marketing activities is considered to be real when respondents say that the contact they had with the marketing material or office was “fully” or “to a very great extent” the reason for their visit. This is virtually impossible to prove or disprove. What do answers really mean? The question of what influence marketing has had on tourist decisions is difficult to analyze. or in some other kind of measured output (e. and some measurement of performance can be done. and causal relationships are difficult to document. Monitoring marketing activities. Some of the negative replies and part of the demand that “resulted from no contact” was likely influenced by marketing activities but not noticed or remembered by the respondent. however difficult it may be. is essential for destination marketers. Even when marketing would have been an influence. The only way to measure impact of marketing is through surveys. The key disadvantage is that one cannot guarantee a representative sample and this limits how the information can be used. both from the tourism industry and from individuals such as current or potential tourists. as well as the fact that tourists are exposed to many other stimuli. in the western world at least. Additional demand. visitor numbers.Part 3 . and related measures such as the numbers per tourist group. . Objective data on actual behaviour can be of use. changes in key indicators can show important factors which will help direct marketing efforts. in particular by measuring their effectiveness. One solution is to query a representative sample of the persons with whom marketing contact was established around 4 to 6 months later to ask if they came to the destination and if so. so 1 currency equivalent spent on tourism marketing brings 30 into the (national) economy and that in Holland the ROI comes to 1 to 42. The question “would you have come if no contact had been made” may be more productive in eliciting replies regarding marketing success. what influence the marketing had on the decision. its influence is often not easily remembered and. the length of stay and the amount spent per day can be used to estimate economic results and related to the actual costs spent on marketing (sometimes by specific market sector) This can yield information on the Return on Investments (ROI) in tourism marketing. The Netherlands Board of Tourism and VisitBritain both have applied such a system. To measure marketing costs it can be useful to create a system in which all the recognisable costs are included. Pop-ups with some basic questions and the request to give an email address to send a questionnaire after some months is just as valid for use as direct or mail contact. It is the main way to prove that there are results from these activities and that they can benefit the destination. or even the main source for decision making.46 Measuring the real return on investments in marketing activities Marketing is a key element in the success of destinations and can support destination sustainability. increase in employment in tourism. increase in number of out-of-season visitors) depending on the objectives of the promotional investment (WTO.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 235 Box 3. Return on Investment (ROI) calculations are made in order to appraise the efficiency with which promotional investment is made. Internet and the use of websites for promotion and information can be approached in the same way as other activities. Data collection is a challenge. The return may be estimated in monetary terms (the most common measure). Most other data will require direct collection. but this too is subject to question.

are refined as market and circumstances change and are protected. in the destination itself and by association. Many of the following indicators can be used also more broadly on marketing activities.Tourists are attracted by a unique image – in a protected site. the opinions of others. The image of a destination can be affected by many factors. brand refinement. furthermore. Measuring the success of such branding initiatives remains a challenge for many tourism destination managers. and can measure changes in that image which may affect visitation. Sustaining tourism in a destination involves ensuring that appropriate images of that place are established. Vision. . Recovery from damage to a positive image can take a very long time. The effectiveness of actions to establish and maintain a brand can be measured. A destination brand is a “name. and can also help in addressing the establishment and maintenance of a distinctive brand for the destination. Strategic Marketing The decision to visit a destination is frequently based on the image a potential visitor has of that place. what they have read. The intent of these branding activities is to build strong consumer loyalty for the destination based on the values and attributes portrayed by the brand. it conveys the promise of a memorable travel experience that is uniquely associated with the destination” (Ritchie & Crouch 2003. The image held by the tourists may be based on their own experience. This is intended to not only capture the central values and attributes of the place. Four areas can be monitored: brand development. whether or not the destination is specifically affected. In many of the more competitive destinations. Driven by increasing global competition for travel markets. Of course. brand effectiveness and brand protection. even if the destination is quick to respond to actual or perceived problems. Events in other sectors or other destinations can change the image of a destination in the minds of prospective travelers – civil strife. or on the image or brand displayed or portrayed in materials marketing the destination. a brand can be only established and promoted if there are corresponding and quality tourism products supporting it. Indicators relating to protection of image can help to understand the image (if any) which tourists hold of a destination.12. but also to create a clear affinity and position in the minds of preferred travel markets. Appropriate indicators can then act as early warning signs regarding how a destination image is perceived. logo. Petra. as branding is one of the specific marketing tools. 196). reports of environmental degradation or disease can affect the image of entire regions.4 Protection of the Image of a Destination Branding. Jordan . symbol. trademark or other graphic that both identifies and differentiates the destination.236 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook 3. a critical component of strategic marketing activities centers on developing and conveying a distinctive brand and image. tourism managers are becoming more sophisticated and targeted in their approaches to marketing their tourism destinations.

See also the issue section on ¢ Tourists satisfaction (p.Promotion . operators. Percentage of visitors who : .Local perceptions . Image held by those who have not visited the destination • • Image in marketplace • Branding Brand development (resourcing. brand positioning.think the brand attributes. partner organizations) whose marketing carries the brand features (logo. responding. specific responses to key questions re key attractions and activities (see Exit Questionnaire Annex C). Degree of match with the preferred values of the destination’s targeted markets and partner organizations (surveys or repeat focus groups on a regular basis). % of operators (inbound.who intend to return specifically to experience key brand values. attributes and benefits communicated were met during their trips.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 237 Components of the Issue Destination Image Image held by current tourists Indicators • • • % of tourists who have a positive image of the destination (exit survey based).45 p. • Brand refinement (advertising . response to market) • • Level of funding allocated to brand development and other branding activities (amount and % allocated). etc.).believe the brand values. Rank of destination on list of destinations (key competitors) on broad surveys in key market(s). Percentage of market. benefits and attributes explicitly in exit questionnaire). outbound) who perceive the destination as a safe. 104 and Tourist Security p. Annual percentage of the tourism-marketing budget allocated to advertisement and promotion. % recall in longer term) . benefits and attributes (identify key values. brand awareness. good value etc destination (survey based). Reach of advertising . strategies. (by tourism sectors/categories. . . attractions.Organizational .Number of tourists receiving/recognizing. expectations. employees and stakeholders perceiving brand to positively reflect their preferred attributes and values (focus groups or surveys).46). loyalty) • • • . .Macro-environment . interesting. values and benefits rank more favourably than other similar destinations (the competition).Awareness • • • Brand effectiveness (visitor satisfaction. See exit questionnaire Annex C). attractive. slogan. 86). % of potential market(s) who have a positive image of the destination. 233). (and Number of tourists reached per dollar spent (See Box 3.recall the brand name (% recall on same day. % of key actors (hotels.Research . Number reached for the dollar spent (conversion study -See Box 3. local representatives. or uses complementary images.Part 3 . (see also issues on Public Safety p. % of tourists who would recommend the destination to their peers (exit questionnaire).are repeat visitors and/or expect to return to the destination. 209). Annual value/percentage of the tourism-marketing budget allocated to monitoring satisfaction.

outbound) who perceive the destination as a safe. web. Percentage of stakeholders surveyed who believe the branding programs help improve the value and performance of their tourism operations (survey after approximately six months to one year). brand recall. Super Natural British Columbia (p. See also the issue section on Tourist satisfaction (p. trademark. consumers and competitors who attribute the brand features (name. % of tourists who would recommend the destination to their peers (exit questionnaire). % of operators (inbound. logo.e. Perceived value of the branding programs to stakeholders (survey). interesting. use guidelines control) Indicators • • Level of protection for key branding tools (i.) solely to the destination (survey. etc. a few of the more important indicators are elaborated below to illustrate their potential utility in assessing destination brand management performance. Rank of destination on list of destinations (key competitors) on broad surveys in key market(s). Surveys of tourists on image will be best done as part of an exit questionnaire (See Annex C 5. Indicators of brand development: • • Degree of match with the preferred values of the destination’s targeted markets (repeat focus groups on regular basis). good value etc destination (survey based). Indicators of destination image: • • • • • • % of tourists who have a positive image of the destination (exit survey). logo. 86). 422) shows how image branding can work in practice to establish and sustain the image of a destination. A case study. focus groups). Percentage of stakeholders. word mark). Means to use the indicators: Changes in perception of the destination. • • For the purposes of this document. Percentage which are patented/copyrighted. or as performance measures for efforts to market or brand the destination. other media (money spent annually. beautiful. personnel level). its image can be used to warn of future perceived risks. Specific responses to key questions re key attractions and activities (see Exit Questionnaire Annex C). Comparison of the brand’s vision to those of other potentially supportive regional and national tourism organizations (degree of match or complementarity -use focus groups).238 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Components of the Issue Indicators of brand protection (Level of effort. Source(s) of data: Perception of image is held by individuals and the only effective means to obtain information is via a survey or questionnaire process. Level of effort to monitor public image (print. 491). . Reason for the use of these indicators: The response to the image of a destination may be an early warning indicator of tourist (or potential tourist) reaction to problems or issues of many kinds in a destination which can harm its sustainability. Other surveys or focus groups may be done to obtain information from the marketplace and from potential tourists. % of potential market(s) who have a positive image of the destination. p.

This can be used to enhance destination competitiveness and brand equity over time. annually). attributes and benefits sought by travel markets the destination is trying to attract. 322) Indicators of brand refinement: • • • • • Annual percentage of the tourism-marketing budget allocated to advertisement and promotion. Brand vision: focus group research with key stakeholders will help to identify level of compatibility Means to use the indicators: This can be in vision statements and goals of the organization and those of the destination. Clear links between the destination’s target market and brand vision should be expressed in written and graphic form. Number reached for the dollar spent (conversion study). annually. environmental. It should complement the visions of other supportive national and regional tourism organizations in order to garner resources and synergistic support. values.Number receiving/recognizing.. Brand vision: The brand vision provides a long-term guide for focusing the destination marketing organizations’ goals and objectives. Percentage of the audience which perceives the advertisement/promotional campaigns to positively reflect their preferred attributes and values (focus groups or surveys). Percentage of tourism operators who feel their product’s values and attributes are reflected in the brand (survey quarterly. Source(s) of data: Advertisement/promotion: focus groups and surveys. Reach of advertising . Benchmarking: Selected benchmarks are dependent upon the goals and objectives of the company or destination evaluating their brand.Part 3 . Knowledge of forthcoming changes in the macro-environment will help . personality. and economic) that can strengthen or constrain the brand’s performance. benefits. responding. a participatory approach is recommended to develop vision/goals for the destination (note that a large percentage of destinations will not have any developed vision or brand). Percentage of local representatives. and stakeholders who believe the brand reflects their community values (survey quarterly. These indicators also help determine possible threats and opportunities (political. Possible benchmark comparisons could be with other competing destinations or with supportive complementary organization performance indicators. 1998). Refinement indicators examine the extent to which shifting levels of awareness and preference for the brand’s values. identity etc. employees. Where it is not already in place. etc). culture and user it was intended to portray (Kotler and Turner. Changes in level of compatibility may signal need to reassess market strategy. Branding efforts should reflect values.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 239 Reason for the use of these indicators: Target market: Development indicators examine the extent to which the brand adequately communicates the attributes. have been used to periodically strengthen the position of the brand in the minds of targeted travel markets. Source(s) of data: Market surveys in target market can clarify key values and reaction. (See Performance Measurement p. Macro-environment: travel promotion research studies and travel trade media publications (repeat monitoring of same sources for measurable changes) Means to use the indicators: Advertisement/promotion: presence of a well-received brand perception in the market place that matches with the destination’s ability to meet expectations translates into strong brand value. Reason for the use of these indicators: Advertisement/promotion: Identifies how the target audiences perceive the brand and provides guidance on how it matches with preferred travel market expectations. social.

% brand loyalty. Percentage which are patented or copyrighted. logo. Awareness of these changes can enable the marketing team to allocate effort where it will be best utilized.believe the brand values. Means to use the indicators: A measure of visitor satisfaction: This indicator can be used to demonstrate how brand satisfaction/dissatisfaction levels relate to the product delivered.think the brand attributes. benefits and attributes explicitly in exit questionnaire). Indicators of brand protection: • • Level of protection for key branding tools (i.g. perceived value of the brand for destination selection purposes). 1995).High overall ratings of destination trip satisfaction can translate into potentially greater brand loyalty (i. Low levels of satisfaction would indicate the need for a review of brand advertisements/ promotions communicated and an assessment of the degree to which those tourism operators using the brand can meet its standards. Data may also be gathered through exit or intercept surveys of visitors (e. or a website review of stakeholder promotional material. return visits). (% recall on same day. Reason for the use of these indicators: Visitor Satisfaction: Effectiveness indicators gauge the degree to which the brand lives up to the expectations of its consumers (Upshaw. key questions would relate to what other brands were considered when choosing a holiday) % brand recall. Benchmarking: Advertisement/promotion: Selected benchmarks are dependent upon the goals and objectives of the company managing their brand.recall the brand name. Competitiveness: Selected benchmarks are dependent upon the goals and objectives of the company evaluating their brand. benefits and attributes (identify key values. % recall in longer term). Possible benchmark comparisons could be with other competing destinations or with supportive complementary organizations. . For a valuable source see European Travel Commission and WTO 2003. . Benchmarking: Visitor Satisfaction. attributes and benefits communicated were met during their trips. or internally through changes in indicator scores over a select period of time.who intend to return specifically to experience key brand values.46). Evaluating NTO Marketing Activities.e. Indicators for brand effectiveness: • • Annual value/percentage of the tourism-marketing budget allocated to monitoring satisfaction and number of tourists reached per dollar spent (see also Box 3. Percentage of visitors who: . values and benefits rank more favourably than other similar destinations (the competition). .e. . Data may be gathered through local tourism authorities or tourism association. Source(s) of data: Local tourism authorities or a tourism association may gather exit and market origin survey information.are repeat visitors and/or expect to return to the destination (by tourism sectors/categories. . Possible benchmark comparisons could be externally with other competing destinations when data is available (rarely). See exit questionnaire Annex C). Perceived value of the branding programs to stakeholders (survey) Percentage of stakeholders surveyed who believe the branding programs help improve the value and performance of their tourism operations (survey after approximately six months to one year).240 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook destination managers to capitalize on opportunities or mitigate threats related to its branding activities. word mark).

consumers and competitors who attribute the brand features (name. there is strong global support for better management systems to create better outcomes for enterprises and the environments they affect.Part 3 .13. Protection indicators measure the extent to which managers can protect their brand and its uniqueness. Brand trademark and or copyright ensures the unique image and or brand (logo. web. Percentage of stakeholders. other media (money spent annually. Certification can also bring recognition from the marketplace by showing responsibility. wordmark etc). the number of countries where trademarks have been acquired. 318). Source(s) of data: Brand trademarks and copyrights can be obtained from legally approved organizations. logo. as well as formal third party certification for tourism companies and destinations also aim at improving sustainability aspects of tourism operations (see Certification p.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 241 • • Level of effort to monitor public image (print. therefore company policies increasingly reflect social responsibility towards employees and host communities. for example.) solely to the destination (survey. and operator surveys monitor number and percentage of participants who feel the program is beneficial. 14000 for environment and the new ISO 18000 series for workplace health and safety. Reason for the use of these indicators: Protect the brand trademark. Benchmarking: Possible benchmark comparisons could be external with other competing destinations or internally with time series.13 Sustainability of Tourism Operations and Services 3. These systems also help to enhance the degree of control managers have over their operations and impacts. Activities to reinforce brand identity can be extracted from: tourism organization records of the number of programs/activities and the number of stakeholders who participate in approved branding programs. . the food chain (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points). focus groups). 3. Means to use the indicators: These indicators can be used to support a review of the effectiveness of brand management and investment strategies. records of the number of tourism operations who have been approved to use the brand. most notable those related to ISO 9000 for management.1 Sustainability and Environmental Management Policies and Practices at Tourism Businesses Environmental Management. brand recall. Related programs for risk reduction on. Social Responsibility With the emergence of a number of formal management certification standards. Tourism companies (both larger international companies and smaller local ones) are increasingly aware of the social impacts tourism can bring to any destination community. etc. personnel level).

hotel associations may maintain such records.g. It is inclusive of the other indicators suggested here – as EMS. ISO 14000. water.g. waste recycling. visitor satisfaction etc. 119). 135).242 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Components of the Issue Environmental management systems and environmental initiatives Indicators • • % of establishments in the destination with formal certification (In each or all of EMS.g. staff training. Note: only one direct indicator is recommended for this issue. At the destination level. (or other certification programs like HACCP – (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point programs for the food system) or other specific certifications are obtained. HACCP etc. ISO 14000. HACCP etc. Reason for use of this indicator: The percentage of establishments (of each type or classification) is a good indicator of management effort to take charge of environmental factors and reduce risks. sourcing of employment and supply of goods from local community.000 require these other initiatives as part of certification. Existence of company policies aiming at social issues of employment and relation with host communities (e. such as Employment (p. monitoring and consistent management action (including training and reporting) . See also socio-cultural issues and indicators. etc. direct benchmarking with other destinations is possible. energy saving devices. can also be subdivided by class or type of accommodation or type of tourist service). Where no formal certification is obtained. or national equivalents). particularly where the promotion of certification is part of the policy of tourism authorities. See the websites for e. Means to use the indicator: Individual hotels or other organizations may use certification as a part of their marketing – demonstrating quality assurance. these also require risk analysis.) % of companies with policies/programs). this indicator becomes an important measure of performance for that policy or associated programs. Where a government or industry association policy is to promote certification.) Users of this .g. Source(s) of data: Logs of certification may be kept by national or regional governments. Training of staff on environmental issues (% trained). It should be recognized that the results of effective environmental management and risk management will become evident in many other substantive areas – and reflected in other indicators which measure environmental results at the destination level (e. and ¢ Economic Benefits (p. HACCP and also see Certification section (p. ISO. Local tourism authorities will normally have a reasonable appreciation of who has received certification. 318).% using. local sourcing) . Existence of designated personnel for environmental and sustainability management issues at the company. water quality. and ISO 14. health. green purchasing.. support to community development. % companies with policies. If this source is not available. or it may be necessary to poll establishments. the percentage of establishments certified can also be used to show environmental sensitivity and progress. or national equivalents) (Note. 128) and Poverty reduction (p. Existence of company policy on environmental and sustainability issues (including revision and reporting mechanisms). Benchmarking: Where internationally recognized certifications are attained. • • • Social responsibility • Indicators of environmental management: • % of establishments in the destination with formal certification (In each or all of EMS. Application of environmentally friendly technologies and techniques (e.

• • This hotel on Egypt’s Red Sea coast is part of the Accor Hotels group that applies environmental management system at all of its proper ties. green purchasing. energy saving devices.g.Part 3 . including product management and development.47 Tour Operators Initiative The Tour Operators Initiative (TOI) was established by a group of 15 major tour operators with support from WTO. use of office supplies. Details on the program and its progress can be found at http://www. UNEP and UNESCO in1999.g.. 25 tour operators from 17 different The 47 tour operator's performance indicators are divided into categories that reflect the life cycle of the holiday product: from the planning stage. Existence of designated personnel for e n v i r o n m e n t a l management issues at the company (% companies environmental manager).. Training of staff on environmental issues (% trained by category and level). The indicators have been grouped under five categories: 1. waste recycling.Sustainability Issues in Tourism 243 Guidebook are urged to also refer to the appropriate sections which address the key environmental issues of their destination. are members of the TOI. 327 Box 3. Application of environmentally friendly technologies and techniques (e. to the development and delivery of the product. . plane). local sourcing). direct employment). internal management. Product management and development (PMD) includes actions related to the choice of the destination as well as the type of services to be included (e. committed to promote corporate social responsibility and sustainability at the destinations they operate in. One of the key tools being developed through an international working group is indicators for sustainability reporting.g. customer relations and cooperation with destinations. 2. See case study p. the use of train vs. the following indicators are components of environmental management and can be individually monitored : • • Existence of company policy on environmental and sustainability issues (including revision and reporting mechanisms) (% with policy).toinitiative. catering for over 30 million tourists. production of brochures. If there is no formal certification program. At present. water. Accor is a member of the Tour Operators Initiative. The working set of performance indicators covers several areas. Internal management (IM) reflects all the operations and activities that take place in the headquarters or country offices (e. supply chain management.

users are urged not to stop at this list. While this list is put forward as a short list of useful indicators extracted from the issues and indicators discussed above. but also the opportunity to provide information and raise consumer awareness regarding sustainability. Customer relations (CR) summarizes the actions taken to deal with customers.toinitiative. The program addresses both the key areas for attention by operators. but to follow through the procedures outlined in Part Two to create a custom list which is most likely to encompass all issues important to stakeholders in their destination. Cooperation with destination (D) includes all activities and decisions related to destinations that tour operators make beyond the production and delivery of their holiday For a concrete case application by a TOI member see Accor Hotels Case study. employment with their corresponding indicators.244 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook 3. security. p. 3. and the kinds of monitoring or measurement which may be appropriate. This mainly includes efforts made by tour operators to engage in dialogues with destination operators about the impacts of tour packages. 5. The guidance notes have not been officially reviewed and approved as part of the Global Reporting Initiative framework and represent the experience and recommendations of the TOI and the members of the Multi Stakeholders Working Group.14 ¢ Baseline Issues and ¢ Baseline Indicators of Sustainable Tourism The following table is a collection of the ¢ Baseline issues and the ¢ Baseline indicators covered in this part of the Guidebook. the participants began to develop 'guidance notes' listing recommended best practices. and philanthropic activities. For complete details see the website. as well as those which are perhaps unique to their destination before settling on a final list for implementation in their destination. ¢ Baseline Issue Suggested ¢ Baseline Indicator(s) See section on each issue for additional details and a longer list of potential indicators and examples Local satisfaction with tourism Effects of tourism on communities ¢ Local satisfaction level with tourism (Questionnaire) ¢ Ratio of tourists to locals (average and peak period/days) ¢ % who believes that tourism has helped bring new services or infrastructure. not only with regards to the responsibility to serve them and reply to their comments. users are urged to consider the importance of all the issues in the list. Supply chain management (SCM) addresses actions related to the selection and contracting of service providers. As a consequence. SCM9 and D1). During the process of developing the supplement. environmental protection. as well as more specific instructions on the sustainability issues to be taken into account for three specific indicators (PMD3. 4. Some would argue that other issues and indicators should also be on the short list – issues such as health. http://www. ¢ Number and capacity of social services available to the community (% which are attributable to tourism) (questionnaire-based) . 327.

and by tourist sector – per person day) ¢ Percentage of businesses participating in energy conservation programs. (wastewater management) tertiary levels) ¢ Percentage of tourism establishments (or accommodation) on treatment system(s) Solid waste management ¢ Waste volume produced by the destination (tonnes) (by month) (Garbage) ¢ Volume of waste recycled (m3) / Total volume of waste (m3) (specify by different types) ¢ Quantity of waste strewn in public areas (garbage counts) Development control ¢ Existence of a land use or development planning process. attractions).) ¢ Total number of tourist arrivals (mean. at beaches. etc.mean number/peak period average Controlling use intensity . monthly. secondary. or applying energy saving policy and techniques ¢ % of energy consumption from renewable resources (at destinations. per square kilometre of the destination.g.Part 3 .Sustainability Issues in Tourism 245 ¢ Baseline Issue Sustaining tourist satisfaction Suggested ¢ Baseline Indicator(s) ¢ Level of satisfaction by visitors (questionnaire-based) ¢ Perception of value for money (questionnaire-based) ¢ Percentage of return visitors ¢ Tourist arrivals by month or quarter (distribution throughout the year) ¢ Occupancy rates for licensed (official) accommodation by month (peak periods relative to low season) and % of all occupancy in peak quarter or month) ¢ % of business establishments open all year ¢ Number and % of tourist industry jobs which are permanent or full-year (compared to temporary jobs) ¢ Number of local people (and ratio of men to women) employed in tourism (also ratio of tourism employment to total employment) ¢ Revenues generated by tourism as % of total revenues generated in the community ¢ Per capita consumption of energy from all sources (overall. recaptured or recycled) ¢ Percentage of tourism establishments with water treated to international potable standards ¢ Frequency of water-borne diseases: number/percentage of visitors reporting water-borne illnesses during their stay Tourism seasonality Economic benefits of tourism Energy management Water availability and conservation Drinking water quality Sewage treatment ¢ Percentage of sewage from site receiving treatment (to primary. . peak periods) ¢ Number of tourists per square metre of the site (e. design. establishments) ¢ Water use: (total volume consumed and litres per tourist per day) ¢ Water saving (% reduced. including tourism ¢ % of area subject to control (density..


