CONSTITUTIONAL LAW II SYLLABUS Introduction Art. VIII, Secs. 1 and 5, Phi i!!ine Constitution Section 1. The "udicia !

o#er sha $e %ested in one Su!re&e Court and in such o#er courts as &a' $e esta$ ished $' a#. (udicia !o#er inc udes the dut' o) the courts o) "ustice to sett e actua contro%ersies in%o %in* ri*hts #hich are e*a ' de&anda$ e and en)orcea$ e, and to deter&ine #hether or not there has $een a *ra%e a$use o) discretion a&ountin* to ac+ or e,cess o) "urisdiction on the !art o) an' $ranch or instru&enta it' o) the -o%ern&ent. Section 5. The Su!re&e Court sha ha%e the )o o#in* !o#ers. 1. /,ercise ori*ina "urisdiction o%er cases a))ectin* a&$assadors, other !u$ ic &inisters and consu s, and o%er !etitions )or certiorari, !rohi$ition, &anda&us, 0uo #arranto, and ha$eas cor!us. 1. 2e%ie#, re%ise, re%erse, &odi)', or a))ir& on a!!ea or certiorari, as the a# or the 2u es o) Court &a' !ro%ide, )ina "ud*&ents and orders o) o#er courts in. a. A cases in #hich the constitutiona it' or %a idit' o) an' treat', internationa or e,ecuti%e a*ree&ent, a#, !residentia decree, !roc a&ation, order, instruction, ordinance, or re*u ation is in 0uestion. $. A cases in%o %in* the e*a it' o) an' ta,, i&!ost, assess&ent, or to , or an' !ena t' i&!osed in re ation thereto. c. A cases in #hich the "urisdiction o) an' o#er court is in issue.

d. A cri&ina cases in #hich the !ena t' i&!osed is rec usion !er!etua or hi*her. e. A cases in #hich on ' an error or 0uestion o) a# is in%o %ed. 3. Assi*n te&!orari ' "ud*es o) o#er courts to other stations as !u$ ic interest &a' re0uire. Such te&!orar' assi*n&ent sha not e,ceed si, &onths #ithout the consent o) the "ud*e concerned. 4. Order a chan*e o) %enue or ! ace o) tria to a%oid a &iscarria*e o) "ustice. 5. Pro&u *ate ru es concernin* the !rotection and en)orce&ent o) constitutiona ri*hts, ! eadin*, !ractice, and !rocedure in a courts, the ad&ission to the !ractice o) a#, the inte*rated $ar, and e*a assistance to the under5!ri%i e*ed. Such ru es sha !ro%ide a si&! i)ied and ine,!ensi%e !rocedure )or the s!eed' dis!osition o) cases, sha $e uni)or& )or a courts o) the sa&e *rade, and sha not di&inish, increase, or &odi)' su$stanti%e ri*hts. 2u es o) !rocedure o) s!ecia courts and 0uasi5"udicia $odies sha re&ain e))ecti%e un ess disa!!ro%ed $' the Su!re&e Court. 6. A!!oint a o))icia s and e&! o'ees o) the (udiciar' in accordance #ith the Ci%i Ser%ice La#. 15 7ar$ur' %s. 7adison, I Cranch 85 US9 13:, 11 /d. 6; 81<;39 In the !residentia e ection o) 1<;;, =e&ocratic52e!u$ ican Tho&as (e))erson de)eated >edera ist (ohn Ada&s, $eco&in* the third President o) the United States. A thou*h the e ection #as decided on >e$ruar' 1:, 1<;1, (e))erson did not ta+e o))ice unti 7arch 4, 1<;1. Unti that ti&e, out*oin* !resident Ada&s and the >edera ist5contro ed 6th Con*ress #ere sti in !o#er. =urin* this a&e5duc+ session, Con*ress !assed the (udiciar' Act o) 1<;1. This Act &odi)ied the (udiciar' Act o) 1:<? in esta$ ishin* ten ne# district courts, e,!andin* the nu&$er o) circuit courts )ro& three to si,, and addin* additiona "ud*es to each circuit, *i%in* the President the authorit' to a!!oint >edera "ud*es and "ustices o) the !eace. The act a so reduced the nu&$er o) Su!re&e Court "ustices )ro& si, to )i%e, e))ecti%e u!on the ne,t %acanc' in the Court. On 7arch 3, "ust $e)ore his ter& #as to end, Ada&s, in an atte&!t to st'&ie the inco&in* =e&ocratic52e!u$ ican

1 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$

Con*ress and ad&inistration, a!!ointed 16 >edera ist circuit "ud*es and 41 >edera ist "ustices o) the !eace to o))ices created $' the (udiciar' Act o) 1<;1. These a!!ointees, the in)a&ous @7idni*ht (ud*es@, inc uded Wi ia& 7ar$ur', a !ros!erous )inancier in 7ar' and. An ardent >edera ist, 7ar$ur' #as acti%e in 7ar' and !o itics and a %i*orous su!!orter o) the Ada&s !residenc'. Ae had $een a!!ointed to the !osition o) "ustice o) the !eace in the =istrict o) Co u&$ia. The ter& )or a "ustice o) the !eace #as )i%e 'ears, and the' #ere @authoriBed to ho d courts and co*niBance o) !ersona de&ands o) the %a ue o) 1; do ars.@ On the )o o#in* da', the a!!oint&ents #ere a!!ro%ed en &asse $' the SenateC ho#e%er, to *o into e))ect, the co&&issions had to $e de i%ered to those a!!ointed. This tas+ )e to (ohn 7arsha , #ho, e%en thou*h recent ' a!!ointed Chie) (ustice o) the United States, continued as the actin* Secretar' o) State at President Ada&sDs !ersona re0uest. Whi e a &a"orit' o) the co&&issions #ere de i%ered, it !ro%ed i&!ossi$ e )or a o) the& to $e de i%ered $e)ore Ada&sDs ter& as !resident e,!ired. As these a!!oint&ents #ere routine in nature, 7arsha assu&ed the ne# Secretar' o) State (a&es 7adison #ou d see the' #ere de i%ered, since @the' had $een !ro!er ' su$&itted and a!!ro%ed, and #ere, there)ore, e*a ' %a id a!!oint&ents.@On 7arch 4, 1<;1, Tho&as (e))erson #as s#orn in as President. As soon as he #as a$ e, President (e))erson ordered Le%i Linco n, #ho #as the ne# ad&inistrationDs Attorne' -enera and actin* Secretar' o) State unti the arri%a o) (a&es 7adison, not to de i%er the re&ainin* a!!oint&ents. Without the co&&issions, the a!!ointees #ere una$ e to assu&e the o))ices and duties to #hich the' had $een a!!ointed. In (e))ersonDs o!inion, the unde i%ered co&&issions, not ha%in* $een de i%ered on ti&e, #ere %oid. The ne# ' s#orn5in =e&ocratic52e!u$ ican :th Con*ress i&&ediate ' set a$out %oidin* the (udiciar' Act o) 1<;1 #ith their o#n (udiciar' Act o) 1<;1 #hich re%ersed the act o) 1<;1 so that the (udicia $ranch once a*ain o!erated under the dictates o) the ori*ina (udiciar' Act o) 1:<?. In addition, it re! aced the CourtDs t#o annua sessions #ith one session to $e*in on the )irst 7onda' in >e$ruar', and @cance ed the Su!re&e Court ter& schedu ed )or (une o) that 'ear E1<;1F ... see+in* to de a' a ru in* on the constitutiona it' o) the re!ea act unti &onths a)ter the ne# "udicia s'ste& #as in o!eration.@ Relevant law In a Cases a))ectin* A&$assadors, other !u$ ic 7inisters and Consu s, and those in #hich a State sha $e a Part', the su!re&e Court sha ha%e ori*ina (urisdiction. In a the other Cases $e)ore &entioned E#ithin the "udicia !o#er o) the United StatesF, the su!re&e Court sha ha%e a!!e ate (urisdiction, $oth as to La# and >act, #ith such /,ce!tions, and under such 2e*u ations as the Con*ress sha &a+e. GU.S. Constitution, Artic e III, Section 1, C ause 1 The Su!re&e Court sha a so ha%e a!!e ate "urisdiction )ro& the circuit courts and courts o) the se%era states, in the cases herein a)ter !ro%ided )orC and sha ha%e !o#er to issue #rits o) !rohi$ition to the district courts E...F and #rits o) &anda&us E...F to an' courts a!!ointed, or !ersons ho din* o))ice, under the authorit' o) the United States. G(udiciar' Act o) 1:<?, H 13 The issue Inscri!tion on the #a o) the Su!re&e Court Bui din* )ro& 7ar$ur' %. 7adison, in #hich Chie) (ustice (ohn 7arsha out ined the conce!t o) "udicia re%ie#. There are three #a's a case can $e heard in the Su!re&e Court. 819 )i in* direct ' in the Su!re&e CourtC 819 )i in* in a o#er )edera court, such as a district court, and a!!ea in* a the #a' u! to the Su!re&e CourtC 839 )i in* in a state court, a!!ea in* a the #a' u! throu*h the stateDs hi*hest courts, and then a!!ea in* to the Su!re&e Court on an issue o) )edera a#. The )irst is an e,ercise o) the CourtDs ori*ina "urisdictionC the second and third are e,ercises o) the Su!re&e CourtDs a!!e ate "urisdiction. Because 7ar$ur' )i ed his !etition )or the #rit o) &anda&us direct ' in the Su!re&e Court, the Court needed to $e a$ e

2 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$

to e,ercise ori*ina "urisdiction o%er the case in order to ha%e the !o#er to hear it. 7ar$ur'Ds ar*u&ent is that in the (udiciar' Act o) 1:<?, Con*ress *ranted the Su!re&e Court ori*ina "urisdiction o%er !etitions )or #rits o) &anda&us. This raises se%era issues that the Su!re&e Court had to address. =oes Artic e III o) the Constitution create a @) oor@ )or ori*ina "urisdiction, #hich Con*ress can add to, or does it create an e,hausti%e ist that Con*ress canDt &odi)' at a I I) Artic e IIIDs ori*ina "urisdiction is an e,hausti%e ist, $ut Con*ress tries to &odi)' it an'#a', #ho #ins that con) ict, Con*ress or the ConstitutionI And, &ore i&!ortant ', #ho is su!!osed to decide #ho #insI In its ans#er to this ast 0uestion, the Su!re&e Court )or&a iBes the notion o) "udicia re%ie#. In short, the constitutiona issue on #hich 7ar$ur' %. 7adison #as decided #as #hether Con*ress cou d e,!and the ori*ina "urisdiction o) the Su!re&e Court. The decision On >e$ruar' 14, 1<;3, the Court rendered a unani&ous 84J;9 decision,E13F that 7ar$ur' had the ri*ht to his co&&ission $ut the court did not ha%e the !o#er to )orce 7adison to de i%er the co&&ission. Chie) (ustice 7arsha #rote the o!inion o) the court. 7arsha !resented the case as raisin* three distinct 0uestions. =id 7ar$ur' ha%e a ri*ht to the co&&issionI =o the a#s o) the countr' *i%e 7ar$ur' a e*a re&ed'I Is as+in* the Su!re&e Court )or a #rit o) &anda&us the correct e*a re&ed'I 7arsha 0uic+ ' ans#ered the )irst t#o 0uestions a))ir&ati%e '. Ae )ound that the )ai ure to de i%er the co&&ission #as @%io ati%e o) a %ested e*a ri*ht.@ In decidin* #hether 7ar$ur' had a re&ed', 7arsha stated. @The -o%ern&ent o) the United States has $een e&!hatica ' ter&ed a *o%ern&ent o) a#s, and not o) &en. It #i certain ' cease to deser%e this hi*h a!!e ation i) the a#s )urnish no re&ed' )or the %io ation o) a %ested e*a ri*ht.@ One o) the +e' e*a !rinci! es on #hich 7ar$ur' re ies is the notion that )or e%er' %io ation o) a %ested e*a ri*ht, there &ust $e a e*a re&ed'. 7arsha ne,t descri$ed t#o distinct t'!es o) /,ecuti%e actions. !o itica actions, #here the o))icia can e,ercise discretion, and !ure ' &inisteria )unctions, #here the o))icia is e*a ' re0uired to do so&ethin*. 7arsha )ound that de i%erin* the a!!oint&ent to 7ar$ur' #as a !ure ' &inisteria )unction re0uired $' a#, and there)ore the a# !ro%ided hi& a re&ed'. A )edera court has a @s!ecia o$ i*ation to Dsatis)' itse ) not on ' o) its o#n "urisdiction, $ut a so that o) the o#er courts in a cause under re%ie#.D@ I) a court does not ha%e the !o#er to hear a case, it #i not issue dicta. Conse0uent ', #ith e,ce!tions not a!! ica$ e here, a )edera court &ust decide #hether it has "urisdiction $e)ore discussin* the &erits o) the case. Chie) (ustice 7arsha , ho#e%er, did not address "urisdictiona issues unti addressin* the )irst t#o 0uestions !resented a$o%e. Because o) the canon o) constitutiona a%oidance 8i.e., #here a statute can )air ' $e inter!reted so as to a%oid a constitutiona issue, it shou d $e so inter!reted9, courts *enera ' dea #ith the constitutiona issues on ' i) necessar'. In this case, the "urisdictiona issue #as a constitutiona one. In ana 'Bin* the third 0uestion, 7arsha di%ided the 0uestion )urther, as+in* i) a #rit o) &anda&us #as the correct &eans $' #hich to restore 7ar$ur' to his ri*ht, and i) so, #hether the #rit 7ar$ur' sou*ht cou d issue )ro& the Su!re&e Court. Conc udin* 0uic+ ' that since a #rit o) &anda&us, $' de)inition, #as the correct "udicia &eans to order an o))icia o) the United States 8in this case, the Secretar' o) State9 to do so&ethin* re0uired o) hi& 8in this case, de i%er a co&&ission9, 7arsha de%otes the re&ainder o) his in0uir' at the second !art o) the 0uestion. @Whether it Ethe #ritF can issue )ro& this court.@

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/ ectora Co&ission. then. 63 Phi . An*ara and the res!ondents Pedro Ynsua.. $e !assed $' those intended to $e restrainedI@E1<F 7arsha a so ar*ued that the %er' nature o) the "udicia )unction re0uires courts to &a+e this deter&ination. i) these i&its &a'. The !ro%incia $oard o) can%assers !roc ai&ed An*ara as &e&$er5e ect o) the Nationa Asse&$ ' and he too+ his oath o) o))ice. or con)or&a$ ' to the Constitution. so that the Court &ust either decide that case con)or&a$ ' to the a#. An*ara. 7arsha disa*reed and he d that Con*ress does not ha%e the !o#er to &odi)' the Su!re&e CourtDs ori*ina "urisdiction.7arsha )irst e. 7i*ue Casti o. then. 13? 81?369 >acts. 7arsha then oo+ed to Artic e III o) the Constitution. >ina '. #hich in e))ect. This con) ict raised the i&!ortant 0uestion o) #hat ha!!ens #hen an Act o) Con*ress con) icts #ith the Constitution. instituted an action )or the issuance o) a #rit o) !rohi$ition to restrain and !rohi$it the / ectora Co&&ission )ro& ta+in* )urther co*niBance o) the !rotest )i ed $' Pedro Ynsua a*ainst the e ection o) said !etitioner. disre*ardin* the Constitution. In su!!ort o) this !osition 7arsha oo+ed to the nature o) the #ritten ConstitutionGthere #ou d $e no !oint o) ha%in* a #ritten Constitution i) the courts cou d "ust i*nore it..@ Part o) the core o) this reasonin* is )ound in the )o o#in* state&ents )ro& the decision. i) t#o a#s con) ict #ith each other. and the Constitution is su!erior to an' ordinar' act o) the Le*is ature.!ound and inter!ret that ru e. the Courts &ust decide on the o!eration o) each.*. at an' ti&e. It is e&!hatica ' the !ro%ince and dut' o) the (udicia =e!art&ent Ethe "udicia $ranchF to sa' #hat the a# is. #as unconstitutiona and thus in%a id. #hich de)ines the Su!re&e CourtDs ori*ina and a!!e ate "urisdictions 8see 2e e%ant La# a$o%e9. a))ir&in* the !rinci! e o) "udicia re%ie#. The Nationa Asse&$ ' !assed 2eso ution No. the Court he d that it ac+ed "urisdiction $ecause Section 13 o) the (udiciar' Act !assed $' Con*ress in 1:<?. the Court &ust deter&ine #hich o) these con) ictin* ru es *o%erns the case. &ust *o%ern the case to #hich the' $oth a!! '. )i. The / ectora 4 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. the Constitution.@ 7ar$ur' ne%er $eca&e a (ustice o) the Peace in the =istrict o) Co u&$ia 14 An*ara %s. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . 7arsha ans#ered that Acts o) Con*ress that con) ict #ith the Constitution are not a# and the Courts are $ound instead to )o o# the Constitution. courts ha%e to $e a$ e to decide #hat a# a!! ies to each case. and to the Su!re&ac' C ause o) the Constitution. o) necessit'. 1?35. Since it is a courtDs dut' to decide cases. i) $oth the a# and the Constitution a!! ' to a !articu ar case.*. Conse0uent '.ed the ast date to )i e e ection !rotests. I). There)ore. the Courts are to re*ard the Constitution. #hich authoriBed the Court to issue such a #rit. Petitioner. <. and =ionisio 7a'or #ere candidates %oted )or the !osition o) &e&$ers o) the Nationa Asse&$ ' )or the )irst district o) Ta'a$as. disre*ardin* the a#. i) a a# Ee. a statute or treat'F $e in o!!osition to the Constitution. a&on* other thin*s. This is o) the %er' essence o) "udicia dut'. and see on ' the a# Ee. a court &ust decide #hich a# a!! ies. Those. and not such ordinar' act. the statute or treat'F. So. This doctrine #ou d su$%ert the %er' )oundation o) a #ritten constitutions. #ho contro%ert the !rinci! e that the Constitution is to $e considered in court as a !ara&ount a# are reduced to the necessit' o) &aintainin* that courts &ust c ose their e'es on the Constitution. 1:. !etitioner (ose A. e. I) t#o a#s con) ict #ith each other. and to #hat !ur!ose is that i&itation co&&itted to #ritin*. that Ynsua $e dec ared the e ected 7e&$er o) the Nationa Asse&$ ' or that the e ection o) said !osition $e nu i)ied. @In den'in* his re0uest.a&ined the (udiciar' Act o) 1:<? and deter&ined that the Act !ur!orted to *i%e the Su!re&e Court ori*ina "urisdiction o%er #rits o) &anda&us. #hich ists the @Constitution@ $e)ore the @ a#s o) the United States. 7arsha )ound that the Constitution and the (udiciar' Act con) ict. @To #hat !ur!ose are !o#ers i&ited. 7arsha !ointed to the "ud*eDs oath re0uirin* the& to u!ho d the Constitution. Ynsua )i ed $e)ore the / ectora Co&&ission a @7otion o) Protest@ a*ainst An*ara and !ra'in*. In the e ections o) Se!t. Those #ho a!! ' the ru e to !articu ar cases &ust. 7ar$ur' had ar*ued that the Constitution #as on ' intended to set a ) oor )or ori*ina "urisdiction that Con*ress cou d add to.

The se!aration o) !o#ers is a )unda&enta !rinci! e in our s'ste& o) *o%ern&ent.Co&&ission therea)ter ado!ted the reso ution statin* that ast da' )or )i in* o) !rotests is on =ec. In cases o) con) ict. Ae a so ar*ued that the Constitution con)ers e. The Constitution sets )orth in no uncertain an*ua*e the restrictions and i&itations u!on *o%ern&enta !o#ers and a*encies. On Su!re&e CourtKs "urisdiction.ecuti%e and e*is ati%e acts %oid i) %io ati%e o) the Constitution. 1?35. $' #hich the / ectora Co&&ission )i. returns and 0ua i)ications o) &e&$ers o) the Nationa Asse&$ '. It o$tains not throu*h e. The Constitution is a de)inition o) the !o#ers o) *o%ern&ent. and is su!re&e #ithin its o#n s!here. /%en then. 2es!ondent a%erred that the / ectora Co&&ission has the so e !o#er o) re*u atin* its !roceedin*s to the e. not on ' $ecause the e*is ature is !resu&ed to a$ide $' the Constitution. con) ictin* c ai&s o) authorit' under the )unda&enta a# $et#een de!art&enta !o#ers and a*encies o) the *o%ern&ent are necessari ' 5 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. 1. 1. it does not )o o# that it is $e'ond the reach o) the constitutiona &echanis& ado!ted $' the !eo! e and that it is not su$"ect to constitutiona restrictions.cess o) its "urisdiction in assu&in* to the co*niBance o) the !rotest )i ed the e ection o) the herein !etitioner not#ithstandin* the !re%ious con)ir&ation o) such e ection $' reso ution o) the Nationa Asse&$ '. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . 1. then the reso ution o) =ece&$er ?. and the / ectora Co&&ission on the other. then the reso ution o) the / ectora Co&&ission is &ere sur! usa*e and had no e))ect. this !o#er o) "udicia re%ie# is i&ited to actua cases and contro%ersies to $e e. returns and 0ua i)ications o) &e&$ers o) the Nationa Asse&$ '.ercised a)ter )u o!!ortunit' o) ar*u&ent $' the !arties. An*ara contended that the reso ution o) the Nationa Asse&$ ' has the e))ect o) cuttin* o)) the !o#er o) the / ectora Co&&ission to entertain !rotests a*ainst the e ection.ed said date as the ast da' )or )i in* !rotests a*ainst the e ection. ?. shou d $e u!he d.ercise o) its !o#er to deter&ine the a#. $ut a so $ecause the "udiciar' in the deter&ination o) actua cases and contro%ersies &ust res!ect the #isdo& and "ustice o) the !eo! e as e. The Constitution itse ) has !ro%ided )or the instru&enta it' o) the "udiciar' as the rationa #a'.ecuti%e and e*is ati%e de!art&ents o) *o%ern&ent. Issues.c usion o) the Nationa Asse&$ '. WON the said / ectora Co&&ission acted #ithout or in e. and e%en i) it #ere. it does not assert an' su!eriorit' o%er the other de!art&ents. #ith the Su!re&e Court as the )ina ar$iter. The / ectora Co&&ission is not a se!arate de!art&ent o) the *o%ern&ent. )or e. the "udicia de!art&ent is the on ' constitutiona or*an #hich can $e ca ed u!on to deter&ine the !ro!er a ocation o) !o#ers $et#een the se%era de!art&ents and a&on* the inte*ra or constituent units thereo). and hence to dec are e.c usi%e "urisdiction u!on the / ectora Co&&ission so e ' as re*ards the &erits o) contested e ections to the Nationa Asse&$ ' and the Su!re&e Court there)ore has no "urisdiction to hear the case. and i&ited )urther to the constitutiona 0uestion raised or the %er' is &ota !resented.!ress !ro%ision $ut $' actua di%ision in our Constitution. This is #hat is ter&ed as @ "udicia su!re&ac'@ #hich !ro!er ' is the !o#er o) "udicia re%ie# under the Constitution. WON the Su!re&e Court "urisdiction o%er the / ectora Co&&ission and the su$"ect &atter o) the contro%ers'. e))ecti%e ' chec+s the other de!art&ents in the e. Aere is then !resented an actua contro%ers' in%o %in* as it does a con) ict o) a *ra%e constitutiona nature $et#een the Nationa Asse&$ ' on the one hand. The "udiciar'. But it does not )o o# )ro& the )act that the three !o#ers are to $e +e!t se!arate and distinct that the Constitution intended the& to $e a$so ute ' unrestrained and inde!endent o) each other.!ressed throu*h their re!resentati%es in the e. The Constitution has !ro%ided )or an e a$orate s'ste& o) chec+s and $a ances to secure coordination in the #or+in*s o) the %arious de!art&ents o) the *o%ern&ent.a&! e. #hen and #hi e actin* #ithin the i&its o) its authorit'. Courts accord the !resu&!tion o) constitutiona it' to e*is ati%e enact&ents. Ae d.c usi%e co*niBance o) &atters #ithin its "urisdiction. Yes. A thou*h the / ectora Co&&ission &a' not $e inter)ered #ith. /ach de!art&ent o) the *o%ern&ent has e. And #hen the "udiciar' &ediates to a ocate constitutiona $oundaries.

SUMMARY: 8a9 That the *o%ern&ent esta$ ished $' the Constitution )o o#s )unda&enta ' the theor' o) se!aration o) !o#er into the e*is ati%e. there)ore. #ith the Su!re&e Court as the )ina ar$iter. < o) the Nationa Asse&$ ' con)ir&in* the e ection o) &e&$ers a*ainst #ho& no !rotests had $een )i ed at the ti&e o) its !assa*e. 8c9 That in cases o) con) ict $et#een the se%era de!art&ents and a&on* the a*encies thereo). >ro& another an* e. On / ectora Co&&issionKs "urisdiction The issue hin*es on the inter!retation o) section 4 o) Artic e VI o) the Constitution. the e. The *rant o) !o#er to the / ectora Co&&ission to "ud*e a contests re atin* to the e ection. an inde!endent or*an. necessitate rei the !o#er re*u ati%e in character to i&it the ti&e #ithin #hich !rotests instructed to its co*niBance shou d $e )i ed. But inde!endent ' o) the e*a and constitutiona as!ects o) the !resent case. it is.ecuti%e and the "udicia . there are considerations o) e0uita$ e character that shou d not $e o%er oo+ed in the a!!reciation o) the intrinsic &erits o) the contro%ers'. con)ir&ation a one $' the e*is ature cannot $e construed as de!ri%in* the / ectora Co&&ission o) the authorit' incidenta to its constitutiona !o#er to $e @the so e "ud*e o) a contests. &ust $e dee&ed $' necessar' i&! ication to ha%e $een od*ed a so in the / ectora Co&&ission. the incidenta !o#er to !ro&u *ate such ru es necessar' )or the !ro!er e. cannot $e construed as a i&itation u!on the ti&e )or the initiation o) e ection contests.c usi%e !o#er to "ud*e a contests re atin* to the e ection. to an inde!endent and i&!artia tri$una . 8$9 That the s'ste& o) chec+s and $a ances and the o%er a!!in* o) )unctions and duties o)ten &a+es di))icu t the de i&itation o) the !o#ers *ranted. 1?35. and e. returns. the / ectora Co&&ission had not 'et &etC neither does it a!!ear that said $od' had actua ' $een or*aniBed..!ress od*in* o) that !o#er in the / ectora Co&&ission is an i&! ied denia in the e. it is as e))ecti%e a restriction u!on the e*is ati%e !o#er as an e. The creation o) the / ectora Co&&ission carried #ith it e. There)ore. and 0ua i)ications o) the &e&$ers o) the Nationa Asse&$ '. The court has "urisdiction o%er the / ectora Co&&ission and the su$"ect &atter o) the !resent contro%ers' )or the !ur!ose o) deter&inin* the character. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . sco!* said date as the ast da' )or the )i in* o) e ection !rotests. Whi e there &i*ht ha%e $een *ood reason )or the e*is ati%e !ractice o) con)ir&ation o) the e ection o) &e&$ers o) the e*is ature at the ti&e the !o#er to decide e ection contests #as sti od*ed in the e*is ature. is intended to $e as co&! ete and uni&!aired as i) it had re&ained ori*ina ' in the e*is ature. returns.ercise o) the i&ited and s!eci)ic )unction assi*ned to it $' the Constitution. When.deter&ined $' the "udiciar' in "usticia$ e and a!!ro!riate cases. and 0ua i)ications o) &e&$ers o) the Nationa Asse&$ '. 2eso ution No. ?.ercise o) its e.@.@ 1. con)ir&in* the e ection o) the !etitioner to the Nationa Asse&$ '.tent o) the constitutiona *rant to the / ectora Co&&ission as @the so e "ud*e o) a contests re atin* to the e ection. returns. >ro& the de i$erations o) our Constitutiona Con%ention it is e%ident that the !ur!ose #as to trans)er in its tota it' a the !o#ers !re%ious ' e. the Nationa Asse&$ ' !assed its reso ution o) =ec. And thus.ercise o) that !o#er $' the Nationa Asse&$ '. It a!!ears that on =ec.ercised $' the e*is ature in &atters !ertainin* to contested e ections o) its &e&$ers. The e. to a intents and !ur!oses. the "udiciar'. to )i.. 1?35. the ti&e )or the )i in* o) said e ection !rotests. the / ectora Co&&ission &et )or the )irst ti&e and a!!ro%ed a reso ution )i. and 0ua i)ications o) &e&$ers o) the Nationa Asse&$ '. The / ectora Co&&ission is a constitutiona creation. #hen actin* #ithin the i&its o) its authorit'. in%ested #ith the necessar' authorit' in the !er)or&ance and e. A thou*h it is not a !o#er in our tri!artite sche&e o) *o%ern&ent. 3. is the on ' constitutiona &echanis& de%ised )ina ' to reso %e the con) ict and 6 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty.!ress !rohi$ition in the Constitution.

Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . and so&e ti&e a)ter. in s!ite o) her re!eated de&ands. 154?. returns and 0ua i)ications o) &e&$ers o) the Nationa Asse&$ '. and that e%en i) the' did. each house o) the e*is ature #as res!ecti%e ' the so e "ud*e o) the e ections. 1?36. 8h9 That the !resent Constitution has trans)erred a the !o#ers !re%ious ' e. )or the reason that it %io ates the constitutiona !rohi$ition a*ainst i&!rison&ent )or de$t. the accused. 8i9 That such trans)er o) !o#er )ro& the e*is ature to the / ectora Co&&ission #as )u . 3. the a#s !ena iBin* it are unconstitutiona . at an a*reed sa ar' o) P35 a &onth #i )u ' and i e*a ' re)used to !a' the sa ar' o) said steno*ra!her corres!ondin* to the a$o%e5&entioned !eriod o) ti&e. necesitate rei the i&! ied !o#er inter a ia to !rescri$e the ru es and re*u ations as to the ti&e and &anner o) )i in* !rotests. Vera. 154? as ast a&ended $' Act No. The accused inter!osed a de&urrer on the *round that the )acts a e*ed in the in)or&ation do not constitute an' o))ense. returns. A)ter the hearin*. 8 9 That con)ir&ation $' the Nationa Asse&$ ' o) the e ection o) an' &e&$er a*ainst #ho& no !rotest had $een )i ed !rior to said con)ir&ation. does not and cannot de!ri%e the / ectora Co&&ission o) its incidenta !o#er to !rescri$e the ti&e #ithin #hich !rotests a*ainst the e ection o) an' &e&$er o) the Nationa Asse&$ ' shou d $e )i ed. 8*9 That under the or*anic a# !re%ai in* $e)ore the !resent Constitution #ent into e))ect. and carried #ith it e.<5 and 3?5< The in)or&ation a e*ed that )ro& Se!te&$er ? to Octo$er 1<. 3?5<. 65 Phi .ecute and !er)or&. #hich o$"ect #ou d $e )rustrated i) the Nationa Asse&$ ' #ere to retain the !o#er to !rescri$e ru es and re*u ations re*ardin* the &anner o) conductin* said contests. #hich considers as an o))ense the )acts a e*ed in the in)or&ation. 8"9 That the a%o#ed !ur!ose in creatin* the / ectora Co&&ission #as to ha%e an inde!endent constitutiona or*an !ass u!on a contests re atin* to the e ection. #hich #as on* due and !a'a$ e. c oser )or !ur!oses o) c assi)ication to the e*is ati%e than to an' o) the other t#o de!art&ents o) the *o%ern&ents. in his ca!acit' as !resident and *enera &ana*er o) the Conso idated 7ines. 8) 9 That the / ectora Co&&ission is the so e "ud*e o) a contests re atin* to the e ection. 8d9 That "udicia su!re&ac' is $ut the !o#er o) "udicia re%ie# in actua and a!!ro!riate cases and contro%ersies. c ear and co&! ete. and dis&issed the case. de%oid o) !artisan in) uence or consideration. 8+9 That con)ir&ation $' the Nationa Asse&$ ' o) the e ection is contested or not. #ith costs de o)icio. returns and 0ua i)ications o) &e&$ers o) the Nationa Asse&$ '. is not essentia $e)ore such &e&$er5 e ect &a' dischar*e the duties and en"o' the !ri%i e*es o) a &e&$er o) the Nationa Asse&$ '. 13 Peo! e %s. and is the !o#er and dut' to see that no one $ranch or a*enc' o) the *o%ern&ent transcends the Constitution. and 0ua i)ications o) their e ecti%e &e&$ers.ercised $' the e*is ature #ith res!ect to contests re atin* to the e ections. ha%in* en*a*ed the ser%ices o) Se%era Ve asco de Vera as steno*ra!her. as a&ended $' Acts Nos. 8e9 That the / ectora Co&&ission is an inde!endent constitutiona creation #ith s!eci)ic !o#ers and )unctions to e. dec arin* unconstitutiona the ast !art o) section 1 o) Act No. to the / ectora Co&&ission. #hich is the source o) a authorit'. 7 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. The de)endant #as char*ed #ith a %io ation o) Act No. returns and 0ua i)ications o) its &e&$ers. the court sustained the de&urrer. 13? 81?369 7ain to!ic.a ocate constitutiona $oundaries. Po ice Po#er >acts.

3?5<.O. 811 C. 3?5< unconstitutiona . Without this a#. IAC. and the non!a'&ent o) the sa ar' #ithin the !eriods s!eci)ied is considered as a %io ation o) the a#. E. Whether the said !ro%ision on !ena ties )or non5!a'&ent is unconstitutiona seein* as the constitution denies i&!rison&ent )or non5!a'&ent o) de$t. sa)et'. re)uses to !a' the sa aries o) his a$orers or e&! o'ers in the s!eci)ied !eriods o) ti&e. 0arabao1carabeef transporte# in !iolation of E. to !ro&ote the order.O. A/L=.. The sa&e Act e. 626-A shall be sub2ect to confiscation an# forfeiture by the o!t3 to be #istribute# to charitable institutions as 0hair"an of National .In this a!!ea the So icitor5-enera contends that the court erred in dec arin* Act No. Artic e III.O. 7his a"en#e# E. one o) the !ur!oses o) the a# is to su!!ress !ossi$ e a$uses on the !art o) e&! o'ers #ho hire a$orers or e&! o'ees #ithout !a'in* the& the sa aries a*reed u!on )or their ser%ices. in the &a"orit' o) cases. #ithout "usti)ication and to the !re"udice o) the a$orer or e&! o'ee. ha%in* )ai ed to !a' the sa ar'. thus causin* the& )inancia di))icu ties.arotac for !iolatin E/ecuti!e Or#er No. 6268 the latter prohibitin only the slau hter of carabaos of a e. A c ose !erusa o) the ast !art o) section 1 o) Act No. Ynot %s. 14< SC2A 65? 81?<:9 11 Petitioner assails constitutionality of E. #ith on ' t#o da's e. the sa aries o) his e&! o'ees or a$orers on the )i)teenth or ast da' o) e%er' &onth or on Saturda' o) e%er' #ee+. 626-A E/ecuti!e Or#er No. The )irst case is a %io ation o) Act No.O. as a&ended $' section 1 o) Act No. #hich !ro%ides that no !erson sha $e i&!risoned )or de$t. and *enera #e )are o) societ'. In $oth cases the deceit or )raud is the essentia e e&ent constitutin* the o))ense. No. 154?. We do not $e ie%e that this constitutiona !ro%ision has $een correct ' a!! ied in this case. #ithin constitutiona i&its. In either case the o))ender cannot certain ' in%o+e the constitutiona !rohi$ition a*ainst i&!rison&ent )or de$t. $ein* a$ e to do so. 626-A prohibits the interpro!incial "o!e"ent of carabaos an# the slau hterin of carabaos. o) the Constitution.asbate to -loilo $hen they $ere confiscate# by the police station co""an#er of . sha a$stain or re)use to do so.ercise o) this !o#er the Le*is ature has a&! e authorit' to a!!ro%e the dis!uted !ortion o) Act No. The court he d that this !ro%ision is nu $ecause it %io ates the !ro%ision o) section 1 8119. !. ISSU/. The ast !art o) section 1 considers as i e*a the re)usa o) an e&! o'er to !a'. $ein* a$ e to &a+e !a'&ent.9 In the e. &ora s. (.4. hea -nspection "ay see fit 4carabeef5 an# to #eser!in far"ers as the 6irector of Ani"al -n#ustry "ay see fit 4carabao5. Undou$ted '.tension. 3?5< #hich !unishes the e&! o'er #ho. the a$orers and e&! o'ees #ho earn &ea*er sa aries #ou d $e co&!e ed to institute ci%i actions #hich. 626-A $as hel# unconstitutional for !iolatin the #ue process clause. %acts& 13'an1()4& Petitioner *estituto +not ha# trans"itte# 6 carabaos in a pu"p boat fro" . $' re)usin* to !a' his "ust de$t. #i sho# that its an*ua*e re)ers on ' to the e&! o'er #ho. No. and the second is esta)a !unished $' the 2e%ised Pena Code. ?. Po ice !o#er is the !o#er inherent in a *o%ern&ent to enact a#s. An e&! o'er so circu&stanced is not un i+e a !erson #ho de)rauds another. 3?5<. ) Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. #ou d cost the& &ore than that #hich the' #ou d recei%e in case o) a decision in their )a%or. 626-A prohibitin the interpro!incial "o!e"ent of carabaos an# the slau hterin of carabaos. shou d !ro%e satis)actori ' that it #as i&!ossi$ e to &a+e such !a'&ent. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . #hen he can do so.e&!ts )ro& cri&ina res!onsi$i it' the e&! o'er #ho. No.

for lac. 3. 5C24a5D Art E---3 1()7 0onstitution. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . ?uperse#eas bon# cancelle# an# the a"ount thereof is or#ere# restore# to petitioner.O. -ssue1s& >ON EO 626-A is constitutional. 0A #ecision re!erse#. Petitioner<s ar u"ents& 1. @..Petitioner sue# for reco!ery8 *70 issue# $rit of reple!in after petitioner file# superse#eas bon of P123999.O. *ulin & EO 626-A is #eclare# lan ua e to a!oi# contro!ersies ( Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Penalty is in!ali#. -t authori=es outri ht confiscation of carabao or carabeef bein transporte# across pro!incial boun#aries. On the presumption of constitutionality Not by any "eans conclusi!e an# in fact "ay be rebutte# On due process Pro!isions of the charter are to be cats in precise an# un"ista. of authority an# its presu"e# !ali#ity Petitioner appeale# the #ecision to the -nter"e#iate Appellate 0ourt 4-A058 -A0 uphel# the 70.99 7rial 0ourt 4705& confiscation of carabaos:sustaine#8 or#ere# confiscation of the bon#8 #ecline# to rule on the constitutionality of the E.B ?ec. -"proper e/ercise of le islati!e po$er by the for"er Presi#ent. 2. *atio& On the power of courts to decide on constitutional matters *esolution of such cases "ay be "a#e in the first instance by lo$er courts sub2ect to re!ie$ of the ?upre"e 0ourt.$hile lo$er courts shoul# obser!e a beco"in "o#esty in e/a"inin constitutional Auestions3 they are nonetheless not pre!ente# fro" resol!in the sa"e $hene!er $arrante#3 sub2ect only to the re!ie$ of the hi hest tribunal. is unconstitutional. -t is i"pose# $ithout accor#in the o$ner a ri ht to be hear# before a co"petent an# i"partial court as uarantee# by #ue process. E.

2o&an P. head o) the Nationa Inte i*ence and Securit' Authorit' 8NISA9. Bo&$s once a*ain e. Ca i)ornia. inc udin* Lo%e '.that "i ht arise on their correct interpretation. Ia$ful "etho# 4as use# in the case3 but this is the sa"e $ith the fit bet$een "eans an# ob2ecti!e test5 1 J @present con#itions #e"an# that the carabaos an# the buffaloes be conser!e# for the benefit of the s"all far"ers $ho rely on the" for ener y nee#s. As a resu t o) the serious in"uries he su))ered. under the o%er5a direction o) -enera >a$ian Ver. Luna Aos!ita 9#here he #as ! ace in the custod' and detention o) Co .F. one Victor Burns Lo%e '.! oded in 7etro 7ani a inc udin* one #hich resu ted in the death o) an A&erican ad' #ho #as sho!!in* at 2ustanDs Su!er&ar+et in 7a+ati and others #hich caused in"uries to a nu&$er o) !ersons. 7ade a. Sa on*a and his #i)e #ere a&on* those #hose i+enesses a!!eared in the *rou! !ictures to*ether #ith other *uests..! osion o) a s&a $o&$ inside his roo& at the Y7CA $ui din* in 7ani a.ept intentionally !a ue so it $oul# re"ain also con!eniently resilient8 fle/ibility .B %aile# to co"ply $ith K28 there is no reasonable connection bet$een conser!ation of carabaos 4not ha!in the" slau htere#5 an# the "eans& non-transportation of carabaos. at the $irthda' !art' o) )or&er Con*ress&an 2au =aBa he d at the atterDs residence in a Los An*e es su$ur$. . Lo%e ' #as ta+en out o) the hos!ita Ds intensi%e care unit and trans)erred to the o))ice o) Co . #as !resented durin* the con)erence.arcos not for the purpose of ta. Lo%e ' and his t#o $rothers. (o%ito 2.EN7?& a5 notice an# b5 hearin Hinten#e# as safe uar# a ainst official arbitrariness. 6. 0o"pellin state interest 2. Short ' a)ter#ards. and da&a*e to !ro!ert'.. a &ost +i ed hi&se ) and in"ured his 'oun*er $rother. i e*a !ossession o) e. ne#s!a!ers ca&e out #ith a &ost identica head ines statin* in e))ect that Sa on*a had $een in+ed to the %arious $o&$in*s in 7etro 7ani a. 7r. 2o&eo. >ound in Lo%e 'Ds !ossession $' !o ice and &i itar' authorities #ere se%era !ictures ta+en so&eti&e in 7a' 1?<.ut it $as not sho$n that there is sufficient e/i encies to e/ercise the e/traor#inary po$er Police power as used by the government to justify E O 626-A 7est& 1. The ne. 0lause $as . . On Se!te&$er 1?<. On the power used by President Marcos in promulgating EO 626-A 7he challen e# "easure is #eno"inate# as an EO but it is actually a P6 issue# by Pres. a Phi i!!ine5$orn A&erican citiBen )ro& Los An*e es. 2o&eo. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . CruB Pano. Se!te&$er and Octo$er o) 1?< care that the la$s $ere faithfully e/ecute# but in the e/ercise of his le islati!e authority un#er A"en#"ent No. The 'oun*er $rother o) Victor Lo%e '. as a resu t o) the e. The PresidentDs anni%ersar' te e%ision radio !ress con)erence #as $roadcast. (r. 134 SC2A 43< 81?<59 FACTS: A rash o) $o&$in*s occurred in the 7etro 7ani a area in the &onths o) Au*ust. Lo%e ' #as $rou*ht $' &i itar' and !o ice authorities to the A>P 7edica Center 8V.! osi%es.t da'. 2o&eo and Ba taBar Lo%e ' #here char*ed #ith su$%ersion. 7ore $o&$s #ere 19 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. 7ean#hi e.-N-. *EGF-*E. 7ade a #here he #as he d inco&&unicado )or so&e ti&e. 11 Sa on*a %s.