5. cross references to the relevant issues which are treated in greater detail in Part 3 are also provided. activities and issues. Boating. cruise ships and their ports. Tourists seek coastal zones for several types of activities including: 1. some examples of how indicators have been applied to issues in each of these three destination types may be of interest. this chapter also contains examples of selected types of attractions which have a mix of issues similar to the other destinations (e.1 Coastal Zones Coastal Zones are the target of over three quarters of the world's tourism. wildlife or coastal flora. or on foot.Part 4 Destination Applications Each destination has its own mix of assets and issues. trail systems and built cultural sites. sports. 3. riding animals. 327) which concrete additional examples. 4. Temperature (moderation). Beach activities . Viewing and photography of landscapes. Touring . with reference to the issues which have been found to be important to them. sunbathing. variants on the baseline issues/indicators are used modified to reflect the specific application to destination conditions. for example. See also the Case Studies section (p.. 6. convention centres.g. they are shown in red.) Most local destinations will have a range of assets. Where ¢ Baseline Issues and ¢ Baseline indicators are referenced. 4. Coastal tourism in the Mediterranean region alone is calculated by WTO at around 100 million tourist arrivals a year (WTO. bicycle. 2001). Coastal Resort. China © 2004 World Tourism Organization . Fishing.ISBN 92-844-0726-5 . 2. theme parks. coastal zones and mountains. Links are provided to the baseline issues and indicators. Examples are also provided of how destinations of these types have applied indicators to their mix of issues. In some cases. Lianyungang. The other issues and indicators can be found in Part 3: use the index. a mountainous island destination will likely have issues which occur in small islands. This section is designed to enable destination managers to approach the development and use of indicators from the point of view of the characteristics of their motor vehicle. In addition to physical destination types. More detailed descriptions of the issues and indicators referenced here can be found in part 3.swimming. In each destination section.

removal of solid waste from beachfront areas. Kukljica (Croatia) and Cyprus all provide examples of issues common to coastal zones. Villa Gesell (Argentina). The range of issues found in coastal destinations is broad. Coastal zones have received a great amount of attention in the development of indicators for local municipalities and the tourism industry. and coastal defences. shore destinations also tend to have issues related to employment. The studies and workshops using the WTO methodology in Lake Balaton (Hungary). and seasonality of use. 402). and provision of funding for infrastructure which is heavily used only for parts of the year. In addition. Cozumel (Mexico). and have resulted in the development of indicators to respond to these issues. all of which may be attractions. Prince Edward Island (Canada). identification and protection of fragile habitats or species. training.248 Coasts contain a variety of ecosystems which may be affected by tourist use. ports. provision of docks and jetties. While each destination will have its own unique set of issues. issues of sea (or lake) water quality. retention of services out of season. (See Kukljica case study p. erosion.notably high use and limited seasons. coastal wetlands and areas subject to erosion and adjacent marine ecosystems. Beruwala (Sri Lanka). Beach areas as a specific subset of coastal zones are treated separately in the following pages. Otway Sound Penguin Colony is a fragile ecosystem which is a popular destination for cruise ship visitors to Punta Arenas. . Coastal zones which provide the point of contact between land and sea and between cultures also contain historic communities. including fragile dune and beach systems. due to these issues . Chile Nearly all coastal destinations share the issue of control of shore use and building. issues of crowding of some specific localities in peak (beach) season. and may encompass nearly all of the issues noted in the previous section. the following issues (and indicators) are worthy of consideration by managers of coastal destinations.

) (note: for annual averages. Level of revenue from users (managed beaches). etc). ¢ Occupancy levels (accommodation) around the year. Species counts (number. 192) ¢ Seasonality (even most tropical destinations have a hot. large mammals.Destination Applications 249 Issues Suggested Indicator(s) % of coastal area in degraded condition. Blue Flag status. % tourist industry jobs which are permanent or full-year. seals. whales. Annual species counts for key species. % shoreline subject to erosion. % of tourists who perceived threats to their safety or security while in the destination. % of tourists who believe that the area is polluted. 109) • • . peak month). Number of days per year (month) when beach or shoreline is closed due to contamination (based on measurement of key contaminants such as faecal coliforms.. Level of effort for fish catch. and peak day. ¢ % of total tourists visiting in peak month. oil spills.Part 4 . populations). Number of incidents involving harassment of viewed species (e. Damage to the natural environment • of the shore zone • Sustainability of key species (whales. ¢ Tourist Numbers Persons per hectare (or square metre) on key sites. (see following section on further specifics for beaches). river) contamination • • Reef systems • • • Perception of cleanliness/quality • Safety and security (see p. Seawater (freshwater lake. etc). 104. % shoreline considered to be in eroded state. Visitors per linear Km of coastline (use where use of area is linear .g. Complaints by tourists. sea birds. % of business establishments open all year.such as coastal trail use or number of fishermen who line a shoreline. Annual change in measured shore/beach area. fish. % of reef area in degraded condition (See Box 4..1 Reef Systems). Cost of erosion prevention and repair measures. dirty or contaminated (exit questionnaires). Number of tourists affected by crime. in peak quarter. Ratio of number of tourists in peak month to lowest month. % tourist industry jobs which are for less than 6 months.g. heavy metals. pesticides. sewage pollution events). or other certification systems. Number of shore contamination events per annum (e. aquatic and coastal flora) • • • Erosion of the shoreline • • • • • • ¢ Use Intensity (crowding) (see p. Annual cost of repairs (or value of repairs needed). stormy/monsoon or hurricane season when there is much lower use or when the comparative advantage relative to tourist origins is low) (see p. 111) Beach management (see following section for greater detail on beach destinations) • • • • • • • • • • • Cost of beach cleaning/maintenance. ¢ Number of visitors to the reef (Divers/snorkellers)\ per square metre of reef) (or per square Km for large reef systems). wet.

Key issues for reef systems include: maintenance of biodiversity. mining of coral. sport fishing.indicator species) • The International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI) http://www. • ¢ Number of visitors to the reef per square metre of reef (or per square Km for large reef systems) maximum and average. and disturbing reef species. • Number of incidents of anchor damage. etc. fishing and boating activity can destroy reef systems. spills.icriforum. fragile ecosystems with immense biodiversity which are a magnet for tourists.major die offs of the coral and of resident species occur in response to fairly minor changes. Indicators: Some of the indicators which have proven important to the managers of reef systems considering tourism are the following: • % of reef system considered to be degraded (biological surveys). • Biological diversity of the reef (species counts). Reef systems in many destination countries of the Caribbean. either directly by touching .1 Reef Systems Coral reefs are a special case. provision of protection and control services. particularly for users of the reef who are not part of guided tours. Reefs are the main aquatic focus for sports and (click. Strict control systems are now in place for some reefs but in all cases enforcement remains a challenge. or indirectly through purchase of corals and other species taken from the reefs. Bonaire. etc per month. operator licences). • Number of dive operators adapting environmental policies. promoting codes of conduct for divers. • Number of boats per day on/near the reef. per type of users: snorkel.ReefCheck. particularly if there is dynamiting of fish. As well. etc).methods. boating. Further references: • Reef Check Guide to Coral Reef Monitoring at www. Tourists themselves can cause damage. fishing. Indicators on the health of reef ecosystems are very important for sustainability of these tourist destinations and the global environment as well. • Number of control/enforcement officers patrolling reef area.250 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Box 4. causing turbidity. donor and development agencies. diving. management of tourism and other human activities on the reef. • Funds generated for reef protection from user fees (tourists. Red Sea coast or Asia-Pacific are impacted by tourism activity. spills of fuels and bilge water or dragging of anchors.The entire coast of Bonaire in the Netherlands Antilles is a marine protected area • Funds allocated for reef protection from public sources. • ¢ % of reef area under protection. private funds. Reef Snorkelling. indicators . experiencing growing numbers of tourists worldwide. yet are the principal tourism asset for the destinations. reef health. Reefs are vulnerable to changes in the water temperature and turbidity . • % of visitors to the reef who are guided.

¢ Volume of garbage collected (by month. often competing destinations. oil spills. 173). as well as for comparison with other.g.Part 4 . ¢ Use Intensity (density of visitors/intensity of use of the beach area) (see p. % tourists who are bothered by noise. % of beach area open to and accessible by local residents. and for concession areas. Volume of sand imported per month/year for those beaches where sand importation is done. Number of restaurants/food concessions per tourist. peak month). Number of local residents using beach.. erosion) Suggested Indicator(s) • • • Annual gain/loss of beach area. ¢ Number of persons per hectare (or square metre) of publicly accessible beach. storms etc. sea walls. ¢ % of total tourists visiting in peak month. many destination managers are faced with a broad range of issues which.). The focus of this section is on managed beaches at a more site-specific scale than the coastal zone section above.) Beach contamination • • • • • • • • Seawater contamination ¢ Tourist satisfaction (Sustaining the image/quality of the beach) • • • • • • Provision of services . Number of days per year (month) when beach is closed due to contamination. peak day) (p. dirty or contaminated (exit questionnaires).g. 155). and peak day. Number of shore contamination events per annum (e. Thus these indicators can often be used for comparative benchmarking for different beaches within a single destination. average day in peak month). Issues of concern in beach destinations include: Issues Sustaining the beach area (limiting loss of sand. private areas. week. ¢ Garbage levels on beach (counts). ¢ Number of persons per hectare (or square metre) on the beach (for annual averages. % tourists who consider the beach to be good quality.Destination Applications 251 4. (See also the ¢ Seasonality issues for Coastal Zones p. Number of toilets and showers per beach user (peak day. % tourists who found the beach dirty (questionnaire). Costs of erosion-protection measures (e. Cost (in local hours wages) of admission to beaches where there is a charge. sewage pollution events). % of tourists who believe that the area is polluted.2 Beach Destinations and Sites With growing numbers of beach users. 249 and Climate Change p. Cost of beach cleaning/maintenance. where a single destination may contain several distinct beaches under different levels of development and control. % tourists who believe the beach is clean. 192). along with many of the other issues affecting heavily used sites. have particular implications for beaches. Access • • • • • ¢ Seasonality (even tropical beach destinations have a peak season and lower seasons with less use due to heat. ¢ Number of tourists on peak day).

Number of incidents reported to beach managers classified by type (e.g. Ratio of costs of management and maintenance to revenues. or lose the certification. Bulgaria. Blue flag at Sunny Day Beach Black Sea Coast. % users who have entered without paying. 253) % beaches in destination with Blue Flag or equivalent independent certification. Control (behaviour. often experience direct repercussions which may be reflected in changes measured by many of the other indicators suggested for beach destinations (e. animals.252 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Issues Costs and benefits Suggested Indicator(s) • • • • • • Level of revenue from users (managed beaches).. tourist numbers. access) Certification and Standards • Publicly visible indicators (like the Blue Flag flown on beaches achieving the standard) can have an immediate and significant impact on the choices made by tourists. adjacent). Number employed (on site. drownings. harassment. Blue Flag status of beach (see box 4. Destinations which fail to obtain the certification. jobs). rescues).g. Co-ordination Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE) . Number of dogs (and other animals where applicable) on the beach.2 p. glass cuts. For controlled access beaches.

culturally. Access: Conditions of access influence movements of tourists and locals and supply of goods and resources. especially when the dry season coincides with the high tourism season and water demand. beach guards. As a result. access for the disabled. Some island communities have only seasonal access or much reduced access in low season. the natural and cultural resources may be unique.Destination Applications 253 Box 4.blueflag.2 Blue Flag Beaches The Blue Flag appearing on European and some Caribbean beaches is a visible signal that the beach meets an internationally agreed. tourism is their principal source of foreign exchange and a main source of GDP and employment. and vulnerable. regular cleaning of the beach. This may be a serious constraint on tourism activities. and often small indigenous populations. Intensity of tourism: This is particularly important for smaller islands and specific sites such as beaches or cultural sites on islands where tourists concentrate. but these are often amplified on small islands. food or fuel. Key issues which tend to be of particular importance to small island destinations include the following: 1. http://www. 4. Chile). Environmental Education and Information. control of prohibited or restricted activities. small islands can be particularly vulnerable to the impacts of tourism.g. Inspections are done without prior notification by independent certifiers. and independent standard for: • • • • Water Quality. particularly if it is large in scale. The system is currently being extended to countries in other regions as well (e. Safety and Services. These include such elements as providing regular checks on sea water quality. Dry islands rely on a freshwater lens which can be easily depleted or contaminated. For most small island nations. The image of islands draws many tourists to take advantage of these characteristics which are important assets for tourism. . Environmental Management. 3. its boundaries also can be barriers. Water supply: Many islands have constrained water supply.3 Small Islands Many of the issues facing tourism on small islands are similar to those found in coastal zones and in small communities. or storm seasons such as typhoons. Because of small size. cyclones or hurricanes. The flag is renewed each season. and economically. Some destinations have reduced air or boat service outside peak season. 2. and sanitary facilities (see the Blue Flag Website for a complete list of criteria and of beaches meeting the standard in each member country. limiting access to tourism flows and basic resources such as water. Islands are often isolated ecologically. While an island may provide a visible unit for planning and management. limited in extent. There are cases when import of water is needed.Part 4 . 4. For each of the above standards there is a defined set of criteria to be ) The application of the criteria is slightly different in Europe and the Caribbean to reflect different regulatory regimes and environmental conditions. in South Africa. Seasonality: Particularly for sun-sea-and-sand destinations or for islands which have cold winter temperatures.

6. Out-migration to places with greater economic opportunity (particularly by youth) is a frequent issue. Retention of benefits on the island (See Leakage p. infrastructure and access. Mexico. 9. This tiny island in a coastal wetland not far from Puerto Vallarta Mexico has begun to experience increasing visits as it finds itself featured in tourist guides and tour itineraries. Access to natural resources (fish. Note that the destination issues found in the sections on Coastal Zones (p. 247) and on Small and Traditional Communities (p. 117): Many small islands must import nearly everything that tourists consume. Climate change is of particular concern to small islands. In some island destinations. reefs etc. 8. Small islands tend to have limited natural resources which may already be near capacity of use. small islands and surrounding marine ecosystems can be adversely affected by contamination from sewage or waste. similar to that found in many small communities. solid waste is regularly shipped away for disposal. In many low islands. Aerial view of Mexcaltitan. Sewage treatment and solid waste (garbage) management: Like all coastal destinations. Currency leakage can be nearly 100%. 11. 281) will also be of interest to island destinations. Most small islands must rely on fossil fuel import for electricity generation and for any other fuel requirements. The smallest islands may be so small that on-site treatment is not feasible. 10. Preservation of unique cultural traditions.254 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook 5. 7. Energy. and ownership and control of resources by non-residents can be an important issue. the entire island is within the storm surge zone for extreme storm events. agricultural land. wood). Transfer of fuels from tankers is nearly impossible to do without some spillage. . Please consult the corresponding issue sections on the above points. affecting shores. and vulnerable to even small rises in sea level. affecting the resource base.

Part 4 - Destination Applications


Issues ¢ Controlling use intensity on the island (see p. 192)

Suggested indicator(s) • • • • ¢ Ratio of tourists to locals (average, peak day or month); ¢ Tourists per square metre or (Km2) (see also coastal zones); ¢ Persons per hectare (or square metre) on key sites; (note for annual averages, and peak day, peak month); % total jobs which are in tourism sector. ¢ % total tourism which occurs in peak month (or season); % employment in tourism which is full-time/full year; % accommodation and services open all year; ¢ Accommodation occupancy rate throughout the year. Ratio of transport volume peak month vs. lowest month; Price of transport on/off island(as % hourly local wage for locals to get to island); Price of travel to island from main tourist source; Duration of travel to island from main tourist source (hours). % total developed water supply consumed; % total known potential natural supply consumed; ¢ Volume of water consumed by tourists as % of total consumption (also use per person per day for tourists and for locals) ; Number of months/days each year with water shortages; Cost of water per cubic metre (also consider cost of new supply for each additional cubic metre). Percentage of sewage receiving treatment (primary, secondary, tertiary); Number of contamination events per annum; ¢ Volume of garbage collected (pXXX); Percentage of solid waste recycled; % put in suitable landfills; % shipped away (outside destination). Percentage of energy supply which is imported to the island; Number of supply shortages (brown outs) per month/annum; Cost per KwH of electricity; ¢ Energy use by tourism industry as % of total ; ¢ Energy use per day by tourists relative to locals. Percentage of island territory (and of shoreline) in tourism use, extension of agricultural and protected areas; Percentage of wood, food consumed on the island which is produced locally (if possible separate local/tourist use). Percentage of wood, food consumed on the island which is produced locally (if possible separate local/tourist use); % of land/shoreline which is owned by non-residents; % tourist infrastructure owned by/managed by island residents; ¢ Number and % of employees from the local community.

¢ Seasonality (see p. 111)

• • • • • • • •


¢ Water availability (see p. 165)

• • • • •

¢ Sewage treatment (p. 171) ¢ Solid waste management (p. 173)

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

¢ Energy (see p. 152)

Access to natural resources (fish, agricultural land, wood)

Retention of benefits on the island (import substitution, currency leakage, ownership and control of resources)

• • • •


Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook

Issues Out-migration

Suggested indicator(s) • • • %migration (in, out) annually. (also calculate for youth); Total population resident year round. % speaking language(s) of tourists (See Small and Traditional Communities p. 281) (See ¢ Effects of Tourism on Communities p.. 57). % of island which is outside the storm surge zone; % of tourist infrastructure (number or value) which is located within the storm surge zone; Level of beach erosion (% of coastline eroded); Reef health (e.g. coral bleaching) (See Box 4.1 on reef systems).

Retention of unique cultural traditions

Climate change (see p. 155) (Note: the country's Initial Communication on Climate Change may identify specific issues for the island, and some indicators) See also coastal zone destination in this section. Also see beach issue in part 3.

• • • •

For expanded discussion of many of these indicators, see the corresponding issues section in Part 3.

Visitors to Panama's San Blas Islands use local dugouts to reach the tiny islands, carrying their supplies with them.

Part 4 - Destination Applications


4.4 Destinations in Desert and Arid Areas
Deserts and semi-desert ecosystems cover about 20% of the surface area of the planet. Tourists are drawn to deserts for their physical beauty (the Namib), specific geological formations (Ayers Rock, Devils Tower) remoteness (the Gobi, the Empty Quarter) and the chance to visit physical extremes (parts of the Atacama have never recorded rainfall). Tourists are also drawn to deserts because of the cultural history and archaeological sites found there (Petra, Mohenjo Daro, Abu Simbel, Hopi Cliff dwellings of Arizona), as well as experiencing living cultures (like nomad communities). Many of the most attractive sites for tourists are remote; in fact the preservation of many of the relics of past civilizations may have depended on this remoteness and the fact that decomposition of organic material is very slow in the dry climate. Modern transportation and air conditioning has meant that remote desert destinations are more accessible to large numbers of tourists. As well, many seek desert conditions for reasons associated with health (allergies, respiratory problems). Increasingly, tourism developments in watershort environments include such water consuming features as golf courses, lawns and gardens and swimming pools. Major desert resorts such as Hurghada Egypt or Las Vegas must import water long distances to satisfy consumption. Desert regions are also particularly vulnerable to climate change which may affect water supply and contribute to greater desertification. (See Climate change p. 155). Issues likely to be of importance to tourism in desert environments include the following: • • • • • • Water supply (water tends to be the pre-eminent limiting factor); Impact of tourism activities on desert flora and fauna; Soil erosion and compaction (See photo of Giza sandstorm below); Energy for heating and cooling (as desert environments tend to have both extremes); Design suited to the desert environment; Health issues for tourists associated with heat and dehydration.

While the baseline indicators will be of interest to managers of tourism in desert environments, those indicators relating specifically to the climatic conditions will be more important than in most other destinations (For a similar situation see Box 4.3 on tourism in Arctic and alpine environments).