It has the s'&$o ic )unction o) educatin* $ench and $ar on the e. constitutiona ' %oid. 1?<4 !roc ai&in* Paci)icador the #inner in the e ection I A/L=. the sa&e Second =i%ision ordered the $oard to i&&ediate ' con%ene and to !roc ai& the #inner #ithout !re"udice to the outco&e o) the !etition )i ed $' (a%ier #ith the CO7/L/C. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . and i e*a !ossession o) )irear&s. The arrestin* o))icer sho#ed Sa on*a the ASSO )or& #hich ho#e%er did not s!eci)' the char*e or char*es a*ainst hi&.. (a%ier #ent to the CO7/L/C to !re%ent the i&!endin* !roc a&ation o) his ri%a . (a%ier %s. Within the ne.ercise o) its s'&$o ic )unction )ro& !ro&u *atin* one o) the &ost %o u&inous decision se%er !rinted in the 2e!orts. authoriBed to !ro&u *ate its decision o) (u ' 13.! oded.ecuti%e order #as &ooted $' Presidentia =ecree 15. The !etition $eca&e &oot $ecause o) his esca!e $ut #e nonethe ess rendered a decision. On 7a' 1<.. 7inutes a)ter the President had )inished de i%erin* his s!eech $e)ore the Internationa Con)erence o) the A&erican Societ' o) Tra%e A*ents at the Phi i!!ine Internationa Con%ention Center. 16 !etitioners #ere re eased )ro& custod' and one #ithdre# his !etition. 144 SC2A 1?4 81?<69 >ACTS. durin* the !endenc' o) the case. the CenterDs ne# charter !ursuant to the PresidentDs e*is ati%e !o#ers under &artia a#.. Was the Second =i%ision o) the CO7/L/C.C. either as a co5cons!irator o) a desta$i iBation ! an to o%erthro# the *o%ern&ent or as an o))icer or eader o) an' su$%ersi%e or*aniBation. arrest.1?5. the Court discussed the constitutiona &andate on the !reser%ation and de%e o!&ent o) >i i!ino cu ture )or nationa identit'.doctrines. ISSUE: Whether the Court &a' sti e a$orate on a decision #hen the o#er courts ha%e dro!!ed the case a*ainst !etitioner Sa on*a. #ho #ere a!!arent ' i&! icated $' Victor Lo%e ' in the series o) $o&$in*s in 7etro 7ani a. o) intrusions o) State authorit' into areas reser%ed $' the Bi o) 2i*hts )or the indi%idua as constitutiona ' !rotected s!heres #here e%en the a#eso&e !o#ers o) -o%ern&ent &a' not enter at #i is not the tota it' o) the CourtDs )unctions.t 14 hours. In -onBa es %. 11 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. 7arcos 865 SC2A 6149 #hether or not the Cu tura Center o) the Phi i!!ines cou d %a id ' $e created throu*h an e. In de a Ca&ara %. esca!ed )ro& the !ro%incia "ai #hi e his !etition #as !endin*. #hich the !etitioner seasona$ ' &ade. as &a $o&$ e. ho#e%er. the !etitioner #ho 0uestioned a P1. On (u ' 13. /nri e 85? SC2A1<39. On certiorari #ith the S.1. the !rosecution e%idence &isera$ ' )ai s to esta$ ish a !ri&a )acie case a*ainst Sa on*a. 1?<4. the Second =i%ision o) the CO7/L/C directed the !ro%incia $oard o) can%assers to !roceed #ith the can%ass $ut to sus!end the !roc a&ation o) the #innin* candidate unti )urther orders. %. The !etitioner /%e io (a%ier and the !ri%ate res!ondent Arturo Paci)icador #ere candidates in Anti0ue )or the Batasan* Pa&$ansa e ection in 7a' 1?<4. or ru es. HE !: The settin* aside or dec arin* %oid. in !ro!er cases. su$%ersion. and seiBure orders 8ASSOs9 #ere issued a*ainst !ersons. Sti . 1?<4. CO7/L/!orted to ha%e e. The $o&$s in"ured ? !eo! e. The Court a so has the dut' to )or&u ate *uidin* and contro in* constitutiona !rinci! es.. search. $ai $ond as e.. !rece!ts. the !roc a&ation &ade $' the Board o) Can%asser #as set aside as !re&ature. Aerein. On (une :. 1.! oded at 3 $i* hote s in 7etro 7ani a. (r. that the Court #i not %a idate the )i in* o) an in)or&ation $ased on the +ind o) e%idence a*ainst Sa on*a )ound in the records. The )act that the !etition #as &oot and acade&ic did not !re%ent the Court in the e.cessi%e and.there)ore. In the ha$eas cor!us case o) A0uino. ISSU/. A &eetin* o) the -enera 7i itar' Counci #as ca ed )or 6 Octo$er 1?<. / e&ents o) the &i itar' #ent to the hos!ita roo& o) Sa on*a at the 7ani a 7edica Center #here he #as con)ined due to his recurrent and chronic ai &ent o) $ronchia asth&a and ! aced hi& under arrest. A e*in* serious ano&a ies in the conduct o) the e ections and the can%ass o) the e ection returns.. The res!ondents ha%e ta+en the initiati%e o) dro!!in* the char*es a*ainst Sa on*a. 1?<4 the Second =i%ision itse ) !roc ai&ed Paci)icador the e ected asse&$ '&an o) Anti0ue. The so e re&ainin* !etitioner #as )acin* char*es o) &urder. /na*e 841 SC2A 19. ha%in* $een &ade $e)ore the a!se o) the 5 J da' !eriod o) a!!ea .tent o) !rotection *i%en $' constitutiona *uarantees. The Court reiterates the ru e. inc udin* Sa on*a.

returns and 0ua i)ications o) the &e&$ers o) the Batasan* Pa&$ansa and e ecti%e !ro%incia and cit' o))icia s.. To $o ster that re0uire&ent #e ha%e he d that the "ud*e &ust not on ' $e i&!artia $ut &ust a so a!!ear to $e i&!artia as an added assurance to the !arties that his decision #i $e "ust. Petitioners Ba'an. 2ecto and Le!anto Streets and )orci$ ' dis!ersed the&. thou*h *one. so&e o) the& in toto and others on ' Sections 4. Be the so e "ud*e o) a contests re atin* to the e ection.ce!t contests in%o %in* &e&$ers o) the Batasan* Pa&$ansa. c ai& that on Octo$er 4.5. (ustice de&ands that #e act. 138a9. and e%en i) (a%ier had a read' died in the &eanti&e. as #e as the !o ic' o) CP2. The a!! ica$ e !ro%isions o) the 1?:3 Constitution are Art. Po ice o))icers $ oc+ed the& a on* 7ora'ta Street and !re%ented the& )ro& !roceedin* )urther. 12 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. The case shou d ha%e $een decided en $anc. &ade $e)ore or a)ter the !roc a&ation o) the #inner. Pre5!roc a&ation contro%ersies $eca&e +no#n and desi*nated as such on ' $ecause o) Sec. inc udin* those arisin* $e)ore the !roc a&ation o) the #inners. This #as $ecause o) its desire )or this case to ser%e as a *uide. LII5C. The citiBen co&es to us in 0uest o) a# $ut #e &ust a so *i%e hi& "ustice.5 is at issue. causin* in"uries on one o) the&. a &u ti5sectora ra ' #hich O7U a so co5s!onsored #as schedu ed to !roceed a on* /s!aPa A%enue in )ront o) the UST and *oin* to#ards 7endio a $rid*e. 11. A e ection casesa &a' $e heard and decided $' di%isions e. The Co&&ission on / ections &a' sit en $anc or in three di%isions.. MSection 1. decided to reso %e the case e%en i) the Batasan* Pa&$ansa had a read' $een a$o ished $' the A0uino *o%ern&ent. #hether or not the contestant is c ai&in* the o))ice in dis!ute. BAYANKs ra ' #as %io ent ' dis!ersed. . There are ti&es #hen #e cannot *rant the atter $ecause the issue has $een sett ed and decision is no on*er !ossi$ e accordin* to a#. But there are a so ti&es #hen a thou*h the dis!ute has disa!!eared.69 Ba*on* A 'ansan* 7a+a$a'an et a . secs. APPLICABL/ P2OVISIONS O> TA/ CONSITUTION. and 148a9.. 4<? SC2A 16. and the !o ic' o) MCa i$rated Pree&!ti%e 2es!onseN 8CP29 $ein* )o o#ed to i&! e&ent it. no ra 'N !o ic' andthe CP2 !o ic' announced on Se!t. The #ord McontestsN shou d not $e *i%en a restricti%e &eanin*C on the contrar'. is c ear ' a %io ation o) the Constitution and the Internationa Co%enant on Ci%i and Po itica 2i*hts and other hu&an ri*hts treaties o) #hich the Phi i!!ines is a si*nator'. The' #ere then )orci$ ' dis!ersed.. Thus it said. One o) the &e&$ers o) the Second =i%ision. 1:5 o) the 1?:< / ection Code.The !roc a&ation &ade $' the Second =i%ision is in%a id $ecause a contests in%o %in* &e&$ers o) the Batasan* Pa&$ansa co&e under the "urisdiction o) the Co&&ission on / ections en $anc. O7U asserts that the ri*ht to !eace)u asse&$ '. As e&! o'ed in the 1?:3 Constitution. #hich sha $e heard and decided en $anc. A !etitioners assai Batas Pa&$ansa No. it ne%erthe ess cries out to $e reso %ed. The' )urther a e*e that on Octo$er 6. returns and 0ua i)ications o) a &e&$ers o) the Batasan* Pa&$ansa and e ecti%e !ro%incia and cit' o))icia s. Un ess other#ise !ro%ided $' a#. then. Octo$er 4. et a . Ae denied the &otion to dis0ua i)' hi& )ro& hearin* the case. The decision rendered $' the Second =i%ision a one #as there)ore set aside as a %io ation o) the Constitution. the Constitution intended to *i%e it )u authorit' to hear and decide these cases )ro& $e*innin* to end and on a &atter re ated thereto. arrested and detained #hen a !eace)u &ass action the' #as !ree&!ted and %io ent ' dis!ersed $' the !o ice.N MSection 3. 4<< SC2A 116 81.. et a . ? < =a%id %s. 16 !etitioners #ere in"ured. There #as a so a denia o) due !rocess. are a))ected $' Batas Pa&$ansa No..69 Facts: 2a ies o) Se!te&$er 1. MThe Su!re&e Court is not on ' the hi*hest ar$iter o) e*a 0uestions $ut a so the conscience o) the *o%ern&ent. <<. #hich !ro%ide. it shou d recei%e the #idest !ossi$ e sco!e con)or&a$ ' to the ru e that the #ords used in the Constitution shou d $e inter!reted i$era '. et a .C. 11. contend that BP <<. 1. he d on the &ain issue that in &a+in* the CO7/L/C the so e "ud*e o) a contests in%o %in* the e ection.5.N The S. Three other ra 'ists #ere arrested. O7U. The Pu$ ic Asse&$ ' Act o) 1?<5.. 1. Co&&issioner (ose O!inion #as a a# !artner o) Paci)icador. a e ection cases sha $e decided #ithin ninet' da's )ro& the date o) their su$&ission )or decision. $ut a so )or the *uidance o) and as a restraint u!on the )uture. as in this case. The Court has re!eated ' and consistent ' de&anded Mthe co d neutra it' o) an i&!artia "ud*eN as the indis!ensa$ e i&!erati%e o) due !rocess. causin* in"uries to se%era o) their &e&$ers.N The S.oria 7aca!a*a 5Arro'o. The 1?:3 Constitution cou d not ha%e there)ore $een intended to ha%e di%ided contests $et#een !re and !ost !roc a&ation #hen that Constitution #as #ritten in 1?:3. 5 and 6. 81.. <<. %s.7. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . a ra ' O7U co5s!onsored #as to $e conducted at the 7endio a $rid*e $ut !o ice $ oc+ed the& a on* C. /r&ita. 6. The t#o are not a #a's the sa&e.C. 5. 1.. not on ' )or the %indication o) the outra*ed ri*ht.5. The' see+ to sto! %io ent dis!ersa s o) ra ies under the Mno !er&it. 1 and 3. the ter& shou d $e understood as re)errin* to an' &atter in%o %in* the tit e or c ai& o) tit e to an e ecti%e o))ice. 1.

su$"ect to the *i%in* o) ad%ance notices. Accordin* to AtienBa 2A. <<. Held: No 0uestion as to standin*.P. ar*ue that the Constitution sets no i&its on the ri*ht to asse&$ ' and there)ore B.ecuti%e ordersu!!orts the !o ic'. and that no a#. The re)erence to M a#)u causeN does not &a+e it content5$ased $ecause asse&$ ies rea ' ha%e to $e )or a#)u causes. O7U. are =I2/CT/= to ta+e a necessar' ste!s )or the i&&ediate co&! iance #ith Section 15 o) Batas Pa&$ansa No.P.9 da's )ro& the )ina it' o) this =ecision. 336 Phi . et a . cannot !ut the !rior re0uire&ent o) securin* a !er&it. and the CP2 Po ic' unconstitutiona . Thus.ercise $' the !eo! e o) the ri*ht to !eacea$ ' asse&$ e. ar*ue that B. Second. <<. >urther&ore. re0uires a !er&it $e)ore one can sta*e a !u$ ic asse&$ ' re*ard ess o) the !resence or a$sence o) a c ear and !resent dan*er.P. aside )ro& $ein* %oid )or $ein* %a*ue and )or ac+ o) !u$ ication. <<. *i%es the 7a'or !o#er to den' a !er&it inde!endent ' o) B. No. entai s tra))ic re5routin* to !re%ent *ra%e !u$ ic incon%enience and serious or undue inter)erence in the )ree ) o# o) co&&erce and trade. Pri%ate res!ondent Att'. <<. other#ise the' #ou d not $e M!eacea$ eN and entit ed to !rotection.The' ar*ue that B. The so5ca ed ca i$rated !ree&!ti%e res!onse !o ic' has no ! ace in our e*a )ir&a&ent and &ust $e struc+ do#n as a dar+ness that shrouds )reedo&.ercise the ri*ht to !eacea$ ' asse&$ e and !etition in the !u$ ic !ar+s or ! aBas o) a cit' or &unici!a it' that has not 'et co&! ied #ith Section 15 o) the a#. CO7/L/C 8-.!ression c ause as the ti&e and ! ace o) a !u$ ic asse&$ ' )or& !art o) the &essa*e )or #hich the e. ordinance or e.P. 2e*ardin* the CP2 !o ic'. in turn. it is %oid )or $ein* an u tra %ires act that a ters the standard o) &a. that the *o%ern&ent ta+es action e%en $e)ore the ra 'ists can !er)or& their act. throu*h the esta$ ish&ent or desi*nation o) at east one suita$ e )reedo& !ar+ or ! aBa in e%er' cit' and&unici!a it' o) the countr'. the )i%e5da' re0uire&ent to a!! ' )or a !er&it is too on* as certain e%ents re0uire instant !u$ ic asse&$ '.As to the CP2 !o ic'. CO7/L/C. and that the !er&it is )or the use o) a !u$ ic ! ace and not )or the e.P. i+e#ise.P. Petitioners (ess de Prado.P.!ressions in the ra '. (esus =e )in.. No. >irst. is not an a$so ute $an o) !u$ ic asse&$ ies $ut a restriction that si&! ' re*u ates the ti&e. <<. :16. is direct ' a))ected $' B. et a . No.. ! ace and &anner o) ho din* !u$ ic asse&$ ies. 11:315 5 7arch 1?. It a so curtai s the choice o) %enue and is thus re!u*nant to the )reedo& o) e.P. 1??:9 >acts. =e)ensor5Santia*o %s.i&u& to erance1 is )or the !rotection and $ene)it o) a ra 'ists and is inde!endent o) the content o) the e.i&u& to erance. No. <<. 2es!ondents ar*ued that !etitioners ha%e no standin*.i&u& to erance set )orth in B. No. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . Their ri*ht as citiBens to en*a*e in !eace)u asse&$ ' and e. as *uaranteed $' the Constitution. and %io ates the Constitution as it causes a chi in* e))ect on the e.. other#ise interest on the issue #ou d !ossi$ ' #ane. !resident o) Peo! eKs Initiati%e )or 2e)or&s. it contra%enes the &a. No. B. since the content o) the s!eech is not re e%ant to the re*u ation.7oderniBation and Action 8PI27A9.. Inso)ar as it #ou d !ur!ort to di))er )ro& or $e in ieu o) &a.ercise the ri*ht o) !etition. No. BP <<. is not a content5$ased re*u ation $ecause it co%ers a ra ies. the' ar*ue that it is !ree&!ti%e.. this #as dec ared nu and %oid. is unconstitutiona as it is a curtai &ent o) the ri*ht to !eace)u ' asse&$ e and !etition )or redress o) *rie%ances $ecause it !uts a condition )or the %a id e. <<. It is content5neutra re*u ation o) the ti&e. No. no !rior restraint.P. the i&its !ro%ided are unreasona$ e. Issue: Whether or Not BP <<. <<. And e%en assu&in* that the e*is ature can set i&its to this ri*ht. A)ter thirt' 83. <<. It re)ers to a +inds o) !u$ ic asse&$ ies that #ou d use !u$ ic ! aces. : 13 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty.i&u& to erance !o ic' o) B.ercise o) that ri*ht. <4< 81??:9 =/>/NSO25SANTIA-O %s. It a so characteriBes !u$ ic asse&$ ies #ithout a !er&it as i e*a and !ena iBes the& and a o#s their dis!ersa . 7a. <<.!ression is sou*ht. its !ro%isions are not &ere re*u ations $ut are actua ' !rohi$itions. no !rior !er&it sha $e re0uired to e.2. a o#in* the 7a'or to den' the !er&it on c ear and con%incin* e%idence o) a c ear and !resent dan*er is too co&!rehensi%e. The Secretar' o) the Interior and Loca -o%ern&ents. It &ere ' con)uses our !eo! e and is used $' so&e !o ice a*ents to "usti)' a$uses. ! ace and &anner o) the asse&$ ies.ercise o) ri*htsC and that B. There is. No.

69 These are conso idated !etitions on the 2eso ution 831 Au*ust 1. the constitutiona *uarantee o) e0ua access to o!!ortunities )or !u$ ic ser%ice. Li)tin* o) the ter& i&its constitutes a re%ision. it intentiona ' did not do so on the s'ste& o) initiati%e on a&end&ents to the Constitution. a&ended or re!ea ed@ denotes that 2. or re"ect. the !ri&ac' o) interest. and !rohi$itin* !o itica d'nasties. not to re%ision thereo). The !ortion o) CO7/L/C 2eso ution No. It has $een an esta$ ished ru e that #hat has $een de e*ated.@ The use o) the c ause @!ro!osed a#s sou*ht to $e enacted.ecuti%e Secretar'. %s. considerin* the CourtKs decision in the a$o%e Issue. Senator 2oco )i ed a &otion to dis&iss the =e )in !etition on the *round that one #hich is co*niBa$ e $' the CO7/L/C.A. I) 2. 6 5 WA/2/>O2/. ordinances. 13. =e&o+ras'a5I!a*tan**o an* Oonstitus'on. initiati%e on the Constitution is con)ined on ' to !ro!osa s to A7/N=.A. a!!ro%ed or re"ected. At the hearin*. The i)tin* o) the ter& i&its #as he d to $e that o) a re%ision. enact. The de e*ation o) the !o#er to the CO7/L/C $ein* in%a id. No such a# has $een !assedC 819 The !eo! eKs initiati%e is i&ited to a&end&ents to the Constitution. No. A e. The !etitioners herein Senator Santia*o. LVII o) the 1?<: Constitution is a se )5e. 6:35 e.ercise o) the ri*ht to !eo! eKs initiati%e. The Su!re&e Court *ranted the 7otions )or Inter%ention. 2. 6:35 #ere intended to )u ' !ro%ide )or the i&! e&entation o) the initiati%e on a&end&ents to the Constitution.c udes initiati%e on a&end&ents to the Constitution. 819 Whether or not CO7/L/C 2eso ution No. the atter cannot %a id ' !ro&u *ate ru es and re*u ations to i&! e&ent the e. Su$se0uent ' the CO7/L/C issued an order directin* the !u$ ication o) the !etition and o) the notice o) hearin* and therea)ter set the case )or hearin*. or hierarch' o) %a ues. 5. there)ore it is outside the !o#er o) !eo! eKs initiati%e.. The' can on ' do so #ith res!ect to @ a#s. No. re*ardin* the conduct o) initiati%e on a&end&ents to the Constitution is %a id. #hich !ro%ides )or the ri*ht o) the !eo! e to e. A thou*h the Constitution has reco*niBed or *ranted the ri*ht.A. the IBP. 1. 3. et a . 81.A.ecutin* !ro%ision. and Isa$e On*!in )i ed this ci%i action )or !rohi$ition under 2u e 65 o) the 2u es o) Court a*ainst CO7/L/C and the =e )in !etition raisin* se%era ar*u&ents. no su$tit e is !ro%ided )or initiati%e on the Constitution. !etition is -2ANT/=. 819 The constitutiona !ro%ision on !eo! eKs initiati%e to a&end the constitution can on ' $e i&! e&ented $' a# to $e !assed $' Con*ress. Senator 2oco.ercise the !o#er to direct ' !ro!ose a&end&ents to the Constitution. 6:35 s!ecia ' detai ed the !rocess in i&! e&entin* initiati%e and re)erendu& on nationa and oca a#s. Ae $ased this !etition on Artic e LVII. A re%ision cannot $e done $' initiati%e.5 SC2A 16. 13..A. throu*h Peo! eKs Initiati%e. 4. it cou d ha%e !ro%ided )or a su$tit e there)or. the issue o) #hether or not the !etition is a re%ision or a&end&ent has $eco&e acade&ic. Issues. No. /. 839 Whether the i)tin* o) ter& i&its o) e ecti%e o))icia s #ou d constitute a re%ision or an a&end&ent o) the Constitution. in #ho e or in !art. such as the )o o#in*. cannot $e de e*ated 8!otestas de e*ata non de e*ari !otest9. CO7/L/C.19 La&$ino.ander Padi a.ercise it i) Con*ress does not !ro%ide )or its i&! e&entation. #hich !rescri$es ru es and re*u ations on the conduct o) initiati%e on a&end&ents to the Constitution is %oid. 3<. 1 o) the 1?<: Constitution. Art. or reso utions. the !eo! e cannot e. This &eans that the &ain thrust o) the a# is initiati%e and re)erendu& on nationa and oca a#s. SC2A :3? 81. Under the said a#. Whi e 2. No.. as it #ou d a))ect other !ro%isions o) the Constitution such as the s'nchroniBation o) e ections. 6:35 su))icient to ena$ e a&end&ent o) the Constitution $' !eo! eKs initiati%eI Ae d. 1.69 o) the CO7/L/C den'in* due course to an 14 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. NO. Pu$ icInterest La# Center. the Constitution@ throu*h the s'ste& o) initiati%e. considerin* that in the order o) thin*s. Art LVII o) the Constitution is not5se ) e.. 819 Whether or not Sec. a!!ro%e.)i ed #ith CO7/L/C a !etition to a&end the constitution to i)t the ter& i&its o) e ecti%e o))icia s. The !eo! e are not accorded the !o#er to @direct ' !ro!ose. considerin* the a$sence in the a# o) s!eci)ic !ro%isions on the conduct o) such initiati%e. 6:35 is inade0uate to co%er the s'ste& o) initiati%e on a&end&ents to the Constitution. 849 Is 2. #hi e the a# !ro%ides su$tit es )or Nationa Initiati%e and 2e)erendu& and )or Loca Initiati%e and 2e)erendu&. the ri*ht o) the !eo! e to direct ' !ro!ose a&end&ents to the Constitution is )ar &ore i&!ortant than the initiati%e on nationa and oca a#s. thus. 1.ecutor'. Li& %s. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . Ao#e%er. 1. #ithout i&! e&entin* e*is ation the sa&e cannot o!erate. and La$an n* =e&o+rati+on* Pi i!ino a!!eared as inter%enors5o!!ositors. A so. Sec. Sec..

@ The essence o) a&end&ents @di'ectl% $'o$osed &% the $eo$le th'ou)h initiative u$on a $etition@ is that the enti'e $'o$osal on its "ace is a $etition &% the $eo$le.. The )ra&ers ! ain ' stated that @&e"o'e the% si)n the'e is al'ead% a d'a"t shown to the#.denied Issues: 1.3 &i ion indi%idua s. the La&$ino -rou! )i ed an A&ended Petition #ith the CO7/L/C indicatin* &odi)ications in the !ro!osed Artic e LVIII 8Transitor' Pro%isions9 o) their initiati%e. The Initiative Petition Does Not Comply with Section 2. Whether the CO7/L/C co&&itted *ra%e a$use o) discretion in den'in* due course to the La&$ino -rou!Ds !etitionI Held: The La&$ino -rou! &isera$ ' "ailed to co#$l% with the &asic 'e(ui'e#ents o" the Constitution "o' conductin) a $eo$le*s initiative. : CO7/L/C.ecuti%e =e!t9 5 and $' addin* Artic e LVIII entit ed @Transitor' Pro%isions.6. co&&enced *atherin* si*natures )or an initiati%e !etition to chan*e the 1?<: Constitution. #ith other *rou!s1 and indi%idua s. the La&$ino -rou! )i ed a !etition #ith the CO7/L/C to ho d a ! e$iscite that #i rati)' their initiati%e !etition under Section 58$9 and 8c91 and Section :3 o) 2A 6:35 or the Initiati%e and 2e)erendu& Act. #ith each e*is ati%e district re!resented $' at east three per centum 83Q9 o) its re*istered %oters. >irst. Au&entado 8@La&$ino -rou!@9.6.@ The )ra&ers a so @envisioned@ that the !eo! e shou d si*n on the $'o$osal itsel" $ecause the !ro!onents &ust @$'e$a'e that $'o$osal and $ass it a'ound "o' si)natu'e. 15 Au*ust 1. Whether the La&$ino -rou!Ds initiati%e !etition co&! ies #ith Section 1. Facts: 15 >e$ruar' 1. no )'ave a&use o" disc'etion is attri$uta$ e to the Co&&ision on / ections. as the !resent !etition #arrants dis&issa $ased a one on the La&$ino -rou!Ds * arin* )ai ure to co&! ' #ith the $asic re0uire&ents o) the Constitution. >or )o o#in* the CourtDs ru in* in Santia*o.6. as 15 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. No a*ent or re!resentati%e can si*n on their $eha ). The La&$ino -rou! a so c ai&ed that CO7/L/C e ection re*istrars had %eri)ied the si*natures o) the 6. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . inade0uate or #antin* in essentia ter&s and conditions@ to i&! e&ent the initiati%e c ause on !ro!osa s to a&end the ConstitutionI 3. 1:41539. the !eo! e &ust autho' and thus si)n the entire !ro!osa . Thus. La&$ino and /rico B. there is e%en no need to 'evisit Santiago.2. na&e ' 2au L. The La&$ino -rou!Ds initiati%e !etition chan*es the 1?<: Constitution $' &odi)'in* Sections 15: o) Artic e VI 8Le*is ati%e =e!t94 and Sections 154 o) Artic e VII 8/..?51 indi%idua s constitutin* at east t#e %e per centum 811Q9 o) a re*istered %oters. Whether this Court shou d re%isit its ru in* in Santiago dec arin* 2A 6:35 @inco&! ete. This &eans t#o essentia e e&ents &ust $e !resent.initiati%e !etition to a&end the 1?<: Constitution.31:. Article X II o! the Constit"tion on Direct Proposal #y the People The )ra&ers o) the Constitution intended that the @d'a"t o" the $'o$osed constitutional a#end#ent@ shou d $e @'ead% and shown@ to the !eo! e @&e"o'e@ the' si*n such !ro!osa . 1.@6 These !ro!osed chan*es #i shi)t the !resent Bica&era 5Presidentia s'ste& to a Unica&era 5 Par ia&entar' )or& o) *o%ern&ent. Artic e LVII o) the Constitution on a&end&ents to the Constitution throu*h a !eo! eDs initiati%eI 1. Au*ust 1. Second. 3. The La&$ino -rou! a e*ed that their !etition had the su!!ort o) 6. !etitioners 8-.. No.

tensi%e in its !ro%isions as to chan*e direct ' the Dsu$stantia entiret'D o) the constitution $' the de etion or a teration o) nu&erous e. the Constitution. Two. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ initiati%e u!on a !etition. the !ro!osed chan*es a ter su$stantia ' the $asic ! an o) *o%ern&ent. Au*ust 1.istin* !ro%isions. 8Artic e LVII.3 &i ion si*natories did not si*n the !etition o) 15 Au*ust 1... and )ro& a $ica&era to a unica&era e*is ature.$etition . 0uantitati%e test and the 0ua itati%e test. The &ain in0uir' is #hether the chan*e #i @acco&! ish such )ar reachin* chan*es in the nature o) our $asic *o%ern&enta ! an as to a&ount to a re%ision. the a#&ino /'ou$*s initiative is a 'evision and not #e'el% an a#end#ent. this Court &ust dec ine to re%isit Santiago #hich e))ecti%e ' ru ed that RA 2345 does not co#$l% with the 'e(ui'e#ents o" the Constitution to i#$le#ent the initiative clause on a#end#ents to the Constitution .a&ines on ' the nu&$er o) !ro%isions a))ected and does not consider the de*ree o) the chan*e.@ 3: Under $oth the 0uantitati%e and 0ua itati%e tests. Thus.. In contrast. Thus+ an a#end#ent is . An a))ir&ation or re%ersa o) Santiago #i not chan*e the outco&e o) the !resent !etition. )ro& !residentia to !ar ia&entar'. 4.. The Initiative iolates Section 2. A $evisit o! Santiago v. The 6. 81... These essentia e e&ents are !resent on ' i) the )u te... or de etes #ithout a terin* the $asic !rinci! e in%o %ed9 o) the Constitution and not to its re%ision. the !resent initiati%e %io ates Section 58$9 o) 2A 6:35 #hich re0uires that the @!etition )or an initiati%e on the 1?<: Constitution &ust ha%e at east t#e %e per centum 811Q9 o) the tota nu&$er o) re*istered %oters as si)nato'ies. The 0ua itati%e test in0uires into the 0ua itati%e e))ects o) the !ro!osed chan*e in the constitution. as #hen the chan*e a))ects su$stantia !ro%isions o) the constitution9 to the Constitution. the $'o$osal &ust $e e#&odied in a $etition.6 or the a&ended !etition o) 3. the La&$ino -rou!Ds !ro!osed chan*es o%erhau t#o artic es 5 Artic e VI on the Le*is ature and Artic e VII on the /. ne%er re%ise. J the initiative is void and unconstitutional $ecause it %io ates Section 1. reduces. #hose &e&$ers are s#orn to de)end and !rotect the Constitution.5 !ro%isions in the entire si)nato'ies.@36 The court e. 3. Sec 19 This Court.. cannot shir+ )ro& its so e&n oath and dut' to insure co&! iance #ith the c ear co&&and o) the Constitution R that a !eo! eDs initiati%e &a' on ' a&end. C%&'('C is Not Necessary There is no need to re%isit this CourtDs ru in* in Santiago dec arin* 2A 6:35 @inco&! ete. Artic e LVII o) the Constitution i&itin* the sco!e o) a !eo! eDs initiati%e to . onl% i" the $eo$le si)n on a $etition that contains the "ull te-t o" the $'o$osed a#end#ents.6 )i ed #ith the CO7/L/C. co!ies on '9 lo)'ollin) 5 #hen the initiati%e !etition incor!orates an unre ated su$"ect &atter in the sa&e !etitionC co&$inin* &u ti! e !ro!ositions into one !ro!osa 2.$a't test 8Ca i)ornia9.ecuti%e 5 a))ectin* a tota o) 1.51 /%en then.di'ectl% $'o$osed &% the $eo$le th'ou)h initiative u$on a $etition. Sua itati%e '.0A1#end#ents to this Constitution. Such a%oidance is a o*ica conse0uence o) the #e 5sett ed doctrine that cou'ts will not $ass u$on the constitutionalit% o" a statute i" the case can &e 'esolved on so#e othe' )'ounds .. Con)'ess o' a constitutional convention can !ro!ose $oth a#end#ents and 'evisions 8chan*e that a ters a $asic !rinci! e in the constitutionC chan*e a ters the su$stantia entiret' o) the constitution. The 0uantitati%e test as+s #hether the !ro!osed chan*e is @so e.t o) the !ro!osed a&end&ents is "i'st shown to the !eo! e #ho e.@ Section 58$9 o) 2A 6:35 re0uires that the !eo! e &ust si*n the .8a9 o) 2A 6:35 statin*. @5o $etition e#&'acin) 16 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. The La&$ino -rou!Ds lo)'ollin) initiative a so %io ates Section 1. This Court &ust a%oid re%isitin* a ru in* in%o %in* the constitutiona it' o) a statute i) the case $e)ore the Court can $e reso %ed on so&e other *rounds. Article X II o! the Constit"tion Disallowing $evision thro"gh Initiatives A $eo$le*s initiative to chan*e the Constitution a!! ies on ' to an a#end#ent 8chan*e that adds. inade0uate or #antin* in essentia ter&s and conditions@ to co%er the s'ste& o) initiati%e to a&end the Constitution.!ress their assent $' si*nin* such co&! ete !ro!osa in a !etition. Suantitati%e '.

Other#ise. That a$$'oval included the $'esc'i&ed #odes "o' a#endin) o' 'evisin) the Constitution. This is one act the Court cannot and shou d ne%er do. !ro!e ed $' dece!ti%e ' *athered si*natures. Thus+ even i" RA 2345 is valid+ the a#&ino /'ou$*s initiative will still "ail. to&orro# the ne# do&inant !o itica *rou! that co&es #i de&and its o#n set o) chan*es in the sa&e ca%a ier and unconstitutiona )ashion. to a ter $asic !rinci! es in the Constitution is to a o# a desecration o) the Constitution.1. I) this Court a o#s toda' a ca%a ier chan*e in the Constitution outside the constitutiona ' !rescri$ed &odes. A re%o %in*5door constitution does not au*ur #e )or the ru e o) a# in this countr'. !rescri$ed #hen the' rati)ied the Constitution. 0. This Court cannot $etra' its !ri&ordia dut' to de)end and !rotect the Constitution. This )ore#arns the Court to $e #ar' o) incantations o) @!eo! eDs %oice@ or @so%erei*n #i @ in the !resent initiati%e. Then. to $e tossed and turned $' e%er' do&inant !o itica *rou! o) the da'.ce enc' President . The Constitution. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ .tra5constitutiona chan*e.@ @!eo! eDs so%erei*n #i . 2A 6:35 !rohi$its su$&ission o) the initiati%e !etition to the e ectorate. The a ternati%e is an e. the !resent !etition #arrants outri*ht dis&issa . is the $i$ e o) this Court. no *ra%e a$use o) discretion is attri$uta$ e to the CO7/L/C. That a$$'oval is the un#ista:a&le voice o" the $eo$le+ the "ull e-$'ession o" the $eo$le*s sove'ei)n will.31:. &o*erni-ation an* Action .#o'e than one 617 su&8ect shall &e su&#itted to the electo'ate C .@ Ao#e%er. deser%es the ut&ost res!ect and o$edience o) a the citiBens o) this nation. in their so%erei*n ca!acit'.s Initiative !or $e!orm. The La&$ino -rou! c ai&s that their initiati%e is the @!eo! eDs %oice. can chan*e our Constitution contrar' to the s!eci)ic &odes that the !eo! e. No one can tri%ia iBe the Constitution $' ca%a ier ' a&endin* or re%isin* it in $ atant %io ation o) the c ear ' s!eci)ied &odes o) a&end&ent and re%ision aid do#n in the Constitution itse ). To a o# such chan*e in the )unda&enta a# is to set adri)t the Constitution in unchartered #aters. the CO7/L/C en $anc &ere ' )o o#ed this CourtDs ru in* in Santiago and People. in the %eri)ication o) their !etition #ith the CO7/L/C. the La&$ino -rou! una$ashed ' states in ULAP 2eso ution No. Concl"sion The Constitution.. On this *round a one. This Cou't e-ists to de"end and $'otect the Constitution . as the )unda&enta a# o) the and. 1.@ or @ et the !eo! e decide@ cannot o%erride the s!eci)ic &odes o) chan*in* the Constitution as !rescri$ed in the Constitution itse ). The C%&'('C Di* Not Commit +rave A#"se o! Discretion in Dismissing the (am#ino +ro"p.51 >or )o o#in* this CourtDs ru in*. #hich &eans su&ve'tin) the $eo$le*s sove'ei)n will and disca'din) the Constitution. Incantations o) @!eo! eDs %oice. ).s Initiative In dis&issin* the La&$ino -rou!Ds initiati%e !etition.65. that @ULAP &aintains its un(uali"ied su$$o't to the a)enda o) Aer /. An o%er#he &in* &a"orit' T 12+299+111 vote's co#$'isin) 32. To a o# this constitutiona ' in)ir& initiati%e.oria 7aca!a*a 5Arro'o )or constitutiona re)or&s.. As the u ti&ate *uardian o) the Constitution. . No a&ount o) si*natures.@ The !ro!osed Section 4849 o) the Transitor' Pro%isions. is a su$"ect &atter tota ' unre ated to the shi)t in the )or& o) *o%ern&ent.PI$&A/ v.?51 &i ion si*natures *athered $' the La&$ino -rou!. this Court is s#orn to !er)or& its so e&n dut' to de)end and !rotect the Constitution. &andatin* the interi& Par ia&ent to !ro!ose )urther a&end&ents or re%isions to the Constitution. To a o# such a teration and desecration is to ose this CourtDs raison d'etre.4 $e'cent o" the total votes cast 53 T a!!ro%ed our Constitution in a nationa ! e$iscite he d on 11 >e$ruar' 1?<:. 17 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. #hich e&$odies the rea so%erei*n #i o) the !eo! e. the Constitution R the !eo! eDs )unda&enta co%enant that !ro%ides endurin* sta$i it' to our societ' R $eco&es easi ' susce!ti$ e to &ani!u ati%e chan*es $' !o itica *rou!s *atherin* si*natures throu*h )a se !ro&ises. C%&'('C . Since the !resent initiati%e e&$races &ore than one su$"ect &atter. not e%en the 6. #hich e&$odies the !eo! eDs so%erei*n #i . . the Constitution ceases to $e the $edroc+ o) the nationDs sta$i it'.@ The La&$ino -rou! thus ad&its that their @!eo! eDs@ initiati%e is an @un0ua i)ied su!!ort to the a*enda@ o) the incu&$ent President to chan*e the Constitution.

N 7he "inors further asse!erate that they Nrepresent their eneration as $ell as enerations yet unborn. 114 SC2A :?1 81 Bernas 1:9 OPO!A "! #A$%O&A' %OP($) A&% "(((* !E$ + A'. >actoran.N 0onseAuently3 it is praye# for that 2u# "ent be ren#ere#& 1D0ancel all e/istin ti"ber license a ree"ents 2D 0ease an# #esist fro" recei!in 3 acceptin 3 processin 3 rene$in or appro!in in the country8 ne$ ti"ber license a ree"ents. Plaintiffs thus file# the instant special ci!il action for certiorari un#er *ule 65 of the *e!ise# *ules of 0ourt an# as.O# $O'!%( cause of action3 425 the "otion is #ilatory an# 435 the action presents a 2usticiable Auestion as it in!ol!es the #efen#antMs abuse of #iscretion. -n their 12 'uly 1((9 Opposition to the . -??FE& >ON the petitioners ha!e locus stan#in for the case to be sub2ect of the judicial power of the $ourt $O. On 22 'une 1((93 the ori inal #efen#ant3 ?ecretary %actoran3 'r.%(O' %A07?& Principal petitioners3 are all "inors #uly represente# an# 2oine# by their respecti!e parents.3 file# a . Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . 7he ori inal #efen#ant $as the Lonorable %ul encio ?.otion to 6is"iss the co"plaint base# on t$o 425 roun#s3 na"ely& 415 the plaintiffs ha!e no cause of action a ainst hi" an# 425 the issue raise# by the plaintiffs is a political Auestion $hich properly pertains to the le islati!e or e/ecuti!e branches of Oo!ern"ent. %actoran3 'r.3 then ?ecretary of the 6epart"ent of En!iron"ent an# Natural *esources 46EN*5. 7he co"plaint $as institute# as a ta/payersM class suit an# alle es that the plaintiffs Nare all citi=ens of the *epublic of the Philippines3 ta/payers3 an# entitle# to the full benefit3 use an# en2oy"ent of the natural resource treasure that is the countryMs !ir in tropical forests. this 0ourt to rescin# an# set asi#e the #is"issal or#er on the roun# that the respon#ent 'u# e ra!ely abuse# his #iscretion in #is"issin the action. . On 1) 'uly 1((13 respon#ent 'u# e issue# an or#er rantin the afore"entione# "otion to #is"iss.otion3 the petitioners "aintain that 415 the co"plaint sho$s a clear an# un"ista.&% &.4 O!osa %s.eclaration of Principles and !tate Policies and not underthe 7ill of &ights* it does not follow that it is less important than any of the civil and political rights enumerated in the latter !uch a right belongs to a different category of rights altogether for it concerns nothing less than self-preservation and self-perpetuation 8 aptly and fittingly stressed by the petitioners the advancement of which may even be said to predate all governments and constitutions As a matter of fact* these basic rights need not even be written in the $onstitution for they are assumed to e1ist from the inception of human9ind (f they are now e1plicitly mentioned in the fundamental charter* it is because of the well-founded fear of its framers that unless the rights to a balanced and healthful ecology and to health 1) Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty./('0) Petitioners minors assert that they represent their generation as well as generations yet unborn %heir personality to sue in behalf of the succeeding generations can only be based on the concept of intergenerational responsibility insofar as the right to a balanced and healthful ecology is concerned 'ature means the created world in its entirety Every generation has a responsibility to the ne1t to preserve that rhythm and harmony for the full enjoyment of a balanced and healthful ecology %he minors2 assertion of their right to a sound environment constitutes* at the same time* the performance of their obligation to ensure the protection of that right for the generations to come %he complaint focuses on one specific fundamental legal right the right to a balanced and healthful ecology which* for the first time in our nation2s constitutional history* is solemnly incorporated in thefundamental law !ection +6* Article (( of the +345 $onstitution 6hile the right to a balanced and healthful ecology is to be found under the .

uires that no further %/As should be renewed or granted (t is settled in this jurisdiction that in a motion to dismiss based on the ground that the complaint fails to state a cause of actionA the .avide* =r precisely identified in his opinion the re.E'&A however* it ma9es particular reference to the fact of the agency2s being subject to law and higher authority (t may* however* be recalled that even before the ratification of the +345 $onstitution* specific statutes already paid special attention to the ?environmental right? of the present and future generations On 6 =une +355* P .E'&2s duty under its mandate and by virtue of its powers and functions under E O 'o +32 and the Administrative $ode of +345 to protect and advance the said right A denial or violation of that right by the other who has the correlative duty or obligation to respect or protect the same gives rise to a cause of action Petitioners maintain that the granting of the %/As* which they claim was done with grave abuse of discretion* violated their right to a balanced and healthful ecologyA hence* the full protection thereof re.uitable sharing of the benefits derived therefrom for the welfare of the present and future generations of #ilipinos ? !ection @ thereof ma9es the following statement of policy) %he above provision stresses ?the necessity of maintaining a sound ecological balance and protecting and enhancing the .uiry or review %he case at bar is subject to judicial review by the $ourt =ustice .avide* =r in this $ourt decision =ustice #eliciano said that the concept of the word CclassD is too broad to cover the plaintiffs and their representatives alone* and that the $ourt may be deemed recogni:ing anyoneEs right to file action as against both the public administrative agency and the private 1( Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty.uestion doctrine is no longer* the insurmountable obstacle to the e1ercise of judicial power or the impenetrable shield that protects e1ecutive and legislative actions from judicial in.are mandated as state policies by the $onstitution itself* thereby highlighting their continuing importance and imposing upon the state a solemn obligation to preserve the first and protect and advance the second* the day would not be too far when all else would be lost not only for the present generation* but also for those to come generations which stand to inherit nothing but parched earth incapable of sustaining life $onformably with the enunciated right to a balanced and healthful ecology and the right to health* as well as the other related provisions of the $onstitution concerning the conservation* development and utili:ation of the country2s natural resources* then President $ora:on $ A.uisites for a case to be subjected for the judicial review by the $ourt According to him* the subject matter of the complaint is of common interest* ma9ing this civil case a class suit and proving the e1istence of an actual controversy Be strengthens this conclusion by citing in the decision !ection +* Article 5 of the +345 $onstitution Although concurring in the result* =ustice #eliciano penned his separate opinions on a number of topics pointed by =ustice .uino promulgated on +< =une +345 E O 'o +32* !ection > of which e1pressly mandates that the .uality of the environment ? !ection 2 of the same %itle* on the other hand* specifically spea9s of the mandate of the . 'o ++-+ and P . Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ .uarely put in issue 6hat is principally involved is the enforcement of a right vis-a-vis policies already formulated and e1pressed in legislation (t must* nonetheless* be emphasi:ed that the political . 'o ++-2 were issued %hus* the right of the petitioners to a balanced and healthful ecology is as clear as the .uestion submitted to the court for resolution involves the sufficiency of the facts alleged in the complaint itself 'o other matter should be consideredA furthermore* the truth of falsity of the said allegations is beside the point for the truth thereof is deemed hypothetically admitted Policy formulation or determination by the e1ecutive or legislative branches of 0overnment is not s.epartment of Environment and 'atural &esources ?shall be the primary government agency responsible for the conservation* management* development and proper use of the country2s environment and natural resources* specifically forest and gra:ing lands* mineral* resources* including those in reservation and watershed areas* and lands of the public domain* as well as the licensing and regulation of all natural resources as may be provided for by law in order to ensure e.

uiry or review %he second paragraph of section +* Article "((( of the $onstitution states that) =udicial power includes the duty of the courts of justice to settle actual controversies involving rights which are legally demandable and enforceable* and to determine whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lac9 or e1cess of jurisdiction on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the 0overnment $ommenting on this provision in his boo9* Philippine Political Law* 22 Mr distinguished member of this $ourt* says) =ustice (sagani A $ru:* a %he first part of the authority represents the traditional concept of judicial power* involving the settlement of conflicting rights as conferred as law %he second part of the authority represents a broadening of judicial power to enable the courts of justice to review what was before forbidden territory* to wit* the discretion of the political departments of the government As worded* the new provision vests in the judiciary* and particularly the !upreme $ourt* the power to rule upon even the wisdom of the decisions of the e1ecutive and the legislature and to declare their acts invalid for lac9 or e1cess of jurisdiction because tainted with grave abuse of discretion %he catch* of course* is the meaning of ?grave abuse of discretion*? which is a very elastic phrase that can e1pand or contract according to the disposition of the judiciary (n Daza vs. Singson* 2@ Mr =ustice $ru:* now spea9ing for this $ourt* noted) (n the case now before us* the jurisdictional objection becomes even less tenable and decisive %he reason is that* even if we were to assume that the issue presented before us was political in nature* we would still not be precluded from revolving it under the e1panded jurisdiction conferred upon us that now covers* in proper cases* even the political . dated < =ece&$er 1?<6. 16: SC2A 4.entities of the sector involved in the case at bar* to wit) C'either petitioners nor the $ourt has identified the particular provisions of the Philippine Environment $ode which give rise to a specific legal right which petitioners are see9ing to enforce D =ustice #eliciano further stated that the $ourt in the case at bar in effect made !ections +.uestion doctrine is no longer* the insurmountable obstacle to the e1ercise of judicial power or the impenetrable shield that protects e1ecutive and legislative actions from judicial in. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . -SIS.and +6 of Article 2 of the +345 $onstitution to be self-e1ecuting and judicially enforceable even in its present form* and that these implications are too large and far reaching in nature ever to be hinted in this instant case $ivil $ase 'o 3<555 be said to raise a political . 5.uestion Policy formulation or determination by the e1ecutive or legislative branches of 0overnment is not s.uarely put in issue 6hat is principally involved is the enforcement of a right vis-a-vis policies already formulated and e1pressed in legislation (t must* nonetheless* be emphasi:ed that the political . decided to se throu*h 29 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. !ursuant to the !ri%atiBation !ro*ra& o) the Phi i!!ine -o%ern&ent under Proc a&ation No. The contro%ers' arose #hen res!ondent -o%ern&ent Ser%ice InsuranceS'ste& 8-SIS9.1 >acts.uestion Article "((* !ection +* of the $onstitution clearly provides) 3 7ani a Prince Aote %s.

#hich $id )or the sa&e nu&$er o) shares at P44. !er share and therea)ter to e. 7orato. It is a !roud e*ac' o) an ear ier *eneration o) >i i!inos #ho $e ie%ed in the no$i it' and sacredness o) inde!endence and its !o#er and ca!acit' to re ease the )u !otentia o) the >i i!ino !eo! e. and 2enon* Berhad. The 7ani a Aote has ! a'ed and continues to ! a' a si*ni)icant ro e as an authentic re!ositor' o) t#entieth centur' Phi i!!ine histor' and cu ture. (ud*e Si&eon >errer is the Tar ac tria court "ud*e that dec ared 2A1:. !ri%i e*es and concessions to )orei*ners in the a$sence o) 0ua i)ied >i i!inos. a 7a a'sian )ir&. The 7ani a Aote or. shares at P41. !etitioner 7ani a Prince Aote Cor!oration. !etitioner in%o+es Sec. Oi os$a'an %s. incitin*. The Court a so reiterated ho# &uch o) nationa !ride #i %anish i) the nationKs cu tura herita*e #i )a on the hands o) )orei*ners. o) the 1?<:Constitution and su$&its that the 7ani a Aote has $een identi)ied #ith the >i i!ino nation and has !ractica ' $eco&e a historica &onu&ent #hich re) ects the %i$ranc' o) Phi i!!ine herita*e and cu ture. 1.3. too. #i continue to res!ect and !rotect the sanctit' o) the Constitution. Aon. )or that &atter. dis&issin* the in)or&ation o) su$%ersion a*ainst the )o o#in*. heedin* the c arion ca o) the Constitution and acce!tin* the dut' o) $ein* the e der ' #atch&an o) the nation. there)ore. In his dissentin* o!inion. The Court /n Banc e&!hasiBed that 0ua i)ied >i i!inos sha $e !re)erred o%er )orei*ners. LII. #ith ITT5Sheraton as its hote o!erator. a *o%ern&ent5o#ned and contro ed cor!oration.41 &ore than the $id o) !etitioner. is not "ust an' co&&odit' to $e so d to the hi*hest $idder so e ' )or the sa+e o) !ri%atiBation. a >i i!ino cor!oration. and instead to acce!t the &atchin* $id o) the !etitioner 7ani a Prince Aote . at the sa&e ti&e. 1. Ae a so ar*ued that the !etitioner is esto!!ed )ro& assai in* the #innin* $id o) 2enon* Berhad $ecause the )or&er +ne# the ru es o) the $iddin* and that the )orei*ners are 0ua i)ied.. !er share tendered $' 2enon* Berhad. su$%ersion $' a $and and aid o) ar&ed &en to a))ord i&!unit'. Thus. Art. second !ar.. Artic e 11 o) the 1?<: Constitution is a &andator' !ro%ision. It #as thus ordered that -SIS acce!ts the &atchin* $id o) !etitioner 7ANILA P2INC/ AOT/L CO2PO2ATION to !urchase the su$"ect 51Q o) the shares o) the 7ani a Aote Cor!oration at P44. Ae d. !er share.5< !er share.. 1. This is the ! ain and si&! e &eanin* o) the >i i!ino >irst Po ic' !ro%ision o) the Phi i!!ine Constitution. the hote $usiness o) res!ondent -SIS $ein* a !art o) the touris& industr' is un0uestiona$ ' a !art o) the nationa econo&'. In a c ose $iddin* he d on 1< Se!te&$er 1??5 on ' t#o 819 $idders !artici!ated.. 146 SCTA 54... it has $eco&e a !art o) the nationa !atri&on'. And this Court.9 Ni o Ta'a* and 5 others.ecute the necessar' c earances and to do such other acts and deeds as &a' $e necessar' )or !ur!ose. Pendin* the dec aration o) 2enon* Berhad as the #innin* $idderUstrate*ic !artner and the e.. !erha!s a!!rehensi%e that res!ondent -SIS has disre*arded the tender o) the &atchin* $id and that the sa e o) 51Q o) the 7AC &a' $e hastened $' res!ondent -SIS and consu&&ated #ith 2enon* Berhad. On 1: Octo$er 1??5. as &andated $' the !ro%ision in 0uestion... &a+in* the 51Q o) the e0uit' o) said hote to )a #ithin the !ur%ie# o) the constitutiona she ter )or it e&!rises the &a"orit' and contro in* stoc+. The 7ani a Aote had on* $een a and&ar+. (ustice Puno said that the !ro%ision in 0uestion shou d $e inter!reted as !ro5>i i!ino and. a !ositi%e co&&and #hich is co&! ete in itse ) and needs no )urther *uide ines or i&! e&entin* a#s to en)orce it. !etitioner ca&e to this Court on !rohi$ition and &anda&us. &atched the $id !rice o) P44. Accordin* to (ustice Be osi o. or P1.. To a intents and !ur!oses.Q to 51Q o) the issued and outstandin* shares o) res!ondent 7ani a Aote Cor!oration. The Su!re&e Court directed the -SIS and other res!ondents to cease and desist )ro& se in* the 51Q shares o) the 7AC to the 7a a'sian )ir& 2enon* Berhad. #hich o))ered to $u' 51Q o) the 7AC or 15.. insti*atin* !eo! e to unite and o%erthro# 1 1 21 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . second !ara*ra!h.ecution o) the necessar' contracts. Section 1.9 >e iciano Co )or $ein* an o))icerU eader o) the Co&&unist Part' o) the Phi i!!ines 8CPP9 a**ra%ated $' circu&stances o) conte&!t and insu t to !u$ ic o))icers. not anti5a ien in itse ) $ecause it does not !rohi$it the State )ro& *rantin* ri*hts. !onente o) the case at $ar. Whether or Not the sa e o) 7ani a Aote to 2enon* Berhad is %io ati%e o) the Constitutiona !ro%ision o) >i i!ino >irst !o ic' and is there)ore nu and %oid. 6 Petitioner a so ar*ues that since 51Q o) the shares o) the 7AC carries #ith it the o#nershi! o) the $usiness o) the hote #hich is o#ned $' res!ondent -SIS. 81 Bernas 5:19 Peo! e %s. Issue... >errer. 4< SC2A 3<1 81 Bernas ?139 >acts. 51Q o) the 7AC. )or $ein* &e&$ersU eaders o) the NPA... or the Anti5Su$%ersi%e Act o) 1?5: as a $i o) attainder.!u$ ic $iddin* 3. In the &ain.

819 Whether or Not 2A1:. su$%ersion and other i e*a &eans.c uded in the !rohi$ition o) &e&$ershi! in the CPP are #ea+ considerin* NATIONAL S/CU2ITY and P2/S/2VATION o) =/7OC2ACY.9 The statute s!eci)ies !ersons. %io ates )reedo& o) e.9 In the case at $ar. The court ho ds the VALI=ITY O) the Anti5Su$%ersion Act o) 1?5:. This is the re0uired !roo) o) a &e&$erKs direct !artici!ation. to $e UNLAW>UL.. 8A $i o) attainder re ati%e ' is a so an e. This dec aration is on ' a $asis o) Section 4 o) the Act. It dec ares that the CPP is a c ear and !resent dan*er to the securit' o) the Phi i!!ines. It de)ined the Co&&unist Part' $ein* a thou*h a !o itica !art' is in )act an or*aniBed cons!irac' to o%erthro# the -o%ern&ent. Section 4 !rohi$its acts co&&itted a)ter a!!ro%a o) the act. Section 6 !ro%ides )or !ena t' )or )urnishin* )a se e%idence. 7e&$ershi! to this or*aniBations. Attended $' A**ra%atin* Circu&stances o) Aid or Ar&ed 7en. 7e&$ershi! renders aid and encoura*e&ent to the or*aniBation. 2u in*.a&! e o) S/CTION 4 o) the Act. >urther&ore. asse&$ ' and association.!ression and AssociationN in this &atter. the )o o#in* re0uisites &ust $e !resent. The /LIST/NC/ O> SUBSTANTIV/ /VIL "usti)ies the i&itation to the e. 1. and )or other !ur!oses.the Phi i!!ine -o%ern&ent. 1.ercise under )reedo& i) thou*ht. The &e&$ers o) the su$%ersi%e or*aniBations $e)ore the !assin* o) this Act are *i%en an o!!ortunit' to esca!e ia$i it' $' renouncin* &e&$ershi! in accordance #ith Section <. The ActKs )ocus is on the conduct not !erson. Section ? dec ares the constitutiona it' o) the statute and its %a id e. In order )or a statute $e &easured as a $i o) attainder. Section : !ro%ides )or 1 #itnesses in o!en court )or acts !ena iBed $' !rision &a'or to death. is a $i o) attainderU e. 1.ercise o) M>reedo& o) /. It !unishes #ithout the $ene)it o) the tria . It is an act to out a# the CPP and si&i ar associations !ena iBin* &e&$ershi! therein. !ost )acto a#. The tria court is o) o!inion that 1..9 The Con*ress usur!ed the !o#ers o) the "ud*e 1. and >raud. In addition to !ro%in* circu&stancesU e%idences o) su$%ersion.!ression. The dec aration o) that the CPP is an or*aniBed cons!irac' to o%erthro# the Phi i!!ine -o%ern&ent shou d not $e the $asis o) *ui t. not on ' $' )orce and %io ence $ut a so $' deceit. 819 Whether or not 2A1:. The Act a!! ies not on ' to the CPP $ut a so to other or*aniBations ha%in* the sa&e !ur!ose and their successors. The court )urther stresses that #hate%er interest in )reedo& o) s!eech and association is e. care)u in%esti*ations $' the Con*ress #ere done. Section 5 states that due in%esti*ation $' a desi*nated !rosecutor $' the Secretar' o) (ustice $e &ade !rior to )i in* o) in)or&ation in court. The Anti Su$%ersi%e Act o) 1?5: #as a!!ro%ed 1. The statute a!! ies the !rinci! e o) &utatis &utandis or that the necessar' chan*es ha%in* $een &ade. it &ust $e sho#n that &e&$ershi! #as ac0uired #ith the intent to )urther the *oa s o) the or*aniBation $' o%ert acts. Be)ore the enact&ent o) the statute and state&ents in the !rea&$ e.9 It created a !resu&!tion o) or*aniBationa *ui t $' $ein* &e&$ers o) the CPP re*ard ess o) %o untariness. it &ust $e !ro%en that the or*aniBation !ur!ose is to o%erthro# the 22 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty.(une1?5:. 7e&$ershi! &a+es hi&se ) !art' to its un a#)u acts. Section < a o#s the renunciation o) &e&$ershi! to the CCP throu*h #ritin* under oath. Section 4 !ro%ided that a))i iation #ith )u +no# ed*e o) the i e*a acts o) the CPP is !unisha$ e.9 Assu&ed "udicia &a*istrac' $' !ronouncin* the *ui t o) the CPP #ithout an' )or&s o) sa)e*uard o) a "udicia tria . !ost )acto a#.. the )o o#in* e e&ents &ust a so $e esta$ ished.. A $i o) attainder is so e ' a e*is ati%e act. the statute is P2OSP/CTIV/ in nature. Cra)t.9 the statute is a!! ied retroacti%e ' and reach !ast conduct. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . Wh' is &e&$ershi! !unished. 3. It is the su$stitution o) "udicia deter&ination to a e*is ati%e deter&ination o) *ui t. Su$%ersi%e Or*aniBations $esides the CPP. *rou!s. Issues. The court set $asic *uide ines to $e o$ser%ed in the !rosecution under 2A1:. the statute si&! ' dec ares the CPP as an or*aniBed cons!irac' )or the o%erthro# o) the -o%ern&ent )or !ur!oses o) e. This is the e e&ent o) 7/7B/2SAIP #ith ONOWL/=-/ that is !unisha$ e.

tent that. The' ha%e su))ered no #ron* under the ter&s o) a#G and. the continued !ursuance o) its su$%ersi%e !ur!ose. In su!!ort o) their )irst !ro!osition !etitioners contend that the ri*ht o) a citiBen to o#n and o!erate a schoo is *uaranteed $' the Constitution. 1<. As a *enera ru e.ercise the said ri*ht. it is direct ' and necessari ' in%o %ed in a "usticia$ e contro%ers' and is essentia to the !rotection o) the ri*hts o) the !arties concerned.!resent -o%ern&ent o) the Phi i!!ines and esta$ ish a do&ination o) a >O2/I-N POW/2.hi$itin* una%oida$ e necessit' o) decidin* the constitutiona 0uestionC 19 Petitioners are in esto!!e s to cha en*e the %a idit' o) the said act and 39 the Act is constitutiona ' %a id. The So icitor -enera on the other hand !oints out that none o) the !etitioners has cause to !resent this issue. 1:. a&ounts to censorshi! o) !re%ious restraint. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . And in su!!ort to the )irst !ro!osition o) the !etitioners the' contended that the Constitution *uaranteed the ri*ht o) a citiBen to o#n and o!erate a schoo and an' a# re0uirin* !re%ious *o%ern&enta a!!ro%a or !er&it $e)ore such !erson cou d e.ercise said ri*ht. Whether or not !etitioners &a' in%o+e "udicia !o#er to dec are Act No. A/L=. a !ractice a$horrent to our s'ste& o) a# and *o%ern&ent. natura ' need no re ie) in the )or& the' no# see+ to o$tain. and )or this !ur!ose said Secretar' or his du ' authoriBed re!resentati%e sha ha%e authorit' to ad%ise. Secretar'. 1:. PACU %s. 7e&$ershi! is #i )u ' and +no#in* ' done $' o%ert acts. 1:. 1. ?: Phi . $ecause a o) the& ha%e !er&its to o!erate and are actually o!eratin* $' %irtue o) their !er&its. 3. in accordance #ith the c ass and *rade o) instruction *i%en in the&. In case o) CPP.6 as unconstitutiona . 19 the act de!ri%es the o#ner o) the schoo and co e*es as #e as teachers and !arents o) i$ert' and !ro!ert' #ithout due !rocess o) La#C 19 it #i a so de!ri%e the !arents o) their Natura 2i*hts and dut' to rear their chi dren )or ci%ic e))icienc' and 39 its !ro%isions con)erred on the Secretar' o) /ducation un i&ited !o#ers and discretion to !rescri$e ru es and standards constitute to#ards un a#)u de e*ation o) Le*is ati%e !o#ers. and an' a# re0uirin* !re%ious *o%ern&enta a!!ro%a or !er&it $e)ore such !erson cou d e. Section 1 o) Act No. ISSU/. ins!ect. The Su!re&e Court set aside the reso ution o) the T2IAL COU2T. <. It is an esta$ ished !rinci! e that to entit e a !ri%ate indi%idua i&&ediate ' in dan*er o) sustainin* a direct in"ur' as the resu t o) that action and it is not su))icient that he has &ere ' a *enera to in%o+e the "udicia !o#er to deter&ine the %a idit' o) e. 1 And the' do not assert that the res!ondent Secretar' o) /ducation has threatened to re%o+e their !er&its. 1:. On the other hand. The Phi i!!ine Association o) Co e*es and Uni%ersities &ade a !etition that Acts No.6 as a&ended #hich !ro%ides that $e)ore a !ri%ate schoo &a' $e o!ened to the !u$ ic it &ust )irst o$tain a !er&it )ro& the Secretar' o) /ducation. the de)endant Le*a 2e!resentati%e su$&itted a &e&orandu& contendin* that 19 the &atters !resented no "usticia$ e contro%ers' e.6 81 Bernas 53?9 Petition )or Prohi$ition >ACTS.6 MIt sha $e the dut' o) the Secretar' o) Pu$ ic Instruction to &aintain a *enera standard o) e))icienc' in a !ri%ate schoo s and co e*es o) the Phi i!!ines so that the sa&e sha )urnish ade0uate instruction to the !u$ ic. No. Petitioners o$%ious ' re)er to section 3 o) Act No.:5 and Co&&on#ea th Act No. and to the e. the constitutiona it' o) a statute #i $e !assed on on ' i).N The !etitioner a so co&! ain that securin* a !er&it to the Secretar' o) /ducation $e)ore o!enin* a schoo is not ori*ina ' inc uded in the ori*ina Act 1:.ecuti%e or e*is ati%e action he &ust sho# that he has sustained or is interest co&&on to a &e&$ers o) 15 23 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty.6. $e dec ared unconstitutiona on the *rounds that. 7e&$ershi! is #i )u ' and +no#in* ' done $' o%ert acts. The court did not &a+e an' "ud*&ent on the cri&es o) the accused under the Act. and re*u ate said schoo s and co e*es in order to deter&ine the e))icienc' o) instruction *i%en in the sa&e.6 other#ise +no#n as the MAct &a+in* the Ins!ection and 2eco*nition o) !ri%ate schoo s and co e*es o$ i*ator' )or the Secretar' o) Pu$ ic InstructionN and #as a&ended $' Act No.

It cannot a#)u ' enter into the contract in 0uestion $ecause a )or&s o) *a&$ in* are inc uded in the so5ca ed )orei*n in%est&ents ne*ati%e ist under the >orei*n In%est&ents Act #here on ' u! to 4. #ith a !ra'er )or a te&!orar' restrainin* order and !re i&inar' in"unction. to o$tain actua and !ositi%e re ie). Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . na'. And action. OILOSBAYAN.@ and the i&&inent i&! e&entation o) the Contract o) Lease. The !o#er o) courts to dec are a a# unconstitutiona arises on ' #hen the interests o) iti*ant re0uire the use o) that "udicia authorit' )or their !rotection a*ainst actua inter)erence. is $rou*ht )or a !ositi%e !ur!ose.ecuted $' the Phi i!!ine Charit' S#ee!sta+es O))ice and the Phi i!!ine -a&in* 7ana*e&ent Cor!oration in connection #ith the on5 ine otter' s'ste&. The authorit' to !ass on the %a idit' o) statutes is incidenta to the decision o) such cases #here con) ictin* c ai&s under the Constitution and under a e*is ati%e act assai ed as contrar' to the Constitution are raised. Considerin* the denia $' the O))ice o) the President o) its !rotest and the state&ent o) Assistant /. Petitioners su$&it that the PCSO cannot %a id ' enter into the assai ed Contract o) Lease #ith the P-7C $ecause it is an arran*e&ent #herein the PCSO #ou d ho d and conduct the on5 ine otter' s'ste& in @co a$oration@ or @association@ #ith the P-7C. as a&ended $' B. )or then there co&es into ! a' re*ard )or the courtKs dut' to a%oid decision o) constitutiona issues un ess a%oidance $eco&es e%asion. Ber"a'a -rou! Berhad or*aniBed #ith so&e >i i!ino in%estors. 2es!ondentKs ar*u&ents. OILOSBAYAN sent an o!en etter to Presidentia >ide V. Ber"a'a -rou! Berhad. 13: SC2A 11. in %io ation o) Section 18B9 o) 2. a so +no#n as @ otto. o) the Contract o) Lease re0uires or authoriBes P-7C to esta$ ish a te eco&&unications net#or+ that #i connect a the &unici!a ities and cities in the territor'. #ith its co5!etitioners )i ed a !etition. #hich !rohi$its the PCSO )ro& ho din* and conductin* charit' s#ee!sta+es races. and as necessit' in the deter&ination o) rea .etitione'<s a')u#ents.A. otteries. 7ere a!!rehension that the Secretar' o) /ducation &i*ht under the a# #ithdra# the !er&it o) one o) !etitioners does not constitute a "usticia$ e contro%ers'. 81 Bernas 5619 >acts.@ . as such inde!endent contractor. No. en*a*ed in success)u otter' o!erations in Asia $eca&e interested to o))er its ser%ices and resources to PCSO. co&!an' or entit'.ecuti%e Secretar' 2enato Corona that @on ' a court in"unction can sto! 7a acaPan*. and other si&i ar acti%ities @in co a$oration. a h'!othetica threat $ein* insu))icient. Courts do not sit to ad"udicate &ere acade&ic 0uestions to satis)' scho ar ' interest therein.@ The !etitioners a so !oint out that !ara*ra!h 1. This is a s!ecia ci%i action )or !rohi$ition and in"unction. 2a&os stron* ' o!!osin* the settin* u! to the on5 ine otter' s'ste& on the $asis o) serious &ora and ethica considerations. 116?. Bona fide suit. 14 OILOSBAYAN %s. a Contract o) Lease #as sti e.N Petition denied. -uin*ona. 41. It is &ere ' an inde!endent contractor )or a !iece o) #or+. PCSO decided to esta$ ish an on5 ine otter' s'ste& )or the !ur!ose o) increasin* its re%enue $ase and di%ersi)'in* its sources o) )unds. a &u tinationa co&!an' and one o) the ar*est !u$ ic co&!anies in 7a a'sia. ho#e%er inte ectua ' so id the !ro$ e& &a' $e. It is e*iti&ate on ' in the ast resort. and %ita contro%ers' $et#een iti*ants. As an initia ste!. 24 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. B *. earnest. Courts #i not !ass u!on the constitutiona it' o) a a# u!on the co&! aint o) one #ho )ai s to sho# that he is in"ured $' its o!eration.P. association or "oint %enture #ith an' !erson.ecuted $et#een PCSO and Ber"a'a. This is es!ecia ' true #here the issues Mreach constitutiona di&ensions.Q )orei*n ca!ita is a o#ed.the !u$ ic. association. i+e this. )orei*n or do&estic. a Phi i!!ine cor!oration +no#n as the Phi i!!ine -a&in* 7ana*e&ent Cor!oration.G(udicia !o#er is i&ited to the decision o) actua cases and contro%ersies. #hich see+s to !rohi$it and restrain the i&! e&entation o) the @Contract o) Lease@ e. =es!ite that.

to deter&ine #hether or not the other $ranches o) *o%ern&ent ha%e +e!t the&se %es #ithin the i&its o) the Constitution and the a#s and that the' ha%e not a$used the discretion *i%en to the&.ercise o) its discretion. The uncha en*ed ru e is that the !erson #ho i&!u*ns the %a idit' o) a statute &ust ha%e a !ersona and su$stantia interest in the case such that he has sustained.ercise o) its sound discretion. It )urther c ai&s that as an inde!endent contractor )or a !iece o) #or+. in the e. direct in"ur' as a resu t o) its en)orce&ent. 116?. e. !etitioners ha%e con%incin* ' sho#n that in their ca!acit' as ta. i. Aence. Whether or not !etitioners ha%e the e*a standin* to )i e the instant !etition. Yes. No inter!retation o) the said !ro%ision to re a. $ut one #here the statutori ' !roscri$ed co a$oration or association.P-7C is not a co5o!erator o) the otter' )ranchise #ith PCSO. 25 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ .!a'ersD suits )or ac+ o) su))icient !ersona it' standin* or interest are. this Court here$' $rushes aside the !rocedura $arrier #hich the res!ondents tried to ta+e ad%anta*e o). ho#e%er. Whether the contract in 0uestion is one o) ease or #hether the P-7C is &ere ' an inde!endent contractor shou d not $e decided on the $asis o) the tit e or desi*nation o) the contract $ut $' the intent o) the !arties.. O$"ections to ta. A !art'Ds standin* $e)ore this Court is a !rocedura technica it' #hich it &a'. or "oint %enture. The court #as not con%inced $' the insistence and )orce)u ar*u&ents o) the P-7C that it does not $ecause in rea it' it is on ' an inde!endent contractor )or a !iece o) #or+. association or "oint %entureD #ith P-7C. #hich shou d $e %enti ated in another )oru&C and that the @!etitioners do not a!!ear to ha%e the e*a standin* or rea interest in the su$"ect contract and in o$tainin* the re ie)s sou*ht. otteries. 1. it states that the e. set aside in %ie# o) the i&!ortance o) the issues raised. #hat !etitioners !ossess @is an interest #hich is shared in co&&on $' other !eo! e and is co&!arati%e ' so &inute and indeter&inate as to a))ord an' $asis and assurance that the "udicia !rocess can act on it. this Court has $rushed aside technica ities o) !rocedure and has ta+en co*niBance o) these !etitions. or #i sustain. their standin* to sue has $een a&! ' de&onstrated. the PCSO cannot share its )ranchise #ith another $' #a' o) co a$oration.P.ecution and i&! e&entation o) the contract does not %io ate the Constitution and the a#sC that the issue on the @&ora it'@ o) the otter' )ranchise *ranted to the PCSO is !o itica and not "udicia or e*a .@ Issues. $' the e. #hich &a' $e *athered )ro& the !ro%isions o) the contract itse ). B *. and in +ee!in* #ith the CourtDs dut'. in the east. 1. under the 1?<: Constitution. at the &ost. contract is not e*a and %a id. in the &ain !rocedura &atters. >ina '. not#ithstandin* its deno&ination or desi*nation as a 8Contract o) Lease9. 41. association or "oint %enture. or ease such )ranchise. In short then. The court a*reed #ith the !etitioners that it %io ated Section 1 o) 2. The e*a standin* then o) the !etitioners deser%es reco*nition and. Neither can it assi*n. No. Ao#e%er. nor is PCSO sharin* its )ranchise. Din co a$oration. or other si&i ar acti%ities is a )ranchise *ranted $' the e*is ature to the PCSO. 1.!a'ers. Section 1 o) its charter.e. No. 1.ists $et#een the contractin* !arties. or circu&%ent the !rohi$ition can $e a o#ed since the !ri%i e*e to ho d or conduct charit' s#ee!sta+es races. A care)u ana 'sis and e%a uation o) the !ro%isions o) the contract and a consideration o) the conte&!oraneous acts o) the PCSO and P-7C indu$ita$ ' disc ose that the contract is not in rea it' a contract o) ease under #hich the P-7C is &ere ' an inde!endent contractor )or a !iece o) #or+. Whether or not the contract o) ease is e*a and %a id. it is neither en*a*ed in @*a&$ in*@ nor in @!u$ ic ser%ice@ re ati%e to the te eco&&unications net#or+. Considerin* the i&!ortance to the !u$ ic o) the cases at $ar.A. in the e. 7oreo%er. as a&ended $' B.! icit ' &ade in !ara*ra!h B. trans)er. Ae d. We )ind the instant !etition to $e o) transcendenta i&!ortance to the !u$ ic.ce!tion e. the $ui din* and &aintenance o) a otter' s'ste& to $e used $' the PCSO in the o!eration o) its otter' )ranchise.

.+ concu''in)..3 )or $ein* insu))icient in su$stance. 1. Other#ise. T. &andates that each o) the *reat =e!art&ents o) *o%ern&ent is res!onsi$ e )or !er)or&ance o) its constitutiona ' a otted tas+s.39 7ain To!ic. in turn. the !etition $eco&es %u nera$ e to !ro&!t dis&issa $' the court.!enditures $' the Chie) (ustice o) the Su!re&e Court o) the (udiciar' =e%e o!&ent >und 8(=>9. >uente$e a. 26 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Certain ' that is the case #here *reat issues o) !u$ ic a# are at sta+e.3 that the )irst i&!each&ent co&! aint #as @su))icient in )or&. and #as re)erred to the Aouse Co&&ittee.ecuti%e or e*is ati%e act &ust $e a$ e to sho# that he has ocus standi. Thus. The Aouse Co&&ittee on (ustice ru ed on Octo$er 13. (r. 1. The Aouse o) 2e!resentati%es ado!ted a ne# ru es o) !rocedure on i&!each&ent cases. Teodoro. In our o#n "urisdiction. I&!each&ent V Chec+s and Ba ances >acts.3. 1.@ On (une 1. and at east since the turn o) the !resent centur'. Issue. 2ona do B..t o) actua cases or contro%ersies. or in #hat t'!es o) cases.. Inso)ar as the (udicia =e!art&ent is concerned. and se%en Associate (ustices o) this Court )or @cu !a$ e %io ation o) the Constitution. s!onsored $' 2e!resentati%e >e i. the court shou d insist on a c ear sho#in* o) ocus standiunderstood as a direct and !ersona interest in the su$"ect &atter o) the case at $ar. 819Whether or Not the )i in* o) the second i&!each&ent co&! aint a*ainst Chie) (ustice Ai ario -.Feliciano+ =. -2 16.161 81.. #hich directed the Co&&ittee on (ustice @to conduct an in%esti*ation. 1. 1. the !rinci! e o) se!aration o) !o#ers #hich.ercise o) "udicia !o#er and carr'in* out o) "udicia )unctions co&&on ' ta+e ! ace #ithin the conte. >our &onths and three #ee+s since the )i in* on (une 1. Wa&ora and =ida*en Pian* =i an*a en. =a%ide (r.ecuti%e acts in ter&s o) their constitutiona it' or e*a it'. that is. the *enera !ro!osition has $een that a !etitioner #ho assai s the e*a or constitutiona 0ua it' o) an e. a&on* other thin*s.@ The co&! aint #as endorsed $' 2e!resentati%es 2o e. =a%ide.. No%. This. on the &anner o) dis$urse&ents and e. 1.. that a!!arent ' strin*ent re0uire&ent and !roceed to dea #ith the e*a or constitutiona issues at sta+e in a !articu ar case. /strada )i ed an i&!each&ent co&! aint a*ainst Chie) (ustice Ai ario -.. =a%ide.3. (r. Wi ia& =. )or&er President (ose!h /.1. Constitutiona it' o) 2u es. )ounded on the a e*ed resu ts o) the e*is ati%e in0uir' initiated $' a$o%e5&entioned Aouse 2eso ution. The $road 0uestion is #hen. $etra'a o) the !u$ ic trust and other hi*h cri&es. "udicia !o#er has a #a's inc uded the !o#er o) "udicia re%ie#. (r. There is no dis!ute that the doctrine o) ocus standi re) ects an i&!ortant constitutiona !rinci! e. Wi ia& B. To date. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . Aouse o) 2e!resentati%es. #ith the Aouse o) 2e!resentati%es )a s #ithin the one 'ear $ar !ro%ided in the Constitution and 819 Whether the ado!ted ru es are unconstitutiona . understood as the authorit' o) courts 8&ore s!eci)ica ' the Su!re&e Court9 to assa' contested e*is ati%e and e. and >e i. a da' a)ter the Aouse Co&&ittee on (ustice %oted to dis&iss it. the e. issues #hich cannot $e a!!roached in the sa&e #a' that a court a!!roaches a suit )or the co ection o) a su& o) &one'. On (u ' 11. the Co&&ittee 2e!ort to this e))ect has not 'et $een sent to the Aouse in ! enar' in accordance #ith the said Section 3819 o) Artic e LI o) the Constitution. 13 >rancisco %s. Su! ico. in aid o) e*is ation.3 o) the )irst co&! aint or on Octo$er 13. and #hen the court &a' or shou d re a.@ $ut %oted to dis&iss the sa&e on Octo$er 11. re) ects the $asic notion o) "udicia !o#er as the !o#er to reso %e actua dis!utes and o) the traditiona $usiness o) courts as the hearin* and decidin* o) s!eci)ic contro%ersies $rou*ht $e)ore the&. 1. This second i&!each&ent co&! aint #as acco&!anied $' a @2eso ution o) /ndorse&entUI&!each&ent@ si*ned $' at east one5third 81U39 o) a the 7e&$ers o) the Aouse o) 2e!resentati%es. the Aouse o) 2e!resentati%es ado!ted a 2eso ution. >uente$e a a*ainst Chie) (ustice Ai ario -. the second i&!each&ent co&! aint #as )i ed #ith the Secretar' -enera o) the Aouse $' 2e!resentati%es -i $erto C.

$ut a so that he sustained or is in i&&inent dan*er o) sustainin* so&e direct in"ur' as a resu t o) its en)orce&ent. this Court is e%er &ind)u o) the essentia truth that the in%io ate doctrine o) se!aration o) !o#ers a&on* the e*is ati%e. This is a !o itica 0uestion. he &ust s!eci)ica ' !ro%e that he has su))icient interest in !re%entin* the i e*a e. or that !u$ ic &one' is $ein* de) ected to an' i&!ro!er !ur!ose. he is a o#ed to sue #here there is a c ai& that !u$ ic )unds are i e*a ' dis$ursed. the &ere )act that he is a citiBen satis)ies the re0uire&ent o) !ersona interest. The constitution uses the #ord MinitiateN in its ordinar' &eanin*.ecuti%e or "udicia $ranches o) *o%ern&ent $' no &eans !rescri$es )or a$so ute autono&' in the dischar*e $' each o) that !art o) the *o%ern&enta !o#er assi*ned to it $' the so%erei*n !eo! e.!a'er. The second !etition #as )i ed #ithin a 'ear. This conc usion has $een reached a)ter deter&inin* #hen the one5 'ear count #i run J once the !roceedin* is MinitiatedN. that the )eared resort to e. 839 No. 819 Yes. Ae d.!a'erDs suit shou d $e entertained.tra5 constitutiona &ethods o) reso %in* it is neither necessar' nor e*a ' !er&issi$ e. It is not su))icient that he has &ere ' a *enera interest co&&on to a &e&$ers o) the !u$ ic. not de!arture )ro&.ercise o) "udicia re%ie# o%er i&!each&ent !roceedin*s #ou d u!set the s'ste& o) chec+s and $a ances. since the ne# ru es are %io ati%e o) the constitution as the' create a ne# &eanin* $et#een M)i in*N. In an' e%ent. 819 Yes. 27 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. It &ust a!!ear that the !erson co&! ainin* has $een or is a$out to $e denied so&e ri*ht or !ri%i e*e to #hich he is a#)u ' entit ed or that he is a$out to $e su$"ected to so&e $urdens or !ena ties $' reason o) the statute or act co&! ained o). Mre)erra N and MinitiateN. the interest o) the !etitioner assai in* the constitutiona it' o) a statute &ust $e direct and !ersona . On (urisdiction. the Constitution. not on ' that the a# or an' *o%ern&ent act is in%a id. courts are %ested #ith discretion as to #hether or not a ta. #hen the !roceedin* in%o %es the assertion o) a !u$ ic ri*ht. issues arisin* )ro& the contro%ers'. Ae &ust $e a$ e to sho#. at the )irst instance.ation and that he #ou d sustain a direct in"ur' as a resu t o) the en)orce&ent o) the 0uestioned statute or contract. or that there is a #asta*e o) !u$ ic )unds throu*h the en)orce&ent o) an in%a id or unconstitutiona a#. At a e%ents. the coro ar' doctrine o) chec+s and $a ances #hich has $een care)u ' ca i$rated $' the Constitution to te&!er the o))icia acts o) each o) these three $ranches &ust $e *i%en e))ect #ithout destro'in* their indis!ensa$ e co5e0ua it'. Both its reso ution and !rotection o) the !u$ ic interest ie in adherence to. and not &ere ' that he su))ers there$' in so&e inde)inite #a'.@ Both are inte*ra co&!onents o) the ca i$rated s'ste& o) inde!endence and interde!endence that insures that no $ranch o) *o%ern&ent act $e'ond the !o#ers assi*ned to it $' the Constitution.839 Whether or not the Court can &a+e a deter&ination o) #hat constitutes an i&!eacha$ e o))ense. At the sa&e ti&e. e. In the case o) a ta. Suic+ Ans#ers. In !assin* o%er the co&! e. In )ine.!enditure o) !u$ ic )unds. the Constitution is to $e inter!reted as a #ho e and @one section is not to $e a o#ed to de)eat another.!enditure o) &one' raised $' ta. This Court o!ts to *rant standin* to &ost o) the !etitioners. When suin* as a citiBen. Be)ore he can in%o+e the !o#er o) "udicia re%ie#. Veri '. There e. *i%en their a e*ation that an' i&!endin* trans&itta to the Senate o) the Artic es o) I&!each&ent and the ensuin* tria o) the Chie) (ustice #i necessari ' in%o %e the e. ho#e%er.ists no constitutiona $asis )or the contention that the e. it is #ith the a$so ute certaint' that our Constitution is su))icient to address a the issues #hich this contro%ers' s!a#ns that this Court une0ui%oca ' !ronounces. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ .

The a# is so icitous o) e%er' indi%idua Ds ri*hts irres!ecti%e o) his station in i)e.@ This is a &isreadin* o) said !ro%ision and is contrar' to the !rinci! e o) reddendo sin*u a sin*u is $' e0uatin* @i&!each&ent cases@ #ith @i&!each&ent !roceedin*. Section 3859 o) the Constitution. Aa%in* conc uded that the initiation ta+es ! ace $' the act o) )i in* o) the i&!each&ent co&! aint and re)erra to the Aouse Co&&ittee on (ustice. he is a o#ed to sue to 0uestion the %a idit' o) an' o))icia action #hich he c ai&s in)rin*es his !rero*ati%es as a e*is ator. a &e&$er o) the Aouse o) 2e!resentati%es has standin* to &aintain in%io ate the !rero*ati%es. $' %irtue o) Section 1. 1. The Chie) (ustice is not a$o%e the a# and neither is an' other &e&$er o) this Court. section 3 o) Artic e LI o) the Constitution. the reason )or res!ect o) the doctrine o) se!aration o) !o#ers to $e &aintained.. No one is a$o%e the a# or the Constitution. (r is $arred under !ara*ra!h 5. YYY >ro& the )ore*oin* record o) the !roceedin*s o) the 1?<6 Constitutiona Co&&ission. that Section 1. Artic e VIII o) the Constitution. $' the )i in* $' at east one5third o) the &e&$ers o) the Aouse o) 2e!resentati%es #ith the Secretar' -enera o) the Aouse.c usi%e !o#er to initiate a cases o) i&!each&ent. Thus #hen a !ro!osa reached the ) oor !ro!osin* that @A %ote o) at east one5third o) a the 7e&$ers o) the Aouse sha $e necessar'X to initiate i&!each&ent !roceedin*s. it is c ear that "udicia !o#er is not on ' a !o#erC it is a so a dut'. it did not *o a$out assu&in* "urisdiction #here it had none. another &a' not $e )i ed a*ainst the sa&e o))icia #ithin a one 'ear !eriod )o o#in* Artic e LI.the second i&!each&ent co&! aint a*ainst Chie) (ustice Ai ario -. On Po itica Suestions. Thus.1 are unconstitutiona 5 The !ro%isions o) Sections 16 and 1: o) 2u e V o) the Aouse I&!each&ent 2u es contra%ene Section 3 859 o) Artic e LI as the' *i%e the ter& MinitiateN a &eanin* di))erent )ro& M)i in*. The Court in the !resent !etitions su$"ected to "udicia scrutin' and reso %ed on the &erits on ' the &ain issue o) #hether the i&!each&ent !roceedin*s initiated a*ainst the Chie) (ustice trans*ressed the constitutiona ' i&!osed one5'ear ti&e $ar ru e. !o#ers and !ri%i e*es %ested $' the Constitution in his o))ice. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ .@ this #as &et $' a !ro!osa to de ete the ine on the *round that the %ote o) the Aouse does not initiate i&!each&ent !roceedin* $ut rather the )i in* o) a co&! aint does. The )ra&ers o) the Constitution a so understood initiation in its ordinar' &eanin*. 819 @tru ' !o itica 0uestions@ and 819 those #hich @are not tru ' !o itica 0uestions. the &eanin* o) Section 3 859 o) Artic e LI $eco&es c ear. the &eanin* o) Section 3 859 o) Artic e LI $eco&es c ear.@ >ro& this c ari)ication it is *athered that there are t#o s!ecies o) !o itica 0uestions.As )or a e*is ator. Once an i&!each&ent co&! aint has $een initiated.@ Aa%in* conc uded that the initiation ta+es ! ace $' the act o) )i in* and re)erra or endorse&ent o) the i&!each&ent co&! aint to the Aouse Co&&ittee on (ustice or. =a%ide. a dut' #hich cannot $e a$dicated $' the &ere s!ecter o) this creature ca ed the !o itica 0uestion doctrine. ho#e%er. Once an i&!each&ent co&! aint has $een initiated in the )ore*oin* &anner. Perha!s. Artic e VIII #as not intended to do a#a' #ith @tru ' !o itica 0uestions.@ Tru ' !o itica 0uestions are thus $e'ond "udicia re%ie#. the initia action ta+en thereon. another i&!each&ent co&! aint &a' not $e )i ed a*ainst the sa&e o))icia #ithin a one 'ear !eriod. But "ust $ecause he is the Chie) (ustice does not i&! ' that he *ets to ha%e ess in a# than an'$od' e se. On the other hand. courts can re%ie# 0uestions #hich 2) Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. To the ar*u&ent that on ' the Aouse o) 2e!resentati%es as a $od' can initiate i&!each&ent !roceedin*s $ecause Section 3 819 sa's @The Aouse o) 2e!resentati%es sha ha%e the e. there is no other *o%ern&ent $ranch or instru&enta it' that is &ost Bea ous in !rotectin* that !rinci! e o) e*a e0ua it' other than the Su!re&e Court #hich has discerned its rea &eanin* and ra&i)ications throu*h its a!! ication to nu&erous cases es!ecia ' o) the hi*h5!ro)i e +ind in the anna s o) "uris!rudence. Because it is not at a the $usiness o) this Court to assert "udicia do&inance o%er the other t#o *reat $ranches o) the *o%ern&ent. Chie) (ustice Conce!cion hastened to c ari)'. nor indiscri&inate ' turn "usticia$ e issues out o) decided ' !o itica 0uestions. Indeed. the 2u es o) Procedure in I&!each&ent Proceedin*s #hich #ere a!!ro%ed $' the Aouse o) 2e!resentati%es on No%e&$er 1<. This is a $asic !rece!t in an' e*a s'ste& #hich reco*niBes e0ua it' o) a &en $e)ore the a# as essentia to the a#Ds &ora authorit' and that o) its a*ents to secure res!ect )or and o$edience to its co&&ands. Be'ond this.N Conse0uent '.