Sandstorm at Giza, Egypt


Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook

Issues ¢ Water supply

Suggested Indicator(s) • • • • • • • % of local natural supply capacity used; ¢ Water use per capita per day (tourists, locals); Distance to nearest practical source of new water; Cost per cubic metre for current and for new supply; ¢ % of water supply used by tourism industry; Number of days in year/season with water supply shortage; See ¢ Water supply issue section (p. 165) for additional useful indicators and the Climate Change issue (p. 155). Total area considered degraded due to tourist/visitor use (may include area trampled, eroded, affected by off-road vehicles). ¢ Per capita consumption of energy; Energy use per capita for heating or cooling; Cost per tourist day for energy; See ¢ Energy (p. 152) re energy use from different sources. % buildings incorporating desert design elements (e.g., ventilation, high ceilings, thick walls, etc); % landscaping using xerophytes (desert plants). See managing visual impacts of tourism facilities and infrastructure (p. 185). Number of incidences of dehydration, sun or heat stroke, hypo or hyperthermia reported. ¢ % of local residents in desert community who believe they benefit from tourism ; ¢ Number of local people employed in tourism (p. 119); ¢ See Effects of Tourism on Communities (p. 57) and ¢ Economic Benefits of Tourism (p. 128).

Impact on flora and fauna soil erosion and compaction ¢ Energy supply

• • • • • • •

Design of buildings and facilities

Health issues in desert climate

Impact (positive and negative) on isolated communities

• • •

Luxury hotel near Petra Jordan blends into the village and uses vernacular architecture, thick walls, high ceilings, cool water flowing under floors. There are no powered forms of air conditioning or heating - the hotel takes advantage of the natural temperature flux to keep each dwelling comfortable. Note: The lower half of the photo is the 200 room hotel.

Part 4 - Destination Applications


4.5 Mountain Destinations
Mountains have always been a target for tourism. On all continents, mountains are a draw for those who seek vistas, adventure, cooler climates in summer, sport and the many cultural assets of mountains - built to take advantage of the height and often isolation. The world's mountains contain immense variety - both vertically and horizontally. Ecological conditions can vary within a few metres of altitude. Cultures in adjacent valleys may be very different. In the past, mountains were often considered to be the periphery, where natural ecosystems were near the edge of the conditions which would support them and cultural communities at the margins of the resources needed for sustainability. Tourism has significantly altered the economics of many mountain regions, as this very variety and unique relationship to resources and ecosystems has become an asset. Issues of particular concern to mountain environments include the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Loss or degradation of flora and fauna due to tourism activity; Physical erosion caused by infrastructure construction and impact of tourist use including cutting and use of trails, off road vehicle activities; Visual pollution/aesthetics due to construction, extractive activity, deforestation; Access, particularly to fragile sites, protected areas; Management of solid waste (garbage); Impacts of activities on water quality/watershed management; Impact on small, and/or culturally distinctive communities (see the section specifically about this type of destination p. 281); Ecotourism and adventure tourism activity - much of which focuses on mountainous areas; Seasonality - particularly for seasonal sports/adventure/winter tourism dependent destinations.


Meteora, Greece. Historic monasteries top the peaks


Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook

Issues Loss of flora and fauna due to tourism activity

Suggested indicators • • • • Counts for key species (e.g. raptors, mammals, native trees, flowers); Road kill counts by species (particularly where tourist traffic is the main user of roads); Frequency of sightings of key species (from outfitters, guides, or exit surveys); ¢ Area protected (to different levels of protection) (p. 147). % of surface in eroded state (can be categorized as site disturbance due to tourist activity - compaction, denuding and erosion from other uses such as clear cutting, road construction); % of surface without tree or shrub cover (differentiate natural and human/tourist sources if possible); Turbidity readings from streams. % of visible slopes without tree or shrub cover; Tourist opinion of state of vistas (see exit Q, (p. 491) and see indicators sections on visual pollution, perception of destination quality). Image may be more important to decisions than actual physical state. See also ¢ Sustaining Tourist Satisfaction (p. 86) and exit questionnaire questions on overall image of destination. Cost of entry(for controlled access areas such as parks or protected areas) or transport access expressed in hours work at local wage; Perception of ease of access to key sites (both visitors and locals) using questionnaire methodology; % nationals (or regional residents for larger nations) who have visited the destination in the past year; Traffic levels (see Transportation p. 210); Price of real estate in destination (many mountain communities lack living space and have elevated pricing). ¢ Waste volume produced by the destination (tonnes)by month (p. 175); Visitor perception of level of litter; Local perception of level of litter (subset:- litter attributable to tourists). % local streams, lakes which are contaminated by sewage; ¢ % sewage from key sites which receives treatment to meet standards (note standards referenced in section on ¢ Sewage Treatment issue.) (p. 171); % area reserved as protected watersheds (see also erosion above). ¢ For small and traditional communities, ratio of tourists to locals (by month, season, peak day) See also Small Communities (p. 281); % hunting or fishing in destination by locals, tourists; ¢ Local satisfaction with tourism . (p. 56) (questionnaire) ¢ Local employment in tourism and protection (guiding, accommodation, park management, rehabilitation); Employment in tourism and protection as % of all employment, (or as % of resource extraction sector); See ¢ Economic benefits (p. 128). ¢ % total tourism which occurs in peak month (or season); ¢ % employment in tourism which is full-time/full year; ¢ % business establishments open all year (accommodation and services). See ¢ Seasonality (p. 111).


• • Visual pollution (may affect decisions to visit or return - see the Arches case p. 342) • •


• • • • •

¢ Solid waste management

• • • • •

Impacts of activities on water quality

• ¢ Effects of tourism on communities • • • ¢ Economic benefits • • • ¢ Seasonality • • • •

Part 4 - Destination Applications


The use of these indicators will normally require measurement over time. Where tourism is not the only user of a mountain system, one challenge will be to determine what role tourism plays in degradation or impacts on ecosystems. Where tourism is the main activity, studies may be used to identify control areas for comparison - where tourism activity is limited or where it is prohibited. The use of the indicators will assist in the identification of trends - whether considered positive or negative which may be of concern to communities. For example, rising real estate prices may be viewed as positive by current recreational owners but negative by a destination that wishes to keep young families or retain a rural character. As with other ecosystems, measures of levels of protection and management will also be of use. (See the issue sections on these in Part 3) With regard to ski areas, a good point of reference is the Sustainable Slopes Charter which identifies key issues and environmental initiatives for the US ski industry.

Kangaroo crossing sign in Thredbo, Australia. Mountain wildlife is one of the key attractions for tours to this destination.


Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook

Box 4.3 Arctic and Alpine environments
Arctic and Alpine environments share many of the same issues of fragility found in deserts and mountain ecosystems. As tourists reach mountain tops in increasing numbers (on foot or lifted by an increasing range of mechanical methods) and as adventure tourism companies expand their offers in the Arctic and Antarctic, their effects on these remote ecosystems also expand. At the same time, visitors are also exposed to risks beyond those found in less hostile areas. The ability to provide rescue in such areas may also be limited. Some jurisdictions require a cash bond from adventure travellers which can be recovered only if they return intact without any rescue (in some cases with all their The key issues for arctic and alpine tourism relate to reduction of the impact of tourism on these fragile systems, like those of Huang equipment and garbage). Shan (China's Yellow Mountains) Arctic and alpine ecosystems are very fragile, easily disturbed, and take a very long time to rehabilitate. Plants may take decades to recover from a simple trampling. Tire tracks made a century ago can still be seen in the permafrost. The re-establishment of vegetation may take a century if it is disturbed or removed. Some alpine systems house unique and relic populations of flora and fauna found nowhere else. Where there are human settlements, these too are usually small and widely separated, and often, associated with their remoteness, are culturally unique. The same indicators identified for mountain systems, desert systems, and fragile ecosystems will likely be useful. In addition, the following indicators should also be considered: • Average size of tourism group or party (in the case of cruises, the number allowed ashore at one time); • % of visitors accompanied by trained guides; • Number of tourists lost or injured each season; • Number of rescues, annual cost of rescues; • % of rescue cost recovered from those rescued; • Area of degraded vegetation attributable to tourist use (e.g., alpine meadows, disturbed permafrost areas) (% of surface area of key ecosystems disturbed); • % of material taken in which is brought back out; • Distance to nearest source of fuels/supplies; • Value of contribution by the tourists or operators to the maintenance and protection of the destination (possibly through user fees, landing fees, access charges or other contributions). See also the Antarctic case study (p. 338).

Part 4 - Destination Applications


4.6 Natural and Sensitive Ecological Sites
Natural sites are often prime tourist attractions, which receive varying levels of visitation depending on the conditions of the broader tourist region where they are located. Tourists are drawn to large waterfalls such as Niagara Falls, Victoria Falls or Iguazú Falls; or to much smaller natural systems with unique ecological conditions or which serve as habitat for a specific species (e.g. the Proboscis Monkey in Sukau River in Borneo, Malaysia or the unique ecosystems of the wetland estuaries of the Iberá (Argentina). Many such sites are sensitive to tourist use. Being identified as an ecologically unique space represents a challenge for the development of the tourism around it, since tourism has significant potential to negatively impact upon the site or to contribute positively to its sustainability; this depends greatly on the type of management and enforcement in place. The unique features of a special ecosystem are the environmental conditions and flora and fauna found there. From the point of view of tourism, the industry has its own needs often involving development that will enhance its capacity to offer tourism activities at the site. These may be required in order to convert a resource of great ecological value into something attractive and accessible to visitors. (Viñals et al., 2002). This double component (ecological value - tourist value) will need to be negotiated at the outset of the planning process of a tourist site, to ensure sustainable tourism development without harming sensitive ecosystems. The indicators for monitoring and control of a sensitive ecological site should include, as a first priority, measurements of changes in the ecosystem (natural processes, and man-made impacts). With respect to the key ecological assets it is very important to compile an inventory of natural resources in the area to help understand the key elements, to define their ecological value and to be able to establish warning systems. If there are no present activities or plans for tourism use or recreational purposes, the existence of a good indicators and monitoring program on ecological assets will be of potential future use to tourism, should the site become an attraction for tourists in future. Most organizations concerned with the designation of sites as protected areas require that a basic management system and baseline information regarding assets and potential attractions of any site be done before the declaration of protected status- whether for ecological reasons or for tourist use. Examples of this are national parks, monuments and natural reserves, among others. Some criteria for appraisal of ecological resources relative to recreational value can be measured through indicators that are tied to perceived impacts (Viñals et al., 2002). Using these measurements, if the value of the indicators varies positively or negatively, the attractiveness to tourists as well as the ecological value can be seen to have been altered. Therefore, it can be emphasized that it is important to develop indicators for the sustainability of tourism in unique ecological places: including indicators related to ecological values, measures of tourist values (attraction) and indicators relating to levels of tourist management. The following list is based in part on an example from Spain

The Tatras, an alpine mountain range rising directly from the plains on the Slovakia, Poland border is protected by national park status in both countries. It is one of the most important regional destinations for tourism.


Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook

Plitivice National Park in Croatia protects a unique ecosystem of linked lakes and waterfalls, with walkways for tourist access.

(See Albufera de Valencia case p. 330) and identifies a comprehensive list of indicators which address the key values associated with natural sites. (Viñals et al. 2002)
Issues Ecological Value Representativeness: (whether the resource has characteristics typical of the ecosystem) • • Nº of species typical of the area present at the site (and numbers of individuals); Nº of unique or rare species present at the site (and numbers of individuals). % of site area occupied by rare or unique species; Nº of individuals in the population of rare and unique species; % of endemic species at the site. ¢ % of area subject to control ( IUCN categories); Recognition by international programmes (e.g. UNESCO World Heritage Site or Biosphere Reserve, RAMSAR Convention) (Note: international recognitions can be also important indicators of tourism value, as signs of uniqueness and ecological value); See Parks and Protected Areas (p. 269). Suggested indicators

Uniqueness (rarity of the site relative to group (e.g., wetland, desert) Level of site protection

• • • • •

• Tourism Value Fragility: degree of susceptibility to impacts related to tourism and recreational activity. • • • • • • • • •

Nº of species and endemic species; Nº of species and endemic endangered species; Populations of every species; Temporal rate of variation of species. ¢ Level of acceptance of the tourism activity by the local community (% positive) (p. 56); Inventory of attractions (distinguished natural features, including flora and fauna, landscapes); Nº of observations of fauna or flora per circuit and per season; Nº of days of observation of the natural features per season (e.g., Aurora Borealis, wildflowers in bloom, whale mating, migratory birds); Profitability of tourism activity at the site (% return on investment, net incomes - visitor fees, concession fees, fees for guiding and other services, sales of handicrafts and other items, etc.)

Tourism feasibility: (access, easements, traditional uses, management capacity (to ensure its protection and/or enhancement), economic viability restoration costs, operation and maintenance costs.

Destination Applications 265 Tourism Value • • • Educational-interpretive value: (value of the site for educating and awareness raising . logging) at the site (and % of key resources included). plan. equipment). 90). (% of site covered). equipments. farm schools.natural sciences. 192). Annual expenditure on management and control. airstrips.). (Subjective ratings . Sale of goods (e. provincial.) (p.use questionnaire). • Accessibility: refers to the ease with which the place can be visited. Existence of rules to regulate construction. Donations from visitors and tour operators. international organizations). hunting and fishing. Average length of stay. % of site with regulated zoning /controls. according to the perception of the visitors themselves. % of resources actually assigned / resources requested by the administration for the management of the site.g. Nº of tour operators with permit to operate at site. interpretive and informative panels. re capacity estimates. Nº of visitors / nº of individuals per species. Aesthetic/perceptual evaluation by the visitor ( See Exit questionnaire Annex C5 p.) • Management capacity: presence of a management body. 204). extent of tourism use zones. motorized. or perceptual nature. Cost of acquisition/protecting/restoration of the site. (depends on capacity studies establishing limits). Fees from guiding and other services. Natural and educational value given to the site by educators (local. Presence of key ecological features of the site in media and tourism promotional materials. nature schools. Nº of visitors acceptable. In-kind contributions (e. history and local traditions.g. 342. • • • Tourism carrying capacity of the site: the site's capability to serve as the venue of tourism/ recreational activity. printed self-explanatory materials. interpretation centres.). by Tour Operators. site restoration and regeneration programmes. % of site accessible to those with disabilities (see Accessibility (p. extraction of natural resources (e. Nº of opportunities for interpretation and education at the site (existence of guided visits. • • • • Site management Tourism management plan for the site Regulation of the site • ¢ Existence of a tourism management plan for the site (also % of site covered by plan. etc). according to the capacity of the equipment and facilities of the site. handicrafts. (paths. month) (p. Visitor fees. etc. (see Annex C 5 and Arches case p. national. Nº of visitors acceptable. 491). Estimated time to full restoration of the site (for degraded sites).g. Nº of access routes in good condition for tourism use. ¢ Nº and origin of visitors to the site per season (day. educational itineraries. trails. informative materials. Attractiveness: includes parameters of an aesthetic. volunteers). Nº of visitors acceptable. Concession fees. by NGOs.Part 4 . boat access. • • ¢ Use Intensity • • • • • Tourism management capacity of the site Tourism's contribution to site conservation • • • • • • . emotional.

169). Nº of campfires allowed for camping areas.particularly regarding that targeting natural systems. % increase in infectious diseases (local and introduced) to flora and fauna of the site. noise pollution • Water quality: contaminants in surface and ground water (See ¢ Drinking Water Quality p. Loss of species due to use as tourism souvenirs (% of native species used as tourism souvenirs). 183). Number of campers per toilet. Population sizes of key species. Number of beds (other accommodation). promotion of content in the curriculum of the local educational system.266 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Management of spaces for tourism use Trails and paths (see destination section on trails and routes p. Biodiversity index of flora and fauna. Total density of camping use (persons per m2 in peak season. number of incidents). Area or campsites per tent. See also Parks and Protected Areas (p. • • • Ecosystem management Water quality • • Air.) in natural areas (see Noise p. Nº of introduced species (exotic fauna and/or flora) (% of total). generators. Camping areas and accommodation • • • • • • • Community participation Local community participation • % of local products and services consumed by tourism (at least 70% of goods and services acquired for tourism operation of the site from local enterprises or individuals). 274) • • • • % soil loss on trails (Example: depth and/or width of trails does not increase more than 5% per year at the most fragile sectors). Employment of local residents in site management and tourism operations (numbers. Level of satisfaction of residents regarding tourism development in the area . launches. Nº of erosion points in camping areas. income levels). etc. etc. planes. % of protected area in eroded or degraded state. % occupancy of camping sites and accommodation. Level of illegal hunting and fishing at the site during high season (loss of animals. Vehicular congestion (average travel times on main access routes during high season / during low season). Frequency of species census. meetings. 269). % variation of species. Numbers of fauna run over by traffic (road kills) during high season (ratio to low season rates). Noise pollution due to motors: visitors perceiving annoying motor noises (cars.). motorcycles. Turbidity of streams. Level of assistance to local environmental awareness: nº of local awareness-raising actions (courses. Impacts on flora and fauna • • • • • • • • • • . Nº of soil erosion points along trails and vehicle paths.

Opinion of foreign Tour Operators (% with favourable opinion). questionnaire). visual pollution (use questionnaire to determine impact if visual barriers are considered important). Presence of visual barriers. and the websites of the Fundacion Vida Silvestre Argentina refugios@vidasilvestre. 2000. Existence of viewpoints· Scenic valuation by tourists (perception. See also the issues related to Protecting critical ecosystems ( Kaieteur Falls.Destination Applications 267 Ecosystem management Aesthetics • • • • Visitor satisfaction Visitors Intermediaries • • • ¢ Level of satisfaction of visitors (see questionnaire Annex C 5 p. Amount of litter in natural areas (seasonality of waste can relate to tourist numbers) (See ¢ Solid waste management ( 147). and Management of tourism adjacent to protected areas. Note that many of these indicators will be useful in all types of destinations where ecological sites are part of the assets of the destination. Opinion of local Tour Operators (% of operators with favourable opinion) Use operator questionnaire. 173). 272). 4 . Guyana: A sensitive site visited by tourists seeking ecotourism experiences . 491).vidasilvestre. For further information see Viñals et al. www. ( 2002.

Indicators can help measure achievement of an operator's own standards of operation. Tourism's Contribution to Nature Conservation (p. 4. Information and interpretation: One of the basic elements of ecotourism is knowledge of nature or culture that the visitor obtains through the interpretive experience. The level of sustainability depends on the operating practices and on the quality of the offered service.htm From the perspective of indicators. The participation of communities in the definition of indicators and monitoring processes is essential as tourism affects their daily life and they are those who can best evaluate impacts and decide the level of ecotourism activities that meets their expectations. 263). 355) and on ¢ Controlling Use Intensity p. . NGOs and community organizations in relation to development of ecotourism. guides. Operations: Ecotourism operations are usually expected to minimise negative impacts upon the natural and socio-cultural environment. preservation of cultural assets: An important part of ecotourism activities is experiencing the traditional lifestyles of communities that inhabit the natural and Carrying capacity. See website at: (Quebec Declaration on Ecotourism). 3. Interprets the natural and cultural heritage of the destination to visitors. It also embraces the following specific principles which distinguish it from the wider concept of sustainable tourism: • • • • Contributes actively to the conservation of natural and cultural heritage. and can assist in achieving control of impacts.g. 309). Professional interpretation services (e. being organised by specialist tour operators for small groups. communities are highly sensitive to the socio-cultural impacts of tourism. interpretation centers and trails) are essential parts of a quality ecotourism 2. and contributing to their well-being. Relations with the local community. as well as to organized tours for small size groups. social and environmental impacts of tourism. and contribute to the conservation of natural areas. Quebec City. or benchmarked standards (like in a certification system). 440) and India Corbett National Park (p. public and academic institutions. often indigenous. containing a set of recommendations to international. The main output of the World Summit of Ecotourism (2002. Includes local and indigenous communities in its planning. (see also the Cape Breton case (p.7 Ecotourism Destinations Ecotourism embraces the principles of sustainable tourism. as well as the Uganda Heritage Trails (p. For this reason activities are normally. concerning the economic. private. In these recommendations the monitoring of ecotourism activities is inherent and the importance of indicators development is expressly emphasized at governmental levels of management and in the design of certification systems. 57). but not exclusively. implies that precautions need to be taken to manage tourism. the focus needs to be on the following elements of ecotourism: 1. Lends itself better to independent travellers. These small.268 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook 4. development and operation. (p. 386) case studies on participatory monitoring and planning. 83) and Effects of Tourism on Communities (p. (See particularly the sections on Protecting Critical Ecosystems (p. Canada) was the Quebec Declaration on Ecotourism. The indicators therefore are important as management tools. Conservation of the natural environment at ecotourism destinations and areas: The fact that ecotourism normally takes place mainly in relatively un-disturbed natural areas. which are sensitive to possible impacts by tourism activity. traditional. 192). As is mentioned in other sections of this book. 147). (see also the issue sections on Community Involvement (p. 123)Natural and Sensitive Ecological Sites (p. the active participation and agreement of local communities in the management of ecotourism on a continuing basis is fundamental.

83). 6.). 309). deserts. (p. Indicators that respond to safety and security of ecotourism destinations and operations are therefore important. Realization of the need to monitor visitor use and visitor impacts is more recent. (See Community Involvement and Awareness p. In this section.g. 281). along with the indicators which may be of greatest use in protecting them. 76) many of the reasons why these assets are important are addressed. 330) and Cape Breton p. has to be an economically viable activity. but focussed in a more concentrated way on specific ecosystems and traditional cultures. canoeing.g.htm 4. and tourists have received differing levels of welcome. 109 and Tourist Security . Indicators directly related to protected species have long been gathered by protected area managers. the range of indicators likely to be of most direct use to the planners and managers of areas that have official status are reviewed. 263) and Conserving Built Heritage (p. 263) and on Small and Traditional Communities (p. According to a study on factors central to sustainable ecotourism (Bassotti. This brings further challenges in protection.8 Parks and Protected Areas The managers of parks and protected areas must increasingly deal with a dual mission . 104).such as a single park entrance where fees may be collected and numbers of entrants may be restricted. rainforests.that of protection of the key natural and cultural assets which have led to the designation of the area and that of accommodating those who visit and take advantage of those assets. to provide the expected benefits to conservation and community development. 236). Some parks and protected areas are shared with residents or other uses or users (e. ecotourism is a microcosm of all the issues of sustainable tourism. Measurement of quality of information is therefore an important step. (See also Marketing p. particularly those covered in the section on Natural and Sensitive Ecological Sites (p. for example. therefore indicators and a good knowledge of the ecotourism market (demand and offer) are also contributing factors to sustainability. after the protection of the environment. 342).world-tourism. and Protection of Image p. many protected areas have limited control on who enters and how long they stay. 5.Destination Applications 269 experience and contribute to nature conservation through awareness-raising. often in great detail. Safety for ecotourism activities: Ecotourism activities are often organized in remote areas with specific conditions (e. This is particularly an issue where there are many places of entry. 272) While some protected areas have controlled access points . the cases on Arches (p. In many ways. 355) (See also Natural and Sensitive Ecological Sites p. safety of the activity is placed second in importance to clients. 2003). and at other times as an unwanted stress on the systems the protected areas were designed to protect. 263 and Built Heritage Sites p. 278). National parks and other such areas are increasingly parts of the marketing for destinations. and poor interpretation can cause client dissatisfaction. all of the issues and indicators contained in this Guidebook may be of use. Albufera de Valencia (p. For more information on ecotourism . As a consequence. See also Destinations Within or Adjacent to Protected Areas. Marketing and management of ecotourism: Ecotourism. In the section on Natural and Sensitive Ecological sites (p. Poor information can lead to negative impacts on destinations. mountains) and involve physical activities (such as trekking. etc. A common focus has been the development of measures which could support estimates of sustainable use or sensitivity of the park or protected area's key assets to different levels of use (See Carrying Capacity p. 228. See. sometimes seen as a source of potential revenue. (see also the issue sections on Local Public Safety p. many European protected areas encompass farmed fields and inhabited villages).Part 4 .see the website of the International Year of Ecotourism 2002: http://www.

al (2002). (for example for key indicator species . and are certainly of great value to park management. Tongariro National Park.270 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Users may find it valuable to consult the other destination types which are encompassed in the protected area for additional indicators which may be of use. impact of predators. cost of rehabilitation etc) In this section.. These will be unique to each protected area. disease. breeding success. They are also a magnet for tourists. . ruin.relating to such factors as range. A good reference on tourism and protected area management is Eagles et. the indicators suggested relate primarily to the management of tourism in the protected areas. dozens of indicators are maintained by managers. and to their own levels of management. ecosystems and species which are the reason for which they were established. or to state of the built asset.Guidelines for Planning and Management. Most protected areas have in place many specific indicators relating to the health of the specific assets. covering state of each building. published by IUCN/WTO/UNEP which includes a section on indicators. and not to the management of the park ecology or of specific assets. New Zealand National parks are normally areas receiving the greatest degree of protection. In some cases. level of damage. Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas . strength of the food supply etc.

% of park hardened for visitor or other use. Number of enforcement personnel per visitor. Revenue from paid visitors. Number of guides/operators permitted to use park/protected area. 263 and ¢ Ecoturism p. % of park area affected by unauthorized activities (hunting. Cost of repair to damaged systems (annually). % of visitors who do not pay for entry (where entry fee is charged). Integrity of key protected systems Damage attributable to visitor activity • • • • • Level of visitor control and monitoring • • • • • Marketing • • • • • • • Management . ¢ Use intensity on key sites (persons per Km2) p. Number of incidents of vandalism. % trails and routes (length) in damaged condition. 123). Number of public/community meetings held with stakeholders including local periphery communities. managers. 192).Destination Applications 271 Issues Indicators ¢ Visitor numbers • • • • • • • • • • • ¢ Total number of visitors to park and to key sites. Number of wardens or control staff (and number per tourist). 228). 268). Indicators of health related to key plant and animal species (see details in ¢ Natural and sensitive sites p. ¢ Peak numbers (peak day. 268) and Natural and Sensitive Sites p. 263). % of protected system in degraded condition -(where possible classified due to cause). Number of park officials (wardens. % of all visitors who are in controlled/guided visits. trapping. maintenance etc). Amount spent on marketing the protected area. Ratio of revenues to costs for Park operations (See also Tourism Contribution to Conservation p. (See Marketing p. ¢ % of protected area subject to different levels of control (for example IUCN categories of protection and access). Number of human/animal contacts reported involving injury or risk of injury. Number of crimes against tourists. Cost of protection. tree cutting. Length of stay. poaching etc). Number of incidents of poaching identified(see Ecotourism p. month).Part 4 . Number of sites/ecosystems/assets considered to be damaged or threatened (% of all defined systems/assets in protected area).

The opinion of the hardened access is therefore varied. small businesses. related to the communities themselves and to the relationship which they. Hikers are able to walk several kilometres across wetlands and upland terrain to reach viewpoints overlooking the rugged coast. 192 and ¢ Local Satisfaction p. Because the peripheral areas may not be organized. Typical issues which arise involve restrictions on the activities of locals (see Protecting Critical Ecosystems. the park is a main attraction.4 Skyline Trail.through concessions. there may be little ability to plan or manage the impacts. and such areas may house activities whose compatibility with the objectives of the protected area may be questionable (e. with some welcoming the easier access and degree of protection. including access to resources and key sites. impact on the trail.272 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Box 4. and alternative programmes in adjacent communities (e. Linking the visitor flow to parks (main attractions) to community visits can help spread the socioeconomic benefits of tourism. 56). local issues arise with regard to the impact of the park and its management on communities. activities which are prohibited or limited in the protected area become concentrated on the periphery. hang gliding. business opportunities related to the protected area.9 Communities Within or Adjacent to Protected Areas Communities built within parks and protected areas or within periphery area have unique issues. . equipment rental. the authorities managing protected areas have no jurisdiction to plan or manage how land is used or how tourism is developed on the periphery of the designated area. Often. and often have a symbiotic relationship with the protected areas. In many occasions.g. construction of a completely hardened trail has permitted much greater use without disturbance of the fragile meadows. Canada. guiding etc. visiting crafts people) can be linked with the park visit. See as well the issue sections relating to these areas. or is located within the boundaries of the protected area the welfare of the community may be inextricably tied to the planning and management of the protected area. and their visitors may have with the protected areas. ¢ Controlling Use Intensity p. basic tourist services). employment opportunities. off road racing. and under the jurisdiction of the community. hardening for use On the Skyline Trail in Cape Breton National Park. and reduce stresses and visitor concentration in parks by spreading tourism spatially. 4. Frequently. paintball. 247. Periphery communities become the sites for services. local cuisine. accommodation. Protected area managers and tourism managers had to balance the opposition from conservationists who wanted to keep the area "natural" with the realities of tourism growth. p.g. while others avoid the trail because it is not "natural" and is considered overcrowded. Such activities may include a wide range of services to those who wish to visit the protected area (food. and habitat protection. and who gets to benefit from tourism . cultural performances. Where the community acts as a gateway to a protected area. As well. and a wide range of fun farms and entertainment).

406) cases illustrate how the indicators process can be used to bring communities and protected area managers together to seek common issues and solutions. Often the community will take the lead in development of indicators.. participation. on the community. Degree of/frequency of participation in participatory processes. • • Opinion of the value/relationship of the protected area to the community (Questionnaire based). particularly for those which deal with the effects of tourism and park policies and programs on its interests. events) at nearby communities? Will the park allow increased access by the local community to water supply from the park area? Will the new town sewage treatment plant be built to also accommodate waste from visitors to the park? Will the new restrictions on trucks on park roads in summer cut off the only route to the mill in town for logging trucks? Are there mechanisms in place to address these kinds of issues on shared resources and joint tourism management? Components of the issue Impacts of the community activity on the park . programs. the effects of the protected area (restrictions. Peyto Lake. Canada. These questions can most efficiently be done with others in a community questionnaire. Case studies such as the Cape Breton (p. Degree to which co-planning and management is done Level of cooperation between the protected area and the gateway or park community • • • Indicators relate to the impact of the community and visitors on the park. Can the park accommodate an increasing number of visitors . Visitors stay in the town of Banff which is surrounded by the park. but are less useful to measure actual extent of concern. Existence of a participatory process for community and protected area collaboration in planning and management. and on the relationship between the two. assist in awareness and create partnerships to benefit both communities and protected areas. employment. 83). Measure the % who agrees that the relationship is good and that the community benefits from the park or protected area (two potential questions on a community questionnaire). These indicators can be used as a stimulus to foster dialogue and ongoing participation between the community and protected area officials. . Alternative tourism programmes in adjacent communities promoted or organized at the park (number and capacity.g. rules of access etc.Part 4 . Banff National Park.its management and protection Impacts of the park on the residents of the community Indicators • Number of incidents regarding violation of park rules by local residents. Number of complaints to park management. 355) and Lanzarote (p.attracted by new hotels and tourism activities (e. tourist satisfaction with programmes). Local opinion may be a leading indicator of potential conflict between the community and the protected area. Reason for use of these indicators: It is increasingly accepted that a participatory process can reduce conflict.Destination Applications 273 Often there is little formal liaison between park managers and residents of nearby villages and towns which can anticipate and hopefully prevent conflict or devise joint solutions to shared problems. (Note see also Community involvement and awareness p. Complaints by locals can be a signal of arising issues.

g. stories. Tourism developers. traditional villages). Pacific and Arctic oceans). For a specific application of indicators to a nature trail. the Milford Track (New Zealand) and la Ruta Maya (historic trading and transportation paths of the Mayan Civilization in Central America). Linking tourism with walking trails may have begun with the early pilgrimages (e.g. Spain (See Box 4. permit systems. see the Yacutinga Argentina Case (p. Yacutinga case p. Methods exist to measure physical impacts of trail use (e. re-routing or hardening-off trails to increase the capacity. entrepreneurs and guides have built tourism packages and experiences on many of the world's great trails and routes such as the West Coast Trail in British Columbia (a rugged trail built to give access to shipwreck survivors). Tourism values and policies must be balanced against natural and cultural heritage values and policies. maintenance and . and to assess the beneficial and negative impacts of tourist on communities along a trail.6). including the exact field methods used to measure degradation. Local communities and other stakeholders may have very different priorities and may be directly involved in management. logistics. national parks) and urban and rural settings (e. Indicators related to this issue are centred on helping tourism and trail managers and local communities balance priorities and make decisions.g. developing tourism based on walking trails requires consideration of environmental and cultural impacts. and the needs and interests of tourists to ensure long term success of tourism to the destination. sometimes all concentrated in a short season when the weather is most amenable to travel or when travel is associated with cultural or religious events.078 Km length linking the Atlantic. providing basic ingredients to make them interesting to tourists. Although walking is considered a low-impact non-motorized activity (at least at the level of individuals or small groups). the Trans Canada Trail http://www. New Zealand's Milford Track is booked many months in advance by trekkers .274 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook 4. The pilgrims were a ready market for local suppliers of food. Alternatively some disturbance or loss of protected area may permit expanding. The economic benefits from tourism must be weighed against the costs and resources required to maintain the trail. Trails are increasingly seen as multipurpose recreational corridors or links (e.5: Heritage Trails Uganda). (See Box 4. cross country skiers. 453). 453). Today.g. shrines and artefacts of those that have tread them before us. The particular issues related to the use of existing trails and the design of new walking trails are discussed here (also see Creating Trip Circuits p. runners etc as well as by hikers who may use sections of its 18.10 Trails and Routes Walking trails are transportation corridors often imbued with the history. Management responses may include limiting entry. and waiting lists to limit the number of tourists and protect heritage values on the trail. This is particularly true when a trail becomes host to thousands. Camino de Santiago. snowmobilers.g. historic city centers. 223). accommodation and souvenirs along the way. many destinations are discovering that the natural and cultural heritage of their trails can form the basis on which to develop tourism and draw new "pilgrims"..tctrail.which is used by cyclists. Trails and walking routes are important part of tourism activities in both natural environments (e.

Revenue from local craft and souvenir sales/year. As well.Part 4 . % of labour and materials supplied locally.ecological limits in terms of number of tourists or permits Protecting cultural heritage values .interpretation of history and cultural heritage . number of volunteers). ¢ Level of satisfaction by locals: (p. local businesses .extent of damage to the trail and trail margins . Number of guides. resting sites Community socio-cultural impacts . evidence of earlier use etc. % of trail (and margins) degraded (from desired or benchmark level). leave only footprints" . Issues Environmental values/policies . • • • • % change in use by local population. need to be protected against wear or abuse. Use of self-guided signs or pamphlets.Destination Applications 275 The indicators suggested focus on the trail system itself and the integrity of the ecological and cultural assets. % of trail hardened. % use relative to ecological carrying capacity (maximum permitted number of tourists). education. ¢ Tourist numbers per season. Built heritage and artefacts.revival of skills traditions Economic benefits Indicators • • • • • ¢ Density of use (p.impact on local use . The cultural heritage of the trail needs to be maintained and interpreted to tourists.renovated or restored cultural structures. . % of local residents who believe they benefit from the trail. per year. The physical integrity of the trail and the integrity of the ecosystem it traverses are fundamental indicators of the state of the trail and its suitability for walkers and its success as a tourism attraction. funding and in-kind support. number of people attending. health. 56) Community support for tourism on the trail (questionnaire. (See also ¢ Economic Benefits (p. managers require a range of information to make decisions on maintenance of the trail and the amount of tourism that can be supported and to keep all partners informed.the extent to which tourism use of the trail impacts its physical integrity. e.g. and flora and fauna . Existence of a code of behaviour for tourists.benefits for communities along trails. Number of guides trained in interpretation. • • • • • • • • Number of jobs related to the trail. improvements in community services and infrastructure. Number of businesses offering trail walks.employment opportunities . 128) for other indicators of economic benefits which may derive from routes and trails). Number of training courses offered per year."take only photos. wayside markers. Revenue from accommodation/year. transportation. • • • • Number of artefacts and built sites on trail and % maintained. shrines. of built heritage and artefacts .g. Number of partners working together. 192)Number of tourists on trail: at one time: in a given time period or season. e. Community support and involvement can be crucial for the success of tourism and protection of a trail. Increase/decrease in partners.

htm UCOTA community meeting . parking .276 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Issues Indicators Number of volunteers . communities. profile and image. flora.revenue sources. enterprise development. levels of use) (Exit questionnaire. training. Box 4. fauna. • public funding • . 86). Level of media exposure: a measure related to marketing.pricing strategies (for locals. The indicators in the local language of Buganda.increase/decrease. ambitious. Trail and tourism management • . ambience.g. Income generated through tourism will go directly towards the conservation of the sites and to the benefit of the local community. Luganda. viewing signs. grants. Indicators to be used are The Uganda Community Tourism Association (UCOTA) and Action for Conservation through Tourism (ACT UK). Number and type of media exposures per year . toilets. culture. volunteers tourism/trail associations . entry fees. fees. accommodation. 440) for more details). (See the Uganda Heritage Trails case study and the Kibale community application (p. Number of complaints/compliments per year from tourists. landscape . http://www. Value of volunteers contribution.visituganda. measurable. The Kabaka's Trail has been developed by the Heritage Trails Project in partnership with the guardian communities of the sites.image/brand in marketplace • • • • ¢ Level of satisfaction by tourists (p.htm http://www. have been developed for 6 pilot community tourism associations and are being tested The community indicators will be measured & reviewed at regular intervals (e.access to trail: guided/non-guided.visituganda. by government.cultural heritage. history services/infrastructure for tourists: guides. vistas. quarterly) with assistance from the Project field team. visitors) .natural environment. Additional cultural Heritage Trails will be developed across Uganda. industry. realistic & time-bound (SMART) and cover both positive and negative impacts in areas including community involvement. transportation. along with The Kabaka Foundation. partner survey). access to essential resources and conservation of natural and cultural assets. % of partners and of users who believe that the expected quality of the trail is being maintained (nature.5 Heritage trails Uganda (HTU): Impact assessment indicators HTU is working in partnership with the Uganda Community Tourism Association (UCOTA) and pilot trail communities to assess the impact of tourism on local communities.maintaining the character of the trail and quality of the experience Tourism values/policies . board walks etc .maintenance.

Indicators with associated sources of data that could be used to gauge changes in the quality of these experiences include: • ¢ Numbers of pilgrims using the trail year-over-year and in peak months(data available through registration at refugios). and in particular during July and August.can be impossible to find for those who do not arrive early in the afternoon at their destination. • ¢ Satisfaction of pilgrims and visitors with their overall experiences at different times of the year (surveys handed out at refugios and/or at Santiago upon completion of pilgrimage). While the indicators of stress used for other linear systems will also be of interest. there is a special indulgence available from the Catholic Church and 10 times the usual number will travel to Santiago. (Completion of the entire trail by foot typically requires a little over a month).Also. number of pilgrims per Km in peak periods and for specific trail sections. Indeed. In an average year. (¢ Tourist numbers). • Level of pressure pilgrims feel on the trail to arrive early at refugios to ensure a bed for the night (surveys handed out at refugios). when St. bicycle. and one that they can imagine emulates the experiences of pilgrims of old. • Time of the day.and as the opportunities for commercial gain posed by growing numbers of pilgrims become increasingly attractive. outfitters. • Quality of the trail (¢ garbage counts. these measures reflect particularly the cultural values associated with the Camino and its experience. While the last thing most pilgrims want to see is commercialization of amenities along the trail. James the Apostle. Most of the many villages along the trail were originally established to serve the medieval pilgrims on their way to Santiago. in Holy or Jubilee years. reviving many of the villages that traditionally served pilgrims along the route. and of those living in the villages they pass through. • Level of occupancy in hostels(refugios).most travelling between May and September. when hostels are already full (in peak season tends to be earlier). James' day.g. lodging at hostels . • ¢ Level of satisfaction of villagers with the experience of pilgrims passing through (random questionnaire of with local residents). vendors of non-traditional souvenirs). per month/season.6 Camino Santiago Since medieval times.Part 4 .000 people undertake some portion of the Camino by foot. during summer months. The motivation for walking the route today ranges from traditional religious reasons to a simple desire for adventure and experiences. July 25. falls on a Sunday. The experiences of pilgrims. the numbers of pilgrims and visitors is increasing each year. . The following indicators reflect these values and the growing changes. One of the key attractions offered by the Camino for most pilgrims is a relatively more rustic and threadbare experience than they would normally pursue. millions of pilgrims have travelled the Camino trail from the French border to the northwestern Spanish city of Santiago de Compostela . horseback or car .the purported site of the tomb of St. With the resurgence in interest in the trail over the past two decades and thanks to the careful development of trail infrastructure and information. number of areas of evident degradation).Destination Applications 277 Box 4. can be quite different during the peak months (and often less pleasant) compared to the experiences during the off-peak months and non-Jubilee years. more than 50. • Availability of food (survey handed out at refugios). Also.known as refugios . number of fast food franchises. this risk is heightened with each passing year as more and more people use the trail . • Appearance year-over-year of non-traditional commercial services (e.

278 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook 4. Fees from guiding and other services. World Monuments Fund). however. national and/or World Heritage levels. Issues Demolition of old buildings with heritage value Deterioration of built structures Threatened historic districts or structures Suggested Indicators • Number/% heritage buildings demolished. informative materials. (See George Town Penang Box 4. Revenues from catering and accommodation services. such as accommodation and catering. Concession fees. cultural performance. 76). 76). Built heritage sites are normally linked with a variety of additional services. Visitor fees. Loss of historic character of districts • • Protection of historic buildings • Protection of historic districts Cost of protection • • Re-use of historic buildings or sites • • • New legislation Tourisms' contribution to • preservation of built heritage sites • (amount deriving from each source) • • • • • • . equipments. archaeological and religious monuments. or the Taj Mahal in India. souvenirs and handicrafts. forming complex tourism products. including both individual buildings and entire historic districts. Number/% old buildings designated at local. These built heritage areas. Quantily of new legislation introduced to preserve structures at local. and the insensitive developments due to commercialization of the authentic historic character and cultural context of a site. The key issues with regard to built heritage are the following. volunteers).11 Built Heritage Sites Historic residential districts.7) Tourism can be a catalyst for the rehabilitation and re-use of such buildings providing their deterioration is not too advanced. are prime tourist attractions worldwide. Sale of goods (e. Donations from visitors and tour operators. Number of buildings and/or districts listed on endangered sites lists (i. governmental. with some indicators suggested: (See also Conserving Built Heritage p. hotel or restaurant). In-kind contributions (e. can also be threatened by the physical impacts of over-visitation and congestion. % buildings in district which are vernacular architecture. Macchu Pichu in Peru. Level of funding put towards restoration efforts (See also Conserving Built Heritage p. World Heritage. Number of buildings reused for tourism purposes (e.g. provincial/state/canton or national levels.e. % buildings in district which are historic. the Acropolis in Athens.g. Urban growth places pressures on built heritage. Number of buildings reused for commercial or residential purposes.g. Tourism-related tax designated to site maintenance. % of district which has protection (level of protection or designation). • • Number/% buildings considered in degraded condition. handicrafts. commercial and defence structures. equipment to visitors). Among the most heavily visited sites on the planet are built heritage sites such as the Pyramids in Egypt.

¢ Total tourist arrivals . Current building use (i. active. Existence of visitor/information center. Athens. closed. month. parking. .e.g. year). guided tours. Length of stay. abandoned or demolished).Number and origin of visitors to the site per season (day. interpretative materials. 192) • • • • • Acropolis. timing.Destination Applications 279 Issues Tourism management Suggested Indicators • Existence of congestion management practices (e. Times during year when structure is most heavily visited. Tourists line stairs to visit the site that is undergoing extensive rehabilitation work. reservation and on line purchase systems to avoid queues at ticket office). Use levels (see p. line management.Part 4 . continuation or change of usage of historic structure. Number of tour operators with permit to operate at site.