There #as a so a !rohi$ition )or !ersons $e o# 1< in the hote .. Such a deter&ination is a !ure ' !o itica 0uestion #hich the Constitution has e)t to the sound discretion o) the e*is ation. The Court he d that it has no "urisdiction o%er the issue that *oes into the &erits o) the second i&!each&ent co&! aint. The deter&ination o) a tru ' !o itica 0uestion )ro& a non5"usticia$ e !o itica 0uestion ies in the ans#er to the 0uestion o) #hether there are constitutiona ' i&!osed i&its on !o#ers or )unctions con)erred u!on !o itica $odies. not e*a it'. I.ecuti%e $ranch o) the -o%ern&ent.5. MXThe !o#ers o) *o%ern&ent are *enera ' considered di%ided into three $ranches. under the Constitution. Po itica 0uestions are Mthose 0uestions #hich. Citin* Chie) (ustice Conce!cion. and the (udiciar'. this a!!ea $' the cit' o) 7ani a. The o#er court dec ared the ordinance unconstitutiona . are to $e decided $' the !eo! e in their so%erei*n ca!acit'. =U/ P2OC/SS AN= /SUAL P2OT/CTION Art. The' c ai&ed that the ordinance #as $e'ond the !o#ers o) the 7ani a Cit' Board to re*u ate due to the )act that hote s #ere not !art o) its re*u ator' !o#ers. It #as a so un a#)u )or the o#ner to ease an' roo& or !ortion thereo) &ore than t#ice e%er' 14 hours.. The' a so asserted that Section 1 o) the cha en*ed ordinance #as unconstitutiona and %oid )or $ein* unreasona$ e and %io ati%e o) due !rocess inso)ar $ecause it #ou d i&!ose P6. The cha en*ed ordinance a so caused the auto&atic cance ation o) the icense o) the hote s that %io ated the ordinance. No !erson sha $e de!ri%ed o) i)e. This is not on ' a "udicia !o#er $ut a so a dut' to !ass "ud*&ent on &atters o) this natureXN a dut' #hich cannot $e a$dicated $' the &ere s!ecter o) the !o itica a# doctrine. #hen he $eca&e a Constitutiona Co&&issioner. nor sha an' !erson $e denied the e0ua !rotection o) the a#s. Phi i!!ine Constitution Section 1. Because o) that su!re&ac' !o#er to deter&ine #hether a *i%en a# is %a id or not is %ested in courts o) "usticeX courts o) "ustice deter&ine the i&its o) !o#ers o) the a*encies and o))ices o) the *o%ern&ent as #e as those o) its o))icers. i$ert'. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ .ecuti%e. 1.. 1.a&ine #hether the $ranch or instru&enta it' o) the *o%ern&ent !ro!er ' acted #ithin such i&its. Whether Ordinance No. the Le*is ati%e. Sec. The' c ai&ed this to $e %io ati%e o) due !rocess )or $ein* %a*ue. and one o) its &e&$ers Aote de 7ar Inc. or !ro!ert' #ithout due !rocess o) a#. o) the Cit' o) 7ani a is %io ati%e o) the due !rocess c auseI 2( Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. o) a !articu ar &easure.. The "udiciar' is the )ina ar$iter on the 0uestion #hether or not a $ranch o) *o%ern&ent or an' o) its o))icia s has acted #ithout "urisdiction or in e.. There #as a so a !ro%ision that the !re&ises and )aci ities o) such hote s..cess o) "urisdiction. !etitioned )or the !rohi$ition o) Ordinance 46:. The a# a so c assi)ied &ote s into t#o c asses and re0uired the &aintenance o) certain &ini&u& )aci ities in )irst c ass &ote s such as a te e!hone in each roo&. then our courts are dut'5$ound to e. SC2A <4? 81?6:9 /r&ita57a ate Aote and 7ote O!erators Association. or in re*ard to #hich )u discretionar' authorit' has $een de e*ated to the Le*is ature or e. )or second c ass &ote sC there #as a so the re0uire&ent that the *uests #ou d )i u! a )or& s!eci)'in* their !ersona in)or&ation.. =ue Process 11 /r&ita57a ate Aote and 7ote O!erators Association %s. 4:6. 1. icense )ee !er annu& )or )irst c ass &ote s and P4. Cit' o) 7ani a. 7ore i&!ortant '. Issue. 1?63 to $e a!! ica$ e in the cit' o) 7ani a. I) there are.cess o) "urisdiction or ac+ o) "urisdiction.. restaurant and aundr'.. on (une 14. &ote s and od*in* houses #ou d $e o!en )or ins!ection )ro& cit' authorites. an' discussion o) this #ou d re0uire this Court to &a+e a deter&ination o) #hat constitutes an i&!eacha$ e o))ense. Aence. III. The !etitioners a so in%o+ed the ac+ o) due !rocess on this )or $ein* ar$itrar'.N It is concerned #ith issues de!endent u!on the #isdo&.. a dinin* roo& or. or so ca!ricious ' as to constitute an a$use o) discretion a&ountin* to e. the /. /ach one is su!re&e #ithin its o#n s!here and inde!endent o) the others.are not tru ' !o itica in nature.

. The )reedo& to contract no on*er @retains its %irtua it' as a i%in* !rinci! e.actin*. @The !resu&!tion is to#ards the %a idit' o) a a#. o$edience to the dictates o) "ustice. What &a' $e stressed su))icient ' is that i) the i$ert' in%o %ed #ere )reedo& o) the &ind or the !erson. Laure 5 The citiBen shou d achie%e the re0uired $a ance o) i$ert' and authorit' in his &ind throu*h education and !ersona disci! ine.Ae d.@ No such )actua )oundation $ein* aid in the !resent case. #hich &eans !eace and order and ha!!iness )or a . In one case5 M&uch discretion is *i%en to &unici!a cor!orations in deter&inin* the a&ount. The oca e*is ati%e $od'.in* a&ount o) the icense )ees the &unici!a cor!orations are a o#ed a &uch #ider discretion in this c ass o) cases than in the )or&er.@ Tanada %s.act a )ee &a' $e i&! ied )ro& the !o#er to icense and re*u ate. *ood order. the !er&issi$ e sco!e o) re*u ator' &easure is #ider. &ora s. !eace. the o#er court decidin* the &atter on the ! eadin*s and the sti!u ation o) )acts.N There is no 0uestion $ut that the cha en*ed ordinance #as !recise ' enacted to &ini&iBe certain !ractices hurt)u to !u$ ic &ora s. un i+e in the so e case o) Peo! e % Po&ar. What then is the standard o) due !rocess #hich &ust e. e%en i) it #ere %ie#ed !ure ' as a !o ice !o#er &easure. It has a standard to #hich the *o%ern&enta action shou d con)or& in order that de!ri%ation o) i)e. LutB %. In %ie# o) the re0uire&ents o) due !rocess. the !resu&!tion o) %a idit' &ust !re%ai and the "ud*&ent a*ainst the ordinance set aside.@ Suestions o) due !rocess are not to $e treated narro# ' or !edantica ' in s a%er' to )or& or !hrase. e0ua !rotection and other a!! ica$ e constitutiona *uaranties. Sa e o) i0uors. As under 'in* 0uestions o) )act &a' condition the constitutiona it' o) e*is ation o) this character. $e )a&i iar #ith the necessities o) their !articu ar &unici!a it' and #ith a the )acts and circu&stances #hich surround the su$"ect and necessitate action. Aart)ord >ire Insurance Co5 Case #as in the sco!e o) !o ice !o#er. i$ert' or !ro!ert'. . the resu&!tion o) constitutiona it' &ust !re%ai in the a$sence o) so&e )actua )oundation o) record )or o%erthro#in* the statute.tent *i%en #a' to the assu&!tion $' the *o%ern&ent o) the ri*ht o) inter%ention e%en in contractua re ations a))ected #ith !u$ ic interest. $e %a id.@ decisions $ased on such a c ause re0uirin* a @c ose and !erce!ti%e in0uir' into )unda&enta !rinci! es o) our societ'. . (ud*&ent re%ersed. ! ace and circu&stances. 136 SC2A 1: 81?<59C 146 SC2A 446 81?<69 In%o+in* the ri*ht o) the !eo! e to $e in)or&ed on &atters o) !u$ ic concern as #e as the !rinci! e that a#s to $e %a id and en)orcea$ e &ust $e !u$ ished in the O))icia $oth as a !rocedura and a su$stanti%e re0uisite to )ree the cha en*ed ordinance )ro& e*a in)ir&it'I It is res!onsi%eness to the su!re&ac' o) reason. Nothin* in the !etition is su))icient to !ro%e the ordinanceKs nu it' )or an a e*ed )ai ure to &eet the due !rocess re0uire&ent.N The action o) the e ected re!resentati%es o) the !eo! e cannot $e i*ht ' set aside. is not icenseC it is D i$ert' re*u ated $' a#. In OD-or&an V Youn* %. 7oreo%er. or t'rannica . $' enactin* the ordinance. 2atio. sa)et' and *enera #e )are o) the !eo! e. Ne*ati%e ' !ut. $ut #here the i$ert' curtai ed a))ects at the &ost ri*hts o) !ro!ert'. the standard )or the %a idit' o) *o%ern&enta acts is &uch &ore ri*orous and e. !articu ar ' )ornication and !rostitution. /*. courts ha%e. =ue !rocess is not a narro# or @technica conce!tion #ith )i.ation &a' $e &ade to su!! e&ent the stateKs !o ice !o#er. ar$itrariness is ru ed out and un)airness a%oided. ho#e%er. Araneta5 Ta. Cu Un"ien* case. the increase in the icensed )ees #as intended to discoura*e @esta$ ish&ents o) the +ind )ro& o!eratin* )or !ur!ose other than e*a @ and at the sa&e ti&e. the &aintenance o) esta$ ish&ents. and aside )ro& a!! 'in* the #e 5+no#n e*a !rinci! e that &unici!a ordinances &ust not $e unreasona$ e. The !o ic' o) aisseB )aire has to so&e e. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . as a *enera ru e. Licenses )or non5use)u occu!ations are a so incidenta to the !o ice !o#er and the ri*ht to e. !etitioners )i ed )or #rit o) &anda&us to co&!e res!ondent 11 39 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty.@ Po ice !o#er is the !o#er to !rescri$e re*u ations to !ro&ote the hea th.D I&! ied in the ter& is restraint $' a# )or the *ood o) the indi%idua and )or the *reater *ood o) the !eace and order o) societ' and the *enera #e 5$ein*. The counci ors &ust. in each a!!ro!riate case. to increase @the inco&e o) the cit' *o%ern&ent. dec ined to inter)ere #ith such discretion. No. and the M)u rate o) !a'&entN5 Ao &es5 MWe a*ree to a the *enera ities a$out not su!! 'in* cri&ina a#s #ith #hat the' o&it $ut there is no canon a*ainst usin* co&&on sense in construin* a#s as sa'in* #hat the' o$%ious ' &ean. $ut in )i.@ here the icense )ee o) the o!erator o) a &assa*e c inic. so that there &a' $e esta$ ished the resu tant e0ui i$riu&. On the a# $ein* %a*ue on the issue o) !ersona in)or&ation. in the %er' nature o) thin*s. There is no contro in* and !recise de)inition o) due !rocess. o!!ressi%e. The (udiciar' shou d not i*ht ' set aside e*is ati%e action #hen there is not a c ear in%asion o) !ersona or !ro!ert' ri*hts under the *uise o) !o ice re*u ation.ed content unre ated to ti&e. the !o#er &ust not $e unreasona$ e or %io ati%e o) due !rocess. On the i&!air&ent o) )reedo& to contract $' i&itin* duration o) use to t#ice e%er' 14 hours5 It #as not %io ati%e o) due !rocess. Tu%era. has in e))ect *i%en notice that the re*u ations are essentia to the #e $ein* o) the !eo! e . DLi$ert'D as understood in de&ocracies.

to #it. The Court there)ore dec ares that !residentia issuances o) *enera a!! ication. COMELEC 3. e%en in the courts o) "ustice. It is not correct to sa' that under the dis!uted c ause !u$ ication &a' $e dis!ensed #ith a to*ether. !ri%ate res!ondent decided to !hase out its securit' section en*a*e the ser%ices o) an inde!endent securit' a*enc'. *enera orders. To $e %a id. he &ust )irst $e o))icia ' and s!eci)ica ' in)or&ed o) its contents. inc udin* those o) oca a!! ication and !ri%ate a#s. ISSU/.ed $' the e*is ature. )or strict ' s!ea+in* a a#s re ate to the !eo! e in *enera a $eit there are so&e that do not a!! ' to the& direct '. It is a ru e o) a# that $e)ore a !erson &a' $e $ound $' a#. 313 SC2A 445 81. e. and t to the !u$ ic as a #ho e.. The !u$ ication o) !residentia issuances @o) a !u$ ic nature@ or @o) *enera a!! ica$i it'@ is a re0uire&ent o) due !rocess. The reason. orders and etters o) instructions #hich a )or& !art o) the a# o) the and. i+e a re ati%e o) President 7arcos #ho #as decreed instant natura iBation. The su$"ect o) such a# is a &atter o) !u$ ic interest #hich an' &e&$er o) the $od' !o itic &a' 0uestion in the !o itica )oru&s or. A/L=. In )act. WON )ai ure to !u$ ish a a#. We ho d there)ore that all statutes.ts o) a such decrees. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . the a# &ust in%aria$ ' a))ect the !u$ ic interest e%en i) it &i*ht $e direct ' a!! ica$ e on ' to one indi%idua .!u$ ic o))icia s to !u$ ish andUor cause to !u$ ish %arious !residentia decrees. It sure ' cannot $e said that such a a# does not a))ect the !u$ ic a thou*h it un0uestiona$ ' does not a!! ' direct ' to a the !eo! e. As a cost5cuttin* &easure. The ter& @ a#s@ shou d re)er to a a#s and not on ' to those o) *enera a!! ication. NL2C. An e. Yes. Si*ni)icant '. is that such o&ission #ou d o))end due !rocess inso)ar as it #ou d den' the !u$ ic +no# ed*e o) the a#s that are su!!osed to *o%ern the e*is ature cou d %a id ' !ro%ide that a a# e e))ecti%e i&&ediate ' u!on its a!!ro%a not#ithstandin* the ac+ o) !u$ ication 8or a)ter an unreasona$ ' short !eriod a)ter !u$ ication9. Petitioner #as then ter&inated !ro&!tin* hi& to )i e a co&! aint )or i e*a dis&issa . The So icitor -enera . Ao#e%er. etters o) instructions. #hich ha%e not $een !u$ ished. this is not true on ' o) !ena a#s as is co&&on ' su!!osed. the court said that. the re0uire&ent o) due !rocess and the 2u e o) La# de&and that the O))icia -aBette as the o))icia *o%ern&ent re!ositor' !ro&u *ate and !u$ ish the te. In a ti&e o) !ro i)eratin* decrees. it is not un i+e ' that !ersons not a#are o) it #ou d $e !re"udiced as a resu t and the' #ou d $e so not $ecause o) a )ai ure to co&! ' #ith $ut si&! ' $ecause the' did not +no# o) its e.ecuti%e orders. i) he is a !ro!er !art'. #hich sha $e*in )i)teen da's a)ter !u$ ication un ess a di))erent e))ecti%it' date is )i.9 FACTS: Petitioner #as hired $' the 2es!ondent Isetann =e!art&ent Store as a securit' chec+er to a!!rehend sho! i)ters. Serrano %s. NL2C ordered !etitioner to $e *i%en se!aration !a' ho din* that the !hase5out o) the securit' section #as a e*iti&ate 31 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. contendin* that !etitioners ha%e no e*a !ersona it' to $rin* the instant !etition. i+e a a# on !rescri!tion. &o%ed )or the dis&issa o) the case. orders and instructions so that the !eo! e &a' +no# #here to o$tain their o))icia and s!eci)ic contents. etters o) i&! e&entations and ad&inistrati%e orders. #hich &ust a so $e co&&unicated to the !ersons the' &a' a))ect $e)ore the' can $e*in to o!erate. !roc a&ations. 1.a&! e is a a# *rantin* citiBenshi! to a !articu ar indi%idua .. As (ustice C audio Teehan+ee said in Peralta vs. re!resentin* the res!ondents.istence. One can thin+ o) &an' non5!ena &easures. sha ha%e no )orce and e))ect. In the 1?<6 case. or so&e o) the !eo! e on '. sha $e !u$ ished as a condition )or their e))ecti%it'. a a# #ithout an' $earin* on the !u$ ic #ou d $e in%a id as an intrusion o) !ri%ac' or as c ass e*is ation or as an ultra vires act o) the e*is ature. the court a so c ari)ied the sco!e o) the !u$ ication re0uire&ent. act or ordinance $e)ore it $eco&es %a id is a %io ation o) the due !rocess c ause.

635 81?4. Issue: WON there #as a %io ation o) !etitionerDs ri*ht to due !rocess #hen res!ondent5e&! o'er )ai ed to *i%e the re0uired 1 &onth notice !ro%ided in the La$or Code. The !ur!ose o) the =ue Process C ause is to ensure that the e. i$ert'. #ith res!ect to Art.$usiness decision. The second reason is that notice and hearin* are re0uired under the =ue Process C ause $e)ore the !o#er o) or*aniBed societ' are $rou*ht to $ear u!on the indi%idua . =ece&$er 1<.ercise o) this !o#er is consistent #ith #hat are considered ci%i iBed &ethods. 1<.e. We ho d. The !ur!ose )or re0uirin* a 3. Ao#e%er.@ There are three reasons #h'. i$ert'. due !rocess. The )irst is that the =ue Process C ause o) the Constitution is a i&itation on *o%ern&enta !o#ers. res!ondent #as denied the ri*ht to $e *i%en #ritten notice $e)ore ter&ination o) his e&! o'&ent. It does not a!! ' to the e. On ' the State has authorit' to ta+e the i)e. The third reason #h' the notice re0uire&ent under Art.@ The reason is si&! e. 1<3. the e&! o'erDs )ai ure to co&! ' #ith the notice re0uire&ent does not constitute a denia o) due !rocess $ut a &ere )ai ure to o$ser%e a !rocedure )or the ter&ination o) e&! o'&ent #hich &a+es the ter&ination o) e&! o'&ent &ere ' ine))ectua . . %iB. . or !ro!ert' #ithout due !rocess o) a#.. under the La$or Code. such as the ter&ination o) e&! o'&ent under the La$or Code. there)ore. (. Aere the e&! o'ee is not )aced #ith an as!ect o) the ad%ersar' s'ste&. This is o$%ious ' not the case o) ter&ination o) e&! o'&ent under Art. This is ! ain )ro& the te. )or there is none. CI2. the dis&issa sha $e u!he d $ut the e&! o'er &ust $e sanctioned )or non5co&! iance #ith the re0uire&ents o). @No !erson sha $e de!ri%ed o) i)e. Held: @It is no# sett ed that #here the dis&issa o) one e&! o'ee is in )act )or a "ust and %a id cause and is so !ro%en to $e $ut he is not accorded his ri*ht to due !rocess. This is a so the case in ter&ination o) e&! o'&ent )or a "ust cause under Art.ercise o) !ri%ate !o#er. i. Alcua> Z 2e*a ado. or !ro!ert' o) the indi%idua . 1<3 can not $e considered a re0uire&ent o) the =ue Process C ause is that the e&! o'er cannot rea ' $e e. A cuaB. III. on the other hand. Indeed. ? < An* Ti$a' %s. on ' the a$sence o) a "ust cause )or the ter&ination o) e&! o'&ent can &a+e the dis&issa o) an e&! o'ee i e*a .9 PAILCO7SAT %s. .hili$$ine Co##unications v. SC2A 11< 81?<?9 . 1<1."i-in) $owe' FACTS 32 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. that. H1 o) the Constitution. The !ur!ose rather is to *i%e hi& ti&e to !re!are )or the e%entua oss o) his "o$ and the =OL/ an o!!ortunit' to deter&ine #hether econo&ic causes do e.!ected to $e entire ' an i&!artia "ud*e o) his o#n cause.t o) Art. 1<3 o) the La$or Code. or )or )ai ure to o$ser%e. %io ation $' the e&! o'er o) the notice re0uire&ent cannot $e considered a denia o) due !rocess resu tin* in the nu it' o) the e&! o'eeDs dis&issa or a'o)). 1?<? ?e%wo'ds: 'ate.5 da' #ritten notice $e)ore an e&! o'ee is aid o)) is not to a))ord hi& an o!!ortunit' to $e heard on an' char*e a*ainst hi&.ist "usti)'in* the ter&ination o) his e&! o'&ent. he #as not )urnished the t#in re0uire&ents o) notice and o!!ortunit' to $e heard. 6? Phi .. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ .

) 33 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. No.tended )or another 6 &onths. #hich #as e. The sate ite ser%ices !ro%ided $' PAILCO7SAT ena$ e internationa carriers to ser%e the !u$ ic #ith indis!ensa$ e co&&unications ser%ices. No.. 546 states that NTC should e guided ! the re"uire#ents of $u lic safet!% $u lic interest and reasona le feasi ilit! of #aintaining effective co#$etition of $rivate entities in co##unications and roadcasting facilities.O. NTC )urther e. !articu ar ' ad"udicati%e !o#ers. ! aced PAILCO7SAT under the contro . When the ad&inistrati%e a*enc' esta$ ishes a rate. /%en in the a$sence o) an* o) rates. rates )or !u$ ic ser%ice co&&unications and not !ro%in* the necessar' standards constitutiona ' re0uired. 1?6.* !o#er #as !ro!ert' con)erred. In i&! e&entin* said /.ecuti%e Orders 5461 and 1?61. PAILCO7SAT assai s that /.in* !o#er is i&ited $' the re0uire&ents o) !u$ ic sa)et'.ed* !o#er.tended to another 6 &onths $ut NTC Co&&issioner A cuaB ordered PAILCO7SAT to reduce rates $' 15Q. to NTC $' e&!o#erin* the atter to )i. it #as e.ercise o) rate5)i. &aintain and o!erate in the Phi i!!inesX stations and e0ui!&ent and )aci ities )or internationa sate ite co&&unications. Sec.!ress re0uire&ent. this standard o) reasona$ eness &a' $e i&! ied. #hich con"oint ' &ore • • 1 Section 15(g) of Executive Order No. NTC re0uired PALCO7SAT to a!! ' )or the re0uisite certificate of public convenience and necessity co%erin* ser%ices rendered and authorit' to char*e rates. PAILCO7SAT a!! ied )or authorit' to continue o!eratin* and &aintainin* )aci ities it has $een o!eratin* since 1?6: and to char*e currents )or renderin* ser%ices.ercise is !ro%ided and that the e*is ature in &a+in* the de e*ation has !rescri$ed the &anner o) the e. 819 WON the NTCKs order #as %io ati%e o) PAILCO7SATKs ri*ht to su$stanti%e and !rocedura !rocess. it a!! ied )or provisional authority to continue o!erations i) such )aci ities. o I) the rate5)i. YES. 546 undu ' de e*ated e*is ati%e !o#er. rates. In case o) a de e*ation o) rate5)i.O. inc udin* the )i. then Pu$ ic Ser%ice Co&&ission. YES+ the o'de' is void and nulli"ied.A. its act &ust $oth $e non5con)iscator' and &ust ha%e $een esta$ ished in the &anner !rescri$ed $' the e*is atureC in the a$sence o) a )i. &hile Sec.O. the on ' standard #hich the e*is ature is re0uired to !rescri$e )or the *uidance o) the ad&inistrati%e authorit' is that the rate $e reasona$ e and "ust. Pursuant to /. ISSUES @ HE ! 819 WON there #as a %a id de e*ation o) e*is ati%e !o#er in *rantin* NTC authorit' to )i. Ao#e%er. "urisdiction and re*u ation o) NTC. the issuance o) /.ercised in an unconstitutiona &anner in %io atin* !rocedura and su$stanti%e due !rocess. 5514 e. o The reduction #as $ased on the e%a uation conducted on the )inancia state&ents o) PAILCO7SAT. NTC *ranted the !ro%isiona authorit' )or 6 &onths. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . NTC in the e. construct. A)ter the end o) such !eriod. !u$ ic interest. the de e*ation o) !o#er $eco&es unconstitutiona .• • • • • • • • This case is one o) )irst i&!ression as it in%o %es the !u$ ic uti it' ser%ices rendered on ' $' !etitioner Phi i!!ine Co&&unications Sate ite Cor!oration 8PAILCO7SAT9. 6 o) 2A. Pendin* hearin*. RATIA5A E Issue [1 • =e e*ation o) e*is ati%e !o#er &a' $e sustained on ' u!on the *round that so&e standard )or its e. 5514 *ranted a M)ranchise to esta$ ish. NTC is e&!o#ered to deter&ine and !rescri$e rates !ertinent to o!eration o) !u$ ic ser%ice co&&unications. reasona$ e )ina it' and reasona$ e rates. No.ercise o) the de e*ated !o#er. 6(d) $rovides that the national econo#ic via ilit! of the entire net'or( or co#$onents of the co##unications s!ste#s conte#$lated therein should e #aintained at reasona le rates.e&!ted PAILCO7SAT )ro& the "urisdiction o) the Nationa Te eco&&unications Co&&ission 8NTC9.

as a *enera ru e. a teration. NTC insists that a hearin* is not necessar' $ecause the said order is &ere ' inter ocutor'C it on ' $ein* an incident in the on*oin* !roceedin*s )or PAILCO7SATKs a!! ication.8udicial ad8udication. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . not so o# as to $e con)iscator' or too hi*h as to $e o!!ressi%e. #hi e the case is sti !endin*. Issue [1 .'ocedu'al due $'ocess • PAILCO7SAT ar*ues that the order #as issued #ithout notice to the& and #ithout the $ene)it o) hearin*C that the order #as $ased on an Minitia e%a uationN #hich #as a uni atera e%a uation. et a .a te#$o'a'% 'ate $endin) "inal dete'#ination o" its a$$lication &ut even i" such is te#$o'a'% it is not e-e#$t "'o# the statuto'% $'ocedu'al 'e(ui'e#ents o" notice and hea'in)+ as well as the 'e(ui'e#ent o" 'easona&leness. . and its acts are !articu ar and i&&ediate rather than *enera and !ros!ecti%e. It is a so ar*ued that the rate5 )i.HI CAMSAT #a% "i. Cloribel . In &a+in* said )indin* o) )act. • Since a hearin* is essentia .. notice and hearin* are not essentia to the %a idit' o) ad&inistrati%e action #here the ad&inistrati%e $od' acts in the e. o The $asic re0uire&ent o) reasona$* !o#er is an ad"udicator' )unction. to re*u ate rates char*ed $' !u$ ic uti ities is a #a's su$"ect to the re0uire&ent that the rates )* !o#er is 0uasi5"udicia or #hen e*is ati%e. • NTC ad&its that the rate5)* !o#er is 0uasi5"udicia $ut #here an order a!! ies to a na&ed !erson.ercise o) e. It is a )ina e*is ati%e act durin* the !eriod it has to re&ain in )* orders #ithout )irst *i%in* PAILCO7SAT a hearin*. ad&inistrati%e. #hich o!erates as an e))ecti%e con)iscation o) !ri%ate !ro!ert' or constitutes an ar$itrar' or unreasona$ e in)rin*e&ent o) !ro!ert' ri*hts is %oid. hence 0uasi5"udicia . the )unction in%o %ed is ad"udicator'. An' re*u ation. • NTC has no authorit' to issue rate5)i.ecuti%e. Ao#e%er.. or re!ea $' Con*ress #hen the co&&on *ood so re0uires. not 0uasi5 e*is ati%e.c usi%e ' and it #as !re&ised on )indin* o) )act that there is &erit in reduction o) rates char*ed. the %a id e. It is i&&ateria i) the order is &ade u!on a co&! aint. It !ertains to PAILCO7SAT e. o The rate )i. In the case at $ar.ercise o) #hich de&ands !re%ious notice and hearin*.than satis)' the re0uire&ents o) a %a id de e*ation o) e*is ati%e !o#er. Su&stantive due $'ocess • • • • PAILCO7SAT asserts that the reduction in rate is con)iscator' and #ou d %irtua ' resu t in the c osure o) the $usiness. #hether the order is !er&anent or not. #hich re0uires notice and hearin*. * Section 16. • The order in 0uestion #as a (uasi. the order is )ina #ith re*ard to the re%enue co%ered $' the !eriod. NTC shou d act so e ' on $asis o) e%idence $e)ore it and not on in)or&ation not o))ered in e%idence. or e*is ati%e )unctionsC $ut #here a !u$ ic ad&inistrati%e $od' acts in a "udicia or 0uasi5"udicia &atter. such *rant cannot $e uni atera ' re%o+ed a$sent a sho#in* that the ter&ination o) the o!eration o) the uti it' is re0uired $' the co&&on *ood. or its authoriBed a*ent.ed #as M!redicated u!on the )indin* o) )act5$ased u!on a re!ort su$&itted $' the -enera Auditin* O))ice. Public ervice Commission &ade a cate*orica c assi)ication as to #hen the rate5)i. 'hich shall e i#$osed% o served and follo'ed thereafter ! an! $u lic service. res!ondent !er)or&ed a )unction !arta+in* o) a 0uasi5 "udicia character. PAILCO7SAT is a &ere *rantee o) a e*is ati%e )ranchise #hich is su$"ect to a&end&ent. NTC3 &a' not e. The inherent !o#er and authorit' o) the State. the !erson #hose ri*hts or !ro!ert' &a' $e a))ected $' the action is entit ed to notice and hearin*.ercise such !o#er in an ar$itrar' and con)iscator' &anner. The Co##ission shall have $o'er% u$on $ro$er notice and xxx (c) To fix and deter#ine individual or +oint rates% . • The order &a+es the reduced rates e))ecti%e on a s!eci)ic date. No rationa iBation #as discussed that !ro&!ted the 15Q reduction $' NTC. 34 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. • .. a su&&ar' in%esti*ation or motu propio. • Vigan Electric vs.ed are reasona$ e and "ust. This deduction #as on ' $ased on an initia e%a uation o) PAILCO7SATKs )inancia state&ents. $ecause it is re!u*nant to the constitutiona *uaranties o) due !rocess and e0ua !rotection o) the a#s.N • In Central Ban! vs.

5o.ercise o) 0uasi5 e*is ati%e !o#er does not re0uire notice and hearin* is ri!e )or re5 e. Inc. in =aet. #ere not a o#ed to re5enro $' the schoo )or the acade&ic 'ear 1?<<51?<? )or eadin* or !artici!atin* in student &ass actions a*ainst the schoo in the !recedin* se&ester. or t'!e o) $eha%ior shou d not &ateria ' disru!t c ass#or+ or &ust not in%o %e su$stantia disorder or in%asion o) the ri*hts o) others.!ertise and e. CD413 Ma% 9E+ 1DDE Facts: Petitioners. shou d ho d hearin*s and $e *i%en *uide ines #hen notices and hearin*s are essentia in : Non %s. Ad&inistrati%e a*encies. 1<. #hich #as a so a!! ied in the case. o 2easona$ eness assu&es that the rates are )air to $oth the !u$ ic uti it' and consu&er. $ut the tria court dis&issed the !etition. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . The court said that !etitioners #ai%ed their !ri%i e*e to $e ad&itted )or re5enro &ent #ith res!ondent co e*e #hen the' ado!ted. A cuaB. rates. Issue: Whether or Not the studentsK ri*ht to )reedo& o) s!eech and asse&$ ' in)rin*ed.!erience needed )or the issuance o) ru es. &ade c ear in the ! eadin*s. #hich )or an' reason #hether it ste&s )ro& ti&e.ercise o) discretion. 1<1 SC2A 115 81??:9 PAILCO7SAT %s. NTCKs decision cou d resu t in detri&ent in the !u$ ic ser%ice 8i) the order turns out to $e unreasona$ e9 or in the cessation o) the $usiness. Court he d that the reduction #as so e ' $ased on he initia e%a uation &ade o) PAILCO7SATKs )inancia state&ents. The rates #ere ordered to $e reduced $' 15Q due to /O 546 #hich *ranted the NTC the !o#er to )i. The' no# !etition the court to re%erse its ru in* in A cuaB %s. -utierreB.e%ea. The 7a$ini Co e*e reser%es the ri*ht to den' ad&ission o) students #hose scho arshi! and attendance are unsatis)actor' and to re0uire #ithdra#a o) students #hose conduct discredits the institution andUor #hose acti%ities undu ' disru!ts or inter)ere #ith the e))icient o!eration o) the co e*e. students in !ri%ate res!ondent 7a$ini Co e*es. The su$"ect o) the !rotests is not. PSBA1. Such a!!oint&ents resu t in ac+ o) sense o) !ersona res!onsi$i it' to the e ectorate 8#hich is !resent in the Con*ress $ein* direct ' e ected9 and ac+ o) e. si*ned.9 5on BS. in c ass or out o) it. Said order #as issued 35 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. 1<5 SC2A 513 81??.• • It is a 0uestion o) sound $usiness "ud*&ent and a 0uestion o) )act ca in* )or the e.ercise o) 0uasi5 e*is ati%e !o#ers. Held: Yes. Students.! anation ho# such )inancia data in) uenced it to arri%e at the reduced rate. • 7e&$ers o) ad&inistrati%e $odies are a!!ointed not on the $asis o) co&!etence and 0ua i)ications $ut out o) !o itica or !ersona considerations. ho#e%er. in the e. =a&es. Ao#e%er there are i&itations. (r. SC ordered NTC to !roceed #ith the hearin* and deter&ination o) PAILCO7SATKs a!! ication. 6 5 • Lu&i0ued %s. there)ore. /. SC2A 11< 81 Bernas <9 Facts: Aerein !etitioner is en*a*ed in !ro%idin* )or ser%ices in%o %in* te eco&&unications.a&ination. and used its enro &ent )or& )or the )irst se&ester o) schoo 'ear 1?<<5<?. The !rotection to the co*nate ri*hts o) s!eech and asse&$ ' *uaranteed $' the Constitution is si&i ar ' a%ai a$ e to students is #e 5sett ed in our "urisdiction. Co&!etition is considered a )actor since a carrier is a o#ed to &a+e such rates as are necessar' to &eet co&!etition. NTC !ro%ided no e. Char*in* rates )or certain s!eci)ied ines that #ere reduced $' order o) herein res!ondent (ose A cuaB Co&&issioner o) the NTC. Petitioners )i ed a !etition in the court see+in* their read&ission or re5enro &ent to the schoo . The doctrine that the e.ercise o) Constitutiona 2i*hts #ithin the schoo !resu!!oses that conduct $' the student. Ca&arines Norte. are re0uired to $eha%e in accord #ith the 7a$ini Co e*e code o) conduct and disci! ine.R. !a#es 1C5 SCRA 594 /. #hich states that. ! ace. o o Concurrin* O!inion. The !er&issi$ e i&itation on Student /.

6 TA. there)ore. )irst and )ore&ost. i&itations or sa%in* !ro%isions. dictates that a Co&&ission has !o#er to )i. and a )air. the inherent !o#er and authorit' o) the State. 4 Ateneo %s. There is no 0uestion that !etitioner is a #e'e )'antee o" a le)islative "'anchise which is su&8ect to a#end#ent+ alte'ation+ o' 'e$eal &% Con)'ess when the co##on )ood so 'e(ui'es. it is essentia a so to consider the *i%en situation. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . re0uire&ents and o!!ortunities o) the uti it'. A &ethod o)ten e&! o'ed in deter&inin* reasona$ eness is the )air return u!on the %a ue o) the !ro!ert' to the !u$ ic uti it'. 12 What is a "ust and reasona$ e rate is not a 0uestion o) )or&u a $ut o) sound $usiness "ud*&ent $ased u!on the e%idence 13 it is a 0uestion o) )act ca in* )or the e. 546 is unconstitutiona I Held: Yes. a su&&ar' in%esti*ation. Car&e ita 7ateo. and. since the !ri%ate ri*ht o) o#nershi! to such !ro!ert' re&ains and is not to $e destro'ed $' the re*u ator' !o#er. 1C In deter&inin* #hether a rate is con)iscator'. 15 Aence. then o) the uti it' and o) its !atrons.ercised $' ad&inistrati%e $odies is 0uasi5"udicia rather than 0uasi5 e*is ati%e. Issue: Whether /. !ro&ote. and contro #ith due re*ard )or the interest. A co&&ission has no !o#er to )i.ce!tions. $ecause it is re!u*nant to the constitutional )ua'anties o" due $'ocess and e(ual $'otection o" the laws.RACESS >ACTS. 145 SC2A 1. Co&!etition is a so a %er' i&!ortant )actor in deter&inin* the reasona$ eness o) rates since a carrier is a o#ed to &a+e such rates as are necessar' to &eet co&!etition. . a #aitress in the ca)eteria o) Cer%ini Aa inside the uni%ersit' ca&!us char*ed (uan 2a&on -uanBon. o) the !u$ ic. to re*u ate the rates char*ed $' !u$ ic uti ities shou d $e su$"ect a #a's to the re0uire&ent that the rates so )i. rates.#ithout !rior notice and hearin*. or u!on the co&&issionDs o#n &otion as in the !resent case.15 in the e%enin* at the Cer%ini Aa Ds ca)eteria. u!on notice and hearin*. This $asic re0uire&ent o) reasona$ eness co&!rehends such rates #hich &ust not $e so o# as to $e con)iscator'. 1F A$$a'entl%+ the'e"o'e+ such )'ant cannot &e unilate'all% 'evo:ed a&sent a showin) that the te'#ination o" the o$e'ation o" said utilit% is 'e(ui'ed &% the co##on )ood. and a $oarder and )irst 'ear student o) the uni%ersit' #ith un$eco&in* conduct co&&itted on =ece&$er 11.ercise o) discretion. The #rit !ra'ed )or is -2ANT/= and the order o) res!ondents is here$' S/T ASI=/.IC: !UE . Section 168c9 o) the Pu$ ic Ser%ice Act. u!on !ro!er notice and hearin*. en i*htened and inde!endent "ud*&ent. !reser%e. or too hi*h as to $e o!!ressi%e. $ut is the !o#er to !rotect. The !o#er to re*u ate is not the !o#er to destro' use)u and har& ess enter!* o) rates as e. The ru e is that the !o#er o) the State to re*u ate the conduct and $usiness o) !u$ ic uti ities is i&ited $' the consideration that it is not the o#ner o) the !ro!ert' o) the uti it'.O. or its authoriBed a*ent. 2es!ondents ad&itted that the a!! ication o) a !o ic' i+e the )i. and it is i&&ateria #hether the sa&e is &ade u!on a co&! aint. )oster. 36 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. CA. An' re*u ation. rates #hich are unreasona$ e or to re*u ate the& ar$itrari '. 1?6: at a$out 5. But res!ondentKs contention that notice and hearin* are not re0uired since the assai ed order is &ere ' incidenta to the entire !roceedin*s and te&!orar' in nature is erroneous. #hether the order $e te&!orar' or !er&*. or c othed #ith the *enera !o#er o) &ana*e&ent incident to o#nershi!. *ood sense. as )o o#s. #hich o!erates as an e))ecti%e con)iscation o) !ri%ate !ro!ert' or constitutes an ar$itrar' or unreasona$ e in)rin*e&ent o) !ro!ert' ri*hts is %oid. res!ondent has no authorit' to &a+e such order #ithout )irst *i%in* !etitioner a hearin*.ed sha $e reasona$ e and "ust. !ro%idin* )or the !roceedin*s o) the Co&&ission. It is thus c ear that #ith re*ard to rate5)i. i) not su$"ect to the e.

The co&! aint states that (uan 2a&on #as e. the a!!e ate court re%ersed its decision and set it aside throu*h a s!ecia di%ision o) )i%e. 1?6: and 2e%. that such $eha%ior su$"ected hi& as a student to the uni%ersit'Ds disci! inar' re*u ationsD. WON TA/ CA IS CO22/CT IN 2/V/2SIN. and ade0uate. The decision states. Be)ore he cou d stri+e a*ain. !arents and )riends inc udin* the student counse ors in the residence ha s and Co e*e o) Arts 37 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. 7a' ?. o!en.7r.@ I #as at the counter and I to d hi& that the @sio!ao@ had sti to $e heated and as+ed hi& to #ait )or a #hi e. his )e o# $oarders he d hi& and =r. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . The !etitioner no# as+s us to re%ie# and re%erse the reso ution. 8tsn.C /. the o#er courtDs decision #as reinstated. The ori*ina decision o) the )acts on record to sho# that the !rocedures in the e. In its ans#er. The incident #as hidden )ro& >r. Ca&!$e arri%ed. 1?:. =irector o) -uidance o) the Co e*e o) Arts and Sciences >i)th. he #as to d to see+ the he ! o) his *uardians. 8/. >irst. 8sic9 Ae retorted that he did not i+e to acce!t the &one'.!u sion case #ere )air. a)ter the s a!!in* incident #hich ha!!ened on =ece&$er 11. 1?6:. The' con)ir&ed the incident in 0uestion. >r. the uni%ersit' denied the &ateria a e*ations o) the co&! aint and "usti)ied the dis&issa o) (uan 2a&on on the *round that his un$eco&in* $eha%ior is contrar' to *ood &ora s. I cou d not te hi& &'se ) as I had *one into the +itchen cr'in* $ecause I #as hurt. The dis&issa o) (uan 2a&on tri**ered o)) the )i in* o) a co&! aint )or da&a*es $' his !arents a*ainst the uni%ersit' in the then Court. The co&! aint #as dis&issed. notice o) the &eetin* o) the Board o) =isci! ine set on =ece&$er 1?.ed hi& to sto!C I *ot ho d o) a $ott e so I cou d dod*e hi&. I #as *oin* to *i%e $ac+ his &one' #ithout an' conte&!t. NO. !!. !!. On the $asis o) the in%esti*ation o) the uni%ersit' . !re!ared a &e&orandu& to the &e&$ers o) the Board o) =isci! ine dated =ece&$er 16. a $oarder at Cer%ini #ho I thin+ co&es )ro& Baco od. 5.h. in the hearin* !resence o) other $oarders. We sh. )indin* that there #as !ro$a$ e cause a*ainst 7r. 19 o) Car&e ita 7ateo conducted a !re i&inar' in0uir' $' inter%ie#in* the co&!anions and )riends o) (uan 2a&on -uanBon #ho #ere a so at the ca)eteria. -uanBon o) the &eetin* o) the Board on =ece&$er 1?. 1?6: Third. -uanBon.hs. !ro!er decoru&. and ci%i it'.. Second. >ourth. Student Counse or o) the Co e*e o) Arts and Sciences dated =ece&$er 1<. 3<53?. and he to d &e that #as none o) &' $usiness. We sh read the etter5co&! aint o) Car&e ita 7ateo and he ad&itted the truth o) the char*e.. the o#er court )ound )or the -uanBons . But then he actua ' struc+ &e in &' e)t te&! e. >r. -uanBon. Ca&!$e $' the $oarders. 1?6:. I as+ed hi& to sto! cursin*. Since he see&ed i&!atient. We sh in his ca!acit' as Chair&an o) the Board o) =isci! ine u!on recei!t o) the etter5co&! aint 8/. Then he threatened to stri+e &e #ith his )ist. 1?6: #as !osted at the Bu etin Board o) the Co e*e o) Arts and Sciences and a so at =or&itor' Aa s 8tsn. Ao#e%er. 11511. Be a and Le'es coa.hausti%e. A)ter due tria .U!on a!!ea to the Court o) A!!ea s $' the uni%ersit'. 49. ISSU/. -uanBon #as )u ' in)or&ed o) the accusation a*ainst hi& #hen >r. >r. (a&es Cu i*an. 1?6:. 7r. : and ?9. #as as+in* )or @sio!ao.h. Then 7r. -uanBon started &u&$ in* $ad #ords directed to &e. Antonio Cuna. e. I tried to a%oid this. It #as then that >r. Ae *ot &adder and started to curse a*ain. (uan 2a&on #as dis&issed )ro& the uni%ersit'. (u ' 11. 1?:.TAAT TA/2/ WAS NO =U/ P2OC/SS IN TA/ =IS7ISSAL O> P2IVAT/ 2/SPON=/NT >2O7 SCAOOL A/L=. u!on &otion )or reconsideration )i ed $' the -uanBons.9 The Secretar' o) the =ean o) =isci! ine !ersona ' noti)ied 7r. We sh a so sent se!arate etters to 2e%. the tria courtDs decision #as initia ' re%ersed and set aside. 6. on =ece&$er 14.!e ed )ro& schoo #ithout *i%in* hi& a )air tria in %io ation o) his ri*ht to due !rocess and that the' are !ro&inent and #e +no#n residents o) Baco od Cit'. In the reso ution issued $' the a!!e ate court.ITS P2/VIOUS =/CISION AN= IN >IN=IN.