Sustainable Penang. vibrant street life. The report acknowledged that according to experts. Armenians. While Penang has a welldeveloped beach resort area in Batu Sources: Sustainable Penang http://www. This specifically refers to monitoring the loss of any of the over 1400 prewar buildings along the 29 streets in George Town's historic centre. putting Penang's heritage area listed as a World Heritage site can bring a 3-5 fold increase in Penang Heritage Trust http://www. Komtar has drawn consumers and activity away from the shophouses on surrounding streets. and the decline of local Hokkien Chinese clan associations. Malaysia's federal government has submitted George Town to UNESCO for inclusion as a joint World Heritage Site.conservation must be seen to pay for itself".. Burmese and Sumatrans that brought commercial vitality to the island. which necessitates the safeguarding of heritage and controlling the social impacts of increased tourism. leaving 12. Many shophouses remain due to the Control of Rent Act (1966) legislation that discouraged development on these sites. The charm of George Town's streets is found in the intimate relationship between the monuments and the structures housing its multi-ethnic citizenry. historic enclave hotels are also measured as a separate category. Chinese. South Indians. along with Malacca. and variety of small hotels. The indicator that Sustainable Penang applied to built heritage. a former vice president of the Heritage of Malaysia Trust once stated that "we cannot afford to turn our cities into these indicators can be useful in understanding the tourism value attached to built heritage sites.280 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Box 4. Malaysia George Town on the island of Penang. . and to provide a lobbying tool for preservation groups to influence legislation to facilitate the retention of the area's heritage fabric and vitality.000 structures to be potentially demolished at will by developers. This legislation was phased out though in 2000.seri. The decline of trade in the main port due to the surging regional competition from Singapore since the 1950s has lessened the need for the collection of historic waterfront 'go-downs' (warehouses). The shophouses reflect an indigenous style influenced both by mainly Hokkien (Southern) Chinese tastes and construction methods and the cosmopolitan mix of Malays. George Town Historic Enclave was named by the World Monument Fund as one of the World's 100 Most Endangered Sites in 2000 and 2002. reflecting the status of the Rent Control Act was "The Number of Buildings Demolished". temples. markets. Consequently. Penang.7 George Town. an indicators initiative funded by the Canadian International Development Agency's (CIDA) Canada-ASEAN Governance Innovations Network (CAGIN) program used as one of its focal areas the loss of historical structures. Arabs. Since the town's inclusion on the 2000 list. diminishing their value and purpose. A matching tourism indicator was the "Hotel Occupancy Rate". resulting in the demolition of many clan houses. Malaysia has an eclectic mix of commercial/residential shophouse and British colonial architecture that is still essentially intact. Triangulated with visitor surveys and an ongoing assessment of the regional and global tourism situation that may impact overall visitation..pht. These indicators can then serve the joint purpose of how the George Town historic enclave is being used. The sprawling 65-storey Komtar Communications Tower shopping complex on Jalan Penang (Penang Road) required the demolition of a large number of shophouses prior to construction. Siamese. Chen Voon Fee. This value has come in the form of tourism which provides jobs and income for the city through George Town's wealth of cafés.

expectations by the local residents. If tourism continues to grow. with fish boats selling tours. Often initial visitors are given a very strong welcome. but at the same time the community may be comfortable with the staging of similar events for the tourists to see. Other destinations may have more time to prepare and to make decisions on how much of what kind of tourism they want. communities can become hostile to tourists. blaming them for all the problems. but not during particular times or events. In some cases. new shops. remote and traditional communities are increasingly beginning to experience significant attention from tourism. A community needs to understand the limits of acceptable change to its residents. Sometimes a community is suddenly "discovered" and tourists arrive in numbers which stress the capacity of the community to cope. Often. China can receive up to a hundred thousand visitors in a single day from the nearby cities of Shanghai and Suzhou For example. coupled with the definition of indicators can help greatly in defining what values and assets are important to the community and who is prepared to act to sustain them. tourists are the vector for changes from outside.often beginning to change the local market. as an increasing number of travellers wish to experience living cultures and traditional ways of life.Part 4 . more tourists arrive . and craft markets). and communities beginning to construct facilities expressly for visitors (toilets.12 Small and Traditional Communities Small.Destination Applications 281 4. displace locals from their traditional places or activities and cause alterations in traditional lifestyle. and may cause disaffection by locals with their own lifestyle. particularly youth. Locals can become increasingly irritated by the influx of greater numbers of tourists. The traditional water village of Zhouzhuang. helping to define the conditions under which they wish tourism to occur in their community. local ceremonies may be considered sacred and not open to visitors. As a destination's reputation grows. Both the advantages and disadvantages of tourism are arriving in small and traditional communities. It may be totally acceptable for visitors to see the interior of a religious building when it is not in use. . affecting job prospects. All these issues can arise unless communities are actively engaged in the planning and management of tourism. Initial visitors are often welcomed by a community who may find them interesting and potential buyers of a few local products. and what is negotiable and what is not (after Doxey 1975). as tourists are perceived to pressure local resources. at some point a reaction may begin. even invited into homes or to ceremonies. local restaurants adding tables and new dishes. this becomes the basis for negotiation of access and activities with tourists and operators. often ill prepared to deal with them. A participatory process based on the definition of key assets and sensitivities.

440) and Corbett National Park. Average wage in tourism. 128). 491). 57). % of new construction in vernacular architecture or viewed as compatible with traditional structures and vistas (see issue section on managing visual impacts (p. % local residents concerned about loss of culture community structure and values (questionnaire). ¢ % of community income derived from tourism . ¢ Local satisfaction with level of tourism. whereas in Germany it is defined as tourism in cities with more than 100. 56). For examples see Uganda Heritage Trails (p. In particular readers are directed to the issue sections on ¢ Economic benefits of tourism (p.). Degree of local participation in tourism planning (% participating or represented).57). See issue section on ¢ Economic benefits (p.g. language. 386) as well as those sections which deal with the unique issues of each community.13 Urban Tourism Urban tourism is a growing tourism market although there is no worldwide data on urban tourism available. it is known that there are an increasing number of tourists attracted to urban areas. Level of investment in infrastructure or services (% expressly for tourists). religion. authenticity etc) • ¢ Level of satisfaction of visitors (Exit survey p. (See also the issue section on ¢ Effects of tourism on communities p. 185). in Austria urban tourism is defined as tourism which takes place in the nine capitals of the federal provinces. Number of incidents reported. % local youth able to obtain employment in tourism. 128) ¢ Effects of tourism on communities (p. 4.) Despite the lack of direct data. 192). land use. (Questionnaire . India (p. . % of community who favour tourism or want more tourism and those who oppose it. ceremonies.g. This is partly due to the fact that each country has its own definition regarding the focus of urban tourism (E. food.282 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Issues Impact on infrastructure and services Indicators • • • • • • ¢ % shops and services open year round (see ¢ Seasonality (p. % of change in traditional activities and customs (e. Violation of local norms Tourism as catalyst for social or cultural change • • • • • Capture of the benefits from tourism for the community • • • • • • Maintaining participation in tourism development and management Tourist satisfaction (re community. ¢ % local people employed in tourism (and ratio of tourism . 111). Many of the specific issues and related indicators which will also be of interest to those concerned with tourism in small communities are addressed in greater detail in some of the issues sections in part 3. clothing. traditions. etc. Ratio of average tourist income to that of local residents.see template C 6 p. % businesses locally owned and operated.000 inhabitants.(p. and Controlling use intensity (p. 494). % of residents speaking non-local language.

iclei.Destination Applications 283 Urban tourism has only recently been recognized as a topic for research and sustainability issues are not yet developed extensively in the field of urban tourism. Paris. Changes in return on investment (%). London. Change in use of material/ resources (%). The importance of built cultural heritage for urban tourism is obvious. Expenditures/m3 of public and private finance spent in improvement of the physical urban environment. (see also ¢ Solid waste p. Increase of the percentage of pedestrian streets in the total road network. recycle waste.. such as Sustainable Tourism Municipalities in Spain 2. both have elements in common. the International Council of Local Environmental Initiatives . Sustainable tourism enterprises • Environmental management • • • • Traffic /Public transport system • • • • . Those groups dealing with sustainability and cities (scientists. Recreation tourism. Some cities are destinations in themselves and do not directly depend on proximate seashore or mountain resorts. Rome. especially urban destinations with mass tourism. (see Sustainability and Environmental Management Policies and Practices p. Reduction of operational cost from environmental management (value. 286) business meetings. or nearby natural and cultural attractions. (e. (see Conventions and Convention Centres p. Prices for taxis (per Km). Beijing) Issues Improvements to the townscape and protection of the historic heritage Suggested Indicators • • • • • Percentage of restored historic buildings. Despite these differences.). In some cities. compared to other tourism forms (like rural tourism).es/documentos/proma/vimat. Business tourism (trade shows. % of tourists arriving by public transport. Existence of a control system for bus parking and level of control (% tour buses complying). NGOs. as it is often the main tourist attraction in cities. %).ICLEI www. To preserve it has to be a primary goal for all those involved in tourism. energy efficiency etc).pdf. conventions.g. with a clear focus on cultural attractions and educational aspects. participants in of Local Agenda 21 processes. etc.) are increasingly addressing tourism issues. both forms of urban tourism are occurring. There are two main forms of urban tourism: 1.femp. reduce wrapping. that the average duration of stay is shorter than in other destinations (including a higher proportion of daily visitors) and that the average expenses per day are higher.Part 4 . Their tourism performance will rely mostly on the urban centre's own attractions and capability to attract tourists. national programmes. while in others one of these two forms is predominant. etc. % of businesses that have adopted environmental management procedures. Level of public and private finance spent in environmentalmanagement systems (e. The most burning issues in the field of sustainable urban tourism are traffic and city restoration.g. 173). Existence and extent of public open areas. Accessibility of tourist attractions by public transport. 241). Traffic issues and congestion are one of the main sources of problems for many cities. Expenditures/m3 yearly spent in restoration of historic buildings.

¢ Total number of tourists per square Km in key sites.g. Cuba. 220) and Preservation of Built Heritage p.cover actual issues of city development. . Number and percentage of guided tours and/or publications which: .give detailed information on the background of the cities history.284 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Issues Integration of regional economy Suggested Indicators • • Value and % of goods purchased locally from the region ( new and unconventional 76) Crowds of tourists and locals fill the streets of the Old City in Havana. . Variety of tours and visit sites (helping to spread out impacts and benefits).fzk. see Annex C 6) . . organically grown food from the region).org For related indicators see sections of Transportation (p.sustainable-cities. www. ¢ Local satisfaction level with tourism in the city (local questionnaire. Presentation of cultural knowledge • Crowding / Spatial distribution • • • • Resident attitudes toward tourism Sources: http://sut. Number of different sites receiving tours. % of tourist shops promoting regional products. The area is Havana's key attraction and has World Heritage status.

synergies with the project "Gemeinschaftsverpflegung" (Canteen Food) Fulfilled As the table clearly shows the program was highly successful. Completely fulfilled Contributing to environmentally friendly tourism in Heidelberg Customer behaviour is changing Fulfilled in isolated cases The internal project management • Establishment of the project group. A multi-stakeholder partnership was formed to establish a programme. Source: Successful SUT Partnerships: Case Study Research. A list of detailed. is effective and transparent for steering group. improvement Fulfilled to a low degree within of nutrition. • Customers and guests ask for ecologically produced food. encouragement of producers the given period of time to a changeover. • Presentation of the project to a broad public. Goals Part of the offer consists of eco food Indicator • At least five catering companies have included or want to include eco-offers in their product line. which were used as a basis for an evaluation of goal achievement by the project team and the steering group.Part 4 . clear and assessable goals and indicators was developed to evaluate the development of the project. The following table gives an overview. • Reduction of transport. . noticeable economic success for suppliers. The use of indicators was important to show the project progress and to formulate the goals of the next project period. which brings together partners from the agricultural. The scientific advisor of the project had the task to formulate goals and objectives for the oneyear project period as well as verifiable indicators for the achievement of goals. • Contractually stipulated supply relations are long-lasting. Goal achievement Completely fulfilled Stable supply relations to eco-suppliers are to be established Convincing interested catering companies to participation in the project Reducing environmental pressures Fulfilled to a satisfactory degree (there are only verbal agreements) Completely fulfilled (far more than five companies are integrated) • At least five hotels or restaurants should label and advertise eco-products. report within the EU project: Sustainable Urban Tourism (SUT ). Expert Questionnaire Healthy Food in Heidelberg's Restaurants. Other goals like integration in the urban sustainability program or the formation of a multi-stakeholder partnership were formulated implicitly and were also fulfilled.8 Ecological food programme in Heidelberg Germany’s The city of Heidelberg has a long tradition in the implementation of sustainability programmes and a strong commitment to implement Agenda 21. Involving Local Agents and Partnerships for New Forms of Governance. In 1999 a program was launched to promote the range of ecologically and/or regionally produced food in the Heidelberg catering trade. moderated meetings all participants and documentation. (unpublished). 2001. processing and catering sector. nearly all indicators or performance measures were fulfilled.Destination Applications 285 Box 4.

It is estimated that around 20 % of all international tourist arrivals are for meetings and conferences (WTO. convention facilities can be a significant draw. Many destinations with convention facilities are expanding them to compete for large events and conventions. major trade shows) may occupy all of the hotel and convention space in a city . police and service staff. (See also the section on Events in this section which addresses similar issues) For related sections at the destination or community level. Convention tourism can be an important means to balance seasonality as conventions can be organized in low tourism seasons when occupancy and prices are also lower. In cities. conventions. A large convention may release several thousand attendees to get lunch all at the same time. 282) and Small and Traditional Communities (p.that of the community or destination and that of the facility.14 Conventions and Convention Centres Meetings and conferences are part of what has become to known as the MICE (Meetings. Large events (international conferences. The issues that relate to conventions and convention facilities occur at two scales . those at the scale of the conference centre are similar in many ways to the management of other facilities such as hotels. 282). . Both require management.avoiding those destinations with insufficient space. etc. restrooms and food services. and can overwhelm any restaurants within walking distance . with impacts on the community and on its infrastructure (See Urban Destinations p. Large conventions can fully occupy the accommodation in one city. buses and taxis. Incentives. see the Urban Tourism (p. Conferences and Exhibition) segment also falling under the category of Business Tourism. 2001). drawing on hotels. attractions.and everyone may wish to be back at the convention centre within an hour. Tourism 2020 Vision. Large convention centres (or those that are large relative to the community where they are located) need to be cognisant of the impacts they have on community facilities such as parking. and both are amenable to the use of indicators.286 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook 4. 281) destinations. and may flow over to affect communities some distance away.

hostility) Friendliness and ease of use for clients and visitors • • • Location relative to amenities • Impact on neighbours to the centre • • Location relative to other attractions or potential field trips Pricing Solid waste management • • • • • • Environmental management of supply chain Reputation as a conference venue • In addition to those issues at the scale of the facility. % utilization (% days/yr). Perceived impact (use modified local questionnaire as in Annex C 6covering key areas of concern). post office. Green purchasing policies (e.Part 4 . pharmacy. Number of conference rooms and their capacity. Number of reported incidents per year . Number of restaurant seats within 10 minute walking distance. Number of restaurant seats available on site. value for facility and nearby involving customers.. bank. % of area of convention centre which is accessible to those with limited mobility (see section on Accessibility p.. Volume of waste generated (and per person). taxi stand. . % who would recommend centre to their colleagues for similar events. Number of parking spaces within 1Km. Indirect local employment associated with the events at the centre (both due to business from the facility and from those who use it). Average capacity use (% of maximum). issues may occur that affect the entire destination. See issue section on providing a variety of experiences (p.% approval rate. Number of key services in or adjacent to facility (e.Destination Applications 287 Issues at the scale of the facility: Indicators Size of facility • • • • • • • • • • • Total maximum capacity.g. 90). travel assistance. souvenirs etc). 226) for some means to measure response to this issue. % waste recycled. other key issues (may be done as part on destination exit questionnaire . Exit questionnaire which measures perceived quality.g. Incidents (% of attendees affected).see questionnaire Annex C 5). preference to providers of environmentally friendly products). Travel time to nearest airport. Range of services available Accessibility Facility safety and security (particularly for events likely to attract crowds. reaction to facilities. bulk purchase. % use of disposable containers /reusable containers and cutlery china etc. reputation . Price per person day (average) Benchmark against other published rates. particularly for large conventions and large facilities. Exit survey re quality. Number of complaints regarding lack of services. Distance to nearest public transport.

143). Location relative to other attractions or potential field trips • • Pricing • • Waste management • Reputation as a good destination for a conference • The following table provides an example of indicators and performance measures for one medium sized conference centre in the urban centre of the city of Calgary. % of waste for which there is a functional capacity of selective collection and recycling in the destination (can be subdivided by type of waste) see ¢ Solid waste (p. Alberta.173). hostility) Friendliness and ease of use for clients and visitors Location relative to amenities • • See issue sections on Local Public Safety (p. questionnaire in Annex C. and ¢ Tourism Satisfaction (p. See issue section on Competitiveness (p. See exit questionnaire Annex C. Number of major attractions/sites located within convenient one-day round trip for convention tours.opinion of variety and quality of accessible attractions to destination. 226). See issue section on Variety (p. Use specific statement " The destination was a good place to hold/attend a conference" . • Exit questionnaire . It illustrates some of the measures in use and the results obtained.opinion of variety and convenience (see Variety p. • Exit questionnaire . Exit questionnaire Annex C 5 . Canada. 109) and Tourist Security (p. 86) . Ratio of conference attendees (by season) to available accommodation (also peak day ratio). .opinion of friendliness.Annex C 5 . 236). Possible benchmarking of price per person against similar competing sites. 226) and Protection of Image (p. Variety of attractions /services in the destination Local safety and security (particularly for events likely to attract crowds. 104).288 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Issues at the scale of the destination Size of conference facilities in destination Useful indicators • • Number of beds within destination or 30 min travel of main convention facility.Annex C 5 .

Part 4 . ammonia. Canadian dollars). • Savings on garbage bags/disposal. less garbage to dispose of. Collection of nonutensils.00 each). Less mess to clean up. Most re-useable products are highly durable and have to be replaced infrequently.) 50% water and 50% general purpose citrus based cleaning solution is used to wipe down tables. Styrofoam) disposable /re-usable containers and serving ware after meetings for re-use. cups and containers: Volume of disposable containers (plastic. wiping and light scouring. Use of more natural products and "watering that still do the job in a less concentrated concentrated products. Encouraging clients to take excess food with them. less chance of cleaning staff or small children developing chemical sensitivity or allergies. format. Less toxic and less chance of accidental poisoning. • Unused cups. • Lowered health care/ days lost costs. less garbage to dispose of.) Move to washable and re-useable products.. cardboard. disposable dishes etc. counters and surfaces. • Cost savings in cleaning products (Most of the time non-denatured products cost less and some cost only pennies per bottle. pizza boxes. are kept by the centre for use by "forgetful" clients. vacuums. • Savings by caterer/ food server on ware which can be passed along to customers (Tray costs if bought new: $3. scouring compounds phosphate based cleaners. and juice boxes are recycled.9 Bow Valley Convention Centre (Canada) operational indicators for “greening” Original Issue Environmental Operational benefits of change Waste food and/or beverages : All excess or waste food is disposed of as garbage. Cleaning products: Use of highly volatile. bleach. flatware. Caterers are asked to pick up their trays -otherwise their serving ware is given free to other caterers who want them.00-$5. Non-ammonia based window cleaner is used on glass surfaces. • Employee safety and satisfaction levels rise. dusters. Recycle items where possible. pop cans. and to order for the size of their booking. concentrated chemicals down" of products concentrated. It is effective in killing 99% of germs even at 25% strength. All glass bottles. reduced waste. Less mess to clean up. Cloths are used for dusting. mopheads. paper. Serving ware. Cleaning tools: Use of disposable and non-biodegradable products (one-use cleaning cloths. paper. on all surfaces. materials savings (Note: -very cost efficient. A $20 broom will last you years. Sparse use of . Brooms.g. multi-purpose floor cleaners.Destination Applications 289 Box 4. • Savings by client due to reduced size of order. Steel wool and scrubbing pads are re-used. • Savings in labour.g. a throw away one-use" cloth and solution will cost $20 per month. Protective equipment is not used as products are not considered toxic. and mops with washable heads are used. All cotton cleaning cloths • Direct equipment and are washed after use and re-used. E. Bow walley example or application Clients are given re-used boxes or bags to carry their food/drink back to their office or home with them. Monetary or other indicator of progress • Savings on garbage bags. aluminum trays. chemical imbedded cleaning cloths etc. less protective equipment needed when using products (rubber gloves etc. E. vinegar solution window cleaner).

Carpets are high and replaceable in 1mx1m sections with few embedded chemicals. Paper produced from officework: Used to be Recycled or re-used as scrap paper then Environmentally friendly and shows commitment. local non-endangered wood/animal products. Saves wear and tear on heat/A/C equipment. Saves time. Other areas are cleaned as needed. • Savings from reduced trucking/waste charges. Hard to reach areas are dusted every 6 months. • Direct savings from paper re-use. (Natural air circulation through windows is free). Windows opened where possible for temperature regulation. Sunlight is an unlimited not subject to power outages. not endangered. Lighting: Incandescent Use of natural light morning to late evening (energy efficient) turned on only as needed and off after all meetings. even of unused areas/items. have natural light access. • % savings in heating/ cooling costs. • Costs of electricity . Lights are turned on only in rooms in use. and are more cost efficient. Cleaning as needed and of used areas/items only with weekly/monthly thorough cleanings.). recycled.% reduction in monthly charges. second hand furniture. costs per unit year. origins and environmental impact. Just as sanitary . No need to heat/cool unused rooms. bulbs left on from early through windows. rugs with few synthetic products. Sunlight is free. Other décor is done in glass and stainless steel.focuses effort on highest risk areas. décor are all pine or trees). fiber count local-made . Fluorescent bulbs are used and replaced as needed. Wood panelling and • Costs per unit. Furnishing influenced by research on products used. Tables. Air and heat circulation is only available in rooms in use. E. • Cost of replacement bulbs. are local. All paper and cardboard is recycled. • Direct cost savings in the area of cleaning supplies. requested ones.g. • % made of recycled or recyclable material (High-mid end locally produced products are generally cheaper than imported.290 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Original issue Greener approach Operational benefits of change Bow valley example or application Monetary or other indicator of progress Cleaning methods and /standards: Wasteful daily/hourly cleaning.( Fluorescents and halogens last longer and use less electricity. Sturdy and/ or recyclable materials can be later resold or rendered for profit). limiting use of nonrecyclable plastics. Two rooms. countertops and are cleaned after use. mostly commonly Heat and air air conditioning turned on and let run 365 days a year. Reduction in daily wear and tear caused by cleaning products or friction. maple (local sylvicultured • % purchased locally. Fluorescent bulbs and bulbs are longer lasting than incandescent. Rooms are vacuumed after client use. easily recyclable. thrown out as garbage. • Cost savings in cleaning staff time. Thermostats control the temperature in each room and can be manually adjusted. conditioning: Heat and turned on only in used Furnishings and décor: Furnishings and decor dictated by style and cost with little other review. Heat/air conditioning areas of the building. Most paper in use at Bow Valley contains recycled material. • Medium term savings in replacement costs for furniture/ surroundings due to wear and tear•. Lights energy efficient halogen source of heat and energy. Purchasing products that this shows a positive image to the public.

and whether either the opportunities or success of the community in responding to them have changed. low quality of attractiveness (where there is a classification system. If they do stop.15 Communities Seeking Tourism Development Tourism is often promoted as a route to development for small communities. If there appear to be real opportunities. what is there to sell. the existence of routes that will themselves attract travellers can change the logistics of attracting tourists. medium. 143). interesting scenery) or to stop on the road (wineries. See the issue sections on Competitiveness (p. and will they likely come again? Some of the indicators which can help smaller and new destinations decide whether they have a future for tourism can be found in the issue sections which address the capture of social and economic benefits for a community. Organizers will need to carefully assess the costs and organizational needs (see Events p. Issues Does an opportunity exist? Potentially useful indicators • • • Total population within a 1hour and 2 hour travel distance.g. wildlife refuge. Events (p. Number of assets/attractions which could be classified as high. and whether sustainable tourism is a realistic option for their future? All potential destinations need to undertake some form of assets inventory. (Yes/no. Access to the potential attractions.For some small communities. cause vehicles or tours to stop en route. In some cases.. waterfall. craft shops). and make sure the attraction or community is seen as part of the route. events such as cultural festivals or sports tournaments can appear to provide opportunities. castle ruins. Total number of tourists visiting or passing through the region (who might be a market for this destination). What is there which could attract visitors. or use quality ratings if they have been defined ). • • • . the initial application of an indicator will be simple . Number of local enterprises who advertise or sell to clients outside the local community. whether or not these communities have sufficient natural. Is there a specific asset or attraction around which it is possible to build tourism (e. what is there to detain them.Destination Applications 291 4. 286) for indicators that may assist in evaluating such opportunities. to make a trip to see (art galleries. etc). beach. cheese factories. convince tourists to see or buy something? Are visitors likely to stay a while (on-site activities or events which take time to do such as bird watching. cultural or other assets to generate a sustainable tourism product. Instead of trying to bring tourists or day visitors long distances to see the local museum or craft centre or to experience the pretty town square. What are the signs which may help communities decide whether tourism is likely to succeed. factory producing unique products. the indicators can assist in measuring how real they are. this may pit communities against others to attract such events. As well. provision of accommodation for passers-by en route elsewhere may be the main area with economic potential. it can be used and benchmarked against other destinations). the challenge becomes instead to divert them from the route. 196) . with little real probability of payoff. walking routes. For communities without current tourism. 196) and Conventions (p.Part 4 . sports or cultural events which may last several days).does an attraction or opportunity exist? (yes/no). or without notable attractions. Investments in tourism facilities are often done without any previous market studies or assessments for product development. Where the community has no specific comparative advantage.

% with tours to the community. sewage infrastructure. Number of potential workers with skills to serve tourist needs (education. suitable training). Number of tour operators serving the region. customs. others may have more limited opportunities. Value of purchases in the community attributable to tourist. % of community opposed to the event See ¢ Seasonality (p. While some communities are able to build a more significant tourism industry due to.292 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Issues Are we tourism ready? Potentially useful indicators • • • • % of community who support tourism/ tourism growth (use local questionnaire See Annex C 6). % of community in favour of more tourism/less tourism (see questionnaire Annex C 6). % of establishments which cater expressly to tourists. Variety of products and services in community ( Variety p. toilets. ¢ Total number of tourists (p. providing a few quick services to tourists such as fast food. Degree of community participation in discussions on tourism development (see Community Involvement p. Estimated expenditure needed to expand tourism (per resident. factory outlet shops. Capacity of community for parking. lifestyle) into marketable tourism products and . Projected jobs in tourism (new . Number of linkages/ partnerships with operators. 111)and Sturgis North Dakota example (Box 3. community outreach office). roadside stops. and whether tourism has a realistic role in that future. Cost per annum of new infrastructure or services needed to serve tourists (also per resident and per tourist). gasoline and not much more. Many small communities remain at best. natural areas. 119). full time. • What is the nature of current tourism? • • • • • • What are the costs and benefits? • • • Creating partnerships • • Keeping the community involved • • • Potential for holding of events? • • • • • Some communities have significant potential as destinations. 83) % involved. communities or organizations to jointly bring tourists to the community. % of shops and restaurants preserving traditional features or which have been "beautified" to attract tourists. vehicle service centre. Capacity of the community for sewage (public washrooms). Ratio of available skilled employees to projected short to medium term need. per projected tourist day). language. % of potential establishments involved. % capacity remaining in water supply. Number of hours per week with available tourist assistance services in the community (e. parking for the old mill). Availability of public space and facilities. for example turning their heritage and traditions (cuisine.13). visitor centre. handicrafts. % of passers-by on highway routes who stop in the community. Number of residents prepared to work on event. 194). The participatory process outlined in Part 2 of this book can help greatly in the collective assessment of what the community wants to be. part time) (See Employment p. 226).g.g. % capacity use in access to key asset(s) (e. water supply to the beach.

In 1997. with large areas for parking. Theme parks can be built anywhere. The larger parks can be the largest users of water. Tokyo and the park under construction in Hong Kong are international destinations. Large theme parks like the Disneylands in Florida. Canada. many major parks like Paramount Canada's Wonderland.permanent fairs. although many are seasonal. and there is greater opportunity for permanent solutions to the issues related to them. and some US$ 4. see photo) can still be significant. the International Beer Park in Qingdao. underlining the need for good management and use of indicators that can respond to the issues associated with them. impacts on the local transportation system. . Main street Perth Ontario. electricity or transport systems in a destination. water parks. China. or some of the Six Flags parks in the USA are open only half the year). Paris.Destination Applications 293 developing support services. impacts are lasting. worldwide. 2001). They can also be very significant employers. While the impacts can be similar to those of large events or sports (see Events p. it is estimated that they received around 266 million visitors.Part 4 . At a smaller scale.7 billion was spent in theme parks worldwide (WTO.g. Most shops have undergone beautification to attrac t tourists to this historic mill town for shopping. (e. Tourism 2020 Vision. as well as major domestic attractions. often from long distances. There are many examples of unsuccessful theme parks and water parks. A realistic assessment of potential (evaluation of community resources and potential tourism market) is essential. local theme parks (e. animal parks and mechanized rides can be found near potential markets. More limited attractions . and demands on utilities. California. dining and crafts. 4.g. more dependent on access and transportation than on any natural or cultural assets..16 Theme Parks Theme parks are a worldwide phenomenon and a draw for large numbers of tourists. 196) theme parks are not temporary.

% receiving training (see also Employment p. but also have specific additional issues related to their use of water. especially during their peak seasons. sewage) (See ¢ Water availability p. In addition. Water World Aya Napa. Number of parking spaces. Distance from nearest public transport facility. % visitors using public transport. Consumption of utilities (% of destination capacity used for electricity. Length of line-ups (hours wait). Number of complaints about noise. 111). Cyprus . 173). 119) See ¢ Seasonality (p. ¢ Waste volume produced (by month) (p. all year). Cyprus and Spain. Number of hours when noise exceeds local limits (see Noise p. In jurisdictions from the US Great Plains to Australia. 265). particularly if they are located in areas where water resources are scarce or limited. % employees who are local.183 ). water parks are a rapidly expanding phenomenon. Access • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Crowd management Noise ¢ Waste management Groundskeeping Human resources 4. Area (%) with landscaping. ¢ Number of employees (% full time. % landscaping using recycled grey water. water. Number of washrooms per visitor (peak). ¢ Sewage treatment (p.17 Water Parks Water parks share the issues of most theme parks. Amount of pesticides and herbicides used per month/per hectare. ¢ Volume (%) of waste recycled. 171). Number of restaurant seats per visitor (peak). large pumps consume significant energy to move water in many parks.294 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Issues for theme parks Land use and planning Indicators • • • Total land area used. Number of hours in operation per day.

Wastewater • • • • • • • • Energy use Safety A crowded day in Tokyo Water Park. the amount of energy consumed. Number of water-related diseases (or complaints). 171). . 171). ¢ Total consumption of energy. Japan.rand. ¢ Water saving. Walt Disney World has its own environmental management system. % wastewater recycled/reused.appb.. Number of incidents/accidents (and per visitor day). Additional issues for water parks Water supply Indicators • • • • ¢ Total water consumption.Destination Applications 295 The key issues for water parks therefore focus on water management. etc. 165).Part 4 . Efficiency or recirculation and recycling (% recaptured and number of times recycled).org/publications/MR/MR1343/MR1343. but the issues and related indicators shown below will also be of interest. Cost of water (see also ¢ Water Availability p. and public safety. Volume of water discharged. ¢ % of discharged water which is treated (see ¢ Sewage p. Volume and dilution % of chlorine. bromine. A thorough case study can be found at http://www. both quantity and quality.pdf . Water consumption as a percentage of total consumption of destination. Most of the issues which are important to all types of theme parks are likely to be of concern to water parks. ¢ % from renewable sources (see ¢ Energy p.

or protection. and Competitiveness (p. One example is the Principles for Golf Courses in the United States published by the Golf Course Superintendents Organization of America: • To enhance local communities ecologically and economically. the use of land where there are limited quantities available (e. 143) for additional indicators which may be of use. or the draw on scarce water supplies. Employment (p. in some areas. Amount of chemicals used (can be subdivided into different types of herbicides. Source: The Golf Course Superintendents Association of America Principles like these lead to certain indicators that may be of utility: Issues Limiting regional impacts Indicators • • • • ¢ Level of water use (% of total supply in destination). % of golf course property set aside for conservation. • To recognize that every golf course must be developed and managed with consideration for the unique conditions of the ecosystem of which it is a part. % of runoff which is captured and treated (or monitored). • To offer and protect habitat for wildlife and plant species. habitats). % of irrigation which is done through recycled grey water. • To respect adjacent land use when planning. See issue sections on Seasonality (p. Environmental design • • • • • • Stewardship Economic sustainability • • • .g. small islands. • To provide important greens space benefits. Total area of golf courses (for small destinations. On some small islands. % area retained in natural habitat. pesticide and herbicide use and. maintenance of natural covers. % of course using native species. urban areas. % of destination population who support/oppose the construction of new courses. pesticides). • To create desirable playing conditions through practices that preserve environmental quality. constructing.. • To support ongoing research to scientifically establish new and better ways to develop and manage golf courses in harmony with the environment. related to landscaping. maintaining and operating golf courses. % of total surface area. Price per round (price in local hours wages). • To use natural resources efficiently. Number of golfers using course. water use.10: Golf courses Golf courses have their own issues. 119). • To develop environmentally responsible golf courses that are economically viable. may be excessive. narrow valleys. • To educate golfers and potential developers about the principles of environmental responsibility and to promote the understanding that environmentally sound golf courses are quality golf courses. 111). There are many initiatives to establish guidelines for greener golf courses. there is concern that the area devoted to golf courses.296 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Box 4. use of native grass and tree species. buffers. • To document outstanding development and management practices to promote more widespread implementation of environmentally sound golf. % of golf course area open to other uses.

with North America accounting for almost 2/3 of demand. • Effect on coral reefs (see destination effects below).Part 4 .g. showing good potential for growth and expansion (Worldwide Cruiseship Activity. • Solid waste (garbage .with some ports heavily used on weekends to begin tours. Environmental Challenges and Cruise Industry Responses 2003) • Air emissions.). Ships with more than 3000 passengers stop at tiny destinations such as the San Blas Islands of Panama. and Europe as a distant second with almost 2 million trips. The sustainability issues associated with cruise ships can be put in two categories: A) Issues related to the operation of the ships themselves (from: A Shifting Tide. including siting considerations. • Capture of benefits for the host community (revenues. capital support from cruise lines for facilities used. bringing their own water to water-short islands. Glacier Bay Alaska).18 Cruise Ships and their Destinations The cruise ship industry is a rapidly growing tourism segment. it still has substantial potential demand. taking sewage to the next port with suitable treatment facilities or providing on-board treatment. • Impact on destination services and infrastructure. which the Cruiseline International Association has estimated at some 43. jobs. cruise demand reached almost 10 million trips. or Stanley in the Falklands.Destination Applications 297 4. Thira Greece. and other destinations receiving most visits in mid week (e. most cruise ships can be relatively self-contained for extended periods and therefore can have the flexibility to bring large numbers of tourists to small and fragile destinations without placing unacceptable levels of stress on such destinations (e. • Wastewater (sewage and grey water). • Ballast water (containing non-native species). Mexico (a 50 km-long island with a total population 40. • Water supply. and the list of destinations visited increases. cans. bringing both benefits and risks.g. Cozumel. • Crowd management.). fluorescent and mercury vapour lamp bulbs.5 million tourists over the next five years. Popular destinations such as Cozumel. paper. The impacts of cruise ships can be significant. • Hazardous wastes (photo processing fluids. print shop waste fluids. WTO. Pagnirtung in the Canadian north. • Waste disposal and treatment (both liquid (sewage) and solid (garbage). Each year cruise ships grow larger.000) may have over a dozen ships in port on a single day. • Oily bilge water. anti-foulant paint. provisioning etc. where the numbers of disembarking passengers and crew outnumber the native residents several times over.. B) Effects on destinations (based on Lighthouse Foundation forum 2003) • Provision of dockside facilities for services to cruise ships. bottles. dry cleaning waste fluids and contaminated materials. etc. and limiting numbers of tourists allowed on shore at one time). Although North America is a relatively more developed and mature market. In 2000. 2003).food. ranging from large cities to the most remote regions and cultures on the planet. with more and larger ships visiting increasing numbers of destinations. . hospital wastes). Destinations may have limited influence over timing of arrivals . At the same time. • Scheduling (including seasonality and multiple arrivals).

passengers wait until they are on ship to eat. bottles. the Caribbean) destinations may compete with each other for custom. • • • • % cruise ship visits to the destination which use ICCL or equivalent standards. • % cruise ships visiting the destination with bilge water separation systems. . further reducing their ability to cause changes in scheduling. or use marine sewage treatment systems. When ships leave before dinner. • • % ships visiting the destination with zero discharge systems for all ship garbage (including food waste). paper. Destinations often have little flexibility to influence when ships arrive or how long they stay. cans. Number of discharge violations (by ship. etc. etc) in very short periods. ship) of aerial emissions of NOx. food. this can cause all tours to arrive at the same sites simultaneously. • Control of social and environmental impacts on targeted tour sites (including education of passengers). Distances from the home port or sailing times from the last port or to the next stop may dictate arrival and departure times.298 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook • Security ( including customs and immigration controls). which if discharged may contaminate the destination Solid waste (garbage . % cruise ship visits to the destination by ships with zero discharge systems for hazardous wastes. sulphur dioxide based on 2001 baseline (or specific volume discharge by each ship/overall fleet average). Overall environmental performance • of the ship . Average occupancy of ship (by month). Where ships have very short stays.related to level of • management and/or certification Economic sustainability • • % of fleet (by firm) meeting ICCL or equivalent standards. Issues re ship operations Aerial emissions (contributing to global climate change. destinations may have little capacity to affect the decision. Average sale price per day of berths. % of all ship visits by ships meeting ICCL or equivalent standards. number /% cruise ship visits to the destination which meet (to be agreed) standards. damage to species Suggested indicators • % reduction (by fleet. reducing their spending on shore. and also focus demands for other services (taxis. local pollution) Ballast water (containing non-native species and which may affect biodiversity at the destination) Wastewater (sewage and grey water discharge which if not controlled may contaminate the destination) Hazardous wastes. % ships visiting the destination which have zero discharge systems. • Coral reefs: protection and contribution to conservation. line).) which can pollute the sea and shores Oily bilge or ballast water is a source of seawater and shore While some lines try to coordinate with others to share berthing capacity or to stagger arrivals. Where there are many destinations nearby (Greek islands.

Number of incidents (by type) involving passengers and crew. visits Puerto Chacabuco. Total jobs directly attributable to cruise industry (port workers.. See section on ¢ Controlling use intensity of use of fragile natural and cultural sites (p. jobs. population 300 Issues of destination effects Capture of benefits for the host community (revenues. Total purchases of local goods (e. Value of investment (capital. Total and average port fees and charges received per ship visit. souvenirs) per ship.(by month.Part 4 . training) by cruise ship companies in destination. 192).) (Note that indirect would also be desirable but very difficult to obtain unless there is a satellite tourism account in place). % of ships providing education to passengers regarding the sites and their behaviour as preparation or part of tours. beverages. Chile. Cost of security attributable to ships and their passengers.g. foodstuffs. capital support from cruise lines for facilities used. provisioners. provisioning etc. • Security ( including customs and immigration controls) Control of social and environmental impacts on targeted tour sites (including education of passengers) • • • • .) Indicators • • • • Average spending per cruise ship visitor (an indicator which is often difficult to obtain). support for natural and cultural assets. arranged tours etc. with over 2000 passengers and crew on board.Destination Applications 299 The Nor wegian Dream. year).

. both liquid • • Impact on destination services and infrastructure • Scheduling (including seasonality and multiple arrivals) • • • • Crowd management • • • The variety of both home ports and destinations is growing. Sale price of water per litre sold to ships (can be used in comparison with local price. % annual ship visits arriving in peak month/ season. Total number of ship passengers eating at least one meal purchased on shore. 171) and solid (see ¢ Solid waste p. 173). impacts as tourists have time to visit more widely. Average duration of stay in port. % visitors taking organized shore tours. (Longer visits may spread benefits. seats in tour buses or boats.ratio of passengers discharged to number of local taxis.ratio of passengers discharged to number of restaurant seats in destination. See issues section on density of use for key visited sites (¢ Controlling Use Intensity p. Volume of water on-loaded at port. and number anchored using lighters). Number/% days with cruise ship(s) in port (peak season. 192). or production cost per litre).other ratios based on key constraints (e. etc).ratio of passengers discharged to local population. . purchase longer tours or meals on shore). all year). trained guides. Peak day passengers discharged: . % Use of current shore docking capacity. per unit volume) for disposal (see ¢ Sewage p. including siting considerations to minimize potential impacts. Quebec City is a new port for cruises leaving from north-eastern US cities. Payment received (total.300 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook Issues of destination effects Provision of dockside facilities for services to cruise ships. . liquid). . Maximum simultaneous ship visits (peak day). Maximum capacity of docking facilities (number ships docked at one time. 165) Suggested indicators • • • • • Number of ship visits per year (by month). public number. Waste disposal and treatment.g. Water supply (see ¢ Water availability p. . Volume of waste accepted for disposal (solid.

Issues related to reefs Coral reefs: protection and contribution to conservation (note: many destinations are visited expressly for reef visits Great Barrier Reef.Destination Applications 301 In some destinations. Value of contribution by cruise ships/companies to protection of reefs in the destination. it is recommended that the following indicators be specifically considered for reef destinations. Maldives. Mexico Cruise ships berth within a few hundred metres of Paraiso Reef and the ecological reser ve of Chankanaab. Percentage of tourists who visit reefs who are accompanied by trained /certified guides. Fiji are examples) Indicators • • • Volume of ship passengers visiting reefs on peak day. Red Sea. Cozumel. (see Box 4. . cruise ships will berth near shore reefs or may anchor near reefs so that passengers may take advantage of access.Part 4 . 250) Cozumel.1 on Reef Systems p. Because of this.


Ensure that the poor are included in all decision making and are seen as important stakeholders in the tourism development process. Protect and conserve the unique cultural and natural resources on which the tourism industry in most destinations is based. Part 2 of this Guidebook provides guidance on how collaborative multi-stakeholder processes can lead to agreement on priority issues – which itself can assist in choosing indicators.ISBN 92-844-0726-5 . the point has been emphasized that indicators are not an end in themselves. Building good and responsive indicators is not enough. In Part 2.1 Indicators and Policy A key factor in effective and responsible destination management is the identification by all stakeholders of the important policy issues that will guide the development process. finance. In addition. Facilitate more effective coordination of essential governmental services at the national. and ideally they become effective in creating better and more sustainable decisions. regional and local levels.Part 5 Indicators Applications: Uses in Tourism Planning and Management Throughout this Guidebook. ownership and operation of tourism facilities. © 2004 World Tourism Organization . and in the actions that follow. Ensure that natural and cultural resource protection are seen as collaborative activities between the public and private sectors as well as nongovernmental groups and communities. several of the case studies in Part 6 (p. The following sections explain some specific indicator applications in order to support tourism planning and management processes. Emphasize the role of tourism development in reducing poverty and increasing the quality of life of all residents. it is but the first step in making a difference. The real desired outcomes lie in the creation of sustainable destinations. a table clearly illustrates the relationship between tourism planning and management and the development and use of indicators in the different stages.1 p. In this part the role of indicators relative to destination planning and management is examined from several perspectives – based on field experiences in using indicators to support destinations and nations in their decisions regarding tourism. investment. 23). indicators can be significant and strategic building blocks in this process. 5. employment and foreign exchange earnings. operational and evaluation processes. 327) provide good evidence of how indicators can make a difference to a destination – both in how the issues are viewed. implementation. This section provides support to managers in building on indicators to achieve a range of management goals. Examples are provided to show how indicators can be used to support a range of planning. These collaborative processes can also focus on setting sustainable tourism policy goals for the destination. They become relevant only if used in tourism planning and management processes. taking into account how tourism development can help to: • • • • • • • Increase GDP growth. (See Box 2. Establish the role of the private sector in the design.