(uan 2a&on #as ne%er out o) schoo . When in)or&ed a$out the =ece&$er 1?. =ue !rocess in ad&inistrati%e !roceedin*s a so re0uires consideration o) the e%idence !resented and the e. 8tsn. -uanBon %o untari ' a!! ied )or honora$ e dis&issa . (u ' 11. 119 #hich #as e e%ated to the o))ice o) the =ean o) Arts and Sciences. there)ore. -uanBon did not care to in)or& his !arents or *uardian +no#in* )u ' #e the seriousness o) the o))ense he had co&&itted and instead he s!o+e )or hi&se ) and ad&itted to ha%e s a!!ed Car&e ita 7ateo. When the etter5co&! aint #as read to (uan 2a&on. Ae #as ad&itted at the =e a Sa e Co e*e o) Baco od Cit' and ater trans)erred to another (esuit Schoo . (uan 2a&on hi&se ) a!!eared $e)ore the Board o) =isci! ine. 7a' 6. 1?6:.. 7r.and Sciences. 3. We sh did not sto! #ith the ad&ission. Ae ad&itted the s a!!in* incident.h.h. Ae #as )u ' co*niBant o) the *ra%it' o) the o))ense he co&&itted. (ose!h A. as stated ear ier. 115A. The )act that he chose to re&ain si ent and did not in)or& the& a$out his case. Ae inter%ie#ed /ric Ta* e. 1?:. )riends o) (uan 2a&on #ho #ere !resent durin* the incident. We do not share the a!!e ate courtDs %ie# that there #as no due !rocess $ecause the !ri%ate res!ondents. he ad&itted the a tercation #ith the #aitress and his s a!!in* her on the )ace. then $e**ed to $e e.. In the natura course o) thin*s.. the uni%ersit'. 7oreo%er. not#ithstandin* the non5!artici!ation o) the !ri%ate res!ondents. 8/. #e )ind that he #as *i%en the )u o!!ortunit' to $e heard to $e )u ' in)or&ed o) the char*e a*ainst hi& and to $e con)ronted o) the #itnesses )ace to )ace. 2o$erto Beri$er. 1?6: &eetin* o) the Board o) =isci! ine. (uan 2a&on is assu&ed to ha%e re!orted this serious &atter to his !arents. And since he chose to re&ain si ent and did not $other to in)or& his !arents or *uardian a$out the disci! inar' action ta+en a*ainst hi& $' the de)endant uni%ersit'. -uanBon 8/. #hen the decision o) the Board o) =isci! ine #as a$out to $e carried out. the !arents o) (uan 2a&on #ere not *i%en an' notice o) the !roceedin*s. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . #as *i%en notice o) the !roceedin*sC he actua ' a!!eared to !resent his sideC the in%esti*atin* $oard acted )air ' and o$"ecti%e 'C and a re0uisites o) ad&inistrati%e due !rocess #ere &et.istence o) 3) Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. des!ite notice o) the Board o) =isci! ine on =ece&$er 1?. 7r. 2o&eo -uanBon.!e ed $ecause o) the incident. he e%en as+ed i) he #ou d $e e. On the contrar'. 6 /i*hth. =ann' -o. Ae #ent around to the o))icia s o) the uni%ersit' to o$tain his c earance and this #as a!!ro%ed on (anuar' <. #ho a)ter a re%ie# o) the case )ound no *round to re%erse the decision o) the Board o) =isci! ine. >ro& the a$o%e !roceedin*s that trans!ired it can not $e said that (uan 2a&on -uanBon #as denied due !roe&s o) a#. and (ose 2e' Ninth.. in the inter%ie# #ith 2e%. (uan 2a&on. undertoo+ a )air and o$"ecti%e in%esti*ation o) the s a!!in* incident. the decision o) the Board o) =isci! ine #as unani&ous in dro!!in* )ro& the ro s o) students 7r. #as not the )au t o) the !etitioner uni%ersit'. Se%enth..9 Si. 8/. 1?6<. 2e%.cused as he #anted to catch the $oat )or Baco od Cit' )or the Christ&as %acation. !.. neither he nor his !arents shou d )ind reason to co&! ain.cused so he cou d catch the $oat )or Baco od Cit'. 1<. 5<. -a don. !. 7r. 139 The case #as )ina ' e e%ated to the President o) the Ateneo Uni%ersit' #ho sustained the decision o) the Board o) =isci! ine 8/.h. !. 1?:. . In )act.. The Board o) =isci! ine #as &ade u! o) distin*uished &e&$ers o) the )acu t' There is nothin* in the records to cast an' dou$t on their co&!etence and i&!artia it' inso)ar as this disci! inar' in%esti*ation is concerned. not e%en #hen he #ent ho&e to Baco od Cit' )or his Christ&as %acation. 2e%. )ather o) (uan 2a&on -uanBon arran*ed )or )u and co&! ete re)und o) his tuition )ee )or the entire second se&ester o) the schoo 'ear 1?6:56<. tsn. Ae then as+ed that he $e e. he #as as+ed to see+ ad%ice and assistance )ro& his *uardian andUor !arents.h. We sh. . .

Issue.N =ue !rocess re0uired a !re5ter&ination hearin* !rior to ter&ination o) #e )are $ene)its. The !rocedure a o#ed the reci!ient to cha en*e the !ro!osed ter&ination o) $ene)its #ithin se%en da's and su$&it a #ritten state&ent )or the re%ie#in* o))icia to &a+e a )ina deter&ination.9 >acts. den'in* the& due !rocess o) a#. The interest o) the e i*i$ e reci!ient in uninterru!ted recei!t o) !u$ ic assistance. This case #as $rou*ht $' residents o) Ne# Yor+ Cit' #ho recei%ed )inancia aid under the )edera ' assisted !ro*ra& o) Aid to >a&i ies #ith =e!endent Chi dren 8A>=C9 or under Ne# Yor+ StateKs Ao&e 2e ie) Pro*ra&.e%idence to su!!ort the decision 8Aa i i %. S'no!sis on 2u e o) La#.. There are ar*e nu&$ers o) undeser%in* #e )are reci!ients. #e )are !ro%ides the on ' &eans to o$tain essentia )ood. It need on ' !roduce an initia deter&ination that the #e )areKs *rounds )or ter&ination o) $ene)its are %a id. =issent.tent to #hich !rocedura due !rocess &ust $e a))orded is in) uenced $' the e. >or 0ua i)ied reci!ients. Aon. The crucia )actor is that the ter&ination o) aid !endin* reso ution o) a contro%ers' &i*ht de!ri%e an e i*i$ e reci!ients o) the %er' &eans $' #hich to i%e #hi e he #aits. The !re ter&ination hearin* need not ta+e the )or& o) a "udicia or 0uasi5"udicia tria . =iscussion. 36? SC2A 3?4 81? No%. c ear ' out#ei*h the StateKs co&!etin* interest to !re%ent ad&inistrati%e and )isca $urdens. 3?: US 154 81?:. Y/S. 1. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ .tent to #hich he &a' $e Mconde&ned to su))er *rie%ous oss. c othin*.19 #acts) Petitioner 'oseph E2ercito Estra#a3 the hi hest-ran. Brie) >act Su&&ar'. Sandi*an$a'an. 11: SC2A 341 /strada %s. The e. A)ter that suit #as )i ed. as the M)air hearin*N #i a))ord )u ad&inistrati%e re%ie# ater on. WON a State that ter&inates !u$ ic assistance $ene)its to a !articu ar reci!ient #ithout a))ordin* hi& an o!!ortunit' )or an e%identiar' hearin* !rior to ter&ination den' the reci!ient due !rocess o) a#I Ae d. 1 1 UP %s. No !ro%ision in the Constitution shou d !ara 'Be the *o%ern&entKs e))orts to !rotect itse ) a*ainst &a+in* !a'&ents to !eo! e #ho are not entit ed to the&. A!!e ees #ere )inancia aid reci!ients #hose $ene)its #ere ter&inated #ithout $ein* a))orded !re5ter&ination hearin*. A))ir&ed. The !rocedure did a o# )or a !ost ter&ination M)air hearin*N ho#e%er. on ' a !re5ter&ination e%identiar' hearin* !ro%ides the reci!ient #ith !rocedura due !rocess. Where #e )are is concerned.a&ination o) ad%erse #itnesses. cou! ed #ith the StateKs interest that !a'&ents not $e erroneous ' ter&inated. Oe '. Their co&! aint a e*ed that Cit' o))icia s ad&inisterin* these !ro*ra&s ter&inated such aid #ithout !rior notice and hearin*. the Cit' ado!ted !rocedures )or notice and hearin*. A!!e eesK cha en*ed the !roceduresK ac+ o) an o!!ortunit' to !ersona ' a!!ear $e)ore the re%ie#in* o))icer )or ora testi&on' and cross official to be prosecute# un#er *A 79)9 4An Act 6efinin an# Penali=in the 0ri"e of Plun#er53 1 as a"en#e# by *A 765(3 2 $ishes to i"press upon us 3( Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. #hich the' cha en*ed as a denia o) due !rocess. The =istrict Court he d that on ' a !re5ter&ination hearin* #ou d satis)' the constitutiona due !rocess re0uire&ent. 3 -o d$er* %s. Li*ot5Te an. housin* and &edica care. 136 SC2A 1119. Court o) Industria 2e ations. and the States shou d $e a$ e to )i*ht $ac+ a*ainst the&. #hich the ! ainti))5a!!e ees then cha en*ed as constitutiona ' inade0uate.

PONEN7 EIE. 0onseAuently3 the petition to #eclare the la$ unconstitutional is 6-?.-NAI *E?PON?-.A.1753 "ore or less3 7LE*E.+ 0ONEE*7-NO 7LE?E 7O .-7A3 -N E-OIA7-ON O% 7LE 6FE P*O0E?? 0ON0EP7 O% 0*-.E? O* .+ IO>E*-NO 7LE GFAN7F. 7LE .es a strin ent call for this 0ourt to sub2ect the Plun#er Ia$ to the crucible of constitutionality "ainly because3 accor#in to hi"3 4a5 it suffers fro" the !ice of !a ueness8 4b5 it #ispenses $ith the Nreasonable #oubtN stan#ar# in cri"inal prosecutions8 an#3 4c5 it abolishes the ele"ent of "ens rea in cri"es alrea#y punishable un#er 7he *e!ise# Penal 0o#e3 all of $hich are purporte#ly clear !iolations of the fun#a"ental ri hts of the accuse# to #ue process an# to be infor"e# of the nature an# cause of the accusation a ainst hi". 7hat #urin the perio# fro" 'une3 1(() to 'anuary 29913 in the Philippines3 an# $ithin the 2uris#iction of this Lonorable 0ourt3 accuse# 'oseph E2ercito Estra#a3 7LE P*E?-6EN7 O% 7LE *EPF.?EI% AN61O* -N 0ONN-EAN0E >-7L 'OLN 6OE? 'ANE 6OE?3 0O.+ L-.AIA -N ?E 0*-.P7-ON O% -NNO0EN0E .I-0 O% PL-I-PP-NE? throu h AN+ O* A co"bination O* A series of o!ert O* cri"inal acts3 O* ?-.-IA* ?0LE. of "erit. Beld) P*E.-??E6 for lac.O*E O* IE?? ONE .IE .ANP FN6E* 7LE A00OFN7 NA.+ A%%-N-7+ O* 0ON?ANOF-N-7+3 . ?O O*6E*E6.I-0 O% 7LE PL-I-PP-NE?3 by hi"self AN61O* in 0ONN-EAN0E10ON?P-*A0+ $ith his co-accuse#3 >LO A*E .-II-ON ?EEEN LFN6*E6 7LOF?AN6 PE?O? 4P1)(37993999. Le therefore "a.-II-ON N-NE7+ ?EEEN .F?-NE?? A??O0-A7E?3 ?F.-II-ON E-OL7 LFN6*E6 %OF* 7LOF?AN6 ONE LFN6*E6 ?EEEN7+ 7L*EE AN6 ?EEEN7EEN 0EN7AEO? 4P439(73)943173.E M'O?E EEIA*6EM (ssue) *. -7 E-OIA7E? 7LE 0ON?7-7F7-ONAI *-OL7 O% 7LE A00F?E6 7O PNO> 7LE NA7F*E AN6 0AF?E O% 7LE A00F?A7-ON AOA-N?7 L-.AIA P*OL-.-7 7LE *EA?ONA.EN7? O% PIFN6E* -E. -7 -? .E+ON6 7LE 0ON?7-7F7-ONAI PO>E* O% 7LE IEO-?IA7F*E 7O 6EI-.that the assaile# la$ is so #efecti!ely fashione# that it crosses that thin but #istinct line $hich #i!i#es the !ali# fro" the constitutionally infir".EAN?.EIIE 0O*PO*A7-ON >L-0L .E*? O% L-? %A.-I-7+.5958 AN6 . No. -7 E-OIA7E? 7LE 6FE P*O0E?? 0IAF?E %O* -7? EAOFENE?? --. *E?PE07-EEI+ O* A 7O7AI O% .7 ?7AN6A*6 AN6 7O A. ---.?EIEE? A7 7LE EQPEN?E AN6 7O 7LE 6A.O*6-NA7E? AN61O* O7LE* PE*?ON?3 .no$n as the Plun#er Ia$3 as a"en#e# by *A 765(3 is 0ON?7-7F7-ONAI.995 . 49 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. 79)9 is unconstitutional on the follo$in roun#s& -.+ 7AP-NO FN6FE A6EAN7AOE O% L-? O%%-0-AI PO?-7-ON3 AF7LO*-7+3 *EIA7-ON?L-P3 0ONNE07-ON3 O* -N%IFEN0E3 #i# then an# there $illfully3 unla$fully an# cri"inally a"ass3 accu"ulate an# acAuire .OI-?L 7LE EIE.IE 6OF.-II-ON E-OL7 LFN6*E6 %O*7+ ?EEEN .-II-ON %-EE LFN6*E6 ?EEEN7+ E-OL7 7LOF?AN6 %-%7+ ?EEEN PE?O? AN6 %-%7+ 0EN7AEO? 4P13)47357)3957.E? .-I+3 *EIA7-EE? .EN? *EA -N .?EI% O* 7LE.+ *EA?ON O% ?A-6 PF*0LA?E? O% ?LA*E? O% ?7O0P -N 7LE A.EN7 O% .AOE O% 7LE %-I-P-NO PEOPIE AN6 7LE *EPF.E.-?E? 0ON?-6E*E63 this 0ourt hol#s that *A 79)9 other$ise . Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ .E PA*7 O% 7LE 6EPO?-7 -N 7LE EGF-7A. O% EE-6EN0E NE0E??A*+ %O* P*OE-NO 7LE 0O.+ 0OIIE07-NO O* *E0E-E-NO3 6-*E07I+ O* -N6-*E07I+3 . -7 E-OIA7E? 7LE 6FE P*O0E?? 0IAF?E AN6 7LE 0ON?7-7F7-ONAI P*E?F.-??-ON? O* PE*0EN7AOE? .E0A.OFN7 O% ONE LFN6*E6 E-OL7+ N-NE .O*E O* IE??3 %*O...?EI% 6-*E07I+ O* -N6-*E07I+3 illotten $ealth in the a re ate a"ount or 7O7AI EAIFE of %OF* .+ L-.+ FN'F?7I+ EN*-0L-NO L-.

(n view of due process 41 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty.en reater pains in specifically pro!i#in for it in the la$. 13 par. 2 of the la$3 the pattern of o!ert or cri"inal acts is #irecte# to$ar#s a co""on purpose or oal $hich is to enable the public officer to a"ass3 accu"ulate or acAuire ill. 7he test in #eter"inin $hether a cri"inal statute is !oi# for uncertainty is $hether the lan ua e con!eys a sufficiently #efinite $arnin as to the proscribe# con#uct $hen "easure# by co""on un#erstan#in an# practice. ?eries : a nu"ber of thin s or e!ents of the sa"e class co"in one after another in spatial an# te"poral succession. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . -t "ust be stresse#3 ho$e!er3 that the N!a uenessN #octrine "erely reAuires a reasonable #e ree of certainty for the statute to be uphel# : not absolute precision or "athe"atical e/actitu#e3 as petitioner see"s to su est. An# thir#ly3 there "ust either be an Mo!erall unla$ful sche"eM or MconspiracyM to achie!e sai# co""on oal. 1 4#5 of the la$3 a MpatternM consists of at least a co"bination or series of o!ert or cri"inal acts enu"erate# in subsections 415 to 465 of ?ec. 1 4#5. Lence3 it cannot plausibly be conten#e# that the la$ #oes not i!e a fair $arnin an# sufficient notice of $hat it see. >ith "ore reason3 the #octrine cannot be in!o.s to penali=e.otten $ealth.oreo!er3 it is a $ell-settle# principle of le al her"eneutics that $or#s of a statute $ill be interprete# in their natural3 plain an# or#inary acceptation an# si nification3 7 unless it is e!i#ent that the le islature inten#e# a technical or special le al "eanin to those $or#s ) 7he intention of the la$"a. 43 in relation to ?ec. un#er ?ec. . 7he #octrine has been for"ulate# in !arious $ays3 but is "ost co""only state# to the effect that a statute establishin a cri"inal offense "ust #efine the offense $ith sufficient #efiniteness that persons of or#inary intelli ence can un#erstan# $hat con#uct is prohibite# by the statute. As for Npattern3N $e a ree $ith the obser!ations of the ?an#i anbayan ( that this ter" is sufficiently #efine# in ?ec. 2. 4#53 an# ?ec. -n the alternati!e3 if there is no such o!erall sche"e or $here the sche"es or "etho#s use# by "ultiple accuse# !ary3 the o!ert or cri"inal acts "ust for" part of a conspiracy to attain a co""on oal.e# $here the assaile# statute is clear an# free fro" a"bi uity3 as in this case. 7o co"bine is to brin into such close relationship as to obscure in#i!i#ual characters. 7hus3 >ebsterMs Ne$ 0olle iate 6ictionary contains the follo$in co""only accepte# #efinition of the $or#s Nco"binationN an# Nseries&N 0o"bination : the result or pro#uct of co"binin 8 the act or process of co"binin . ?econ#ly3 pursuant to ?ec. Eerily3 ha# the le islature inten#e# a technical or #istincti!e "eanin for Nco"binationN an# Nseries3N it $oul# ha!e ta. . Fn#er the circu"stances3 petitionerMs reliance on the N!oi#-for-!a uenessN #octrine is "anifestly "isplace#. .&atio) (n view of vagueness and ambiguity 0on ress is not restricte# in the for" of e/pression of its $ill3 an# its inability to so #efine the $or#s e"ploye# in a statute $ill not necessarily result in the !a ueness or a"bi uity of the la$ so lon as the le islati!e $ill is clear3 or at least3 can be athere# fro" the $hole act3 $hich is #istinctly e/presse# in the Plun#er Ia$.ers : $ho are3 or#inarily3 untraine# philolo ists an# le/ico raphers : to use statutory phraseolo y in such a "anner is al$ays presu"e#. As co""only un#erstoo#3 the ter" Mo!erall unla$ful sche"eM in#icates a M eneral plan of action or "etho#M $hich the principal accuse# an# public officer an# others conni!in $ith hi"3 follo$ to achie!e the aforesai# co""on oal.

On the secon# issue3 petitioner a#!ances the hi hly stretche# theory that ?ec. 4 of the Plun#er Ia$ circu"!ents the i""utable obli ation of the prosecution to pro!e beyon# reasonable #oubt the pre#icate acts constitutin the cri"e of plun#er $hen it reAuires only proof of a pattern of o!ert or cri"inal acts sho$in unla$ful sche"e or conspiracy. 7he runnin fault in this reasonin is ob!ious e!en to the si"plistic "in#. -n a cri"inal prosecution for plun#er3 as in all other cri"es3 the accuse# al$ays has in his fa!or the presu"ption of innocence $hich is uarantee# by the .ill of *i hts3 an# unless the ?tate succee#s in #e"onstratin by proof beyon# reasonable #oubt that culpability lies3 the accuse# is entitle# to an acAuittal. >hat the prosecution nee#s to pro!e beyon# reasonable #oubt is only a nu"ber of acts sufficient to for" a co"bination or series $hich $oul# constitute a pattern an# in!ol!in an a"ount of at least P5939993999.99. 7here is no nee# to pro!e each an# e!ery other act alle e# in the -nfor"ation to ha!e been co""itte# by the accuse# in furtherance of the o!erall unla$ful sche"e or conspiracy to a"ass3 accu"ulate or acAuire ill- otten $ealth.

(n view of mens rea As re ar#s the thir# issue3 a ain $e a ree $ith 'ustice ,en#o=a that plun#er is a "alu" in se $hich reAuires proof of cri"inal intent. 7hus3 he says3 in his 0oncurrin Opinion : . . . Precisely because the constituti!e cri"es are "ala in se the ele"ent of "ens rea "ust be pro!en in a prosecution for plun#er. -t is note$orthy that the a"en#e# infor"ation alle es that the cri"e of plun#er $as co""itte# N$illfully3 unla$fully an# cri"inally.N -t thus alle es uilty ;no$le# e on the part of petitioner. C>ith the o!ern"entD terribly lac;in the "oney to pro!i#e e!en the "ost basic ser!ices to its people3 any for" of "isappropriation or "isapplication of o!ern"ent fun#s translates to an actual threat to the !ery e/istence of o!ern"ent3 an# in turn3 the !ery sur!i!al of the people it o!erns o!er. Eie$e# in this conte/t3 no less heinous are the effect an# repercussions of cri"es li;e Aualifie# bribery3 #estructi!e arson resultin in #eath3 an# #ru offenses in!ol!in o!ern"ent official3 e"ployees or officers3 that their perpetrators "ust not be allo$e# to cause further #estruction an# #a"a e to society. -n#ee#3 it $oul# be absur# to treat prosecutions for plun#er as thou h they are "ere prosecutions for !iolations of the .ouncin 0hec; Ia$ 4..P. .l . 225 or of an or#inance a ainst 2ay$al;in 3 $ithout re ar# to the inherent $ron ness of the acts.

7o clinch3 petitioner li;e$ise assails the !ali#ity of *A 765(3 the a"en#atory la$ of *A 79)93 on constitutional roun#s. ?uffice it to say ho$e!er that it is no$ too late in the #ay for hi" to resurrect this lon #ea# issue3 the sa"e ha!in been eternally consi ne# by People !. Eche aray 3) to the archi!es of 2urispru#ential history. 7he #eclaration of this 0ourt therein that *A 765( is constitutionally !ali# stan#s as a #eclaration of the ?tate3 an# beco"es3 by necessary effect3 assi"ilate# in the 0onstitution no$ as an inte ral part of it.

(n view of presumption of innocence At all e!ents3 let "e stress that the po$er to construe la$ is essentially 2u#icial. 7o #eclare $hat the la$ shall be is a le islati!e po$er3 but to #eclare $hat the la$ is or has been is 2u#icial. ?tatutes enacte# by 0on ress cannot be e/pecte# to spell out $ith "athe"atical precision ho$ the la$ shoul# be interprete# un#er any an# all i!en situations. 7he application of the la$ $ill #epen# on the facts an# circu"stances as a##uce# by e!i#ence $hich $ill then be consi#ere#3 $ei he# an# e!aluate# by the courts. -n#ee#3 it is the constitutionally "an#ate# function of the courts to interpret3 construe an# apply the la$ as $oul# i!e flesh an# bloo# to the true "eanin of le islati!e enact"ents. 42 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$

A construction shoul# be re2ecte# if it i!es to the lan ua e use# in a statute a "eanin that #oes not acco"plish the purpose for $hich the statute $as enacte# an# that ten#s to #efeat the en#s that are sou ht to be attaine# by its enact"ent. Eie$e# broa#ly3 Nplun#er in!ol!es not 2ust plain thie!ery but econo"ic #epre#ation $hich affects not 2ust pri!ate parties or personal interests but the nation as a $hole.N -n!ariably3 plun#er parta;es of the nature of Na cri"e a ainst national interest $hich "ust be stoppe#3 an# if possible3 stoppe# per"anently.N

(n view of estoppel Petitioner is not estoppe# fro" Auestionin the constitutionality of *.A. No. 79)9. 7he case at bar has been sub2ect to contro!ersy principally #ue to the personalities in!ol!e# herein. 7he fact that one of petitionerMs counsels $as a co-sponsor of the Plun#er Ia$ an# petitioner hi"self !ote# for its passa e $hen he $as still a ?enator $oul# not in any put hi" in estoppel to Auestion its constitutionality. 7he rule on estoppel applies to Auestions of fact3 not of la$. ,oreo!er3 estoppel shoul# be resorte# to only as a "eans of pre!entin in2ustice. 7o hol# that petitioner is estoppe# fro" Auestionin the !ali#ity of *.A. No. 79)9 because he ha# earlier !ote# for its passa e $oul# result in in2ustice not only to hi"3 but to all others $ho "ay be hel# liable un#er this statute.

6hat is &($O *ac;eteer -nfluence# an# 0orrupt Or ani=ations Act is a Fnite# ?tates fe#eral la$ that pro!i#es for e/ten#e# cri"inal penalties an# a ci!il cause of action for acts perfor"e# as part of an on oin cri"inal or ani=ation. *-0O $as enacte# by section (914a5 of the Or ani=e# 0ri"e 0ontrol Act of 1(79 4Pub.I. (14523 )4 ?tat. (223 enacte# October 153 1(795. *-0O is co#ifie# as 0hapter (6 of 7itle 1) of the Fnite# ?tates 0o#e3 1) F.?.0. R 1(61H1(6). >hile its inten#e# use $as to prosecute the ,afia as $ell as others $ho $ere acti!ely en a e# in or ani=e# cri"e3 its application has been "ore $i#esprea#.

(n view of facial challenge A facial challen e is allo$e# to be "a#e to a !a ue statute an# to one $hich is o!erbroa# because of possible Nchillin effectN upon protecte# speech. 7he theory is that NC$Dhen statutes re ulate or proscribe speech an# no rea#ily apparent construction su ests itself as a !ehicle for rehabilitatin the statutes in a sin le prosecution3 the transcen#ent !alue to all society of constitutionally protecte# e/pression is #ee"e# to 2ustify allo$in attac;s on o!erly broa# statutes $ith no reAuire"ent that the person "a;in the attac; #e"onstrate that his o$n con#uct coul# not be re ulate# by a statute #ra$n $ith narro$ specificity.M 7his rationale #oes not apply to penal statutes. 0ri"inal statutes ha!e eneral in terrore" effect resultin fro" their !ery e/istence3 an#3 if facial challen e is allo$e# for this reason alone3 the ?tate "ay $ell be pre!ente# fro" enactin la$s a ainst socially har"ful con#uct. -n the area of cri"inal la$3 the la$ cannot ta;e chances as in the area of free speech.

(n view of burden of proof FaccusedG according to PA'0A'(7A'* = -n su"3 the la$ "ust be pro!en to be clearly an# uneAui!ocally repu nant to the 0onstitution before this 0ourt "ay #eclare its unconstitutionality. 7o stri;e #o$n the la$3 there "ust be a clear sho$in that $hat the fun#a"ental la$ prohibits3 the statute allo$s to be #one. 49 7o 2ustify the nullification of the la$3 there "ust be a clear3 uneAui!ocal breach of the 0onstitution8 not a #oubtful3 ar u"entati!e i"plication. 41 Of 43 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$

so"e ter"s in the la$ $hich are easily clarifie# by 2u#icial construction3 petitioner has3 at best3 "ana e# "erely to point out alle e# a"bi uities. %ar fro" establishin 3 by clear an# un"ista;able ter"s3 any patent an# larin conflict $ith the 0onstitution3 the constitutional challen e to the Anti-Plun#er la$ "ust fail. %or 2ust as the accuse# is entitle# to the presu"ption of innocence in the absence of proof beyon# reasonable #oubt3 so "ust a la$ be accor#e# the presu"ption of constitutionality $ithout the sa"e reAuisite Auantu" of proof. Petitioner no$ conclu#es that the Anti-Plun#er Ia$ Neli"inates proof of each an# e!ery co"ponent cri"inal act of plun#er by the accuse# an# li"its itself to establishin 2ust the pattern of o!er or cri"inal acts in#icati!e of unla$ful sche"e or conspiracy.N All tol#3 the abo!e e/planation is in consonance $ith $hat is often percei!e# to be the reality $ith respect to the cri"e of plun#er : that Nthe actual e/tent of the cri"e "ay not3 in its brea#th an# entirety3 be #isco!ere#3 by reason of the Mstealth an# secrecyM in $hich it is co""itte# an# the in!ol!e"ent of Mso "any persons here an# abroa# an# Cthe fact that itD touches so "any states an# territorial units.NM N7he constitutionality of la$s is presu"e#. 7o 2ustify nullification of a la$3 there "ust be a clear an# uneAui!ocal breach of the 0onstitution3 not a #oubtful or ar u"entati!e i"plication8 a la$ shall not be #eclare# in!ali# unless the conflict $ith the 0onstitution is clear beyon# a reasonable #oubt. M7he presu"ption is al$ays in fa!or of constitutionality . . . 7o #oubt is to sustain.M

(n view of burden of proof F!tateG according to HAP.'A'* = 7he 0onstitution uarantees both substanti!e an# proce#ural #ue process as $ell as the ri ht of the accuse# to be infor"e# of the nature an# cause of the accusation a ainst hi". A cri"inal statute shoul# not be so !a ue an# uncertain that N"en of co""on intelli ence "ust necessarily uess as to its "eanin an# #iffer as to its application. 7here are three #istinct consi#erations for the !a ueness #octrine. %irst3 the #octrine is #esi ne# to ensure that in#i!i#uals are properly $arne# e/ ante of the cri"inal conseAuences of their con#uct. 7his Nfair noticeN rationale $as articulate# in Fnite# ?tates !. Larriss& 7he constitutional reAuire"ent of #efiniteness is !iolate# by a cri"inal statute that fails to i!e a person of or#inary intelli ence fair notice that his conte"plate# con#uct is forbi##en by the statute. 7he un#erlyin principle is that no "an shall be hel# cri"inally responsible for con#uct $hich he coul# not reasonably un#erstan# to be proscribe#. >hile the #ictu" that la$s be clear an# #efinite #oes not reAuire 0on ress to spell out $ith "athe"atical certainty the stan#ar#s to $hich an in#i!i#ual "ust confor" his con#uct3 it is necessary that statutes pro!i#e reasonable stan#ar#s to ui#e prospecti!e con#uct. An# $here a statute i"poses cri"inal sanctions3 the stan#ar# of certainty is hi her. 7he penalty i"posable on the person foun# uilty of !iolatin *.A. No. 79)9 is reclusion perpetua to #eath. Oi!en such penalty3 the stan#ar# of clarity an# #efiniteness reAuire# of *.A. No. 79)9 is unar uably hi her than that of other la$s. -t has been incorrectly su este# that petitioner cannot "ount a Nfacial challen eN to the Plun#er Ia$3 an# that NfacialN or Non its faceN challen es see; the total in!ali#ation of a statute. %r. .ernas3 for his part3 pointe# to se!eral proble"atical portions of the la$ that $ere left unclarifie#. Le pose# the Auestion& NLo$ can you ha!e a MseriesM of cri"inal acts if the ele"ents that are suppose# to constitute the series are not pro!e# to be cri"inalSN 7he "eanin s of Nco"binationN an# NseriesN as use# in *.A. No. 79)9 are not clear.

44 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$

A. -t coul# be use# as a tool a ainst political ene"ies an# a $eapon of hate an# re!en e by $hoe!er $iel#s the le!ers of po$er.y eli"inatin "ens rea3 *. . -t obfuscates the "in# to pon#er that such an a"bi uous la$ as *. -n its early for"ulation3 the o!erbrea#th #octrine states that a o!ern"ental purpose to control or pre!ent acti!ities constitutionally sub2ect to re ulation "ay not be achie!e# by "eans $hich s$eep unnecessarily broa#ly an# thereby in!a#e the area of protecte# free#o"s. 7hus3 an accuse# "ay not be sentence# to suffer the lethal in2ection or life i"prison"ent for an offense un#erstoo# only after 2u#icial construction ta.7o Auote at the !ery heart if the constitutional uarantees of #ue process an# eAual protection. A statute is unconstitutionally !a ue if people of co""on intelli ence "ust necessarily uess at its "eanin . ?ubstanti!e #ue process #ictates that there shoul# be no arbitrariness3 unreasonableness or a"bi uity in any la$ $hich #epri!es a person of his life or liberty. . ( A statute3 especially one in!ol!in cri"inal prosecution3 "ust be #efinite to be !ali#.e $ith or#inary notions of fair play an# the settle# rules of la$. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ .es o!er $here 0on ress left off3 an# interpretation supplies its "eanin . 7he co"ponent acts constitutin plun#er3 a heinous cri"e3 bein inherently $ron ful an# i""oral3 are patently "ala in se3 e!en if punishe# by a special la$ an# accor#in ly3 cri"inal intent "ust clearly be establishe# to ether $ith the other ele"ents of the cri"e8 other$ise3 no cri"e is co""itte#. .ut if the la$ itself is not reasonable le islation3 #ue process is !iolate#. "ust be sufficiently e/plicit to infor" those $ho are sub2ect to it $hat con#uct on their part $ill ren#er the" liable to penalties3 is a $ell-reco ni=e# reAuire"ent3 consonant ali. 7he 0onstitution uarantees both substanti!e an# proce#ural #ue process as $ell as the ri ht of the accuse# to be infor"e# of the nature an# cause of the accusation a ainst hi". ?ubstanti!e #ue process reAuires that a cri"inal statute shoul# not be !a ue an# uncertain. 45 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty.A.en a$ay. .ecause of this3 it is easier to con!ict for plun#er an# sentence the accuse# to #eath than to con!ict hi" for each of the co"ponent cri"es other$ise punishable un#er the *e!ise# Penal 0o#e an# other la$s $hich are bailable offenses. 79)9 $oul# put on the balance the life an# liberty of the accuse# a ainst $ho" all the resources of the ?tate are arraye#. (n view of due process according to I'A&E!-!A'%(A0O* = -t is an ancient "a/i" in la$ that in ti"es of fren=y an# e/cite"ent3 $hen the #esire to #o 2ustice is tarnishe# by an er an# !en eance3 there is al$ays the #an er that !ital protections accor#e# an accuse# "ay be ta. .ore e/plicitly : 7hat the ter"s of a penal statute.ernas a ain& NLo$ can you ha!e a MseriesM of cri"inal acts if the ele"ents that are suppose# to constitute the series are not pro!e# to be cri"inalSN . 7he resultant absur#ity stri. An# a statute $hich either forbi#s or reAuires the #oin of an act in ter"s so !a ue that "en of co""on intelli ence "ust necessarily uess at its "eanin an# #iffer as to its application3 !iolates the first essential of #ue process. A statute is !a ue or o!erbroa#3 in !iolation of the #ue process clause3 $here its lan ua e #oes not con!ey sufficiently #efinite $arnin to the a!era e person as to the prohibite# con#uct. 7he trial an# other proce#ures lea#in to con!iction "ay be fair an# proper. 79)9 #oes not reAuire the prosecution to pro!e beyon# reasonable #oubt the co"ponent acts constitutin plun#er an# i"poses a lesser bur#en of proof on the prosecution3 thus payin the $ay for the i"position of the penalty of reclusion perpetua to #eath on the accuse#3 in plain !iolation of the #ue process an# eAual protection clauses of the 0onstitution. . No.

in the #eliberations of the Louse of *epresentati!es3 conten#s 46 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. 7he ?tate "ay not specify a lesser bur#en of proof for an ele"ent of a cri"e. No. 7he ri ht of an accuse# to be infor"e# of the nature an# cause of the accusation a ainst hi" is "ost often e/e"plifie# in the care $ith $hich a co"plaint or infor"ation shoul# be #rafte#. %or the result is the re#uction of the bur#en of the prosecution to pro!e the uilt of the accuse# beyon# reasonable #oubt.N 33 . 79)9 circu"!ents the obli ation of the prosecution to pro!e beyon# reasonable #oubt e!ery fact necessary to constitute the cri"e of plun#er3 because the la$ reAuires "erely proof of a pattern of o!ert acts sho$in an unla$ful sche"e or conspiracy. 79)9 reAuires is that each 'ustice "ust be con!ince# of the e/istence of a Nco"bination or series. Lo$e!er3 the clarity an# particularity reAuire# of an infor"ation shoul# also be present in the la$ upon $hich the char es are base#. Fn#er the Plun#er Ia$3 it is enou h that the acts are co""itte#.s to penali=e the accuse# only on the basis of a pro!en sche"e or conspiracy3 an# #oes a$ay $ith the ri hts of the accuse# insofar as the co"ponent cri"es are concerne#. An infor"ation cannot rise hi her than the statute upon $hich it is base#. 79)9 "an#ates that it shall not be necessary for the prosecution to pro!e each an# e!ery cri"inal act #one by the accuse#3 the le islature3 in effect3 ren#ere# the enu"erate# Ncri"inal actsN un#er ?ection 1 4#5 "erely as "eans an# not as essential ele"ents of plun#er.A. ?tate# #ifferently3 e!en if the 'ustices are not unifie# in their #eter"ination on $hat cri"inal acts $ere actually co""itte# by the accuse#3 $hich nee# not be pro!e# un#er the la$3 still3 they coul# con!ict hi" of plun#er. 7his is constitutionally infir"e# an# repu nant to the basic i#ea of 2ustice an# fair play. Not e!en the construction by the ?an#i anbayan of a !a ue or a"bi uous pro!ision can supply the "issin in re#ients of the Plun#er Ia$. -f the penal la$ is !a ue3 any particularity in the infor"ation $ill co"e fro" the prosecutor. 7hus3 no "atter ho$ socially-rele!ant the purpose of a la$ is3 it "ust be nullifie# if it tra"ples upon the basic ri hts of the accuse#. -n other $or#s3 *. 7he ?pecial Prosecution 6i!ision Panel #efines it as Nat least three of the acts enu"erate# un#er ?ection 14#5 thereof. (n view of vagueness according to !A'. -n short3 all that *. 7he ri hts uarantee# to hi" by the 0onstitution are not sub2ect to political bar ainin or to the calculus of social interest. o!er the role of 0on ress. 1) -n effect3 the la$ see.A.a ree $ith petitionerMs concern o!er the #an er that the trial court "ay allo$ the specifications of #etails in an infor"ation to !ali#ate a statute inherently !oi# for !a ueness. An# the Office of the ?olicitor Oeneral3 in!o.-n "al!ersation or bribery un#er the *e!ise# Penal 0o#e3 the cri"inal intent is an i"portant ele"ent of the cri"inal acts. >hen ?ection 4 of *. ) >ith "ore reason3 it shoul# not be allo$e# to o aroun# the principle by characteri=in an essential ele"ent of plun#er "erely as a N"eansN of co""ittin the cri"e. ?urely3 this $oul# co!er-up a $i#e #isa ree"ent a"on the" about 2ust $hat the accuse# actually #i# or #i# not #o. As a "atter of #ue process3 the prosecution is reAuire# to pro!e beyon# reasonable #oubt e!ery fact necessary to constitute the cri"e $ith $hich the #efen#ant is char e#. 7he prosecution ta.O"A/-0. No.A. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . EAually #isa reeable is the pro!ision of the Plun#er Ia$ $hich #oes a$ay $ith the reAuire"ent that each an# e!ery co"ponent of the cri"inal act of plun#er be pro!e# an# instea# li"its itself to pro!in only a pattern of o!ert acts in#icati!e of the unla$ful sche"e or conspiracy.%(E&&EJ* = As a basic pre"ise3 $e ha!e to accept that e!en a person accuse# of a cri"e possesses in!iolable ri hts foun#e# on the 0onstitution $hich e!en the $elfare of the society as a $hole cannot o!erri#e.N As to $hich cri"inal acts constitute a co"bination or series3 the 'ustices nee# not be in full a ree"ent.ut it can !ery $ell be interprete# as only one act repeate# at least three ti"es. .

7he issue before this 0ourt is not the uilt or innocence of the accuse#3 but the constitutionality of the la$. -n such instance3 the statute is repu nant to the 0onstitution in t$o 425 respects H it !iolates #ue process for failure to accor# persons3 especially the parties tar ete# by it3 fair notice of $hat con#uct to a!oi#8 an#3 it lea!es la$ enforcers unbri#le# #iscretion in carryin out its pro!isions an# beco"es an arbitrary fle/in of the Oo!ern"ent "uscle.see that this la$ can pose a serious threat to the life3 liberty an# property of anyone $ho "ay co"e un#er its unconstitutional pro!isions.#ifferently. A facial challen e is allo$e# to be "a#e to !a ue statute an# to one $hich is o!erbroa# because of possible @chillin effectB upon protecte# speech. 79)9. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . >e #iscern nothin in the fore oin that is !a ue or a"bi uous that $ill confuse petitioner in his #efense.!ote to rant the petition3 not because .can only stress that the one on trial here is not . 7he possible har" to society in per"ittin so"e unprotecte# speech to o unpunishe# is out$ei he# by the possibility that the protecte# speech of other "ay be #eterre# an# percei!e# rie!ances left to fester because of possible inhibitory effects of o!erly broa# statutes.loo. Estra#a3 but because . beyon# to#ay an# . 7he a"en#e# infor"ation itself closely trac. As a "e"ber of this 0ourt3 "y #uty is to see to it that the la$ confor"s to the 0onstitution an# no other. . si"ply cannot3 in oo# conscience3 fortify a la$ that is patently unconstitutional. Estra#a3 but *. A statute or act "ay be sai# to be !a ue $hen it lac.ey phrase @a co"bination or series of o!ert or cri"inal acts.ut in cri"inal la$3 the la$ cannot ta.r.s the lan ua e of la$3 in#icatin $1 reasonable certainty the !arious ele"ents of the offense $1c the petitioner is alle e# to ha!e co""itte#. A statute is not ren#ere# uncertain an# !oi# "erely because eneral ter"s are use# herein3 or because of the e"ploy"ent of ter"s $ithout #efinin the". 7hese o"issions3 accor#in to the petitioner3 ren#er the Plun#er Ia$ unconstitutional for bein i"per"issibly !a ue an# o!erbroa# an# #eny hi" the ri ht to be infor"e# of the nature an# cause of the accusation a ainst hi"3 hence !iolati!e of his fun#a"ental ri ht to #ue process. 7he !a ueness cannot be cure# by 2u#icial construction.N A statute $hich is so !a ue as to per"it the infliction of capital punish"ent on acts alrea#y punishe# $ith lesser penalties by clearly for"ulate# la$ is unconstitutional.fa!or . -t #efines the ter" series as a NrepetitionN or pertainin to Nt$o or "ore.A.s co"prehensible stan#ar#s that "en of co""on intelli ence "ost necessarily uess at its "eanin an# #iffer in its application. As lon as the la$ affor#s so"e co"prehensible ui#e or rule that $oul# infor" those $ho are sub2ect to it $hat con#uct $oul# ren#er the" liable to its penalties3 its !ali#ity $ill be sustaine#.A+AN 4A66-7-ONAI5 -ssues& 1.e chances as in the area of free speech. Petitioner ho$e!er be$ails the failure of the la$ to pro!i#e for the statutory #efinition of the ter"s @co"binationB an# @seriesB in the . -n fine3 . No. E?7*A6A !s ?AN6-OAN. .r. 47 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. >ON Plun#er Ia$ is unconstitutional for bein !a ue No.

4) Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. 4 #oes not #efine or establish any substanti!e ri ht in fa!or of the accuse# but only operate# in furtherance of a re"e#y. ?ec. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ .no$le# e on the part of petitioner. . 7he @reasonable #oubtB stan#ar# has acAuire# such e/alte# stature in the real" of constitutional la$ as it i!es life to the 6ue Process 0lause $hich protects the accuse# a ainst con!iction e/cept upon proof of reasonable #oubt of e!ery fact necessary to constitute the cri"e $ith $hich he is char e#. -n a cri"inal prosecution for plun#er3 as in all other cri"es3 the accuse# al$ays has in his fa!or the presu"ption of innocence uarantee# by the . 1 par. -t is "alu" in se $hich reAuires proof of cri"inal intent. 4#5. 4 is his sub"ission that @patternB is a @!ery i"portant ele"ent of the cri"e of plun#er8B an# that ?ec. 23 in relation to sec..otten $ealth3 it bein sufficient to establish beyon# reasonable #oubt a pattern of o!ert or cri"inal acts in#icati!e of the o!erall unla$ful sche"e or conspiracy.B -t thus alle es uilty .ein a purely proce#ural "easure3 ?ec. 4 4*ule of E!i#ence5 states that& %or purposes of establishin the cri"e of plun#er3 it shall not be necessary to pro!e each an# e!ery cri"inal act #one by the accuse# in furtherance of the sche"e or conspiracy to a"ass3 accu"ulate or acAuire ill. >hat is reAuire# to be pro!e# beyon# reasonable #oubt is e!ery ele"ent of the cri"e char e#:the ele"ent of the offense. 3. *elati!e to petitioner<s contentions on the purporte# #efect of ?ec. >ON Plun#er as #efine# in *A 79)9 is a "alu" prohibitu"3 an# if so3 $hether it is $ithin the po$er of 0on ress to so classify it. Not e!erythin alle e# in the infor"ation nee#s to be pro!e# beyon# reasonable #oubt.733 ?enator 7aTa#a $as only sayin that $here the char e is conspiracy to co""it plun#er3 the prosecution nee# not pro!e each an# e!ery cri"inal act #one to further the sche"e or conspiracy3 it bein enou h if it pro!es beyon# reasonable #oubt a pattern of o!ert or cri"inal acts in#icati!e of the o!erall unla$ful sche"e or conspiracy.ill of *i hts3 an# unless the ?tate succee#s in #e"onstratin by proof beyon# reasonable #oubt that culpability lies3 the accuse# is entitle# to an acAuittal. 4 is @t$o-pron e#3 4as5 it contains a rule of e!i#ence an# a substanti!e ele"ent of the cri"e3 @ such that $ithout it the accuse# cannot be con!icte# of plun#er H >e #o not subscribe to petitioner<s stan#. 4 purports to #o no "ore than prescribe a rule of proce#ure for the prosecution of a cri"inal case for plun#er.. No. ?ec. -t is note$orthy that the a"en#e# infor"ation alle es that the cri"e of plun#er $as co""itte# @$illfully3 unla$fully an# cri"inally. No. Pri"arily3 all the essential ele"ents of plun#er can be culle# an# un#erstoo# fro" its #efinition in ?ec. Precisely because the constituti!e cri"es are "ala in se the ele"ent of "ens rea "ust be pro!en in a prosecution for plun#er. >hat is crucial for the prosecution is to present sufficient e!i#ence to en en#er that "oral certitu#e e/acte# by the fun#a"ental la$ to pro!e the uilt of the accuse# beyon# reasonable #oubt.s of ?enator 7aTa#a "a#e #urin the #eliberation on ?. >ON the Plun#er Ia$ reAuires less e!i#ence for pro!i#in the pre#icate cri"es of plun#er an# therefore !iolates the ri hts of the accuse# to #ue process No. -n support of his contention -n support of his contention that the statute eli"inates the reAuire"ent of "ens rea an# that is the reason he clai"s the statute is !oi#3 petitioner cites the follo$in re"ar.2. As far as the acts constitutin the pattern are concerne#3 ho$e!er3 the ele"ents of the cri"e "ust be pro!e# an# the reAuisite "ens rea "ust be sho$n.