An important part of the choice of indicators has to be a realistic assessment of budgets. environmental management standards. regional and national plans and priorities. innovative programs. visitor services and traffic control. Establish training policies for all levels of those involved in the planning. management and delivery of tourism products and services. brand identity and positioning strategy to attract national and international visitors. national tourism promotion agencies. Disseminate and adopt good practices (tested models. if indicators respond well. Foster a positive awareness by the general public of the contribution of tourism to the destination’s prosperity. This significant menu of policy goals is also a list of expectations – the public increasingly expects each sector (including tourism) to contribute to the resolution of these policy issues while it goes about the business of sustaining its own future. Provide support of Small to Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs) through capacity building. This list is extensive. The indicators that have been identified should assist destination managers in formulating operational policies which will enable them to address a range of issues related to sustainable tourism: • • • Conduct an active policy dialogue linking tourism to local. Create and implement directed policies that are targeted at developing tourism initiatives that serve social goals such as benefits for the poor. Establish regulatory/legal frameworks and programs which support accommodations and tourist services. Create a positive image. All benefit from better information on issues. technical assistance. Where appropriate explore mechanisms by which the control/regulator role of the public sector can be combined with that of the planner/facilitator/collaborator. It must be recognized that in many destinations there are limited resources to collect indicator information and it is essential that stakeholders be realistic in their choice of factors that will be measured over time. The definition of indicators must occur within a collaborative environment and needs to support the information requirements of stakeholders. and quality standards. support indicators development and use. This will likely occur in tandem with partners who share the same interests and may. and NGOs as well as development assistance agencies or donors. lessons learned. planning tools. Establish facilitation procedures and financial mechanisms whereby resources from government. . Create the institutional basis for partnerships and joint venture arrangements. reduction of poverty and overall improvement of the quality of life of its people. disadvantaged communities and regions. and means to measure progress. Establish and monitor safety and security standards and practices. or evaluation mechanisms) to local government agencies. donors and private sector sources can be coordinated and effectively utilized to realize the aims listed above. financial incentives. through collaboration. and illustrates the range of general policy issues that are integrally related to tourism development. women. businesses. • • • • • • • • All of these initiatives are building blocks towards sustainability for tourism. they will be used.304 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook • • • Develop an effective marketing and promotion program through a series of public/private sector cooperative efforts. and can be produced in a cost effective way. in collaboration with regional. Create destination and site management plans which include guiding and interpretation programs. marketing activities. time and political will to carry out an assessment process using strategic indicators. clarity of goals. information services.

satisfied tourists. For example. planning cannot always be definitive. Here the specific use of indicators in planning and strategic planning is examined. For cannot continually improve without knowing how close you are to your desired state.they are the tangible and intangible expression of what is most important to people. and therefore specific (often quantified) measures. 23 which shows the relationship between indicators development and use and the normal sequence of planning). and may need to use generalisations that mean different things to different people. many tourists place a value on a destination being 'uncrowded'. Indicators force greater clarity in definition of what is desired. of strategies to achieve them and actions which support the strategies. With this indicator as a basis. the broad goal (based on a range of stakeholder values) may be “conservation of the natural environment”. (See Box 2. how you will go about getting it. an objective of 18% protected within 5 years could be established. The result normally includes a range of objectives.Indicators Applications: Uses in Tourism Planning and Management 305 5. Defining desired outcomes Desired outcomes are a common second level to planning which try to convert the values of society or stakeholders into a desirable situation or condition that is more accessible and which can lead to definable actions. or so that unforseen opportunities and constraints can be accommodated in the future. Defining values The foundations of planning are values . Constraints . But to what extent is a place considered “uncrowded” is perceived differently by different host communities and tourists of different origins and ages. 192) Indicators become the vehicle for turning subjective values into objective. or what are the limits to acceptable crowding? Clarification of these values can lead to agreement on acceptable use levels and perhaps direct the actions needed to achieve them (See ¢ Use Intensity p. Defining objectives. and a content host community. But most people are unfamiliar with describing their values precisely. In determining and defining this process. and how you will know that you have got it. an indicator measuring the actual number of people in a given area. Examples of broad social values which are important to sustainable tourism include: conserving the natural environment. For example. planning must sometimes simplify complex situations so that they can be better understood. and will demonstrate that indicators are not desirable to planning . To counter-balance this need for simplicity and flexibility. For planners who wish to act to maintain satisfaction levels regarding crowding.indicators are one of these tools. Individual and community values are used as a kind of touchstone to all planning activity. Over a plan or program period. and that over 20% has notable ecological value as habitat. Because indicators demand measurement and therefore precision. tools are required that provide a level of precision and certainty . planning then focuses on how they may best be achieved.1 p. % of habitat with a specified level of protection) becomes the key measurement for progress. precisely how many people is too many. This is a measurable objective with a specific time target. Indicators provide the means for continuously checking and refining integrated planning and management activity.2 Using Indicators to Strategically Plan for Tourism In its simplest form. Strategic planning stresses the continuous nature of planning as a process of adapting to changing circumstances through integrating day to day planning and day to day management (Hall and McArthur 1998). planning is about determining what you want. and facilitate dialogue. monitoring the time it takes to be served.Part 5 . or calculating what percentage of the tourists or locals believe that it is “crowded” is needed.they are essential. An assessment could show for example that only 10% of the local environment is protected. the indicator (% with protection – or better. Indicators are critical to strategic planning because they are central to all three parts of the continual improvement process . the definition of and use of indicators can greatly help clarify what values really are. viable tourism businesses. strategies and actions After the desired outcomes have been established (often expressed as specific targets relative to the objectives).

an indicator helping to measure a dwindling wildlife population can trigger specific actions to protect. visitor spending and length of stay) were used to determine the economic impact of alternative locations.html). For example. Indicators can be important to gain a cost effective idea of these situations. For example. 21) For example. let alone the potential strengths and benefits of each alternative. Some constraints may be difficult to describe and pinpoint and the questions used to clarify can lead to specific indicators: Will the community oppose a high density of development? (How many will oppose it and for how long?). indicators are already in use which can be obtained by each proponent and used to guide proposals. Indicators measured type of visitor. If the planner is concerned about the respective water Ideally. The indicators were used as critical inputs in work to establish Ecologically Sustainable Development Plans for building and operating each facility across the Olympic site (Manidis Roberts 1998). imagine a planner trying to choose between proposals permitting either a 50 bed or a 100 bed accommodation to proceed. what skills. for planning and destination management purposes. and compare the alternative amounts with the known sustainable supply in the local area. or will labour be available to carry out the project when needed? (How many workers. when?) Indicators can also be important to clarify risks and areas which require attention in the planning process. Choosing between alternatives Often there are alternative courses of strategies and actions to choose between. or close a site as part of the plan. energy and waste) were used extensively in the planning of the 2000 Olympics in Australia.fes. where a spatial approach tries to reconcile a range of demands with the known ecological sensitivities of the destination. (See http://www. Australia . as part of the planning process. Part 2 details means to identify key risks. Social and economic indicators were similarly used by North Sydney Council in development of Cultural Tourism Plan for the broader local government area (Manidis Roberts 1997).uwaterloo. The same indicators will act as performance measures regarding the degree to which plans and actions respond to the issue. This often shows the need for additional indicators in the planning process to help in the clear measurement of constraints (existence and degree). he/she could seek out the average amount of water used per room in similar establishments.306 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook may also exist. (p. sensitivities. level of patronage and economic return from alternative cultural tourism activities conducted by the council. Otway forest viewing platform. Choosing is not easy when there is a lack of information about the current situation. An interesting use of indicators as key inputs into a geographical information system (GIS) is being developed to integrate tourism demand and supply scenarios in Canadian destinations and in the Cayman Islands. manage. environmental indicators (based around water. The result was the first plan able to claim its initiatives were based on long term tracking of demand and supply. An example of this approach was used to select a preferred site for a canopy walk in Otway Forest (Victoria Australia) Economic indicators (visitation. which need to be monitored.

For example. Revise desired outcomes After checking performance. Indicators provide a way to involve a wider range of participants in the strategic planning process. Indicators can be designed to be managed by non-planners .) Indicators stimulate discussion. what is working and what isn't. An indicator could have determined that instead of taking two years. but the planner needs to know. 355) where Parks Canada uses a range of indicators to monitor the effects of current tourism at the ecosystem level and is creating indicators to assist in developing and evaluating proposals for park development and use. Indicators provide a reality check – forcing planners to be precise. A good example is the case study of Cape Breton. Indicators are extremely useful at testing the success of a plan as it is being implemented. used over the course of planned activity. The plan could. what specific actions are they can channel resources to successful approaches and re-work unsuccessful ones. Create a learning environment Some people think that planning is the responsibility only of professional planners. where.such as non-government organisations and community groups. Trends from different indicators can be . and that further stimulation would be unsustainable. to define in real terms (using indicators) what they are using as targets. because indicators are able to efficiently sample a situation to determine if changes have occurred. Indicators can also signal needs and regulation and clarify elements to be regulated. The collection and reporting of information empowers these people with an understanding and sense of responsibility that helps to bring them into the planning process on an equal footing to the planners . and to continue with the original planned activities might create a problem. indicators will sometimes suggest that a plan may need to be changed because it got something wrong or because the key factors affecting the destination or its tourism have changed. and at what cost.2. provide valuable direction for considering how to alter a strategy or action in a way that is most likely to improve the situation to become closer to the desired outcome. or to consensus. but how much cleaner. opportunities could be missed. they can become the inputs into a range of more sophisticated planning procedures. Planners need to know which actions and strategies are the most effective . The sharing of this information from the indicators helps break down the formality of planning processes and create a continual learning environment. a plan seeking to increase tourism might sample the number of operators or the number of jobs directly attributable to tourism. and what the desired goals or outcomes really mean.Part 5 . based on this new information. If this is not done. Often the implementation can take years. (Not just cleaner water. how much better than now. (p. its implementation begins. For example. Sometimes plans must change because the development occurred more quickly than expected. when. 5. in order to stimulate tourism business. This is an unreasonable assumption. which may lead to more robust and publicly accessible planning procedure. before the end of the planning period. scarce resources could be wasted and support for the plan could diminish. not just “more tourists” but how many. and bringing what benefits to the local economy. the plan might have permitted access to a sensitive area. when. Indicators.1 Using Indicators to measure plan progress Checking performance After a plan has been completed. modelling and sensitivity analysis. and may lead to debate. and to plans which are sensitive to a broad range of aspects of sustainability. the level of use or activity was achieved in six months.information is power. as good planning needs a diversity of input and often also needs additional participation and partnership to be effective. be changed from stimulation to management of the new activity and businesses.Indicators Applications: Uses in Tourism Planning and Management 307 Where strong indicators have been developed.

whether or not these are specifically legislated or are implemented administratively to deal with particular issues. Indicators not only empower people with information and the opportunity to analyse it . speed of automobiles through the park. parts per million permitted in emissions from the hotel generator. international or commonly used standards. South Australia (p. Monitoring Compliance Regulators depend on indicators. Indicators are the key to monitoring progress in implementation and in helping to determine whether and when plans may need to be revisited. For example. Responses could include seeking changes to planning. Often indicator development and use is the first step – helping to clarify a problem. indicators have an important role at all stages in planning. benchmarks. Indicators can also be used to reduce the conventional regulatory approach to managing issues and risk.1. action from organisations or individuals or media publicity. Often tourism in sensitive areas . Most regulations are based on the achievement of specific standards. etc. and ultimately can serve to measure the effectiveness of regulations and enforcement relative to the original problem through verifying compliance.3 Indicators and Regulation Legislation. The development of a means of monitoring the health of tourism and other key values in these destinations has involved a wide range of groups and has resulted in more coordinated and supportive approaches to sustainable tourism. In summary. a rising number of ill tourists due to food-related diseases may create a demand for stronger regulation of restaurants or of providers of street food. 391) and the Balearic Islands (p.. allow full participation.they can also empower people to do something with it. good indicators show the need for plans – helping to clarify and make precise goals and objectives. and create accountability for outcomes. indicators are key information to permit informed discussion. Regulations are usually expressed in the same way as indicators. indicators provide people with the opportunity to understand every part of the planning process. Where available. 448). A good system of indicators will help identify risks or problems which may require a regulatory response. 406). permitting a more flexible and responsive management. At the outset. Indicators are also extremely valuable at monitoring the progress of a plan's implementation to check on its success and identify whether parts of the plan should be altered. and how to be involved.g. 345). Many regulations will require the regular use of specified indicators as part of monitoring programs – either done by the managers or by officials. Examples of the use of indicators to create a learning environment and empower communities into the planning process include Samoa (p. In plan formulation they provide the required clarity. Where there is debate. These uses increase the level of participation in planning and subsequently add valuable insights and expertise and improve the use of scarce resources.308 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook contrasted to determine relationships between indicators and between other events. 413) Villarica Chile (p. Indicators can also allow for more flexible adaptive management as an alternative to heavy use of regulation. Several of the issues identified in Part 3 are subject to regulation in many jurisdictions. Kangaroo Island. e. and examples of regulation are provided in the appropriate issue section as a point of reference. 5. indicators are a necessary and ideally integral part of the planning process. As delineated in Box 2. number of passengers allowed in a watercraft. The Lanzarote case is a specific integration of indicators into a destination planning process framed as sustainable development (p. In this way. maximum decibels of noise permitted between midnight and dawn. Indicators can provide a level of specificity that is often lacking in plans that must deal with complex issues. will then be incorporated in regulations or legislation as part of a regulatory process. People monitoring indicators and compiling their results may discover a problem or success before others. and on the basis of accurate information developing a regulation or legislation if needed.

Also if conditions worsen over time.g. For tourism. the concept of carrying capacity has value . the need for creating such regulation. There are varying perceptions and expectations of different host societies and different tourist segments. poorer water quality is likely to impact swimming before it affects uses such as sailing or sightseeing). The response of regulating use (anticipate and prevent damage by zoning or limits to uses) may not always be needed and may reduce the benefits that the initiative was seeking to create. they can be modified dependent on the changes in the system and in management measures (e. 1992). the supporting system was damaged.Indicators Applications: Uses in Tourism Planning and Management 309 presents risks of potential impacts that create worries among some groups . with different impacts on potential tourism uses. or the ability to experience nature without disturbance (see Colima and Rimini illustrations: each is successful in sustaining its tourism product). • • • • Because of these concerns. and may affect different factors of the system at differing rates. It also reflects some of the concerns contained in the 1981 WTO capacity standards . However. numbers can be further limited). Crowds attract some tourists. each of them with different needs. the concept of carrying capacity is much more complex. (e. others seek solitude.planners included. given that there is a wide range of environmental and socio-economic factors that interact at tourism destinations. If there are strong and agreed indicators which are used to monitor areas of concern. This reinforces the conclusion in this regard contained in the paper prepared from the 1990 WTO/UNEP workshop on carrying capacity (World Tourism Organization. 453). social and economic) which affect the ability of the destination to support any specific type of tourism. we need to consider these factors (derived from Manning 1997): • There are a large number of factors interacting in any destination (in all dimensions of sustainability… environmental. and many different forms of tourism activities.Part 5 . due to improvement in site-infrastructure. organization of groups. Examples of this approach are described in the Sydney Quarantine Island case (p. the number of tourists permitted at a site without harming the environment can be increased). 5. a more sophisticated approach to the identification of impacts and of limits is needed.particularly because it draws attention to limits and thresholds beyond which we do not wish to tread. in dealing with the reality. There are different types of users. but also warns users of the need to adapt these to the unique conditions of each site. However. Carrying capacity limits are not static.4 Carrying Capacity and Limits to Tourism Sensitivity. and even replace. when applied to tourism a simple definition of carrying capacity involving the identification of a single threshold value will be inadequate in nearly all cases.g. Thresholds Carrying capacity is a much used phrase – usually in the context of how many tourists can be accommodated in a certain place or area without damaging the place or reducing tourists’ satisfaction. If this threshold was exceeded.where it was observed that a pasture could support in perpetuity a particular number of cattle. often to the point where it could no longer support grazing at all. this can delay. Carrying capacity as a concept measures what level of use is sustainable. conservation of the natural environment. The impact of human activity on a system may be gradual.. 429) and in the private use of indicators for adaptive management in the Yacutinga Argentina case (p. Instead. levels of impacts and limits.which suggest using working limits for particular types of tourism. Limits of Acceptable Change. Monitoring the areas most at risk and incorporating adaptive management measures to respond to monitoring. permits timely action if a problem begins to be detected. for tourism applications. which better . The idea of carrying capacity is founded on the experience of pastoral agriculture . and that many of them depend on perception of host communities and tourists.

of limits to change and to total numbers of tourists or levels of development of the destination. Cultural capacity – where the impact on a local community. Ecological capacity – where biological and physical factors provide constraints to the maximum numbers which can be accommodated (for useful indicators see the section on Tourism in Sensitive Ecosystems p. Perception and psychological factors relating to both the host community and the tourists are determinants. sophisticated water supply and conservation programs may enlarge the supply and reduce the per-capita demand. In some environments like the island of Cozumel (Mexico) See Box 3.g. All show that a number of factors are important to the concept: 1. water is at present the key limiting factor. Tourists visit Rimini Italy in large numbers to experience the beach and many other shore activities. While in the longer term. 330). Kangaroo Island p. numbers of rooms to accommodate tourists) are the short to medium term limiters for tourist numbers. capacity of species to withstand disturbance or sensitivity of flora to trampling or harvesting by visitors. Indicators and Carrying Capacity While it has always been difficult to estimate or model overall carrying capacity (although some of the cases in Part 6 do provide tools which help to understand the relationships and complexity). design. (Note that most economic measures – which could be called economic capacity. 391 Albufera de Valencia p. 4. Several approaches have been developed to consider the factors which may affect the ability to support tourism. Examples include the capacity of rivers to absorb waste.are in fact aspects of management capacity – limits on the resources available to support management of tourism (control. 263). 167). Infrastructural capacity – where current infrastructure (water supply systems. Measurement of this factor . Colima Mexico where more tourists could spoil the sunset experience and cause the sea birds to locate elsewhere. transport systems. Social or Psychological capacity: The origin and background of tourists determines the number of tourists or the level of crowding they consider acceptable. Arches p. or the availability of human resources are the key limiting factors to acceptance of tourism and tourist numbers. 3.30 p. indicators can be of considerable use to monitor how development is related to specific limits which may affect the sustainability of tourism. These approaches range from work on the limits to acceptable change to applications such as those described in detail in the case studies in (e. sewage systems. 2. 5.310 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook reflects the sensitivity of different attributes of the environment to different types and levels of impact or use. Management capacity – where the key constraints are institutional. related to the numbers of tourists who (with their impacts) can be realistically managed. one factor. 342. These cases show different approaches to the estimation of capacity. a single factor (water supply) is the most important factor limiting tourism growth. etc)).

species breeding success: (See Natural and Sensitive Ecological Sites p. Their interests enter the debate via tourism organizations or enterprises who are . If ecological thresholds can be scientifically estimated. where the sensitivity of selected (usually ecological) assets to different use levels are analyzed. (e.Guidelines for Planning and Management”.g. For some ecological factors. c. where the relative utility of several of these approaches is rated. 330) Such models require a great deal of data (many indicators) and a good understanding of the relationships between many factors in the destination. and use levels set to respect these. levels of disturbance in ecosystems. the site will run out of water at 500 persons per day. Often many indicators are used to show a variety of relationships. Indicators which measure the relative use of such capacity can be critical to the decision of whether or not to limit numbers of visitors. Multivariate models which attempt to estimate capacity and limits based on many different variables – and try to integrate many different measures and relationships to provide an overall capacity measure. A more detailed examination of some of these approaches is contained in the IUCN/WTO/UNEP publication. this type of model can lead to the establishment of standards and limits which respond to many different types of stress on a site. there is much less flexibility. where the capacity of a destination (often applied to a community or a protected area) is estimated primarily based on what the residents or managers are prepared to tolerate. indicators which measure key factors relative to these thresholds (e. number of parking places in a national park. d. Indicators are shown to be a critical element in the construction of any of these approaches. In other destinations.Indicators Applications: Uses in Tourism Planning and Management 311 (see ¢ Water Availability. or the biologists’ work shows that any more than 10 persons on that site per day will cause the endangered species to abandon its breeding site). Visitor Activity Management Process (VAMP) and Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS) which attempt to match permitted visitor uses with known sensitivities in a planning and management process which tries to limit negative effects while permitting types and levels of use compatible with environmental protection.Part 5 . number of seats in a stadium. p. 263) become important inputs into decisions of how much activity and what types to permit. because it implies limits and can be used to stimulate discussion on those limits. Often management actions can alter the limits (reduced water use per tourist.g. Frequently a single indicator or small set are determined to be the most critical. several approaches have been developed to help understand what are essentially human/biosphere relationships. The most important criteria or indicators tend to be those related to perceived impacts by those affected.. tourists themselves are rarely present to advocate their interests at destinations during the planning process. As understanding of the carrying capacity concept advances. This approach is most used for small sensitive natural sites. Limits of acceptable change. Management tools such as Visitor Impact Management (VIM). Chapter 6: Managing the Challenges of Tourism in Protected Areas. (See Albufera case p. the choice of which indicators to include and the weighting. Other destinations may have limits related to current infrastructure (e. capacity of a sewage treatment plant). In operation. These include: a. Visitor Experience and Resource Protection(VERP). can greatly affect the results of the exercise. (See Arches case p. 342). although in some applications a number of different indicators can be used. b. 165) is probably the single most important to determine capacity in the case of Cozumel Island. using information relating to measures of limits and measures of trends in use. This approach emphasizes uses which match the stakeholders’ perception of what is tolerable. To date. “Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas . or whether and when to invest in new capacity. System sensitivity. cultural capacity may be the most important – and locals may decide on tourism limits in order to avoid major disruption in their way of life or erosion of some cultural values. Thus the determination of “carrying capacity” – or the desired levels of tourism is often negotiated by the stakeholders… each an advocate for his or her own interests.g. use of blinds for wildlife viewers) which may alter the numbers which can be accommodated. Carrying capacity is a difficult but important concept. Such infrastructural limits can be altered and removed if decision makers approve the costs. if any.

A range of indicators were used to measure tourist impact on infrastructure (energy. For further information see: Mangion. Civil servants or public officials. . program and project administrators. beaches. and make use of a range of indicators to provide the best information possible on the implications of different levels and types of use for the destination and for the specific sites within it. and tourist density at an island-wide level. education. and can be the key to consensus on policy issues. as well as administrations in related fields.). Ministry of Tourism. exit questionnaires and other feedback which can provide clarity. such as environment.1 Carrying Capacity Assessment for Tourism in Malta As part of a tourism development strategy for the Maltese islands. (See also Box 2. road traffic) accommodation.) There continues to be a demand for numeric estimates of carrying capacity – for a single number on the maximum number of tourists that can be allowed. protected areas. banking etc. A study was done and initial analysis of data became a foundation for different options. Indicators. etc). Academic and research institutions that deal with tourism-related issues.5 Public Reporting and Accountability Information is much more powerful if shared. were used as the key points of reference for the discussion of carrying capacity options. programs and action.15. NGOs and conservation organizations.Carrying Capacity Assessment for Tourism in the Maltese Islands. transportation. The key clients for indicators: • • • • • Public authorities at all levels (tourism administrations and offices. as agreement can be found for different use levels at different times or places (e. tourism boards. Public discussions resulted in the selection of a specific scenario. through market research. water. Marie-Louise. (p. the religious site is open to all except when religious services are under way. economics. 2001. 5. Managers of private companies and their associations (chambers of commerce. Seasonal variation was a major factor and was applied to the analysis of most indicators. or how many rooms are allowed to be built. Local planners may have access to indicators which reflect the needs or desires of different tourist segments. when only 20 visitors who are suitably attired are allowed in. the question of carrying capacity was addressed through a number of scenarios. tourism trade associations. with indicators used to identify existing profiles and trends. This section presents some of the means to assure that the indicators reach those who need the information. and indicators were used to show current status and to focus discussion on changes.g.312 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook advocates. including most of those designated baseline in this Guidebook. Malta. and that they have an incentive to use it. It is suggested that managers consider more than a simple single limit. Box 5. All of the work associated with creating good indicators can be wasted if there is no effective means to make certain that the information gets to those stakeholders who need it. when they need it and in a form which is most useful to them. The indicators which were used included measures of tourist numbers. Sometimes innovative solutions result. 50) Visual portrayal of indicators) Matching information to the needs of stakeholders is vital from the very beginning of indicators development. length of stay. etc.

etc.1 Considerations regarding form and content of information provided include: 1. or is the destination safe for my winter vacation?) However. and the user may be able to wait for information to be analyzed. For specialists and managers directly involved with a specific issue or attraction. most uses of indicators will be less direct or immediate.Part 5 . These studies published serve as discussion papers. usually widely circulated (many are available on websites – particularly for corporations. Each has a different constituency and may have a different impact.g. a general graph indicating if water quality has improved or not over the years). who may help to develop the information that supports indicators. election campaigns. or who perform studies that help understand in greater detail the issues and trends of concern. scientific study reports.Indicators Applications: Uses in Tourism Planning and Management 313 • • The general public. and portrayed in ways of greater use to them. daily press. SWOT analysis). graphs and anecdotes which illustrate the main points. bi-annual. report on specific environmental and socio-economic issues. including residents.g. Channels and forms of communication. and a means for taking credit for success. conferences and events. real-time measurements. The users of indicators may operate at different levels – and therefore need different levels of detail. etc. while for the general public the indicator results have to be communicated in simpler ways (e. planning documents published for public consultations (including initial diagnosis. on water quality they would need the lab-test results on different substances and contaminants). There are many means to provide information. the indicators important to them may be fewer. Managers of tourism companies require indicator results in a format that supports their operations and links with business and facility level concerns (e. end of government terms.5. periodic status and progress reports. status and progress report publications. What is provided should respond to the needs and level of understanding of user groups: Government officials and experts will likely require more detailed and technical information (e. relating indicators on water-problems to water use in hotels. 2. Specialists. 3.g. For the public and for most decision makers. Thus the reporting of indicators may occur at different levels and use different media in order to match information to the specific needs of stakeholders. Internet.g. Level and form of information. seasonal reports. frequent. Annual (or Periodic) status reports: A common vehicle is the annual report – on the state of the destination (or state of the environment) and the key issues. stimulating debate and dialogue. Often these are a public form of performance accountability. or government agencies focused on specific issues) and are generally graphic in nature – with lots of pictures. Many different means are in use to provide indicators information to these users: • Issue scans. less detailed. as well as any form of any initial assessment that helps identifying problems and risks. tourist authorities. tourists and all other stakeholders with an interest in the sustainable development of a destination. printed and audiovisual media. detailed indicators may help them make decisions – and many may already have developed their own measures and be using them.) The key is to have information available when it is needed. bulletins. Indicators can also serve as public reports on progress – such as achievement of plan goals. digested and presented in accessible form. results • . initial assessments and diagnosis for strategic planning: Indicators are a first source for agencies seeking to do issue scans or SWOT analyses. The public and most decision-makers will use indicators as general information – seeking awareness and warning of emerging issues or concern. press releases. possible impacts on businesses). Such documents are designed for the public. Periodicity (e. Some direct decisions may be made (Do I go to the beach today. 5. and when it can influence a decision. annual.

employment trends. may constitute a complete report on key issues. Conferences: Conferences can be an excellent vehicle to gain attention for indicators and to reinforce their message. loss of tourist links or tourist traffic.314 Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook of programs to achieve tourism or destination objectives. As well. health problems. Often. (See example from Balearic islands accommodation Box 5. etc. This generates interest in the indicators. particularly if the press chooses to report particular indicators regularly.2. Press releases (and regular press monitoring): One of the most effective uses of indicators is through the press. like issue bulletins. over a period of time. The fact that indicators are available may help in the choice of issues by those running for office. and delegates can participate in the discussion of results. and also permitting reasonably rapid addition of new issues and indicators. 50% increase in tourists who stayed more than one week) is important to public understanding of the issues and implications. party platforms. • • • .) can become part of campaign issues. While this may be done by the reporting agency. specific press releases on problems revealed by indicators (tourism dropped 20% last year due to fear of terrorism. In Chinese newspapers. waiting times to get into national parks (call an information number to get up to date wait times in many North American parks and campgrounds). or cruise ship arrivals are all examples of how use of indicators related to tourism is entering the normal public domain. issuing periodic fact sheets which. and not reporting how issues and indicators show the overall state at any point in time of the destination. many jurisdictions (national. • Issue bulletins: Because of the amount of work in compiling extensive reports. Report cards are likely to draw attention and create debate – and. Daily or weekly reporting on air quality (e. C for conservation. air quality. bring information directly to the public forum. it is often most effective if done by others such as NGOs or even by opposition political parties. and it is easy to see in the bar graph whether your city is more or less contaminated than Beijing or Shanghai – as twenty cities are regularly featured. coastal development) one issue at a time. eliminating the need to wait until all indicators have been analyzed and integrated. the existence of indicators can result in an issue becoming politicized. Status reports are normally tied to government events or planning periods. may stimulate a public dialogue and often leads to remedial action for problem areas. This form of reporting has the advantage of permitting shorter lag times between information gathering and publication. and may also be important in any public process (debates. international and local) have moved to reporting on specific issues (state of the beaches. This can lead to commitments being made to address the issues. A disadvantage may lie in having information seen in isolation.g. A typical report card may give a destination an A for cleanliness. Often public release of reports or fact sheets can be timed to a conference. total tourist numbers. and may lead to commitments to resolve it. Chinese cities). public meetings) where the public can show which issues they feel to be important. In this sense. Report cards: A “report card” uses the information from an indicator or set of indicators to provide a subjective grade for performance – making a form of qualitative information accessible. beach closures due to contamination. D for traffic control and B for public safety. elections become the forum where certain indicators (environmental damage. a graphic format is used to show air pollution levels. that was reported with other indicators as a unified volume) Note that the visual portrayal of indicators may have higher impact than just numbers. A common tactic is to release indicators reports tied to a significant event.

Part 5 - Indicators Applications: Uses in Tourism Planning and Management


Box 5.2 Tourist Accommodation capacity in the Balearic Islands (Spain)
Demographic Indicator Pressure Indicator Scope: Balearic Islands Period: 1991-2000 Observed tendency: The total accommodation capacity has risen up to 1,860,000 beds in year 2000, this means an increase of 4.78% in comparison to 1998. The main cause of this increase is the growth in 6.51% of residential homes because the tourist accommodation capacity has for the last 2 years. decreased by 0.90%. • Tourist accommodation capacity is one of the most important mechanisms to efficiently control human pressure on resources. The lack of this control produces unsustainability.

Desirable tendency: Stabilize the number of accommodation capacity. This can be achieved by disqualifying urbanizable land, as well as, promoting the restoration of houses.

Description: Total Accommodation Capacity (ICAT) has been established through residential accommodation capacity (ICAr) and tourist accommodation capacity (ICAt). Methodology: Accommodation capacity is obtained by the sum of Residential accommodation Capacity (2.97 people per housing) and the tourist accommodation Capacity (tourist beds from legal tourist supply). Illegal tourist supply has been considered, for the purpose of this study as, residential accommodation.


• Ministerio de Fomento. Housing census 1991. • White book of Balearic Islands Housing 2001.
Conselleria d'Obres Públiques, Habitatge i Transports, Direcció General d'Arquitectura i Habitatge. • Direcció General d'Ordenació Turística, Conselleria de Turisme.

Source: Centre for Tourism Research and Technologies of the Balearic Islands (CITTIB)

Public announcements of support or commitment: Indicators can be a signal for the need for political action. One of the most important impacts of indicators is to stimulate both demands for action, and appropriate public responses. (e.g., the article in the newspaper revealing a rise in concern by tourists about crime in the destination followed the next day by the announcement of a new tourist police program to be put in place in the next year).


Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook

Real time metering and reporting: Where the intention is to alter behaviour, information provided in real time can be the most effective. (e.g., current air quality or noise levels shown on public meters at key downtown areas, or public screens showing the length of the line in hours or minutes for entry into an attraction.) If you see directly the results of your action, you may change your behaviour – particularly if the cost to you individually is shown in real time. In some jurisdictions, it is now possible to obtain key information rapidly, designed specifically to provide key information on a most current possible basis to officials and others (such as the press) One example from a Canadian ministry is called an “information dashboard”. Each morning when the manager starts his/her computer, a set of standard indicators on the issues most important to him/her is the first screen that appears, with important changes highlighted as well as key indicators on latest issues. Reporting for management of tourism facilities and attractions.
Indicators can be of use to managers in many forms, dependent on their needs. Rapid reporting of raw data is often critical (number of complaints about food at the theme park). In other cases, the use of time series analyses of indicators – frequency distributions and contingency tables – can yield important information. (e.g., 80% of the visitors arrived after 10AM, or over half of those over 60 felt that the attraction was not accessible for them). Used as ratios (visitors per washroom) or in time series, (20% growth in disabled travellers in two years) these data can contribute significantly to knowledge needed to spot emerging issues and deal with current ones. Benchmarking (see p. 322) is likely to be very important to these managers, as they are often in a very competitive marketplace. Use of indicators to show progress or problems can be very effective (e.g.” the level of satisfaction of tourists has fallen steadily each month since October” or “tourist spending up for third year in a row”).

A concern for the producers of indicators is misuse or misinterpretation. Bad news may have broad impacts beyond that intended – where release of a big number (tourism down 40% this year due to health scare) may itself cause further damage, as it is used broadly and seen by prospective travellers who themselves may be deterred, even though the problem may have already been resolved. One of the most important caveats for those who produce indicators is to retain credibility – so that the indicators are seen to be objective, and can be used with assurance by all. One of the criteria for selection and use of indicators (see Annex C1, C2 p. 485) is credibility – and hyperbole can undercut the credibility of the indicator or even the entire program. In any event, proponents or opponents can be expected to put “spin” on an indicator, as can the press. “Erosion of 5% of the beach in a season” can be easily extrapolated to a bold headline of “Beach Gone in 15 Years” whether the science supports this or not.

5.5.2 Measuring Success and /or Results of Indicator Applications
Reach, Penetration, Action
Because this is about indicators, it is only natural to seek indicators regarding the success of an indicators program. In Annex C 4 of this Guidebook is a template for the re-evaluation of an indicators program and of each of the indicators it produces. The form has built into it de facto indicators to be used to measure success The objective is continuous improvement – adapting the indicators to be the most effective possible to respond to new issues, changing data availability, and changing demands for information. Some of these are suggested in the table below.

Part 5 - Indicators Applications: Uses in Tourism Planning and Management


Components of the Issue Success in generation of the indicators

Indicators • • • • • • Number of indicators regularly produced on continuing basis; % of originally defined indicators set implemented; % of indicators up to date in monitoring. Number of person days/months and amount of tourism authority or agency responsible for indicators program; Budget designated for/spent on data gathering, processing and reporting; Communication outputs frequency, number of copies of reports containing indicator results produced and distributed, participation statistics of public events, hits in websites where indicator results bare reported, etc. % of destination population aware of the indicators program (and selected indicators); % of tourism sector enterprises aware of the indicators program (and selected indicators) – by user survey. % of key sector stakeholders using the indicators on a regular basis – including how and where they use it, (user survey); Frequency of public reporting of the indicators (officially, and in press). % of major decisions affecting tourism where any of the indicators were used/cited; Opinion of the utility of the indicators program (and of each indicator) by key stakeholders; % of stakeholders satisfied with selected indicators; % of original partners involved in the ongoing program; Level of commitment to future indicators (user survey).

Level of effort to apply the indicators

Level of awareness of the indicators

• •

Level of use of the indicators

• •

Impact of the indicators

• • •

Continuing commitment to the program

• •

Reason for use of these indicators: To determine whether the indicators being produced are optimal, are used, and are making a difference. This is a component of an iterative planning approach which looks to continuous improvement and may result in changes to the program, addition of new indicators, or dropping of those which are not useful. They are in effect, performance measures for an indicators program. Source of information: The authority managing the indicators program, plus regular scans of press and political use of the indicators. Means to portray indicators: Of greatest use as an internal management tool for the indicators program. It can also be used publicly to show that indicators do make a difference. Benchmarking: This is a relatively new field; it is expected that comparisons will increasingly be possible among destinations which adopt an indicators program. They will also be a growing source of methods to strengthen indicators and their impact.


Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook


Indicators and Certification/Standards Programs

Voluntary systems for the certification of quality in tourism have existed for many decades. Among the oldest surviving programs, with wide consumer acceptance, are the five-star rating system (generally implemented by national governments), the American Automobile Association (AAA) lodging rating system, and the Michelin Guides. Many other rating systems such as these have arisen and disappeared over the years, but a qualitative change in the types of certification used for tourism occurred in the early 1990s with two parallel developments: the introduction and popularization of process-based quality (ISO 9,000) and environmental management systems (ISO 14,000 series), along with the development of methods for evaluating environmental and social performance – what are now called “sustainability” criteria. The process-based systems, because they do not rate products and are not comparable from business to business, have not had an important impact in tourism, but performancebased and mixed systems, with predominantly environmental and safety criteria, have proliferated since the Earth Summit in 1992. These methods include certification programs, eco-labels, ethics codes, benchmarking, best practice manuals, and prizes. The World Tourism Organization identified over 260 such programs in a study in 2001, Voluntary Initiatives for Sustainable Tourism: Worldwide Inventory and Comparative Analysis of 104 Eco-labels, Awards and Self-Commitments, (WTO, 2001) and many more have arisen since then. More than 60 programs (two thirds in Europe) offer third-party certification – a guarantee by an independent third-party that a business or an activity complies with established criteria. Most environmental and sustainability certification systems target accommodations; others are directed for transportation and tour operator services. Other specialized guidelines and certification programs exist for adventure sports and tourism (national parks, rafting, mountaineering, canopy exploration, caving, diving, etc.) These programs emphasize, to different degrees, the three principal aspects of sustainability: environmental, socio-cultural, and economic criteria. The certification of tourism operations guarantees that a third party has inspected and approved the performance or processes of the business, but certification programs have additional uses: the certification process and criteria serve as a manual for exemplary practices and create a framework for improvement in business management through incentives and technical assistance on sustainability aspects. Certification basically means the measuring and verification of these improvements through indicators. In the most credible certification programs, evaluation of compliance is done by independent third parties. Industry-based evaluation is known as second-party certification (often done by tour operators associations or by wholesalers of the products they promote) while self-evaluation without outside verification is called first-party certification (e.g. a hotel or tour operator promotes themselves as “ecological” or “environmentally-friendly”, according to its own code of conduct and criteria).

5.6.1 Certification Criteria
Most reputable sustainable tourism certification programs incorporate elements of environmental, social, and business performance. Some are important at the planning stage for new businesses or products, while others relate to ongoing management. Life cycle considerations should be brought into play at the planning stage. The social impacts of tourism should also be considered from the initial planning stage (e.g. land acquisition, use of water and public services, protection of local cultural heritage and values, contribution to the local economy, etc.) The indicators for these certification criteria can become useful management tools in tourism businesses. Criteria for certification normally require standards to be met; standards which are often a

Part 5 - Indicators Applications: Uses in Tourism Planning and Management


definable point to be reached on one or more indicators or performance measures. The table below shows key components and corresponding criteria, related to issues of quality and sustainability certification. They are based on the results of the Sustainable Tourism Stewardship Council (STSC) feasibility study, ( which was in turn based on ISO/IEC guide 65:1996, ISO14024 standard, the Mohonk Agreement, (an agreed framework and principles for the certification of ecotourism and sustainable tourism involving many international organizations ), the Tour Operators Initiative for Sustainable Development (see Box 3.47 p. 243) and the VISIT standard for Ecolabels (, while they also reflect the WTO recommendations for governments on sustainability certification. ( The indicators or criteria cited below are divided into two sets: 1. 2. Those that can indicate the effectiveness of a certification program; Those that can be used to measure progress in sustainability at a tourism business, operation or destination.

For the process-based criteria simple yes/no indicators can be used (e.g. does the enterprise have an environmental policy, does it have a program to employ local residents?) To measure the performancebased criteria more specific qualitative and quantitative indicators are needed (e.g. liters of water or kilowatt hours of energy use per guest per night). For more detail on specific indicators and measurement methods see the corresponding issue sections in Part 3. The following list of general criteria can serve as a checklist for sustainability certification programs:

Key issues


Criteria for effectiveness of a sustainable tourism certification program. (Based on STSC Feasibility Study, Table 7.2). Clarity of objectives • • Aims and objectives of the program are clearly stated; Criteria are in accordance with or surpass local and international standards and legislation in health, safety, consumer needs, and environmental and social performance. Criteria are measurable and show significant differences in environmental and social impact by certified operations; The certification label can only be used when the criteria have been met; Criteria are attainable and encourage best practice in benefiting tourist providers, tourists, local communities, and conservation; Criteria are largely performance-based. Criteria have been developed in consultation with all interested parties; Criteria are based on sound principles of science, engineering, and social, environmental, and economic management; Criteria are publicly available; All stages of the development and operation of the program are transparent and free of conflicts of interest.


• • • •

Consultation and transparency

• • • •


Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook


• • •

Programs are open to all applicants who comply with the criteria; Criteria, costs, and fees permit participation by small and medium enterprises; Technical assistance is available to applicants and awardees, but not in such as way as to establish conflicts of interest. Compliance is verifiable by trained auditors; Applicants provide credible evidence of compliance; Certification is for a defined period and is retired at the end of that period if not renewed or in case of subsequent non-compliance.


• • •

Criteria to measure progress in sustainability at a destination. (Based on Mohonk Agreement, STSC Feasibility Study Section 7.1 and Font and Bendell, 2002). Environmental: Overall environmental protection • • Environmental management commitment by tourism business; Environmental planning and impact assessment, considering social, cultural, ecological and economic impacts (including cumulative impacts and mitigation strategies); Habitat/eco-system/wildlife maintenance and enhancement. Biodiversity conservation and integrity of ecosystem processes; Mechanisms for monitoring and reporting environmental performance; Specific standards for impacts specific to diving, golf, beaches, and other sub-sectors. Energy (consumption-reduction-efficiency- sustainability of energy supply); Water (consumption-reduction-quality). Reduction through purchasing and consumption procedures; Recycling and reuse; Final disposal. Appropriate building materials; Appropriate protection of habitat and land forms (site disturbance, landscaping, rehabilitation, drainage, soils, and stormwater); Appropriate scale of activities and infrastructure and sensitivity towards sense of place. Sustainability of materials and supplies (recyclable and recycled materials, locally produced, certified timber products etc.); Use of nature-friendly cleaning products; Hazardous substances (reduction-appropriate handling). Air quality and emissions; Noise reduction; Transport (public transport- green alternatives provided). Interpretation/education for customers; Staff training, education, responsibility, knowledge and awareness in environmental aspects.

• • •

Energy and water consumption

• •

Waste management (solid and water)

• • • • • •

Site alteration and life cycle considerations


• • •


• • • • •

Environmental information.

Part 5 - Indicators Applications: Uses in Tourism Planning and Management


Sociocultural: Community (relations-welfare) • • • • • Community (participationorganization-involvement) • Mechanisms to ensure rights and aspirations of local and/or indigenous people are recognized; Emphasis and conservation of local/regional culture, heritage and authenticity; Measures to protect the integrity of local community’s social structure; Minimize impacts upon social structures, culture, and economy (on both local and national levels); Appropriateness of land acquisition/access / land tenure. Mechanisms to ensure that negative economic impacts on local communities are minimized and preferably there are substantial economic benefits to local communities; Contributions to the development/ maintenance of local community infrastructure. Local residents are employed, including in management positions; Training for local employees. Interpretation/education for customers; Staff training, education, responsibility, knowledge and awareness in social and cultural aspects.

Employee training and promotion

• • • •

Sociocultural information

Economic and quality: Creation of local employment • • • • Creation of networks of “green businesses” within a given destination; Use of locally sourced and produced materials and food; Use of organic food; Supply chain management through green and sustainable purchasing policies. Personnel: fair treatment; Mechanisms to ensure labor arrangements are not exploitative, and conform to local laws or inter