It #as a e*ed that in the 'ears 1?64 J 1?66. The Accused tends to sho# to the court that the ta. >ina '.es sou*ht to $e co ected ha%e a read' a!sed and that there is no a# e&!o#erin* &unici!a ities to !ass ordinances ta. of "erit 15 Peo! e* )ish!ond o!erators 8Under Sec. NaBario dec ared the )o o#in*. 4 series o) 1?55 as a&ended $' 7O No. $ein* then the o#ner and o!erator o) a )ish!ond situated in the sa&e &unici!a it'. In his de)ense. the de)endant c ai&s that the ordinance in 0uestion is u tra %ires as it is outside o) the !o#er o) the &unici!a counci o) Pa*$i ao to enact and that the de)endant c ai&s that the ordinance in 0uestion is a&$i*uous and uncertain.61. Lel#& P*E. 15 series o) 1?65. as )ish!ond o!erator $ecause there is no )ish!ond 'et $ein* o!erated $' hi&. and his $usiness #as in 7ani a.7he application of "iti atin an# e/tenuatin circu"stances in the *e!ise# Penal 0o#e to prosecutions un#er the Anti-Plun#er Ia$ in#icates Auite clearly that "ens rea is an ele"ent of plun#er since the #e ree of responsibility of the offen#er is #eter"ine# by his cri"inal intent. • Ae ne%er resided in Pa*$i ao. 7he e!il of a cri"e "ay ta. 11 series o) 1?66. SueBon and do not o#n a house there. NaBario. he #as i%in* in 7ani sou*ht to $e co$n as the Plun#er Ia$3 as a"en#e# by *A 765(3 is 0ON?7-7F7-ONAI. Whether or not the statute is unconstitutiona )or $ein* %a*ue thus %io ati%e o) the due !rocess ru e. %or $hen the acts punishe# are inherently i""oral or inherently $ron 3 they are "ala in se an# it #oes not "atter that such acts are punishe# in a special la$3 especially since in the case of plun#er the pre#icate cri"es are "ainly "ala in se. 15 and 11 J An' o#ner or &ana*er o) )ish!onds in ! aces #ithin the territoria i&its o) Pa*$i ao. 7here are cri"es ho$e!er in $hich the abo"ination lies in the si nificance an# i"plications of the sub2ect cri"inal acts in the sche"e of the lar er socio-political an# econo"ic conte/t in $hich the state fin#s itself to be stru lin to #e!elop an# pro!i#e for its poor an# un#erpri!ile e# "asses. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . he is not co%ered $' said &unici!a ordinancesC and )ina '. 7esa 7ani a since 1?4? and he $ou*ht his 2esidence Certi)icates at 7ani a or San (uan. NaBario. Pro%ince o) SueBon. No. >urther&ore. in the 7unici!a it' o) Pa*$i ao. ISSU/. re)used and )ai ed to !a' &unici!a ta.A.e an ani"al an# utterly #ehu"ani=e# as to co"pletely #isrupt the nor"al course of his or her ro$th as a hu"an bein . • In 1?64566. ha%e a ease a*ree&ent #ith the Phi i!!ine >isheries Co&&ission durin* those ti&es 81?645669. • Ae has i%ed in Sta. • Ae. the contract o) ease #as sti e.-?E? 0ON?-6E*E63 this 0ourt hol#s that *A 79)9 other$ise . 1 o) 7O a!se9. the' tried to sho# that as essee o) the )orest and to $e con%erted into a )ish! a&ountin* to P361. 7here are cri"es that are3 by their !ery nature3 #espicable3 either because life $as callously ta. NaBario shou d not $e ta. The 7unici!a ordinances %io ated NaBario are 7O No.e !arious for"s. A/L=. No. 165 SC2A 1<6 81 Bernas 169 The de)endant is char*ed o) the cri&e o) Vio ation o) 7unici!a Ordinance in in)or&ation )i ed $' the !ro%incia >isca . &unici!a ta. 13.istin* and en)orcea$ e.en or the !icti" is treate# li. 0onseAuently3 the petition to #eclare the la$ unconstitutional is 6-?. Sec. 4.? o) the 2AC. and )ina ' a&ended $' 7O No.-??E6 for lac. 4( Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. considerin* that the su!!osed )ish!ond #as under construction durin* the !eriod co%ered $' the ta.765( that plun#er is a heinous offense i"plies that it is a "alu" in se. %inally3 any #oubt as to $hether the cri"e of plun#er is a "alu" in se "ust be #ee"e# to ha!e been resol!e# in the affir"ati!e by the #ecision of 0on ress in 1((3 to inclu#e it a"on the heinous cri"es punishable by reclusion perpetua to #eath. 7he le islati!e #eclaration in *.

:. It %io ates due !rocess )or )ai ure to accord !ersons. in the a&ount o) P3. the *o%ern&ent ne%er shared in the !ro)its the' had *enerated. )or ont thin*. re ati%e thereto. 1 No. Accordin* '. ho#e%er. << SC2A 1?5 81 Bernas 439 >acts. 11? o) President 7arcos states that the statistics sho# that one o) the &a"or causes o) )ata or serious accidents in and trans!ortation is the !resence o) disa$ ed.ercise o) e*is ati%e !o#er.. The %a idit' o) a etter o) Instruction !ro%idin* )or an ear ' sea&in* de%ice )or &otor %ehic es is assai ed in this !rohi$ition !roceedin*. and 1.. that is to sa'. sha !a' a &unici!a ta. The assai ed Letter o) Instruction No. in the a&ount o) P3. The So icitor -enera contended that The Letter o) Instruction on is a %a id !o ice !o#er &easure. Issue. sha $e*in a)ter the a!se o) three 839 'ears startin* )ro& the date said )ish!ond is a!!ro%ed $' the Bureau o) >isheries. No. sta ed or !ar+ed &otor %ehic es #ithout an' a!!ro!riate ear ' #arnin* de%ice to si*na a!!roachin* &otorists o) their !resence.ercise o) the !o ice !o#er. It ea%es a# en)orcers un$rid ed discretion in carr'in* out its !ro%ision and $eco&es ar$itrar' ) e. 1. But the act &ust $e utter ' %a*ue on its )ace. u!on the ancient !rinci! e that the -o%ern&ent is i&&une )ro& ta. Whi e it a!!ears that it is the Nationa -o%ern&ent #hich o#ns the&. i) the )ish!ond started o!eratin* $e)ore the 'ear 1?64. reco&&ended the enact&ent o) oca e*is ation )or the insta ation o) road sa)et' si*ns and de%ices. No. M!er)ect ' %a*ueN J Act #hose o$scurit' is e%ident on its )ace VS 1. a statute or act &a' $e said to $e %a*ue #hen it ac+s co&!rehensi%e standards that &en o) co&&on inte i*ence &ush necessari ' *uess at tis &eanin* and di))er as to its a!! i cation. the Vienna Con%ention #hich #as rati)ied $' the Phi i!!ine -o%ern&ent under P. Nor cou d the i&! e&entin* ru es and re*u ations issued $' res!ondent /du $e considered as a&ountin* to an e. he co&es #ithin the ter& &ana*er 8>inanced the construction o) the )ish!* o) the -o%ern&ent &usc e. Petitioner )a s #ithin the co%era*e. In the interest o) sa)et' on a streets and hi*h#a's. 119 An' o#ner or &ana*er o) )ish!onds in ! aces #ithin the territoria i&its o) PA*$i ao sha !a' a &unici!a ta. that #hi e e&$raced in such a cate*or'.es and )or another. The ordinances are in the character o) re%enue &easures desi*ned to assist the co))ers o) the &unici!a it' and o$%ious '. /du. introduced )ish )ries into the )ish!onds and had e&! o'ed a$orers to &aintain the&9. In no #a' &a' the ordinance at $ar $e said to $e tainted #ith the %ice o) %a*ueness. Statutes that are a!!arent ' a&$i*uous 'et )air ' a!! ica$ e to certain t'!es o) acti%ities. a9 >or con%enience o) those #ho ha%e or o#ners or &ana*ers o) )ish!onds #ithin the territoria i&its o) this &unici!a it'. Ae d. it cannot $e the o#ner 8*o%ern&ent9 #ho& ia$i it' shou d attach.SueBon.!ress#a's or i&ited access roads. It is there)ore on ' o*ica that he shou ders the $urden o) ta. it cannot $e c ari)ied $' either a sa%in* c ause or $' construction. under the said ordinances. Sec. )air notice o) the conduct to a%oid. A so. 1. In this e%ent. The Letter o) Instruction in 0uestion #as issued in the e. !er hectare o) )ish!ond on !art thereo) !er annu&. es!ecia ' tar*eted $' it. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ .. the date o) !a'&ent o) &unici!a ta. it has o))ended a*ainst the due !rocess and e0ua 14 59 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. since it is not the -o%ern&ent that had $een &a+in* &one' )ro& the %enture. It is re!u*nant to the Constitution in t#o res!ectsC 1. As the actua o!erator o) the )ish!onds. inc udin* e. it #as directed. Whether or not the Letter o) instruction %io ates the constitutiona *uarantee o) due !rocess. That a o#ners o) &otor %ehic es sha ha%e at a ti&es in their &otor %ehic es at east one !air o) ear ' #arnin* de%ice. A*ustin %s. Le*is ation couched in i&!recise an*ua*e J &a' $e Msa%edN $' !ro!er construction 1. The Letter o) Instruction #as assai ed $' !etitioner Leo%i o A*ustin #ho is a $eet e o#ner to ha%e %io ated the constitution *uarantee o) due !rocess and it c ear ' %io ated the !ro%isions and de e*ation o) !o ice !o#er. As a ru e.=. !er hectare or an' )raction thereo) !er annu& $e*innin* and ta+in* e))ect )ro& the 'ear 1?64.. the !etition &ust $e dis&issed. It is the su$&ission o) the !etitioner. such statutes &a' not $e cha en*ed #hene%er directed a*ainst such acti%ities.

t #as ori*ina ' understood $' the authorsI When it co&es to the constitutiona !roection a*ainst @unreasona$ e serach and seiBure. British Co u&$ia. he &ust sti $u' re) ectors. In the a$sence o) contro in* e*is ation $' Con*ress. The !resu&!tion o) constitutiona it' &ust !re%ai in the a$sence o) )actua record in o%er thro#in* the statute.: $oth reco&&ended use o) /W=Ks. each on a di))erent ine. the constitutiona it' o) the a# #as u!he d. The ta!s )ro& house ines #ere &ade in the streets near the houses. the Vienna con%ention on road ri*hts and P= 1. Ais c ai&s that the statute #as o!!ressi%e #as not &eritorious $ecause the re) ectors #ere not e. There #ere a so te e!hones in an o))ice the Petitioner had in his o#n ho&e. The o!eration *rossed a su$stantia a&ount o) &one'. Because it is )or !u$ ic sa)et'. 1:: US 43< 13 7ain To!ic. inc udin* cons!irac'.!rotection sa)e*uards o) the Constitution. are "ud*es i&ited to the #a's in #hich the te. The o$"ecti%e is !u$ ic sa)et'.N Persons and !ro!ert' cou d thus D$e su$"ected to a +inds o) restraints and $urdens )or the *enera co&)ort. When it co&es to inter!retin* the Constitution. #ou d &a+e societ' su))er and *i%e cri&ina s *reater i&&unit' than has $een +no#n hereto)ore. There #as no constitutiona $asis )or !etitioner $ecause the a# doesnKt %io ate an' constitutiona !ro%ision. S&a #ires #ere inserted a on* the ordinar' te e!hone #ires )ro& the residences o) )our o) the sus!ects and those eadin* )ro& the chie) o))ice. It on ' !rescri$es the re0uire&ent )ro& an' source. hea th and !ros!erit' o) the state. O &stead 8the MPetitionerN9. i) o$tained $' other than ethica conduct $' *o%ern&ent o))icia s.tent #as ar*e ' o$tained $' interce!tin* &essa*es on the te e!hones o) the cons!irators $' )our )edera !rohi$ition o))icers. The $road and e. The insertions #ere &ade #ithout tres!ass u!on an' !ro!ert' o) the de)endants.c usion o) e%idence shou d $e con)ined to cases #here ri*hts under the Constitution #ou d $e %io ated $' ad&ittin* it.!ensi%e. interce!ted $' &eans o) #ire ta!!in*. at the ho&e o) his associates and %arious other ! aces in Seatt e.!ansi%e sco!e o) the !o ice !o#er #hich #as ori*ina ' identi)ied $' Chie) (ustice Tane' in a decision as @nothin* &ore or ess than the !o#ers o) *o%ern&ent inherent in e%er' so%erei*nt'. O &stead %s. a&ounted to a %io ation o) the >ourth and >i)th A&end&ents. There #as a so no )actua )oundation on !etitioner to re)ute %a idit'.@ does that re)er on ' to the sorts o) thin*s that cou d $e searched and seiBed at the ti&e that the Constitution #as #rittenI Ae d. ho din* that #ire5ta!!in* #as not an unreasona$ e search and seiBure #ithin the &eanin* o) the >ourth A&end&ent and #as not co&!u sor' se )5 51 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Issue Whether the use o) e%idence o) !ri%ate te e!hone con%ersations $et#een the de)endants and others. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . /%en i) the car had $ in+in* i*hts. those #ho rea iBe the di))icu ties in $rin*in* o))enders to "ustice &a' #e dee& it #ise that the e. MA standard #hich #ou d )or$id the rece!tion o) e%idence. LOI 11? doesnKt )orce &otor %ehic e o#ners to !urchase the re) ector )ro& the LTO. MThe in)or&ation #hich ed to the disco%er' o) the cons!irac' and its nature and e. Last '. A ot o) co&&unication occurred $et#een Seatt e and Vancou%er. The &ain o))ice o) the $usiness #as in Seatt e and there #ere three te e!hones in the o))ice. US 8Brandeis dissent9. The' #ere &ade in the $ase&ent o) the ar*e o))ice $ui din*. The eadin* cons!irator and the *enera &ana*er o) the $usiness #as one o) the Petitioners. Search V SeiBure and Pri%ac' S'no!sis o) 2u e o) La#. The $ in+in* i*hts &a' ead to con)usion #hether the nature and !ur!ose o) the dri%er is concerned. >acts Various indi%idua s #ere con%icted o) i0uor re ated cri&es. The Su!re&e Court ru ed 554 a*ainst the ! ainti))s and in )a%or o) the *o%ern&ent.N Various con%ersations #ere ta!ed and testi)ied to $' *o%ern&ent #itnesses.

The a&end&ent itse ) sho#s that the search is to $e o) &ateria thin*s 5 the !erson. the house. there #as there)ore no %io ation o) his ri*hts a*ainst unreasona$ e search and seiBure. that the Court has a tradition o) a!! 'in* the #ords in the Constitution $road ' rather than narro# ' or itera '.!anded. The &a+ers o) our Constitution undertoo+ to secure conditions )a%ora$ e to the !ursuit o) ha!!iness.!ressed $'.ercise o) !o#er $' Con*ress. and third.D #ou d not $e %io ated. or e%en ha ) a centur' a*o. I sha 0uote hi& at en*th. under %arious c auses o) that instru&ent. their thou*hts. Dthat it is a Constitution #e are e.D said 7r. the actua #ords o) the Constitution. do not )or$id the United States or the states )ro& &eetin* &odern conditions $' re*u ations #hich Da centur' a*o. The' sou*ht to !rotect A&ericans in their $e ie)s. houses. Chie) (ustice 7arsha in 7cCu och %. The !rotection *uaranteed $' the a&end&ents is &uch $roader in sco!e. But it re ies on the an*ua*e o) the A&end&entC and it c ai&s that the !rotection *i%en there$' cannot !ro!er ' $e he d to inc ude a te e!hone con%ersation. .. their e&otions and their sensations. it concedes that i) #ire5 ta!!in* can $e dee&ed a search and seiBure #ithin the >ourth A&end&ent. Since the e%idence #as a con%ersation and no entr' #as &ade into O &steadDs ho&e. To !rotect that ri*ht. such #ire ta!!in* as #as !racticed in the case at $ar #as an unreasona$ e search and seiBure..We ha%e i+e#ise he d that *enera i&itations on the !o#ers o) *o%ern&ent.incri&ination #ithin the &eanin* o) the >i)th A&end&ent. e%er' un"usti)ia$ e intrusion $' the *o%ern&ent u!on the !ri%ac' o) the indi%idua . in #hich he aid the *round#or+ )or understandin* constitutiona *uarantees o) i$ert' and !ri%ac'. has re)used to ! ace an undu ' itera construction u!on it. e%en i) not e. Brandeis =issent Particu ar ' i&!ortant in this case #as (ustice BrandeisD dissentin* o!inion. The' con)erred. &ust ha%e a si&i ar ca!acit' o) ada!tation to a chan*in* #or d.. and that the e%idence thus o$tained #as inad&issi$ e. The -o%ern&ent &a+es no atte&!t to de)end the &ethods e&! o'ed $' its o))icers. The an*ua*e o) the a&end&ent cannot $e e. Ta+in* an*ua*e in its ordinar' &eanin*. YYYBrandeisD dissent has )or&ed the )oundation )or ci%i 5 i$ertarian ar*u&ents in a cases in%o %in* !ri%ac' since this decision #as handed do#n. in *i%in* e))ect to the !rinci! e under 'in* the >ourth A&end&ent. Indeed. DThe ri*ht o) the !eo! e o) $e secure in their !ersons. o) his )ee in*s and o) his inte ect. There #as not entr' o) the houses. 52 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. ! easure and satis)actions o) i)e are to $e )ound in &ateria thin*s.tended and e. under an' ordinar' construction o) an*ua*e. Accordin* to Chie) (ustice Ta)t.C auses *uaranteein* to the indi%idua !rotection a*ainst s!eci)ic a$uses o) !o#er. 7ar' and.D . The' reco*niBed the si*ni)icance o) &anDs s!iritua nature. $ut the sa ient !oints o) his dissent are. )irst. !a!ers.. The e%idence #as secured $' the sense o) hearin* and that on '. &ust $e dee&ed a %io ation o) the >ourth A&end&ent. a*ainst unreasona$ e searches and seiBures. that the an*ua*e o) the Constitution *uarantees e%er'one $asic ri*hts to i$ert' and !ri%ac' #hich are inherent in. #hate%er the &eans e&! o'ed. the ri*ht to $e et a one 5 the &ost co&!rehensi%e o) ri*hts and the ri*ht &ost %a ued $' ci%i iBed &en. o%er o$"ects o) #hich the )athers cou d not ha%e drea&ed. Ti&e and a*ain this court. his !a!ers or his e))ects.D Since then this court has re!eated ' sustained the e. DWe &ust ne%er )or*et. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ .!oundin*. i+e those e&$odied in the due !rocess c auses o) the >i)th and >ourteenth A&end&ents. $' co&!e in* o$edience to a su$!oena. The' +ne# that on ' a !art o) the !ain. !ro$a$ ' #ou d ha%e $een re"ected as ar$itrar' and o!!ressi%e. But this court ho ds the e%idence inad&issi$ e si&! ' $ecause the in)or&ation eadin* to the issue o) the su$!oena has $een un a#)u ' secured. as a*ainst the *o%ern&ent. and e))ects. The a&end&ent does not )or$id #hat #as done here )or there #as no seiBure. there is no DsearchD or DseiBureD #hen a de)endant is re0uired to !roduce a docu&ent in the order ' !rocess o) a courtDs !rocedure. This #as nota$ ' i ustrated in the Bo'd Case itse ). that the Constitutiona an*ua*e shou d not $e i&ited to "ust the ideas in the &inds o) the authors and &ust instead $e a!! ied to &odern issuesC second.

inc udin* a #o&anKs ri*ht to ter&inate her !re*nanc'.ce!t on &edica ad%ice to sa%e the i)e o) the &other. the Court stated that durin* the )irst tri&ester. A three5"ud*e =istrict Court !ane tried the cases to*ether and he d that 2oe and Aa )ord had standin* to sue and !resented "usticia$ e contro%ersies. Connecticut. The =ue Process C ause !rotects the ri*ht to !ri%ac'. The district court he d that the Te. in the Ninth A&end&entDs reser%ation o) ri*hts to the !eo! e. #hether it $e )ounded in the >ourteenth A&end&entDs conce!t o) !ersona i$ert' and restrictions u!on state action. #ith a :5to51 &a"orit' %ote in )a%or o) 2oe. a*ainst state action. $rou*ht a c ass action suit cha en*in* the constitutiona it' o) the Te. is $road enou*h to enco&!ass a #o&anDs decision #hether or not to ter&inate her !re*nanc'. a doctor #ho )aced cri&ina !rosecution )or %io atin* the state a$ortion a#sC and the =oes. These a#s &ade it a cri&e to o$tain or atte&!t an a$ortion e. Other ! ainti))s in the a#suit inc uded Aa ) a$ortion statutes #ere %oid as %a*ue and )or o%er$road ' in)rin*in* the Ninth and >ourteenth A&end&ent ri*hts o) the ! ainti))s. The Court issued its decision on (anuar' 11. The court a so ru ed ho#e%er that in"uncti%e re ie) #as not #arranted and that the =oesK co&! aint #as not "usticia$ e.11 -ris#o d %s. as the district court deter&ined. the decision to a$ort &ust $e e)t to the &other and her !h'sician. Ri)ht to $'ivac% The Court dec ined to ado!t the district courtDs Ninth A&end&ent rationa e. The State has the ri*ht to inter%ene !rior to )eta %ia$i it' on ' to !rotect the hea th o) the &other. a &arried cou! e #ith no chi dren. 1?:3. stated &ore e&!hatica ' that. #hen the !rocedure is &ore sa)e than chi d$irth. 41. as #e )ee it is. and instead asserted that the @ri*ht o) !ri%ac'. 11 2oe %s. The Court additiona ' added that 53 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. #ho sou*ht an in"unction a*ainst en)orce&ent o) the a#s on the *rounds that the' #ere unconstitutiona . Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . and &a' re*u ate the !rocedure a)ter %ia$i it' so on* as there is a #a's an e.@ =ou* as. The de)endant #as count' =istrict Attorne' Wade 8=9.ce!tion )or !reser%in* &aterna hea th. or.@ The Court asserted that the *o%ern&ent had t#o co&!etin* interests J !rotectin* the &otherDs hea th and !rotectin* the @!otentia it' o) hu&an i)e@. @The Ninth A&end&ent o$%ious ' does not create )edera ' en)orcea$ e ri*hts. ISSU/. ho#e%er. =oes the =ue Process C ause o) the >ourteenth A&end&ent to the United States Constitution !rotect the ri*ht to !ri%ac'. 2oe and Aa )ord #on their a#suits at tria . $ecause the district court ru ed that in"uncti%e re ie) a*ainst en)orce&ent o) the a#s #as not #arranted. The =oes a!!ea ed direct ' to the Su!re&e Court o) the United States and Wade cross5a!!ea ed the district courtKs "ud*&ent in )a%or o) 2oe and Aa ) a$ortion a#s. there$' su$"ectin* a a#s atte&!tin* to restrict it to the standard o) strict scrutin'. in his concurrin* o!inion in the co&!anion case "oe v. Wade. inc udin* the ri*ht to o$tain an a$ortionI Yes. a !re*nant sin* e #o&an. Bolton. and that dec arator' re ie) #as #arranted. The Court dee&ed a$ortion a )unda&enta ri*ht under the United States Constitution. US 113 81?:39 2oe 8P9. The =oes ost. 3<1 US 4:? 81?659 7o follo$. >o o#in* its ear ier o*ic.

#hich is su!!osed to $e e. An ad&inistrati%e order is an ordinance issued $' the President #hich re ates to s!eci)ic as!ects in the ad&inistrati%e o!eration o) the *o%ern&ent.< entit ed MA=OPTION O> A NATIONAL CO7PUT/2IW/= I=/NTI>ICATION 2/>/2/NC/ SYST/7N. The a!!ro!riation o) !u$ ic )unds )or the i&! e&entation o) the said AO is unconstitutiona since Con*ress has the e. The Court e. 3. The co&!uter in+a*e *i%es other *o%ern&ent a*encies access to the in)or&ation. The AO i+e#ise %io ates the ri*ht to !ri%ac' since its &ain !ur!ose is to !ro%ide a Mco&&on re)erence nu&$er to esta$ ish a in+a*e a&on* concerned a*encies throu*h the use o) BIO7/T2ICS T/CANOLO-Y. Precedin* )ro& the )ore*oin* !rece!ts.< in%o %es a su$"ect that is ina!!ro!riate to $e co%ered $' an Ad&inistrati%e Order. AO 3. hand *eo&etr' or )acia )eatures. It does not !ro%ide #ho sha contro and access the data and under #hat circu&stances and )or #hat !ur!ose.! icit ' re"ected a )eta @ri*ht to i)e@ ar*u&ent. the AO does not e%en te us in c ear and une0ui%oca ter&s ho# these in)or&ation *athered sha $e hand ed. AN INT2U=/2. The AO esta$ ishes a s'ste& o) identi)ication that is a 5enco&!assin* in sco!e. is concerned #ith the #or+ o) a!! 'in* !o icies and en)orcin* orders as deter&ined $' !ro!er *o%ern&enta or*ans. a te&!tation that &a' $e too *reat )or so&e o) our authorities to resist.< there)ore is $e'ond the !o#er o) the President to issue and it is a usur!ation o) e*is ati%e !o#er. 3. then President >I=/L V. retina scan.istence o) this %ast reser%oir o) !ersona in)or&ation constitutes a co%ert in%itation to &isuse. it is su!!osed to $e a a# !assed $' Con*ress that i&! e&ents it. 1??6. 1.c usi%e authorit' to a!!ro!riate )unds )or such e.ercised $' the President. The AO #as 0uestioned $' Senator O! e on the )o o#in* *rounds. 54 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Torres. These )actors are essentia to sa)e*uard the !ri%ac' and *uarant' the inte*rit' o) the in)or&ation. a))ects the i)e and i$ert' o) e%er' >i i!ino citiBens and )orei*n residents and there)ore. Issues. Y/T. The esta$ ish&ent o) the P2N #ithout an' a# is an unconstitutiona usur!ation o) the e*is ati%e !o#ers o) the Con*ress o) the Phi i!!inesC 1. 1. It is the con)ir&ation o) an indi%idua Ks identit' throu*h a )in*er!rint. It &ust $e in har&on' #ith the a# and shou d $e )or the so e !ur!ose o) i&! e&entin* the a# and carr'in* out the e*is ati%e !o ic'. WA/N TA/ ACC/SS CO=/ O> TA/ CONT2OL P2O-2A7S O> TA/ PA2TICULA2 CO7PUT/2 SYST/7 IS B2OO/N. the *o%ern&ent o))ice has the chance o) $ui din* a hu*e and )or&ida$ e in)or&ation $ase throu*h the e ectronic in+a*e o) the )i es o) e%er' citiBen. Throu*h the P2N. 2A7OS issued Ad&inistrati%e Order No. TA/2/ A2/ NO CONT2OLS TO -UA2= A-AINST L/AOA-/ O> IN>O27ATIONS. &a' $e *athered )or *ain)u and use)u *o%ern&ent !ur!osesC $ut the e. The su$"ect o) AO 3. Ad&inistrati%e Po#er. O! e %s. 141 SC2A 1?3 Facts: On =ece&$er 11. Bio&etr' is the science o) the a!! ication o) statistica &ethods to $io o*ica )actsC a &athe&atica ana 'sis o) a $io o*ica data. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ .!enditureC and 3. not $' an Ad&inistrati%e Order issued $' the President. ho#e%er. The data. >urther. 1. The AO see+s to ha%e a >i i!ino citiBens and )orei*n residents to ha%e a Po!u ation 2e)erence Nu&$er 8P2N9 *enerated $' the Nationa Statistics O))ice 8NSO9 throu*h the use o) BIO7/T2ICS T/CANOLO-Y .the !ri&ar' ri*ht $ein* !reser%ed in the #oe decision #as that o) the !h'sicianDs ri*ht to !ractice &edicine )ree ' a$sent a co&!e in* state interest J not #o&enDs ri*hts in *enera . a uni)or& standard o) ad&inistrati%e e))icienc' and chec+ the o))icia conduct o) his a*ents. It ena$ es the President to )i. Held: 1. WITAOUT >/A2 O> SANCTION O2 The AO %io ates the citiBenKs ri*ht to !ri%ac' !rotected $' the Bi o) 2i*hts o) the Constitution.

Phi 443 81 Bernas 63?9 Ynot %s.ecuti%e order. ordered the con)iscation o) the $ond. !rohi$itin* the s au*hter o) cara$aos e. 1. 14< SC2A 65? 81 Bernas 119 FACTS: The !etitioner had trans!orted si. the court sustained the con)iscation o) the cara$aos and. as raise $' the !etitioner. CA. !ro%idin* that @no cara$ao re*ard ess o) a*e.. in the case o) cara$ee). ISSUES: Whether or not e. and the 2e*iona Tria Court o) I oi o Cit' issued a #rit o) re! e%in u!on his )i in* o) a su!ersedeas $ond o) P11. a&endin* the $asic ru e in /. 1?<4. that the interests o) the !u$ ic *enera '.. )or ac+ o) authorit' and a so )or its !resu&ed %a idit'. and to deser%in* )ar&ers throu*h dis!ersa as the =irector o) Ani&a Industr' &a' see )it.ce!t #here the' are at east se%en 'ears o d i) &a e and e e%en 'ears o d i) )e&a e u!on issuance o) the necessar' !er&it. We note that to stren*then the ori*ina &easure.. To "usti)' the State in thus inter!osin* its authorit' in $eha ) o) the !u$ ic. A)ter considerin* the &erits o) the case. 6165A #hich !ro%ides that Mthe cara$ao or cara$ee) trans!orted in %io ation o) this /. The court a so dec ined to ru e on the constitutiona it' o) the e.. 6165A i&!oses an a$so ute $an not on the s au*hter o) the cara$aos $ut on their &o%e&ent. )or %io ation o) /. In the i*ht o) the tests &entioned. %io ation o) due !rocess. CAN 7AO/ US/ O> TA/ =ATA >O2 WAAT/V/2 PU2POS/.ecuti%e Order as a&ended sha $e su$"ect to con)iscation and )or)eiture $' the *o%ern&ent. The reasona$ e connection $et#een the &eans e&! o'ed and the !ur!ose sou*ht to $e achie%ed $' the 55 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. as distin*uished )ro& those o) a !articu ar c ass. #hen the' #ere con)iscated $' the !o ice station co&&ander o) Barotac Nue%o. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . %iB.< is unconstitutiona since it )a s short o) assurin* that !ersona in)or&ation *athered a$out our !eo! e #i $e used on ' )or s!eci)ied !ur!oses there$' %io atin* the citiBenKs ri*ht to !ri%ac'. >a"ardo. 6165A.ce!t under certain conditions. cara$aos in a !u&! $oat )ro& 7as$ate to I oi o on (anuar' 13.ecuti%e Order No. ? < Peo! e %s. since the' cou d no on*er $e !roduced. !h'sica condition or !ur!ose 8sic9 and no cara$ee) sha $e trans!orted )ro& one !ro%ince to another. that the &eans are reasona$ ' necessar' )or the acco&! ish&ent o) the !ur!ose. #e cannot sa' #ith e0ua certaint' that it co&! ies #ith the second re0uire&ent. 4. and undue de e*ation o) e*is ati%e !o#erI HE !: The !rotection o) the *enera #e )are is the !articu ar )unction o) the !o ice !o#er #hich $oth restraints and is restrained $' due !rocess. re0uire such inter)erenceC and second.ecuti%e order no. )irst..Y 3 #hich u!he d the tria court. O2 WO2S/. it &ust a!!ear. But #hi e concedin* that the a&endator' &easure has the sa&e a#)u su$"ect as the ori*ina e.ecuti%e Order No. I oi o. 6165A is unconstitutiona due &isa!! ication o) !o ice !o#er.ecuti%e order. in the case o) cara$aosN. AO No.. The !etitioner sued )or reco%er'.P/NALTY. The !o ice !o#er is si&! ' de)ined as the !o#er inherent in the State to re*u ate i$ert' and !ro!ert' )or the !ro&otion o) the *enera #e )are. and not undu ' o!!ressi%e u!on indi%idua s. #e ho d #ith the Tori$io Case that there is no dou$t that $' $annin* the s au*hter o) these ani&a s e. YY and he has no# co&e $e)ore us in this !etition )or re%ie# on certiorari. the e. se.. that there $e a a#)u &ethod. 616.ecuti%e Order No.. It is this !o#er that is no# in%o+ed $' the *o%ern&ent to "usti)' /.ecuti%e Order No. /. 7ANIPULAT/ TA/ =ATA STO2/= WITAIN TA/ SYST/7...ecuti%e order #i $e conser%in* those sti )it )or )ar& #or+ or $reedin* and !re%entin* their i&!ro%ident de! etion.@ The o$"ect o) the !rohi$ition esca!es us. to $e distri$uted to charita$ e institutions and other si&i ar institutions as the Chair&an o) the Nationa 7eat Ins!ection Co&&ission &a' a' see )it. 3. The !etitioner a!!ea ed the decision to the Inter&ediate A!!e ate Court.

and the !ro!ert' $ein* trans!orted is i&&ediate ' i&!ounded $' the !o ice and dec ared. to $e &eted out $' the e. it cou d $e easi ' circu&%ented $' si&! ' +i in* the ani&a . As )or the cara$ee). retainin* the cara$aos in one !ro%ince #i not !re%ent their s au*hter there.ecuti%e authorities.ecuti%e Order No. as #e he d in Pesi*an %. > e. It is a *rati)'in* co&&entar' on our "udicia s'ste& that the "uris!rudence o) this countr' is rich #ith a!! ications o) this *uarant' as !roo) o) our )ea t' to the ru e o) a# and the ancient rudi&ents o) )air ! a'. $' the &easure itse ). #ith no ess di))icu t' in one !ro%ince than in another. there #as no such !ressure o) ti&e or action ca in* )or the !etitionerDs !ere&!tor' treat&ent. A#are o) this. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . an' &ore than &o%in* the& to another !ro%ince #i &a+e it easier to +i the& there. the statute #as sustained $ecause the !ena t' !rescri$ed #as )ine and i&!rison&ent. It is a so conceded that su&&ar' action &a' $e %a id ' ta+en in ad&inistrati%e !roceedin*s as !rocedura due !rocess is not necessari ' "udicia on '. as )or)eited to the *o%ern&ent. considerin* that the' can $e +i ed an'#here.0uestioned &easure is &issin*. 6165A is !ena in nature. &a' not $e dis!ensed #ith $ecause the' are intended as a sa)e*uard a*ainst o))icia ar$itrariness. usua ' the !o ice on '. #ith the accused $ein* accorded a the ri*hts sa)e*uarded to hi& under the Constitution. there is a "usti)ication )or the o&ission o) the ri*ht to a !re%ious hearin*. the i&&ediac' o) the !ro$ e& sou*ht to $e corrected and the ur*enc' o) the need to correct it. si*ni)icant '. it shou d )o o# that there is no reason either to !rohi$it their trans)er as. the !rohi$ition is &ade to a!! ' to it as other#ise.ercise o) the !o ice !o#er $ecause the &ethod 56 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. #e )ind that the cha en*ed &easure is an in%a id e.ecuti%e order shou d not ha%e $een !ro%ed )irst in a court o) "ustice. /%en i) a reasona$ e re ation $et#een the &eans and the end #ere to $e assu&ed.ce!tiona cases acce!ted. #hich a one #ou d ha%e had the authorit' to i&!ose the !rescri$ed !ena t'.ecuti%e order. Perha!s so. An*e es. and on ' a)ter tria and con%iction o) the accused. We do not see ho# the !rohi$ition o) the inter5!ro%incia trans!ort o) cara$aos can !re%ent their indiscri&inate s au*hter.i$i it' &ust $e the $est %irtue o) the *uarant'. The %er' e asticit' o) the due !rocess c ause #as &eant to &a+e it ada!t easi ' to e%er' situation. the %io ation thereo) shou d ha%e $een !ronounced not $' the !o ice on ' $ut $' a court o) "ustice. The &ini&u& re0uire&ents o) due !rocess are notice and hearin* #hich. no such tria is !rescri$ed. In the Tori$io Case. 11 /. not to $e ) i!!ant dead &eat. The !ena t' is outri*ht con)iscation o) the cara$ao or cara$ee) $ein* trans!orted. to $e i&!osed $' the court a)ter tria and con%iction o) the accused. Considerin* that. It has a read' $een re&ar+ed that there are occasions #hen notice and hearin* &a' $e %a id ' dis!ensed #ith not#ithstandin* the usua re0uire&ent )or these &ini&u& *uarantees o) due !rocess. Under the cha en*ed &easure. so sa's e. In the e. #e #ou d sti ha%e to rec+on #ith the sanction that the &easure a!! ies )or %io ation o) the !rohi$ition. i) the &o%e&ent o) the i%e ani&a s )or the !ur!ose o) !re%entin* their s au*hter cannot $e !rohi$ited. The due !rocess c ause #as +e!t intentiona ' %a*ue so it #ou d re&ain a so con%enient ' resi ient. This &easure de!ri%es the indi%idua due !rocess as *ranted $' the Constitution. O$%ious '. In the case $e)ore us. There certain ' #as no reason #h' the o))ense !rohi$ited $' the e. To su& u! then. *enera ' s!ea+in*. This #as )e t necessar' $ecause due !rocess is not. to #it. The !ro!erties in%o %ed #ere not e%en ini&ica !er se as to re0uire their instant destruction. the courts ha%e a so hesitated to ado!t their o#n s!eci)ic descri!tion o) due !rocess est the' con)ine the&se %es in a e*a strait"ac+et that #i de!ri%e the& o) the e $o# roo& the' &a' need to %ar' the &eanin* o) the c ause #hene%er indicated. en ar*in* or constrictin* its !rotection as the chan*in* ti&es and circu&stances &a' re0uire. ho#e%er. i+e so&e !ro%isions o) the )unda&enta a#. an @iron ru e@ a'in* do#n an i&! aca$ e and i&&uta$ e co&&and )or a seasons and a !ersons. Ao#e%er.

The )ence #as su$se0uent ' re$ui t $' the A'a a.5Us0. On 1: (anuar' 1?::. The Buendia A%enue e. The con)er&ent on the ad&inistrati%e authorities o) the !o#er to ad"ud*e the *ui t o) the su!!osed o))ender is a c ear encroach&ent on "udicia )unctions and &i itates a*ainst the doctrine o) se!aration o) !o#ers.s $' 7a+ati =e%e o!&ent Cor!oration 87=C9. the &unici!a o))icia s o) 7a+ati a e*ed ' o!ened. BAVA. a so d $' 7=C su$"ect to certain conditions and ease&ents contained in =eed 2estrictions #hich )or&ed a !art o) each deed o) sa e 8i. and the )ence had to $e destro'ed. and (u!iter St. due to a t'!hoon. Wodiac 87ercedes5Buendia9. #ith its $oundar' in the south e. 'ears startin* 15 (anuar' 1?5:9. 1:6 SC2A :1? >acts. the o!enin* o) the A&a!o a 8/stre a7ercedesC Pa &a *ate5Vi ena9. the O))ice o) the 7a'or o) 7a+ati directed BAVA. s0.3. Section 3.its9 are i&!osed in such co&&ercia ots to har&oniBe and $ end #ith the de%e o!&ent and #e )are o) Be 5Air Vi a*e. 7ercedes 8/=SA5I&e daUA&a!o a "unction9. >or these reasons.e. 6165A unconstitutiona . Artic e 1. is undu ' o!!ressi%e. (u!iter St.asC 7ercedes5Buendia9 streets o) Be 5Air Vi a*e )or !u$ ic use. !ara*ra!h C9.tendin* to the center ine o) (u!iter Street 8Cha!ter 3.tension across a stretch o) co&&ercia $ oc+ )ro& 2e!oso Street in the #est u! to Wodiac Street in the east. There is.ecuti%e Order No.!ressin* concern o) the residents a$out the o!enin* o) the streets to *enera !u$ ic and re0uestin* the inde)inite !ost!one&ent o) the ! an to o!en (u!iter St.. )ina '.. A'a a )ina ' decided to su$di%ide and se the ots in the co&&ercia $ oc+ $et#een Buendia and (u!iter.& in 1?<. !ets a o#edC ease&ent o) 1 &eters #ithin otC ot not used )or i&&ora or i e*a trade or acti%it'C *rass a #a's tri&&edC 2estrictions in )orce )or 5.5 &eters. !ro%idin* )or the Boni)ication o) 7a+ati. #hich c assi)ied Be 5Air Vi a*e as a C ass A 2esidentia Wone. E-2 :116?F Be 5Air Vi a*e is ocated north o) Buendia A%enue e. IAC.tension9. #orse. The #idenin* o) the street reduced the association dues to $e re&itted to BAVA.5. When Be 5Air Vi a*e #as ! anned. On 11 Au*ust 1?::. Or$it 8>.e&! o'ed to conser%e the cara$aos is not reasona$ ' necessar' to the !ur!ose o) the a# and.1 on 14 7arch 1?<1. rather than <1. Section 3.tension )ro& 2e!oso St.. %o untari ' o!ened the other streets. The 2esidentia Wone and the Ad&inistrati%e O))ice Wone ha%e a co&&on $oundar' a on* the center ine o) (u!iter Street. On 15 Se!te&$er 1?:1. hei*ht i&itations )or $ui din*s #ere increased )ro& 11. Under the Bonin* c assi)ication.:16 s0. The )ence #as !artia ' destro'ed in 1?:. and the $ oc+dee! stri! a on* the north#est side o) Buendia A%enue /. $ein* auto&atic &e&$ers o) Be 5Air Association #ho &ust a$ide $' the ru es and re*u ations aid do#n $' the Association Eas !er sanitation. $et#een 7a+ati A%e. A'a a i+e#ise in)or&ed BAVA that in a )e# &onths it sha su$di%ided and se the co&&ercia ots $orderin* the north side o) Buendia A%enue /.&. securit'.Wo$e U Cande aria intersection J(u!iter Paseo de 2o. this $ oc+ $et#een 2e!oso and Wodiac Streets ad"oinin* Buendia A%enue in )ront o) the %i a*e #as desi*nated as a co&&ercia $ oc+.tendin* a so u! to the center ine o) (u!iter Street 8Cha!ter 3. 7a+ati enacted Ordinance <1. >e$ruar'. (u!iter Street #as #idened in 1?:1. the a!! ication su$&itted to BAVAKs $oard o) *o%ernors )or decision. Be 5Air Vi a*e #as o#ned and de%e o!ed into a residentia su$di%ision in the 1?5.tension )ro& 2e!oso to /=SA as Ai*h Intensit' Co&&ercia Wone. the #a #as re$ui t inside the $oundar' o) the co&&ercia $ oc+. CruB e. BAVA re! ied. : Be 5Air Association %s. (une 1?:1. U!on re0uest o) BAVA. #e here$' dec are /. =ue rates ha%e increased )ro& P. !ara*ra!h >9.5 &eters to 15 &eters and (u!iter street is #idened $' 3. securit' and *enera #e )are o) the co&&unit'FC that ots cannot $e su$di%ided and on ' used )or residentia !ur!osesC that sin* e )a&i ' house $e constructed in sin* e otC no co&&ercia or ad%ertisin* si*ns ! aced or erected on the otC no )ar& ani&a s a o#ed. (u!iter 8Wodiac52e!oso. On 1.& in 1?:1 to P3Us0. Inc. BAVA re0uested con)ir&ation o) use o) the co&&ercia ots. e. =ue !rocess is %io ated $ecause the o#ner o) the !ro!ert' con)iscated is denied the ri*ht to $e heard in his de)ense and is i&&ediate ' conde&ned and !unished. 1?5: and 1?5<.. inas&uch that it no# a!! ies to :6. The ots #hich #ere ac0uired $' the San*a an*s. and &atters 2/ entrances and e. S!ouses San*a an* reside at 11. in the interest o) !u$ ic #e )are and !ur!ose o) easin* tra))ic con*estion. Ne!tune 87a+ati a%e. connectin* 7etro!o itan a%enue to Pason* Ta&o and V. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ .C S!ouses -aston reside at 64 (u!iter St.C S!ouses Briones reside at 66 (u!iter St. res!ecti%e '. to !u$ ic %ehic es. $et#een 7a+ati A%e. and 2e!oso St.&.C #hi e Be 5Air Vi a*e Association. 7=C constructed a )ence on the co&&ercia $ oc+ a on* (u!iter Street in 1?66. ho#e%er. A'a a )urther a!! ied )or s!ecia &e&$ershi! in BAVA o) the co&&ercia ot o#ners.5?. 8BAVA9 is the ho&eo#nersD association in Be 5Air Vi a*e #hich ta+es care o) the sanitation. On 4 A!ri 1?:5. u! to Wodiac St. a thou*h it #as not !art o) the ori*ina ! an. and Wodiac St. (u!iter Street is a co&&on $oundar' o) Be 5Air Vi a*e and the co&&ercia Bone. #ith &odi)ication that Be 5Air Vi a*e is si&! ' $ounded in the South5Southeast $' (u!iter Street.. the -astons. a so an in%a id de e*ation o) e*is ati%e !o#ers to the o))icers &entioned therein #ho are *ranted un i&ited discretion in the distri$ution o) the !ro!erties ar$itrari ' ta+en. #hich in 1?6< #as &er*ed #ith A'a a Cor!oration. the Brioneses in 1?6.tension area #as c assi)ied as Ad&inistrati%e O))ice Wone #ith its $oundar' in the NorthNorth /ast /. as #e as *atesU)ences constructed at 57 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Artic e 1. =eed restrictions 8$ui din* ha%in* set $ac+ o) 1? &eters.52e!oso9. On 3. destro'ed and re&o%ed the *ates constructed at the corner o) 2e!oso St. The Bonin* #as ater )o o#ed under the Co&!rehensi%e Wonin* Ordinance )or the Nationa Ca!ita 2e*ion ado!ted $' the 7etro 7ani a Co&&ission as Ordinance <15. tra))ic re*u ations and *enera #e )are o) the %i a*e.

P5. P1. dis&issin* the case )or ac+ o) cause o) actionC #ithout !ronounce&ent as to costs.e&! ar' da&a*es. in -2 <11<19 in %io ation o) the said restrictions.. In%aria$ ' descri$ed as @the &ost essentia .@ the e. un"ust or unreasona$ e.. !eace. and i i&ita$ e o) !o#ers@ and @in a sense. A contracts are su$"ect to the o%erridin* de&ands. Whether the constitutiona *uarantee on non5i&!air&ent o) contracts can $e raised as a deterrent to the e. it cannot $e raised as a deterrent to !o ice !o#er. Briones.. desi*ned !recise ' to !ro&ote hea th. *ood order or sa)et' and *enera #e )are o) the !eo! e. as the ordinance is neither ca!ricious or ar$itrar' or unreasona$ eC $ut that it is $ased on co&!e in* interests o) *enera #e )are. The C>I Pasi* rendered a decision in )a%or o) the San*a an*s a#ardin* the& P5... \\\ Short >acts. &ora s. The inter%enors -aston and Briones #ere a#arded P4... there ha%in* $een a denia o) due !rocess or a %io ation o) an' other a!! ica$ e constitutiona *uarantee. 2e!oso Street. @Be 5Air Vi a*e. and <11<1 are e))orts to en)orce the @deed restrictions@ a*ainst s!eci)ic residents o) (u!iter Street and.. -2 :43:6. a !etition to ho d the %endor itse ). Purchasers o) the co&&ercia ots started constructin* their res!ecti%e $ui din*s and de&o ished the )ence or #a #ithin the $oundar' o) their ots..ercise o) !o ice !o#er. a $a+er' and co))ee sho! in -2 :63?4. A'a a #as a so ordered to restoreUreconstruct the !eri&eter #a at the ori*ina !osition in 1?66 at its o#n e.1 !ro&u *ated $' the 7etro!o itan 7ani a Co&&ission. the 77C Ordinance re!resents a e*iti&ate e... !u$ ic order. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . %.@ $ut #hi e it is so. !eace. #hi&sica . as &ora da&a*es. #ith res!ect to -2 :<1<1. Inc. -2 :116? is.. A'a a donated the entire (u!iter Street )ro& 7etro!o itan A%enue to Wodiac Street to BAVA.ercise o) !o ice !o#er.. Increased tra))ic #as o$ser%ed a on* (u!iter Street a)ter its o!enin* to !u$ ic use.. an ad%ertisin* )ir& in -2 :<1<1C and a construction co&!an'. on the other hand.ercise o) !o ice !o#er. On 1? Octo$er 1?:?. as a conse0uence... A su!! e&enta co&! aint #as ater )i ed $' the San*a an*s to au*&ent the re ie)s !ra'ed )or in the ori*ina co&! aint $ecause o) a e*ed su!er%enin* e%ents #hich occurred durin* the tria o) the case.@ in #hich the a!!e ate court e.@ A$o%e a . and the cost o) suitC each. P5.. &ora s. San*a an* a!!ea ed. It #as i+e#ise he d that these t#in &easures #ere %a id as a e*iti&ate e. C ai&in* to $e si&i ar ' situated. as actua and conse0uentia da&a*es. in %io ation o) the %er' restrictions it had authored. Po ice !o#er is the !o#er to !rescri$e re*u ations to !ro&ote the hea th. and enhance the co&&on *ood. as attorne'Ks )ees. Their &other case.. Ae d. #hich t#o ordinances a e*ed ' a o#ed the use o) (u!iter Street $oth )or residentia and co&&ercia !ur!oses. P5. as conse0uentia da&a*es.!ense #ithin 6 &onths )ro& )ina it' o) "ud*&ent..e&! ar' da&a*es. as e. On 1: (anuar' 1?:<. 7an' o#ners constructed their o#n )ences and #a s and e&! o'ed their o#n securit' *uards.(u!iter Street and 7a+ati A%enue )orci$ 'C there$' o!enin* (u!iter street to !u$ ic tra))ic. #hen c ashin* #ith the indi%idua ri*ht to !ro!ert'.. et a . education. sa)et'.. as e.. Issue.. it cannot contra%ene @ a#.. *ood custo&s.ercise o) !o ice !o#er.ercise o) the !o#er &a' $e "udicia ' in0uired into and corrected on ' i) it is ca!ricious. P17 as &ora da&a*es.. The Court *uarantees sanctit' o) contract and is said to $e the @ a# $et#een the contractin* !arties. and BAVA inter%ened in the case. the residentia ots ocated in the northern side o) (u!iter Street ceased to $e used )or !ure ' residentia !ur!oses. The Court o) A!!ea s dis&issed a 5 a!!ea s on the $asis !ri&ari ' o) its ru in* in AC5-2 6664?.ce!t )or &ora da&a*es. P5.. and $eca&e co&&ercia in character. A'5Land 2ea t' =e%e o!&ent Cor!oration. ia$ e )or tearin* do#n the !eri&eter #a a on* (u!iter Street that had thereto)ore c osed its co&&ercia section )ro& the residences o) Be 5Air Vi a*e and usherin* in. at the e. Pu$ ic #e )are. a!!arent '. as #e as Co&!rehensi%e Wonin* Ordinance <1. the )u @co&&ercia iBation@ o) (u!iter Street.!ense o) contractua ri*hts.. s!ouses -aston. needs. shou d $e &ade to !re%ai throu*h the stateDs e. With the o!enin* o) the entire (u!iter street to !u$ ic tra))ic. Po ice !o#er is e astic and &ust $e res!onsi%e to %arious socia conditionsC it is not con)ined #ithin narro# circu&scri!tions o) !recedents restin* on !ast conditionsC it &ust )o o# the e*a !ro*ress o) a de&ocratic #a' o) i)e.ercise o) its !o ice !o#er. A'a a Cor!oration 8)or&er ' 7a+ati =e%e o!&ent Cor!oration9. :63?4... the Court o) A!!ea s re%ersed and set aside the decision )or not $ein* su!!orted $' )acts and a# on the &atterC and entered another.. Aerein. The residents ha%e a e*ed ' con%erted their residences into co&&ercia esta$ ish&ents 8a restaurant in -2 :43:6... and interests o) the *reater nu&$er as the State &a' deter&ine in the e*iti&ate e. #hene%er necessar'. The da&a*es a#arded $ear e*a interest )ro& the )i in* o) the co&! aint. and the cost o) suit. the *reatest and &ost !o#er)u attri$ute o) *o%ern&ent. s!ouses San*a an* )i ed an action )or da&a*es a*ainst A'a a !redicated on $oth $reach o) contract and on tort or 0uasi5de ict.! icit ' re"ected c ai&s under the sa&e @deed restrictions@ as a resu t o) Ordinance <1 enacted $' the -o%ern&ent o) the 7unici!a it' o) 7a+ati. Inter%enor BAVA #as a#arded the sa&e e.. :<1<1. On a!!ea . or !u$ ic !o ic'. as attorne'Ks )ees.. The restricti%e ease&ents are si&i ar to an' other contract. insistent.. and 5) Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty.

P. The instant case is an unendin* se0ue to se%era suits co&&enced a &ost t#ent' 'ears a*o in%o %in* a !arce o) and ocated at the corner o) the south end o) /=SA and >.!ro!riated under B. authoriBin* the nationa *o%ern&ent to e. As de)ense. this 0uestion has $een !re%ious ' raised in the cases #hich ha%e $een a read' set aside.N 6 5 /PWA %s. Ao#e%er. Su$se0uent '. San*a an* and Ba$iera so d the and to res!ondent Sa e& In%est&ent Cor!oration. As a conse0uence o) this de)icienc'. Neither did the' recei%e notice o) the auction sa e.tension o) /=SA #as a on* Cuneta A%enue $ut #as ater chan*ed to the >ernando 2ein J =e Pan!ro!riation )or the e. et. A&on* the 0uestions in%o %ed #ere the %a idit' o) the sudden chan*e o) !ro!osed e. 1?<3.B. Aarrison in Pasa' Cit'. The and #as o#ned $' !etitioners Cristina de Onecht and her son. 1.!ro!riated is "usti)ied. 819 Whether or not the chan*e in choices o) ands to $e e. the Onechts c ai&ed o#nershi! o) the and and $ui din*. Bautista. de in0uenc'. The !ro!ert' o) the Onechts #as !art o) those e.1. The court is not a trier o) )acts.5 81 Bernas 6559 =e Onecht %s.P.ercise o) !o ice !o#er. The *o%ern&ent #anted to use the and )or the co&! etion o) the 7ani a > ood Contro and =raina*e Pro"ect and the e. B *. Petitioners a so !ra' )or the !rohi$ition o) the 2e!u$ icKs i&&ediate !ossession o) the !ro!erties in 0uestion. Issue. the order o) dis&issa $eca&e )ina and res "udicata on the issue o) o#nershi! o) the and. 14? SC2A Bou e%ard. The *o%ern&ent *a%e out "ust co&!ensation )or the ands e.P. 2es "udicata has a read' set it. the Cit' Treasurer so d the !ro!ert' at !u$ ic auction )or the sa&e a&ount o) their de)icienc' ta. the Cit' Treasurer o) Pasa' disco%ered that the Onechts )ai ed to !a' rea estate ta. thus ha%e no cause o) action on the stren*th a one o) said Mdeed restrictions. B *. 2ene Onecht. eased out the se%en and occu!ied one o) the& as their on the !ro!ert' )ro& 1?<. 2es "udicata is a *round )or dis&issa o) an action. Sa e& #as inc uded and recei%ed !artia !a'&ent. In 1?<1.. SC2A 66. the *o%ern&ent )i ed )or the e. to 1?<1. On >e$ruar' 1:.shou d not deter the %a id e. It !er%ades e%er' #e 5re*u ated s'ste& o) 5( Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. B *.tension.!ro!riation o) OnechtsK !ro!ert'. The Onechts there)ore are not the a#)u o#ners o) the and and are not an' on*er accounta$ e )or "ust co&!ensation *i%en $' the *o%ern&ent. 34.tensions and co%ered !ro!erties $' the !ro"ect.tension o) the /=SA to#ards 2o. San*a an*. /&inent =o&ain >acts... 819 Whether or not Onechts are the a#)u o#ners o) the and at su$"ect. BAVA. Since the !etitions 0uestionin* the order o) dis&issa #ere i+e#ise dis&issed $' the Court o) A!!ea s and this Court. Since the Onechts re)used to %acate their one re&ainin* house. The OnechtsD ri*ht to the and had $een )orec osed a)ter the' )ai ed to redee& it one 'ear a)ter the sa e at !u$ ic auction. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . the Onechts constructed ei*ht houses. Ae d. 34. 81 Bernas 6669 7ain To!ic. =u a'. the Batasan* Pa&$ansa !assed B. a . The ori*ina ! an )or e. In 1?:?. Note. Petitioners contended that the' did not recei%e notice o) their ta. !ursuant to Ordinance <15. The Su!re&e Court he d that the Onechts #ere not the o#ners an'&ore o) the said and. On the and. Se%en o) the ei*ht houses o) the Onechts #ere de&o ished and the *o%ern&ent too+ !ossession o) the !ortion o) and on #hich the houses stood. The 7unici!a Tria Court ho#e%er ordered the OnechtsD e"ect&ent thus their residence #as de&o ished. 34.!ro!riated under B. The Onechts continuous ' c ai&ed o#nershi! o) the !ro!ert' and a e*e that the' &ust $e *i%en "ust co&!ensation.!ro!riate certain !ro!erties in Pasa' Cit' )or the /=SA /. The hi*hest $idders #ere res!ondent S!ouses Anastacio and >e isa Ba$iera 8the Ba$ieras9 and res!ondent S!ouses A e"andro and > or San*a an* 8the San*a an*s9.. Sa e& )i ed a case a*ainst the& )or un a#)u detainer. The 77C has rec assi)ied (u!iter Street into a Mhi*h densit' co&&ercia Bone. It is a ru e that !rec udes !arties )ro& re iti*atin* Issue actua ' iti*ated and deter&ined $' a !rior and )ina "ud*&ent.

M. on the other. on one hand. @Pri%ate !ro!ert' sha not $e ta+en )or !u$ ic use #ithout "ust co&!ensation. the indi%idua shou d not $e %e. that there shou d $e a i&it to iti*ationC and another. There is no 0uestion as to the ri*ht o) the 2e!u$ ic o) the Phi i!!ines to ta+e !ri%ate !ro!ert' )or !u$ ic use u!on the !a'&ent o) "ust co&!ensation.i&s o) the co&&on a# G one. It is a &andate o) reason. vs.( )nc. The Au&an Sett e&ents Co&&ission conc uded that the cost )actor is so &ini&a that it can $e disre*arded in &a+in* a choice $et#een the t#o ines. The chan*e "usti)ied $' Msocia i&!actN cannot $e *i%en &erit since the stri! a on* Cuneta A%enue is &arred $' &ote s on '. !ri%ate enter!rises and ho&e. @Pri%ate !ro!ert' sha not $e ta+en )or !u$ ic use #ithout "ust co&!ensation. The *o%ern&ent )i ed e. and is $ased u!on t#o *rounds e&$odied in %arious &a. or an o!!ortunit' )or such tria has $een *i%en. To )o o# a contrar' doctrine #ou d su$"ect the !u$ ic !eace and 0uiet to the #i and ne* ect o) indi%idua s and !re)er the *rati)ication o) the iti*ious dis!osition o) the !arties to the !reser%ation o) the !u$ ic tran0ui it'.!ro!riated see&ed ar$itrari ' &ade $' the =PWAI HE !: The choice o) >ernando 2ein and =e Pan Streets is a'&it'a'% and should not 'eceive 8udicial a$$'oval . $ut the 7inistr' ar*ued the ne# route #hich sa%e the *o%ern&ent 17.tended to 2o. Land %enure* . Later on. the 7inistr' o) Pu$ ic Ai*h#a's decided to &a+e the !ro!osed e. it is a so reco*niBed that the *o%ern&ent &a' not ca!ricious ' or ar$itrari 'D choose #hat !ri%ate !ro!ert' shou d $e ta+en. Whi e the issue #ou d see& to $oi do#n to a choice $et#een !eo! e. identit' o) !arties.!ro!riate the !ro!erties o#ned $' =e Onecht and others si&i ar ' situated on the *round that the choice o) !ro!erties to $e e. the )acts o) record and reco&&endations o) the Au&an Sett e&ents Co&&ission.tend /=SA to 2o. This is #hat the !etitioners are 0uestionin*.!ro!riated. o) su$"ect &atter and o) cause o) action. #as. The res!ondent "ud*e co&&itted a *ra%e a$use o) discretion in a o#in* the 2e!u$ ic o) the Phi i!!ines to ta+e i&&ediate !ossession o) the !ro!erties sou*ht to $e e. so on* as it re&ains unre%ersed. Because o) the !rotests o) residents o) the atter. Artic e IV o) the Constitution o) the Phi i!!ines !ro%ides. %ua&on ' Co. >ro& a the )ore*oin*. The )actor o) )unctiona it' stron* ' &i itates a*ainst the choice o) >ernando 2ein and =e Pan Streets. Section 1. ISSUE: Whether there is a *enuine need to e."uris!rudence. and !ro*ress and de%e o!& Bou e%ard to $e u ti&ate ' in+ed to the Ca%ite Coasta 2oad Pro"ect. $. 819 No. the Co&&ission on Au&an Sett e&ents reco&&ended the re%ersion to the ori*ina ! an. a&on* #ho& #as !etitioner. that the *o%ern&ent &a' not ca!ricious ' or ar$itrari 'D choose #hat !ri%ate !ro!ert' shou d $e ta+en. shou d $e conc usi%e u!on the !arties and those in !ri%it' #ith the& in a# or estate.!ro!riation !roceedin*s a*ainst the o#ners o) >ernando 2ein and =e Pan Streets. !u$ ic !o ic' and necessit'.@ Ao#e%er.a ando#ner is co%ered $' the &ant e o) !rotection due !rocess a))ords. There is no 0uestion as to the ri*ht o) the 2e!u$ ic o) the Phi i!!ines to ta+e !ri%ate !ro!ert' )or !u$ ic use u!on the !a'&ent o) "ust co&!ensation.!ro!riation o) !ro!erties a on* Cuneta A%enue in Pasa' Cit'. as o!!osed to the other route !ro!osed #hich is a$undant #ith sett e&ents. 2es "udicata a!! ies #hen. When a ri*ht o) )act has $een "udicia ' tried and deter&ined $' a court o) co&!etent "urisdiction. #hi e the )actor o) socia and econo&ic i&!act $ears *rie%ous ' on the residents o) Cuneta A%enue. 8/in9 FACTS: The ! an to e.@ It is reco*niBed. Section 1.ed t#ice )or the sa&e cause.tension !ass throu*h >ernando 2ein and =e Pan Streets. 819 the )or&er "ud*&ent or order is )ina C 819 the "ud*&ent or order is one on the &eritsC 839 it #as rendered $' a court ha%in* "urisdiction o%er the su$"ect &atter and the !artiesC 849 there is $et#een the )irst and second actions. Both the Nationa Aousin* Authorit' and =e!arth&ent o) Pu$ ic Ai*h#a's ha%e !ro%ided that their ana 'sis and studies do not see the )unctiona it' and !ractica it' o) the !ro!osed chan* Bou e%ard is ar$itrar' and shou d not recei%e "udicia a!!ro%a . it is c ear that the choice o) >ernando 2ein G =e Pan Streets as the ine throu*h #hich the /!i)anio de os Santos A%enue shou d $e e. ho#e%er. Artic e IV o) the Constitution o) the Phi i!!ines !ro%ides. ori*ina ' ca ed )or the e. It )ro#ns 69 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. the "ud*&ent o) the court.. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . it is to $e re&e&$ered that !ro*ress and de%e o!&ent are carried out )or the $ene)it o) the !eo! e.

Nos.. $oth o) #hich #ere dec ared e.@ This $eca&e &ore e%ident #hen the NAA #rote the 2e*ister o) =eeds and re0uested her to cance the certi)icate o) tit es o) the !etitioners... With due reco*nition then o) the !o#er o) Con*ress to desi*nate the !articu ar !ro!ert' to $e ta+en and ho# &uch thereo) &a' $e conde&ned in the e. ISSU/. or reso utions o) the NAA are e. the' &ust )ai the test o) constitutiona it'. can den' due !rocess on ' under !ain o) nu it'.. $ut the decisions. under the decrees #ere @auto&atica ' e. orders..ercises this !o#er.. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ ..!ro!riation o) the !ro!erties. . The decrees. do not $' the&se %es.=. or 0uestion the a&ount o) !a'&ents )i.ce!tiona situations #hen. O$%ious '. NAA.ed $' decree. ! ead their side. The *o%ern&ent on the other hand contends that the !o#er o) e&inent do&ain is inherent in the State and #hen the e*is ature or the President throu*h his a#5&a+in* !o#ers e. In e))ect.ercise o) such co&!etence. in the e.ecuti%e..!ected to o$ser%e #hen it e. the &a.. Aa%in* )ai ed to !ro%ide )or a hearin*. That the e0ua !rotection c ause #i not a o#. a!!ro!riated )ro& the *enera )und is not a de!osit $ut constitutes an insta &ent !a'&ent )or the !ro!ert'.. An a!!ea &a' $e &ade to the O))ice o) the President $ut the courts are co&! ete ' en"oined )ro& an' in0uir' or !artici!ation #hatsoe%er in the e.!ro!riation. the !u$ ic use and !u$ ic necessit' o) the e. We a*ree #ith the !u$ ic res!ondents that there are e.ceed P1:..!ro!riated in t#o decrees issued $' President 7arcos. 7ani a. That is the standard that &ust $e &et $' an' *o%ern&ent ta + a*enc' in the e.!ro!riation o) their !ro!erties or the reasona$ eness o) the "ust co&!ensation. . )urnishin* said 2e*ister o) =eeds on ' #ith co!ies o) the decrees to su!!ort its re0uest. !ro%ide )or an' )or& o) hearin* or !rocedure $' #hich the !etitioners can 0uestion the !ro!riet' o) the e. as had $een stressed so o)ten. &oot and acade&ic.!ro!riated and the' #ere i&&ediate ' de!ri%ed o) the o#nershi! and !ossession thereo) #ithout $ein* *i%en the chance to o!!ose such e. #e )ind P.a&ination o) the 0uestioned decrees.WON res!ondents de!ri%ed the !etitioners o) their !ro!erties #ithout due !rocess o) a# A/L=. there)ore. the re0uire&ent o) due !rocess &a' not necessari ' entai "udicia !rocess... The !etitioners contend that the decrees %io ate their constitutiona ri*ht to due !rocess and e0ua !rotection since $' their &ere !assa*e their !ro!erties #ere auto&atica ' e.!ro!riation case under 2u e 6: o) the 2e%ised 2u es o) Court $ut it did not do so.i&u& !rice o) #hich is )i. It ne*ates state !o#er to act in an i&!ressi%e &anner. as #e as those o) the /.. A)ter a care)u e.ercises the !o#er o) e&inent do&ain.. No de!osit $e)ore ta+in* is re0uired under the decree.!ro!riation o) the su$di%ision or its incidents. There is no !ro%ision )or an' interests to $e !aid on the un!aid insta &ents s!read out o%er a !eriod o) )i%e 'ears. The* o) the "ust co&!ensation $eco&e !o itica in nature and the courts &ust res!ect the decision. 82ena9 7anoto+ %s.on ar$itrariness.ed so as not to e. it stands as a *uarant' o) "ustice.4. it sti &andates so&e )or& o) !roceedin* #herein notice and reasona$ e o!!ortunit' to $e heard are *i%en to the o#ner to !rotect his !ro!ert' ri*hts. This is hard ' the due !rocess o) a# #hich the state is e.. 15.!ro!riated $' decree #ithout the s i*htest se&$ ance o) a hearin* or an' !roceedin* #hatsoe%er. SC2A <? 81 Bernas 6:49 >ACTS.. to $e %io ati%e o) the !etitionersD ri*ht to due !rocess o) a# and. 4 61 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty.ercise o) the !o#er o) e. The P3.ercise o) #hate%er co&!etence is entrusted to it. DActs o) Con*ress. In that sense.!ro!riation and the )i. ru in*s. it did not dee& it necessar' $ecause o) the enact&ent o) the 0uestioned decrees #hich rendered. Not on ' are the o#ners *i%en a$so ute ' no o!!ortunit' to contest the e.!ress ' dec ared as $e'ond the reach o) "udicia re%ie#. The Ta&$untin* su$di%ision is su&&ari ' !roc ai&ed a $ i*hted area and direct ' e.ercise o) the !o#er o) e&inent do&ain. an' 0uestions #ith re*ard to the e. 166? and 16:. $' their %er' !assa*e.... the e&$odi&ent o) the s!ortin* Idea o) )air ! a'. P= 166? and P= 16:. Petitioners are the o#ners o) t#o ar*e estates +no#n as the Ta&$untin* /state and Suno*5A!o* in Tondo.!ro!riation is instant and auto&atic to ta+e e))ect i&&ediate ' u!on the si*nin* o) the decree. It is. it is sti a "udicia 0uestion #hether in the e. As #as so e&!hatica ' stressed $' the !resent Chie) (ustice. the !ro!erties. the -o%ern&ent shou d ha%e )i ed an e. .!ro!riation.!ro!riated.. a thou*h due !rocess does not a #a's necessari ' de&and that a !roceedin* $e had $e)ore a court o) a#.. it is the antithesis o) an' *o%ern&enta act that s&ac+s o) #hi& or ca!rice..!ro!riation. the !art' ad%erse ' a))ected is the %icti& o) !artia it' and !re"udice..

P.!ert co&&issioners ha%e e. his ri*ht to due !rocess o) a# has $een %io ated.i&ate ' t#ent' )i%e 8159 hectares.66: s0uare &eters and 3. The -o%ern&ent sti has to !ro%e that e.=. 16:.ed $' the !ro%incia assessor in accordance #ith !residentia decrees !rescri$in* the %a uation o) !ro!ert' in e. To*ether #ith the co&! aint #as a &otion )or i&&ediate !ossession o) the !ro!erties. su))ers )ro& a si&i ar in)ir&it' The &ar+et %a ue stated $' the cit' assessor a one cannot su$stitute )or the courtDs "ud*&ent in e. re!resentin* the @tota &ar+et %a ue@ o) the su$"ect t#ent' )i%e hectares o) and. #ural Progress . =ecree 114. accordin* to the +uido case. <4:9 &a' ha%e $een &odi)ied in so&e #a's $' the !ro%isions o) the ne# Constitution on a*rarian and ur$an and re)or& and on housin*. On =ece&$er 5. The !rinci! e o) non5a!!ro!riation o) !ri%ate !ro!ert' )or !ri%ate !ur!oses. 19 Pres.?<. cannot e.cess o) his "urisdiction or #ith *ra%e a$use o) discretion $' issuin* the Order o) (anuar' 1:. e%en )or a )u co&!ensation. )or instance. It is %io ati%e o) the due !rocess and the e&inent do&ain !ro%isions o) the Constitution to den' to a !ro!ert' o#ner the o!!ortunit' to !ro%e that the %a uation &ade $' a oca assessor is #ron* or !re"udiced. the courts #i ha%e to ste! in and !ro$e into such an a e*ed %io ation. &a' not ta+e the !ro!ert' o) one citiBen and trans)er it to another. No. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ .!ro!riation o) !ri%ate !ro!ert' )or socia iBed housin* u!on !a'&ent o) "ust co&!ensation. -uerrero. The e*is ature.9 !er s0uare &eter ado!tin* the &ar+et %a ue )i. #hen the !u$ ic interest is not there$' !ro&oted. The !ro%ision o) P. To en"oin this Court $' decree )ro& oo+in* into a e*ed %io ations o) the due !rocess. 19 2es!ondent (ud*e acted #ithout or in e.!ro!riation o) co&&ercia !ro!erties in order to ease the& out a so )or co&&ercia !ur!oses #ou d $e @!u$ ic use@ under the Constitution.dministration 8<4 Phi .. to !ut !ortions o) the e. #ith the Phi i!!ine Nationa Ban+. denied ISSU/S. at its so e o!tion. 154 SC2A 461 81 Bernas 65.9 >ACTS. docu&ents $' the assessor &a' ser%e as one o) the )actors to $e considered $ut the' cannot e. 1?:< den'in* the &otion )or reconsideration. 1114 #hich de)ines @the !o ic' on the e.!ro!riate the ) ourishin* 7a+ati co&&ercia area in order to earn &one' that #ou d )inance housin* !ro"ects a o%er the countr'. re&ains. 62 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty.!ro!riation o) !arce s o) and co%erin* a!!ro. e0ua !rotection.. 2iBa 9 inc udin* the ots o) !etitioners LorenBo Su&u on* and /&i ia Vidanes5Ba aoin* #ith an area o) 6. as a&ended.!ro!riation !roceedin*s. The and sou*ht to $e e. !ursuant to Presidentia =ecree No.=.. The state&ents &ade in ta. 8in Anti!o o.!ro!riated #ere %a ued $' the NAA at one !eso 8P1. The NAA de!osited the a&ount o) P15<. 166? #hich a o#s NAA.333 s0uare &eters res!ecti%e '. 1?:< #ithout notice and #ithout hearin* and in issuin* the Order dated (une 1<..@ Petitioners )i ed a &otion )or reconsideration on the *round that the' had $een de!ri%ed o) the !ossession o) their !ro!ert' #ithout due !rocess o) a#.!ro!riation !roceedin*s. ho#e%er.a&ined the !ro!ert' and a !ertinent circu&stances are ta+en into account and a)ter the !arties ha%e had the o!!ortunit' to )u ' ! ead their cases $e)ore a co&!etent and un$iased tri$una . The eadin* case o) +uido v. and e&inent do&ain c auses o) the Constitution is i&!er&issi$ e encroach&ent on its inde!endence and !rero*ati%es. This #as ho#e%er. 1?:: the Nationa Aousin* Authorit' 8NIIA9 )i ed a co&! aint )or e.But #here it is a e*ed that in the ta+in* o) a !ersonDs !ro!ert'. is unconstitutiona )or $ein* %io ati%e o) the due !rocess c ause.. s!eci)ica '.c ude or !re%ai o%er a court deter&ination &ade a)ter e.!ro!riated area to co&&ercia use in order to de)ra' the de%e o!&ent costs o) its housin* !ro"ects cannot stand constitutiona scrutin'. The -o%ern&ent. 3 Su&u on* %s.

!ro!riation.. is not rea ' )or a !u$ ic !ur!oseC The =ecree %io ates !rocedura due !rocess as it a o#s i&&ediate ta+in* o) !ossession. The restricti%e %ie# o) !u$ ic use &a' $e a!!ro!riate )or a nation #hich circu&scri$es the sco!e o) *o%ern&ent acti%ities and !u$ ic concerns and #hich !ossesses $i* and correct ' ocated !u$ ic ands that o$%iate the need to ta+e !ri%ate !ro!ert' )or !u$ ic !ur!oses.ercise o) the !o#er o) e&inent do&ain is a ) e. ur$an rene#a or rede%e o!&ent and the construction o) o#5cost housin* is reco*niBed as a !u$ ic !ur!ose. or !ro!ert' #ithout due !rocess o) a#. 1319 S!eci)ica '. :F. A/L=. 1114.@ The @!u$ ic use@ re0uire&ent )or a and e. The 1?:3 Constitution &ade it incu&$ent u!on the State to esta$ ish. 11. ?9C No !erson sha $e de!ri%ed o) i)e. Neither circu&stance a!! ies to the Phi i!!ines. corporation or ani=e# for the purpose of pro"otin an# safe uar#in the interests of the resi#ents an# lot o$ners in that sub#i!ision $ho auto"atically beco"e "e"bers of the association an# are boun# by its rules 63 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. 1:6 SC2A 31 #A$%! 0ari#ay -n!est"ent 0orporation 40A*-6A+ for bre!ity5 is the o$ner of a resi#ential buil#in in the %orbes Par. as de)ined in said =ecree. !ro&ote )u e&! o'&ent. The State sha !ro&ote a "ust and d'na&ic socia order that #i ensure the !ros!erit' and inde!endence o) the nation and )ree the !eo! e )ro& !o%ert' throu*h !o icies that !ro%ide ade0uate socia ser%ices. Petitioners contend that @socia iBed housin*@ as de)ined in Pres. sec. &aintain and ensure ade0uate socia ser%ices inc udin* housin* EArt. Pri%ate !ro!ert' sha not $e ta+en )or !u$ ic use #ithout "ust co&!ensation 8Art. Secretar'. sec. The 1?<: Constitution *oes e%en )urther $' !ro%idin* that. a risin* standard o) i%in* and an i&!ro%ed 0ua it' o) i)e )or a . sec.!ro!riatedC @Socia iBed housin*@ )or the !ur!ose o) conde&nation !roceedin*. 8!. CA 8-utierreB (.ertion o) so%erei*n !o#er are a too o)ten )ound in areas o) scarce !u$ ic and or i&ited *o%ern&ent resources. ?ub#i!ision3 hence3 a "e"ber of the %PA. 19. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . We ha%e ne%er $een a aisseB )aire State. contro and dis!osition o) !ro!ert' #ithout *i%in* the o#ner his da' in courtC The =ecree #ou d a o# the ta+in* o) !ri%ate !ro!ert' u!on !a'&ent o) un"ust and un)air %a uations ar$itrari ' )i. )or the !ur!ose o) conde&nation !roceedin*s is not @!u$ ic use@ since it #i $ene)it on ' @a hand)u o) !eo! e. II. Association 4%PA5 is a non-profit an# non-stoc. i$ert'. to #it.ed $' *o%ern&ent assessorsC The =ecree #ou d de!ri%e the courts o) their "udicia discretion to deter&ine #hat #ou d $e the @"ust co&!ensation@ in each and e%er' raise o) e. not on ' $ecause o) the e. =ecree No. EArt.i$ e and e%o %in* conce!t in) uenced $' chan*in* conditions. The e. 1?1 SC2A 51 81 Bernas 1.The =ecree #ou d a o# the ta+in* o) !ro!ert' re*ard ess o) siBe and no &atter ho# s&a the area to $e e.ercise o) the !o#er o) e&inent do&ain is su$"ect to certain i&itations i&!osed $' the constitution. =issentin*9. IV. %orbes Par.119 Carida' %s. IV. Sec. as a&ended.!anded conce!t o) !u$ ic use $ut a so $ecause o) s!eci)ic !ro%isions in the Constitution. And the necessities #hich i&!e the e. nor sha an' !erson $e denied the e0ua !rotection o) the a#s 8Art. $ere)t o) !u$ ic character. ?F 1 1 LuB >a&rs %s.

house guests. 0ari#ay file# a co"plaint an# praye# for issuance of $rit of P. %PA a#!ise# 0ari#ay that it $oul# not allo$ 0ari#ay to lease its house to "ore than one tenant as this $oul# !iolate the rule re ar#in None sin le-fa"ily resi#ential restrictionN. One of the restrictions& @Iots "ay be only use# for resi#ential purposes an# not "ore than one sin le fa"ily resi#ential buil#in $ill be constructe# thereon e/cept that separate ser!antMs Auarters "ay be built. Lo$e!er3 $ithout #oin any corrections3 0ari#ay lease# one portion of the house to an En lish"an an# the other to an A"erican e/ecuti!e3 *obert La#en3 of Procter an# Oa"ble. after at least !" days previous notice in writing to the member resident concerned. order the disconnection of the water service supplie# to the latter by the AssociationMs #eep-$ell pu"ps8 Pro!i#e#3 ho$e!er3 that reconnection thereof shall only be "a#e upon satisfactory sho$in that !iolation of this rule no lon er e/ists an# that the reAuisite actual cost of reconnection as esti"ate# by the Association is #uly #eposite# before such reconnection is "a#e. After inspection of the Nrepairs3N the %PAMs retaine# ci!il en ineer reporte# that Na##itions or #eletions $ere "a#e in the e/istin resi#ence. restaurants.B 7he sa"e restrictions are foun# in ?ection l4b53 Article -E of the associationMs rules an# re ulations& A*7. E-.F-I6-NO *FIE? AN6 *EOFIA7-ON? ?ec.ecause of the alle e# Nbuil#in !iolations3N the %PA threatene# to #isconnect the $ater ser!ice 4$hich it supplies to the resi#ents fro" its #eep-$ell pu"ps5 to 0ari#ayMs property. 1. 7he use an# occupancy of houses an# other i"pro!e"ents insi#e %orbes Par. motels. 0A& Fphel# the ri ht of the %PA to prohibit the entry of a##itional tenants into 0ari#ayMs buil#in an# to #isconnect the $ater ser!ice for !iolation of the restrictions 64 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. but not limited to. hotels. . staff and domestics but never for commercial. Lots may be used only for residential purposes. >hen La#en trie# to "o!e in3 he $as not allo$e# to enter the sub#i!ision 4$hich resulte# to PUO rescin#in its contract $ith 0ari#ay5. %PA& . shall be exclusively for residence only of the owners and bona fide residents. *70& -ssue# P.ay 1()7 #isclose# "ore !iolations of the restrictions. Use and occupancy of a house. One residential building per lot. ?ou ht relief to 0A.-. Le obser!e# that the buil#in Ncan be use# by "ore than one fa"ily.* to *70 but #enie#.N A secon# inspection in . IO7? b. %PA #e"an#e# that corrections be "a#e in the structure to confor" $ith the %PA $ill #esist in #isconnectin ser!ice. business or office purposes. their families. resorts.N 0ari#ay a#"itte# that its buil#in has the e/terior appearance of a sin le fa"ily resi#ence but it is #esi ne# insi#e to allo$ occupancy by t$o fa"ilies. c. 0ari#ay3 $ith notice to the %PA3 Nrepaire#N its buil#in . Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . and not more than one single-family residential building will be constructed on one lot3 e/cept that separate ara e an# ser!antsM Auarters an# bathhouses for s$i""in pools "ay be built. the Board of overnors shall. such as. condominiums 3 stores3 clubs3 schools3 stu#ios or any . In case of violation of office $hatsoe!er. .an# re ulations stipulate# in the 6ee# of *estrictions annotate# on the bac. of their certificates of title.

in# of co"fort an# lu/ury $hich is un#rea"e# of e!en to upper "i##le inco"e people. ?ub#i!ision $hich bin#s the o$ner to use his lot Nfor resi#ential purposes an# not "ore than one sin le fa"ily resi#ential buil#in $ill be constructe# thereonB a restriction that enerally encu"bers lots in the socalle# NplushN resi#ential sub#i!isions &. As correctly percei!e# by the petitioner itself3 the restrictions are Nfor aesthetic consi#eration an# for the preser!ation of the peace3 beauty3 tranAuility an# serenity of li!in at %orbes Par.E) >1N the proper interpretation of a pro!ision in the 6ee# of *estrictions on the title of a lot in the %orbes Par. 7he ?tate is "an#ate# to un#erta.. . 7he present 0onstitution e/presses the i"patience of the fra"ers $ith $hat they percei!e# as an 65 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ .a" afrai# that the 0ourtMs #ecision in this %orbes Par.(!!E'%('0G 7he #ispute# contractual co""it"ent ha!in been i!en too restricti!e a "eanin by the #o"inant party3 the 0ourt shoul# step in $ith a "ore liberal an# reasonable interpretation.(!!. . . 0.consi#er it a $aste of scarce resources if property $orth se!eral "illions of pesos is li"ite# in its use to one solitary fa"ily3 no "atter ho$ s"all3 $hen it coul# co"fortably house t$o or "ore fa"ilies in the .e a!ailable at affor#able cost #ecent housin an# basic ser!ices to un#erpri!ile e# an# ho"eless citi=ens3 4id.ha!e no ob2ection to the proposition that o$nership restrictions $hich are inten#e# to a!oi# o!ercro$#in 3 #eterioration of roa#s3 unsanitary con#itions3 u ly surroun#in s3 an# la$less beha!iour in resi#ential areas "ay be enforce# throu h the 0ourtMs coerci!e po$ers.%(E&&EJ F. case #oes not in any $ay help achie!e these constitutional ob2ecti!es. $oul# lea# to any of the abo!e unpleasant conseAuences.s3 laun#resses an# other lac. to "a. 7he purpose of the restriction is to a!oi# o!ercro$#in both in the houses an# in the sub#i!ision $hich $oul# result in pressure upon the co""on facilities such as $ater3 po$er an# telephone connections3 accelerate the #eterioration of the roa#s3 an# create proble"s of sanitation an# security in the sub#i!ision. -t is not o!ercro$#in $hich is sou ht to be a!oi#e# but so"ethin else.e3 in cooperation $ith the pri!ate sector3 a continuin housin pro ra" an# an urban lan# refor" pro ra" $hich see. -t is not a restriction. ?ection (5. real estate !alues re"ain hi her "uch3 "uch hi her than the !alues in any other resi#ential area in the $hole country $hat the 0ourt is protectin are inflate# lan# !alues an# an elitist life style. 7he =eal $ith $hich the pri!ate respon#ent enforces the #ispute# sin le fa"ily restriction is inten#e# to insure that %orbes Par. 7he prohibition "ay not be circu"!ente# by buil#in a house $ith the e/ternal appearance of a sin le fa"ily #$ellin but $hose interior is #esi ne# for "ultiple occupancy.eys $ithout !iolatin the sin le fa"ily rule./('0) No. Fn#er the #ispute# pro!ision3 one fa"ily coul# hire a battalion of ser!ants3 #ri!ers3 yayas3 ar#eners3 butlers3 foot"en3 roo"s3 coo. -t is an ele"entary rule of reason that $hat "ay not be #one #irectly3 "ay not also be #one in#irectly. 7here is absolutely no sho$in 3 ho$e!er3 that t$o fa"ilies li!in in one bi resi#ence in %orbes Par. %he provisions of the $onstitution on !ocial =ustice and Buman &ights FArticle K(((* $onstitutionG emphasi:e the social function of land 0on ress "ust i!e the Nhi hestN priority to "easures $hich enhance the ri ht of all the people to hu"an #i nity an# re#uce social3 econo"ic3 an# political ineAualities throu h the eAuitable #iffusion of $ealth an# political po$er 4 id3 ?ection 15.

.. 349 C1(49D53 $hen there $as the fear e/presse# in "any Auarters that a constitutional #e"ocracy3 in !ie$ of its co""it"ent to the clai"s of property3 $oul# not be able to cope effecti!ely $ith the proble"s of po!erty an# "isery that unfortunately afflict so "any of our people3 is not susceptible to the in#ict"ent that the o!ern"ent therein establishe# is i"potent to ta. 4Art. 1. 0ourt3 79 Phil. 7he fra"ers sa$ to that. -nsofar as this petition is concerne#3 ho$e!er3 .e the necessary re"e#ial "easures. Each case "ust be resol!e# on its particular "erits. . 63 -#. 7he ri ht to property cannot be presse# to such an unreasonable e/tre"e. >here such a situation e/ists on a national scale3 it beco"es a "atter of social 2ustice.. Q-E3 ?ec. Art. !. No !erson sha $e de!ri%ed o) i)e. 7he police po$er as an attribute to pro"ote the co""on $eal $oul# be #ilute# consi#erably of its reach an# effecti!eness if on the "ere plea that the liberty to contract $oul# be restricte#3 the statute co"plaine# of "ay be characteri=e# as a #enial of #ue process. -t is not a syste" of 2ustice $here one "an is !ery $ealthy an# another !ery poor.inin 0o. Pastoral Ietter of the 0atholic Lierarchy3 . . -t suffices to "ention t$o. 7here is the clause on the pro"otion of social 2ustice to ensure the $ell-bein an# econo"ic security of all the people3 4Art. . Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ .-n #lalayan v. or !ro!ert' #ithout due !rocess o) a#. e!en the barest essentials of life.5 7his particulari=e# reference to the ri hts of $or. Ool#fiel#s .ut e!en un#er the 1(35 0onstitution3 the 0ourt $as less than enthusiastic $hen as.. 7he $elfare state concept is not alien to the philosophy of our 0onstitution. II Secs. 0ourt3 cite# $ith appro!al in Anta"o. $ational %ower &orporation 424 ?0*A 17231)1-1)2 C1(6)D5 the 0ourt rule#& -t is to be a#"itte# of course that property ri hts fin# shelter in specific constitutional pro!isions3 one of $hich is the #ue process clause. i$ert'. Phi i!!ine Constitution Section 1F. Phi i!!ine Constitution Section 1. 14 and 11.All "en are eAual in their ri ht to a #ecent life.ay 13 1(6)5 -t is i"plicit in Auite a fe$ of its pro!isions. 113 ?ec.reali=e the #ifficulty in pinpointin the line $here restrictions on property o$nership o beyon# the constitutional boun#s of reasonableness. and sha ensure the )unda&enta e0ua it' 66 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. /0ua Protection "en $hether in in#ustry an# a riculture certainly cannot preclu#e attention to an# concern for the ri hts of consu"ers3 $ho are the ob2ects of solicitu#e in the le islation no$ co"plaine# of.. 1. 40f MPri!ate property #oes not constitute for anyone an absolute an# uncon#itione# ri ht. III Sec. of attention to the "ost pressin proble" face# by the country. .e# to enforce contractual co""it"ents base# on a laisse= faire theory of o!ern"ent..!ote to rant the petition.unfortunate lac. nor sha an' !erson $e denied the e0ua !rotection o) the a#s.. . -t is eAually certain that our fun#a"ental la$ fra"e# at a ti"e of Nsur in unrest an# #issatisfactionN 47he phrase is 'ustice IaurelMs3 appearin in his concurrin opinion in An 7ibay !. The State reco*niBes the ro e o) #o&en in nation5$ui din*. 53 0onstitution of the Philippines5 as $ell as the ple# e of protection to labor $ith the specific authority to re ulate the relations bet$een lan#o$ners an# tenants an# bet$een labor an# capital.concur the #issentin "inority. C-n the Philippines3 $hileD a fe$ ha!e far "ore than they nee#3 the !ast "a2ority lac.

under the a# to ha%e renounced it.c usi%e ' to >i i!ino citiBens. In such a*ree&ents. The e. and uti iBation o) &inera s. de%e o!&ent. )isheries. Section 1 hereo) sha $e dee&ed natura 5$orn citiBens. CitiBens o) the Phi i!!ines #ho &arr' a iens sha retain their citiBenshi!. and reser%e its use and en"o'&ent e. #ater su!! '. and e. #i d i)e. and uti iBation o) natura resources sha $e under the )u contro and su!er%ision o) the State. =ua a e*iance o) citiBens is ini&ica to the nationa interest and sha $e dea t #ith $' a#.1 Phi i!!ine Constitution Section 9. a+es. un ess $' their act or o&ission the' are dee&ed. The )o o#in* are citiBens o) the Phi i!!ines. #ithin thirt' da's )ro& its e. Those #ho are natura iBed in the accordance #ith a#. Art. $ased on rea contri$utions to the econo&ic *ro#th and *enera #e )are o) the countr'. LII.! oration. a )orces o) !otentia ener*'. #aters. Natura 5$orn citiBens are those #ho are citiBens o) the Phi i!!ines )ro& $irth #ithout ha%in* to !er)or& an' act to ac0uire or !er)ect their Phi i!!ine citiBenshi!. the State sha !ro&ote the de%e o!&ent and use o) oca scienti)ic and technica resources. Section 5. !etro eu&. $ene)icia use &a' $e the &easure and i&it o) the *rant.c usi%e econo&ic Bone. !etro eu&. The Con*ress &a'. 1?:3. rene#a$ e )or not &ore than t#ent'5)i%e 'ears. #ith !riorit' to su$sistence )isher&en and )ish #or+ers in ri%ers. Phi i!!ine Constitution Section 1. IV. coa . Such a*ree&ents &a' $e )or a !eriod not e. or industria uses other than the de%e o!&ent o) #ater!o#er. a other natura resources sha not $e a ienated. Section 4. and under such ter&s and conditions as &a' !ro%ided $' a#. o) >i i!ino &others. and a*oons. 1 and 14. 67 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. a o# s&a 5sca e uti iBation o) natura resources $' >i i!ino citiBens. or cor!orations or associations at east 6. With the e. The State reco*niBes and !ro&otes the ri*hts o) indi*enous cu tura co&&unities #ithin the )ra&e#or+ o) nationa unit' and de%e o!&ent.! oration. A ands o) the !u$ ic do&ain. and other &inera oi s accordin* to the *enera ter&s and conditions !ro%ided $' a#. and other natura resources are o#ned $' the State. Those #hose )athers or &others are citiBens o) the Phi i!!inesC 3. territoria sea. The President sha noti)' the Con*ress o) e%er' contract entered into in accordance #ith this !ro%ision. In cases o) #ater ri*hts )or irri*ation. and other &inera oi s. )isheries. &inera s. Those #ho e ect Phi i!!ine citiBenshi! in accordance #ith !ara*ra!h 839. or !roduction5sharin* a*ree&ents #ith >i i!ino citiBens.ce!tion o) a*ricu tura ands. Section 9. Section F. or it &a' enter into co5!roduction. Those #ho are citiBens o) the Phi i!!ines at the ti&e o) the ado!tion o) this ConstitutionC 1. "oint %enture. $' a#. The State sha !rotect the nations &arine #ea th in its archi!e a*ic #aters. as #e as coo!erati%e )ish )ar&in*. Art. Secs. Those $orn $e)ore (anuar' 1:. !er centu& o) #hose ca!ita is o#ned $' such citiBens. #ho e ect Phi i!!ine CitiBenshi! u!on reachin* the a*e o) &a"orit'C and 4. 1. ) ora and )auna. de%e o!&ent. $a's. The President &a' enter into a*ree&ents #ith )orei*n5o#ned cor!orations in%o %in* either technica or )inancia assistance )or ar*e5sca e e. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . Section 99. )orests or ti&$er. Phi i!!ine citiBenshi! &a' $e ost or reac0uired in the &anner !ro%ided $' a#.$e)ore the a# o) #o&en and &en. The State &a' direct ' underta+e such acti%ities.ceedin* t#ent'5)i%e 'ears.ecution.

The sustained de%e o!&ent o) a reser%oir o) nationa ta ents consistin* o) >i i!ino scientists. Therea)ter. i) the' sha so desire. :354 is entit ed @An Act Creatin* the Phi i!!ine Posta Cor!oration. 819 Artic e VI.ce!t in &atters that ha%e to $e entered in the "ourna s i+e the 'eas and na's on the )ina readin* o) the $i 9. 2. to the $od' o) the act.!ress its !ur!ose 819 Whether or not it did not !ass the re0uired readin*s in $oth Aouses o) Con*ress and !rinted co!ies o) the $i in its )ina )or& #ere not distri$uted a&on* the &e&$ers $e)ore its !assa*eC 839 Whether or not it is discri&inator' and encroaches on the inde!endence o) the (udiciar' J Yes. No. the Court &a' not in0uire $e'ond the certi)ication o) the a!!ro%a o) a $i )ro& the !residin* o))icers o) Con*ress. No. !ro)essiona s. No. 11: SC2A :. not the e))ect o) a a#. in order that the' &a' ha%e o!!ortunit' o) $ein* heard thereon. These &easures #ithdra# the )ran+in* !ri%i e*e )ro& the SC. Prado. >urther&ore.A. 15 Phi i!!ine (ud*es Association %s. Sec. there is su))icient co&! iance #ith the constitutiona re0uire&ent. or to $e as co&!rehensi%e as to co%er e%er' sin* e detai o) the &easure.@ The !ur!oses o) this ru e are. 2TC.!ressed in its tit e. :354 as i&! e&ented $' the Phi i!!ine Posta Cor!oration throu*h its Circu ar No.A. >unctions and 2es!onsi$i ities. The #ithdra#a o) the )ran+in* !ri%i e*e )ro& so&e a*encies is *er&ane to the acco&! ish&ent o) the !rinci!a o$"ecti%e o) 2.A. a on* #ith certain other *o%ern&ent o))ices. The enro ed $i is conc usi%e u!on the (udiciar' 8e. 7itra o) the Aouse o) 2e!resentati%es as ha%in* $een du ' !assed $' $oth Aouses o) Con*ress. o) the su$"ect o) e*is ation that is $ein* considered.3 81??39 )ran+in* !ri%i e*es 5 The ri*ht o) &e&$ers to !ost &ai to constituents #ithout ha%in* to !a' !osta*e. throu*h such !u$ ication o) e*is ati%e !roceedin*s as is usua ' &ade.Section 1F. No. :354 #hich #ithdre# the )ran+in* !ri%i e*e )ro& the (udiciar' is not e. not#ithstandin* that the tit e is si ent on the su$"ect. The State sha encoura*e a!!ro!riate techno o*' and re*u ate its trans)er )or the nationa $ene)it. No. sa%e in cases !rescri$ed $' a#. such re!ea is the e))ect and not the su$"ect o) the statuteC and it is the su$"ect. The tit e o) the $i is not re0uired to $e an inde. The !ractice o) a !ro)essions in the Phi i!!ines sha $e i&ited to >i i!ino citiBens. &ana*ers. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . Under the doctrine o) se!aration !o#ers. No. entre!reneurs. The !etition assai s the constitutiona it' o) 2. #hich is the creation o) a &ore e))icient and e))ecti%e !osta ser%ice s'ste&. The &ain tar*et o) this !etition is Section 35 o) 2. Pro%idin* )or 2e*u ation o) the Industr' and )or Other Pur!oses Connected There#ith. The !etitioners are &e&$ers o) the o#er courts #ho )ee that their o))icia )unctions as "ud*es #i $e !re"udiced $' the a$o%e5na&ed &easures. 819 to !re%ent hod*e5!od*e or @ o*5 ro in*@ e*is ationC 819 to !re%ent sur!rise or )raud u!on the e*is ature $' &eans o) !ro%isions in $i s o) #hich the tit e *i%es no inti&ation. :354 is discri&inator' $ecause #hi e #ithdra#in* the )ran+in* !ri%i e*e )ro& the 6) Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. CA. It #as then !resented to and a!!ro%ed $' President CoraBon C. >acts. Issues. and is not ca cu ated to &is ead the e*is ature or the !eo! e. :354.!ressed in the tit e o) the a#. 819 It is a &atter o) record that the con)erence Co&&ittee 2e!ort on the $i in 0uestion #as returned to and du ' a!!ro%ed $' $oth the Senate and the Aouse o) 2e!resentati%es. 1??1. 819 Whether or not its tit e e&$races &ore than one su$"ect and does not e. o) the Constitution !ro%idin* that @/%er' $i !assed $' the Con*ress sha e&$race on ' one su$"ect #hich sha $e e.A. 168 9. The reason is that #here a statute re!ea s a )or&er a#. nor does it re) ect its !ur!oses. -onBa es and S!ea+er 2a&on V. ?151<. It has $een he d that i) the tit e )air ' indicates the *enera su$"ect. 839 It is a e*ed that 2. A co!' o) the &e&$erKs si*nature re! aces the sta&! on the en%e o!e. it is discri&inator' Ae d. the re!ea o) a statute on a *i%en su$"ect is !ro!er ' connected #ith the su$"ect &atter o) a ne# statute on the sa&e su$"ectC and there)ore a re!ea in* section in the ne# statute is %a id. and #hich &i*ht there)ore $e o%er oo+ed and care ess ' and unintentiona ' ado!tedC and 839 to )air ' a!!rise the !eo! e. :354. and reasona$ ' co%ers a the !ro%isions o) the act.A.A. 7TC. #hich is re0uired to $e $rie) ' e. hi*h5 e%e technica &an!o#er and s+i ed #or+ers and cra)ts&en in a )ie ds sha $e !ro&oted $' the State. A0uino on A!ri 3.@ The !etitionersD contention is untena$ e. $' !etition or other#ise. =e)inin* its Po#ers. 7eTC and the Land 2e*istration Co&&ission and its 2e*isters o) =eeds. It is the su$&ission o) the !etitioners that Section 35 o) 2.!ressed in the tit e thereo). the $i #as enro ed #ith its certi)ication $' Senate President Ne!ta i A.

Section 35 has ! aced the courts o) "ustice in a cate*or' to #hich it does not $e on*. Thirteenth A&end&ent issue. The court )ound )or >er*uson. The Thirteenth A&end&ent ho#e%er #as re*arded as insu))icient to !rotect )or&er s a%es )ro& certain a#s #hich had $een enacted in the south #hich i&!osed u!on the& onerous disa$i ities and $urdens and curtai ed their ri*hts in the !ursuit o) i)e. inc udin* those #ho do not need it. The Thirteenth A&end&ent a$o ished s a%er' and in%o untar' ser%itude. #hich de)inite ' needs it. the Vice President o) the Phi i!!inesC Senators and 7e&$ers o) the Aouse o) 2e!resentati%es. The states can constitutiona ' enact e*is ation re0uirin* !ersons o) di))erent races to use Mse!arate $ut e0ua N se*re*ated )aci ities. usa*e. Issue. The statute does not con) ict #ith the Thirteenth A&end&ent. I) it reco*niBes the need o) the President o) the Phi i!!ines and the &e&$ers o) Con*ress )or the )ran+in* !ri%i e*e. WON the stateKs constitutiona ' enact e*is ation re0uirin* !ersons o) di))erent races to use Mse!arate $ut e0ua N se*re*ated )aci itiesI Ae d.tended on ' to those #ho do not need it %er' &uch. is to #ithdra# it a to*ether )ro& all a*encies o) *o%ern&ent. >er*uson !residin*.(udiciar'. #hich &a' or &a' not need it at a . It is i+e sa'in* that a !erson &a' $e a o#ed cos&etic sur*er' a thou*h it is not rea ' necessar' $ut not an o!eration that can sa%e his i)e. Those usin* )aci ities not desi*nated )or their race #ere cri&ina ' ia$ e under the statute. es!ecia ' #here there is no su$stantia distinction $et#een those )a%ored. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . it retains the sa&e )or the President o) the Phi i!!ines.i*enc'. The !ro$ e& is not so %ed $' retainin* it )or so&e and #ithdra#in* it )ro& others. P ess' #as arrested )or %io atin* an 1<?. 8 i+e the #ido#s o) )or&er Presidents9 $ut not to those #ho need it $ad ' 8es!ecia ' the courts o) "ustice9. The #ithdra#a o) the )ran+in* !ri%i e*es #as indeed discri&inator'. And #hi e #e &a' concede the need o) the Nationa Census and Statistics O))ice )or the )ran+in* !ri%i e*e. Louisiana statute that !ro%ided )or se*re*ated Mse!arate $ut e0ua N rai road acco&&odations. and the (udiciar'. #e are intri*ued that a si&i ar i) not *reater need is not reco*niBed in the courts o) "ustice. A)ter re)usin* to sit in the $ ac+ rai #a' carria*e car. i) at a . P ess' #as )ound *ui t' on the *rounds that the a# #as a reasona$ e e. 14 P ess' %s. The State o) Louisiana asserted that the Act under scrutin' is not discri&inator' a*ainst an' race as it is e0ua ' a!! ica$ e to $oth M#hitesN and Mnon5#hitesN. 6( Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. >er*uson.tent that their )reedo& #as o) itt e %a ueC and that the >ourteenth A&end&ent #as de%ised to &eet this e. #e )ai to understand #h' the Su!re&e Court shou d $e si&i ar ' treated as that Co&&ittee. the re&ed'. The res!ondents are in e))ect sa'in* that the )ran+in* !ri%i e*e shou d $e e. Whi e #e &a' a!!reciate the #ithdra#a o) the )ran+in* !ri%i e*e )ro& the Ar&ed >orces o) the Phi i!!ines Ladies Steerin* Co&&ittee.ercise o) the stateKs !o ice !o#ers $ased u!on custo&. P ess' )i ed a !etition )or #rits o) !rohi$ition and certiorari in the Su!re&e Court o) Louisiana a*ainst >er*uson. the Co&&ission on / ectionsC )or&er Presidents o) the Phi i!!inesC the Nationa Census and Statistics O))iceC and the *enera !u$ ic in the )i in* o) co&! aints a*ainst !u$ ic o))ices and o))icers. S a%er' i&! ies in%o untar' ser%itude and a state o) $onda*e. P ess' #as an A&erican citiBen #ho #as considered to $e :U< #hite and 1U< A)rican A&erican 8his *reat5 *rand&other $ein* $ ac+9. assertin* that se*re*ation sti*&atiBed $ ac+s and sta&!ed the& #ith a $ad*e o) in)eriorit' in %io ation o) the Thirteenth and >ourteenth a&end&ents.ce!t as a !unish&ent )or cri&e. P ess' atte&!ted to sit in an a 5#hite rai road car. I) the !ro$ e& o) the res!ondents is the oss o) re%enues )ro& the )ran+in* !ri%i e*e. The !ro$ e& is not so %ed $' %io atin* the Constitution. 163 US 53: 81<?69 >acts Ao&er A. In u&!in* the (udiciar' #ith the other o))ices )ro& #hich the )ran+in* !ri%i e*e has $een #ithdra#n. 8Bro#n9 Yes. it see&s to us. At tria #ith (ustice (ohn A. i$ert' and !ro!ert' to such an e. and tradition in the state. e. there is no reason #h' it shou d not reco*niBe a si&i ar and in )act *reater need on the !art o) the (udiciar' )or such !ri%i e*e.

South Caro ina. Such a#s ha%e *enera ' $een reco*niBed as #ithin the sco!e o) the statesK !o ice !o#ers. e%en thou*h their !h'sica )aci ities and others &a' $e e0ua . MCou d not ha%e $een intended to a$o ish distinctions $ased u!on co or. >acts This case is a conso idation o) se%era di))erent cases )ro& Oansas. /0ua Protection =is!uted the MSe!arate $ut /0ua N doctrine. Vir*inia. The race5$ased se*re*ation o) chi dren into Mse!arate $ut e0ua N !u$ ic schoo s %io ates the /0ua Protection C ause o) the >ourteenth A&end&ent and is unconstitutiona . 13 Bro#n %s. A !ersons $orn or natura iBed in the United States and su$"ect to the "urisdiction thereo) are &ade citiBens o) United States and o) the State #herein the' reside. $ustice . or a co&&in* in* o) the t#o races u!on ter&s unsatis)actor' to either.>ourteenth A&end&ent Issue. It #as intended to en)orce the a$so ute e0ua it' o) the t#o races $e)ore the a#. On a!!ea to the Su!re&e Court. or to en)orce socia e0ua it'. and the States are )or$idden )ro& &a+in* or en)orcin* an' #hich sha a$rid*e the !ri%i e*es or i&&unities o) citiBens o) the United States. The &ost co&&on instance in%o %es the esta$ ish&ent o) se!arate schoo s. or a co&&in* in* o) the t#o racesN. Bro#n (. or to en)orce socia .arren -rote the opinion for a unanimous court( holding that separate facilities -hich segregate based on race are inherently une/ual. >er*uson in den'in* re ie) under the Mse!arate $ut e0ua N doctrine. to *i%e de)initions o) citiBenshi! o) the United States and o) the States. No. e0ua it'. Board o) /ducation.c usi%e !ri%i e*es rather than race. the ! ainti))s contended that se*re*ated schoo s #ere not and cou d not $e &ade e0ua and that the' #ere there)ore de!ri%ed o) e0ua !rotection o) the a#s. conc udin* that the >ourteenth A&end&ent. or sha de!ri%e an' !erson o) i$ert'. Se*re*ation o) chi dren in the !u$ ic schoo s so e ' on the $asis o) race denies to $ ac+ chi dren the e0ua !rotection o) the a#s *uaranteed $' the >ourteenth A&end&ent. La#s !er&ittin* and e%en re0uirin* their se!aration in ! aces #here the' are ia$ e to $e $rou*ht into contact do not necessari ' i&! ' the in)eriorit' o) either race. 79 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Its &ain !ur!ose #as to esta$ ish the citiBenshi! o) )or&er s a%es. and =e a#are. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . Board of Education. sou*ht ad&ission to !u$ ic schoo s that re0uired or !er&itted se*re*ation $ased on race. or den' to an' !erson #ithin their "urisdiction the e0ua !rotection o) a#s.ercise o) the e*is ati%e !o#er e%en $' courts o) States #here the !o itica ri*hts o) $ ac+s ha%e $een on*est and &ost earnest ' en)orced. /ducation in !u$ ic schoo s is a ri*ht #hich &ust $e &ade a%ai a$ e to a on e0ua ter&s. $ut it #as intended to a$o ish distinctions $ased u!on co or. =is!osition. dre# a distinction $et#een a#s that inter)ere #ith !o itica e0ua it' and se*re*ation. a "ud*e )edera district court cited P ess' %. as distin*uished )ro& !o itica . throu*h their e*a re!resentati%es. or !ro!ert' #ithout due !rocess o) a#. the a# i)e. (ud*&ent )or >er*uson %his case -as later overruled by Bro-n v. #hich has $een he d to $e a %a id e. In a $ut one case. Se%era $ ac+ chi dren. the The !ro!er construction o) this a&end&ent in%o %es a 0uestion o) e. Issue Whether or not the race5$ased se*re*ation o) chi dren into Mse!arate $ut e0ua N !u$ ic schoo s is constitutiona Ae d. The ! ainti))s a e*ed that se*re*ation #as unconstitutiona under the /0ua Protection C ause o) the >ourteenth A&end&ent. and to !rotect the !ri%i e*es and i&&unities o) citiBens o) the United States )ro& hosti e e*is ation o) the states. 34? US 1?4 81?549C 34: US 4<3 81?549 7ain To!ic.

c usi%e as to e. Sti . the c assi)ication. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . Constitution9 and the ru e o) uni)or&it' o) ta. a !rohi$ition a*ainst a iens and a*ainst associations. )ro& en*a*in* direct ' or indirect ' in the retai trade a iens actua ' en*a*ed in the retai $usiness on 7a' 15. 1?54 are a o#ed to continue their $usiness. Whate%er &a' ha%e $een the e.A. a e*in* that the a)ore5stated ordinance is unconstitutiona )or $ein* %io ati%e o) the e0ua !rotection c ause 8Sec. VI. e0ui%a ent to one !er centu& 81Q9 !er e. As it is no#. 11<.The 0uestion !resented in these cases &ust $e deter&ined not on the $asis o) conditions e. WUN the ordinance %io ates the e0ua !rotection c ause and the uni)or&it' o) ta.@ Or&oc Su*ar Co&!an' )i ed a co&! aint a*ainst the cit' o) Or&* ordinanceDs enact&ent.c ude an' su$se0uent ' esta$ ished su*ar centra . Se*re*ation #ith the sanction o) a# tends to i&!ede the educationa and &enta de%e o!&ent o) $ ac+ chi dren and de!ri%es the& o) so&e o) the $ene)its the' #ou d recei%e in an inte*rated schoo s'ste&. )or the co%era*e o) the ta. has no ! ace in the )ie d o) !u$ ic education. to $e reasona$ e. Or&oc Su*ar Co&!an'. A !erusa o) the re0uisites instant ' sho#s that the 0uestioned ordinance does not &eet the&. as the entit' to $e e%ied u!on Ichon* %s.ation 2ULIN-.!iration o) ter&. shou d $e in ter&s a!! ica$ e to )uture conditions as #e . Constitution9 ISSU/. or cor!orations the ca!ita o) #hich are not #ho ' o#ned $' >i i!inos. Se!aratin* $ ac+ chi dren )ro& others so e ' $ecause o) their race *enerates a )ee in* o) in)eriorit' as to their status in the co&&unit' that &a' a))ect their hearts and &inds in a #a' un i+e ' e%er to $e undone. in Or&oc Cit'. and a c assi)ication is reasona$ e #here 819 it is $ased on su$stantia distinctions #hich &a+e rea di))erencesC 819 these are *er&ane to the !ur!ose o) the a#C 839 the c assi)ication a!! ies not on ' to !resent conditions $ut a so to )uture conditions #hich are su$stantia ' identica to those o) the !resentC 849 the c assi)ication a!! ies on ' to those #ho $e on* to the sa&e c ass. In case o) "uridica !ersons. !artnershi!s. this )indin* is a&! ' su!!orted $' &odern authorit' and an' an*ua*e to the contrar' in P ess' %. $ecause the ordinance e. Inc. )or it ta. %s. a &unici!a ta. un ess their icenses are )or)eited in accordance #ith a#. Inc. Art. it is true. and none other.!ort sa e to the United States o) A&erica and other )orei*n countries. Incor!orated. Art. #hich a!! ied to trans!ortation. Inc. 11E1F9. >er*uson is re"ected. 1. Its !ur!ose #as to !re%ent !ersons #ho are not citiBens o) the Phi . 11 Or&oc Su*ar Co&!an'. 11 71 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. The Le*is ature !assed 2. >er*uson. The se!arate $ut e0ua doctrine ado!ted in P ess' %.!orted $' the Or&oc Su*ar Co&!an'. The i&!act o) se*re*ation is *reater #hen it has the sanction o) a#.!ress ' !oints on ' to Or&oc Cit' Su*ar Co&!an'. unti their death or %o untar' retire&ent. 1155 81 Bernas 619 >ACTS. Y/S The e0ua !rotection c ause a!! ies on ' to !ersons or thin*s identica ' situated and does not $ar a reasona$ e c assi)ication o) the su$"ect o) e*is ation. The ta.1 Phi . 11 SC2A 6. )ro& ha%in* a stran* eho d u!on the !eo! eKs econo&ic i)e. AernandeB. ten 'ears a)ter the a!!ro%a o) the Act or unti the e. o) the sa&e c ass as ! ainti)).istin* #hen the >ourteenth A&end&ent #as ado!ted. >er*uson. Inc. e%en i) ater a si&i ar co&!an' is set u!.. At the ti&e o) the* ordinance shou d not $e sin*u ar and on ' centri)u*a su*ar !roduced and e.. 8An Act to 2e*u ate the 2etai Business9. it cannot $e su$"ect to the ta.tent o) !s'cho o*ica +no# ed*e at the ti&e o) P ess' %. 1E1F.ation 8Sec. Treasurer o) Or&oc Cit'. A sense o) in)eriorit' a))ects the &oti%ation o) a chi d to earn.3 Or&oc cit' !assed an ordinance #hich !ro%ides. @There sha $e !aid to the Cit' Treasurer on an' and a !roductions o) centri)u*a su*ar &i ed at the Or&oc Su*ar Co&!an'. III. #as the on ' su*ar centra in the cit' o) Or&oc. $ut in the i*ht o) the ro e o) !u$ ic education in A&erican i)e toda'.

e&!ted )ro& this Act. The a# is a %a id e.ercise o) !o ice !o#er. !ro%ision a*ainst the esta$ ish&ent or o!enin* $' a iens actua ' en*a*ed in the retai $usiness o) additiona stores or $ranches o) retai $usiness Lao Ichon*. The a ien o#es no a e*iance or o'a t' to the State. the a ien no# en"o's a &ono!o istic contro on the nationKs econo&' endan*erin* the nationa securit' in ti&es o) crisis and e&er*enc'. Issue: 1. his !erson and his !ro!ert' su$"ect to the needs o) the countr'. cor!orations and !artnershi!s a))ected $' the Act. 2ATIO. reasons. There are rea and actua . 1. Throu*h the i e*iti&ate use o) !ernicious desi*ns and !ractices. Tecson %s. The di))erence in status $et#een citiBens and a iens constitutes a $asis )or reasona$ e c assi)ication in the e. The a ien is natura ' ac+in* in that s!irit o) o'a t' and enthusias& )or the Phi . !ara*ra!h :. Whi e the citiBen ho ds his i)e. 72 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. The a ien retai er has sho#n such utter disre*ard )or his custo&ers and the !eo! e on #ho& he &a+es his !ro)it. It &ere ' re0uires that a !ersons sha $e treated a i+e.. co&&erce and industr'. A/L=. econo&ic contro #ei*hts and &easures and a$or and other a#s re atin* to trade. Co&e ec.CitiBens and "uridica entities o) the United States #ere e. 1. and the State cannot re ' on hi&Uher in ti&es o) crisis or e&er*enc'.ercise o) !o ice !o#er and it does not den' the a iens the e0ua !rotection o) the a#s. -2 No. The c assi)ication is actua . the su$"ect o) the Act is not e. #hich )u ' "usti)' the e*is ati%e c assi)ication ado!ted. it denies to a ien residents the e0ua !rotection o) the a#s and de!ri%es the& o) their i$ert' and !ro!ert' #ithout due !rocess 1. the !ro%isions o) the Act a*ainst the trans&ission $' a iens o) their retai $usiness thru hereditar' succession ISSU/. CO7/L/C dis&issed the !etition. WON the Act de!ri%es the a iens o) the e0ua !rotection o) the a#s. O))icia statistics !oint out to the e%er5increasin* do&inance and contro $' a ien o) the retai trade. The e0ua !rotection c ause does not de&and a$so ute e0ua it' a&on* residents. It is this do&ination and contro that is the e*is atureKs tar*et in the enact&ent o) the Act.4 8>P( Case9 Facts: Petitioners sou*ht )or res!ondent PoeKs dis0ua i)ication in the !residentia e ections )or ha%in* a e*ed ' &isre!resented &ateria )acts in his 8PoeKs9 certi)icate o) candidac' $' c ai&in* that he is a natura >i i!ino citiBen des!ite his !arents $oth $ein* )orei*ners. )i ed an action to dec are it unconstitutiona )or the )). in his o#n $eha ) and $eha ) o) other a ien residents. ho din* that Poe #as a >i i!ino CitiBen. !ositi%e and )unda&enta di))erences $et#een an a ien and a citiBen.!ressed in the tit e 3. o) the 1?<: Constitution. !ro%ision )or the )or)eiture o) icenses to en*a*e in the retai $usiness )or %io ation o) the a#s on nationa iBation. #here he te&!orari ' sta's and &a+es his i%in*. under i+e circu&stances and conditions $oth as to !ri%i e*es con)erred and ia$i ities en)orced. The &ere )act o) a iena*e is the root cause o) the distinction $et#een the a ien and the nationa as a trader. contendin* that on ' the Su!re&e Court &a' reso %e the $asic issue on the case under Artic e VII. the a ien &a' $eco&e the !otentia ene&' o) the State. the Act %io ates internationa and treat' o$ i*ations 4. and a !ersons o) one c ass are treated a i+e. rea and reasona$ e. Petitioners assai the "urisdiction o) the CO7/L/C. 161434. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . Section 4. 7arch 3.

Is an i e*iti&ate chi d dis0ua i)ied to run )or !u$ ic o))iceI Held.tended to his son. it #ou d a so %io ate the e0ua 73 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Chiongbian v. Bein* so. Ae stated that the Court &ust as+ #hat the lis mota #as in each o) the cases cited $' the !etitioners to su!!ort their contention that $irth to un&arried !arents #ou d &a+e >P( an i e*iti&ate chi d and there)ore he #ou d )o o# the citiBenshi! o) his &other. the ar*u&ent #as $ased )ro& an o$iter dictu&. thus. o) the Phi i!!ines #hich the Su!re&e Court &a' ta+e co*niBance.9 CO7/L/C co&&itted no *ra%e a$use o) discretion in ho din* Poe as a >i i!ino CitiBen. Ais citiBenshi! #as a so dra#n )ro& the !resu&!tion that ha%in* died in 1?54 at the a*e o) <4. ha%in* $een ac+no# ed*ed as A anKs son to Bessie.tua )oundation in the Constitution. The 1?35 Constitution on citiBenshi! did not &a+e a distinction on the e*iti&ac' or i e*iti&ac' o) the chi d. the a e*ation o) $i*a&ous &arria*e and the a e*ation that res!ondent #as $orn on ' $e)ore the assai ed &arria*e had no $earin* on res!ondentKs citiBenshi! in %ie# o) the esta$ ished !aterna )i iation e%idenced $' the !u$ ic docu&ents !resented. #hich #as a$out a ste!son o) a >i i!ino $ut the chi d o) a Chinese &other and a Chinese )ather. such that LorenBo Pou #ou d ha%e $ene)ited )ro& the @en &asse >i i!iniBation@ that the Phi i!!ine Bi had e))ected in 1?. !ara*ra!h :. The )acts in these cases #ere not the sa&e as those in the case at $ar. Paa v.Whether or not it is the Su!re&e Court #hich had "urisdiction.1. an A&erican. his *rand)ather LorenBo. A an555res!ondentKs )ather. #hich #as a$out an i e*iti&ate chi d o) a Chinese )ather and a >i i!ino &other. In the a$sence o) an' other e%idence. 1.@ Tracin* res!ondentKs !aterna inea*e. On E/ual Protection of La-s and )llegitimacy The o!inion o) (oa0uin Bernas. de Leon 8<1 Phi . Vivo 81. >ather Bernas )urther stated that aside )ro& the )act that such !ronounce&ent that an i e*iti&ate chi d o) a >i i!ino )ather cannot run )or !u$ ic o))ice #ou d ha%e no te. 1. A&on* the cases cited #ere Morano v.. #hich #as a$out the son o) an i e*iti&ate chi d o) a Chinese )ather and a >i i!ino &other. re)ers to McontestsN re atin* to the e ection. S( is &ost con%incin* in the issue at hand. the e%idence on hand sti #ou d !re!onderate in his )a%or enou*h to ho d that he cannot $e he d *ui t' o) ha%in* &ade a &ateria &isre!resentation in his certi)icate o) candidac' in %io ation o) Section :<. in re ation to Section :4 o) the O&ni$us / ection Code. #as a >i i!ino citiBen $' %irtue o) !aterna )i iation as e%idenced $' the res!ondentKs $irth certi)icate. #epublic 8?1 Phi . !ro%ided that a&on* the citiBens o) the Phi i!!ines are @those #hose )athers are citiBens o) the Phi i!!ines. LorenBoKs ! ace o) residence u!on his death in 1?54 #as !resu&ed to $e the ! ace o) residence !rior his death. and not o) @candidates@ )or President or Vice5President $e)ore the e ections. Whether or not CO7/L/C co&&itted *ra%e a$use o) discretion in ho din* that Poe #as a >i i!ino citiBen. Chan 811 SC2A :539. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . the !re%ai in* )unda&enta a# on res!ondentKs $irth. SC2A 5619. @2u es o) the Presidentia / ectora Tri$una @ in connection #ith Section 4. 2es!ondent. But #hi e the tota it' o) the e%idence &a' not esta$ ish conc usi%e ' that res!ondent >P( is a natura 5$orn citiBen o) the Phi i!!ines. #hich #as a$so ute ' unnecessar' )or the case and cannot $e *i%en *reat #ei*ht. and erra v. ?149. o) the 1?<: Constitution. LorenBo #ou d ha%e $een $orn in 1?<. ::19. LorenBoKs citiBenshi! #ou d ha%e e. in another case.9 The Su!re&e Court had no "urisdiction on 0uestions re*ardin* M0ua i)ication o) a candidateN )or the !residenc' or %ice5!residenc' $e)ore the e ection is he d. 7oreo%er. The 1?35 Constitution on CitiBenshi!. thou*h an A&erican citiBen. as e%idenced $' the atterKs death certi)icate #as identi)ied as a >i i!ino CitiBen. #hich #as a$out a e*iti&ate son o) a )ather #ho had $eco&e >i i!ino $' e ection to !u$ ic o))ice $e)ore the 1?35 Constitution. returns and 0ua i)ications o) the @President@ or @Vice5President@.

it trans*resses the e0ua !rotection c ause. =io+no. A thou*h distinction $et#een e*iti&ate and i e*iti&ate chi dren rests on rea di))erences. Chie) o) Sta)). (ustice 7endoBa. 1. thus.39 Li& %s. #herein @7etro!o itan 7ai @ and @We >oru&@ ne#s!a!ers. and o))ice and !rintin* 74 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Cayat. IV. Search and SeiBure Art. Ao#e%er. The &a"orit' o!inion and the dissentin* o!inions a so discussed the conce!ts deri%ed )ro& the Ci%i Code in re ation to this issue. Barroso. Phi i!!ine Constitution ? < : 6 5 Peo! e %s. ci%i ri*hts.. 7r. and second. Another amicus curiae. It a so e&$raced the ru e that a actions o) a State concernin* the chi d shou d consider the M$est interestsN o) the chi d.N The Con%ention !rotects in the &ost co&!rehensi%e #a' a ri*hts o) chi dren. LII. >e i.. III. !o itica ri*hts. 14 and 11. ho#e%er. Phi i!!ine Constitution Art. Thus. 1?4 SC2A 1?1 81??19 Stonchi %s. It #as to he ! the chi d. >irst. In the case o) People v. #ere searched. these di))erences &a' "usti)' distinction )or one !ur!ose $ut not )or another. This #as. it #ou d &a+e an i e*iti&ate distinction $et#een the i e*iti&ate chi d o) a >i i!ino )ather and the i e*iti&ate chi d o) a >i i!ino &other. 133 SC2A <. "uris!rudence has esta$ ished a test to deter&ine %a id c assi)ication. it &ust $e considered that it #as not the )au t o) the chi d that his !arents had i icit iaison. it #ou d &a+e an i e*iti&ate distinction $et#een a e*iti&ate chi d and an i e*iti&ate chi d. not !re"udice or discri&inate hi&. he stated that the Con%ention has the status o) a &unici!a a# and its rati)ication cou d not ha%e a&ended the e. a so reiterated that #here "uris!rudence re*arded an i e*iti&ate chi d as ta+in* a)ter the citiBenshi! o) its &other. The Con%ention on the 2i*hts o) the Chi d #as a so used as $asis in this case since it a$o ished a discri&inations on account o) M$irth or other status. Phi i!!ine Constitution Art.1. >P( cannot in%o+e the Con%ention to c ai& he is a natura 5$orn Phi i!!ine citiBen. II Secs. has no retroacti%e e))ect. 7arti.. Secs. C ear '. 4. There is neither "ustice nor rationa it' in that. II. 7oreo%er. 1?<19 $' res!ondent (ud*e CruB5Pano o) the then C>I 2iBa . Sec. A %io ation o) one ri*ht is considered a %io ation o) the other ri*hts. (r. it did so )or the $ene)it o) the chi d. econo&ic ri*hts and cu tura ri*hts. he #as a!!arent ' under United States a# an A&erican citiBen at $irth.< SC2A 51? 81. 1 and 14. In )act. #ou d e. SC2A <<3 81?6:9 Bur*os %s. socia ri*hts. 1?3 SC2A 5: 81??19 Na a %s. 81?<49 Facts: Petitioners assai the %a idit' o) 1 search #arrants 8=ece&$er :. At no !oint in ti&e #as >P( in dan*er o) $ein* state ess.ercise !arenta authorit' and had the dut' to su!!ort her i e*iti&ate chi d.!rotection c ause o) the Constitution. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . Phi i!!ine Constitution Art.!ress re0uire&ent in the Constitution that on ' natura 5$orn citiBens o) the Phi i!!ines are 0ua i)ied to $e President. and. this #as not *i%en *reat #ei*ht $' the Court since the distinctions $et#een e*iti&ac' and i e*iti&ac' codi)ied in the Ci%i Code shou d re&ain on ' in the s!here o) ci%i a# and not undu ' i&!ede or in)rin*e on the do&ain o) !o itica a#. attac+ed $' (ustice Car!io in his dissent $' statin* that >P( cannot in%o+e the Con%ention since he is no on*er a chi d #hen the con%ention #as rati)ied in the Phi i!!ines in Se!te&$er 1??. Ae )urther noted that the Con%ention does not *uarantee a chi d a citiBenshi! at $irth. To dis0ua i)' the i e*iti&ate chi d )ro& ho din* an i&!ortant !u$ ic o))ice is to !unish hi& )or the indiscretion o) his !arents. $ut &ere ' Mthe ri*ht to ac0uire a nationa it'N in accordance #ith &unici!a a#. A)ter his $irth >P( a so had the ri*ht to ac0uire Phi i!!ine citiBenshi! $' !ro%in* his )i iations to his a e*ed >i i!ino )ather in accordance #ith Phi i!!ine a#. It #as to ensure a >i i!ino nationa it' )or the i e*iti&ate chi d o) an a ien )ather in ine #ith the assu&!tion that the &other had custod'. When >P( #as $orn in 1?3?. 1.

! ained en*th o) ti&e to do that #hich. On the enu&erated reasons. 5. as !etitioners the&se %es conceded durin* the hearin* on Au*ust ?. 4. he is sto!!ed )ro& cha en*in* the %a idit' o) the search #arrants. as #e as nu&erous !a!ers. Section 1.istence o) this s!ecia circu&stance "usti)ies this Court to e. As a conse0uence o) the search and seiBure. 1. u!on #hich the #arrants #ere issued. The de)ect !ointed out is o$%ious ' a t'!o*ra!hica error. $' e.&achines. 2es!ondents "usti)' the continued sea in* o) the !rintin* &achines on the *round that the' ha%e $een se0uestered under Section < o) P= <<5. #arrantin* a !resu&!tion that the !art' entit ed to assert it either has a$andoned it or dec ined to assert it9. !u$ isher5editor o) the @We >oru&@ ne#s!a!er. 2es!ondents )urther state that since !etitioner had a read' used as e%idence so&e o) the docu&ents seiBed in a !rior cri&ina case. (r. This o$"ection &a' !ro!er ' $e considered &oot and acade&ic. docu&ents. It #ou d $e 0uite a$surd and i o*ica )or res!ondent "ud*e to ha%e issued t#o #arrants intended )or one and the sa&e ! ace. as &andated $' the a$o%e50uoted constitutiona !ro%ision as #e as Sec. $oo+s and other #ritten iterature a e*ed to $e in the !ossession and contro o) !etitioner (ose Bur*os. e0ui!&ent. that an e. this Court ta+es co*niBance o) this !etition in %ie# o) the seriousness and ur*enc' o) the constitutiona Issue raised. does not re0uire that the !ro!ert' to $e seiBed shou d $e o#ned $' the 75 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. 3. Precise '.a&ination under oath or a))ir&ation o) the a!! icant and his #itnesses. &otor %ehic es and other artic es used in the !rintin*. not to &ention the !u$ ic interest *enerated $' the search o) the @We >oru&@ o))ices #hich #as te e%ised in Channe : and #ide ' !u$ iciBed in a &etro!o itan dai ies. 1. o) the 2u es o) Court.ercise its inherent !o#er to sus!end its ru es. A$adi a and his #itnesses. 2u e 116 o) the 2u es o) Court.a&ination had indeed $een conducted $' res!ondent "ud*e o) Co . as a&ended. 2es!ondents a so assai the !etition on *round o) aches 8>ai ure or ne* i*ence )or an unreasona$ e and une. 2ea !ro!erties #ere seiBed. 4. The e. 1. #ith the )urther resu t that the !rintin* and !u$ ication o) said ne#s!a!ers #ere discontinued. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . Artic es $e on*in* to his co5!etitioners #ere a so seiBed a thou*h the #arrants #ere on ' directed a*ainst (ose Bur*os. Issue: Whether the 1 search #arrants #ere %a id ' issued and e. ne*atin* the !resu&!tion that the' ha%e a$andoned their ri*ht to the !ossession o) the seiBed !ro!ert'. The a!! ication a on* #ith a "oint a))ida%it. (r.ecutedI Held: In re*ard to the 0uasha o) #arrants that !etitioners shou d ha%e initia ' )i ed to the o#er court.hausted other e. 2es!ondent (ud*e )ai ed to conduct an e. !u$ ication and distri$ution o) the said ne#s!a!ers. 3. 2es!ondents contend that !etitioners shou d ha%e )i ed a &otion to 0uash said #arrants in the court that issued the& $e)ore i&!u*nin* the %a idit' o) the sa&e $e)ore this Court. It is ne* i*ence or o&ission to assert a ri*ht #ithin a reasona$ e ti&e. 1?<3. cou d or shou d ha%e $een done ear ier.! anation e%idencin* that the' ha%e e. Petitioners su$&it the )o o#in* reasons to nu i)' the 0uestioned #arrants. With the contention !ertainin* to aches.ercisin* due di i*ence.tra5"udicia e))orts to re&ed' the situation. t#o search #arrants #ere a!! ied )or and issued $ecause the !ur!ose and intent #ere to search t#o distinct !re&ises. 2u e 116. 1. )ro& the 7etroco& Inte i*ence and Securit' -rou! cou d not ha%e !ro%ided su))icient $asis )or the )indin* o) a !ro$a$ e cause u!on #hich a #arrant &a' $e %a id ' issued in accordance #ith Section 4+ A'ticle IB o) the 1?:3 Constitution. !ara!herna ia. these !re&ises #ere !ad oc+ed and sea ed. #ere seiBed. The search #arrants !in!ointed on ' one address #hich #ou d $e the )or&er a$o%e&entioned address. the !etitioners *a%e an e.

4 To $e %a id. 3. the !etitioner c ai&s he #as the %icti& o) an i e*a search and seiBure conducted $' the &i itar' authorities. the &achineries in 0uestion. C>I. 4 2oan %s. When addressed to a ne#s!a!er !u$ isher or editor. Petitioners do not c ai& to $e the o#ners o) the and andUor $ui din* on #hich the &achineries #ere ! aced. 145 SC2A 6<: 81?<49 >ACTS. houses. S/C. 5. o) the e.a&inin* the co&! ainant and the #itnesses he &a' !roduce ISSU/. re&ain &o%a$ e !ro!ert' susce!ti$ e to seiBure under a search #arrant.istence o) !ro$a$ e cause. Whether the 2es!ondent (ud*e )ai ed to co&! ' #ith the !ro!er !rocedure in issuin* the Search Warrant. $ecause the !ur!ose thereo) is to con%ince the co&&ittin* &a*istrate. President 7arcos hi&se ) denies the re0uest o) &i itar' authorities to se0uester the !ro!ert' seiBed )ro& !etitioners. >urther&ore. a search #arrant &ust $e su!!orted $' !ro$a$ e cause to $e deter&ined $' the "ud*e or so&e other authoriBed o))icer a)ter e. a)ter e. With re*ard to the res!ondents in%o+in* P= <<5. and no search #arrant or #arrant o) arrest sha issue e. The c osure o) the !re&ises su$"ected to search and seiBure is contrar' to the )reedo& o) the !ress as *uaranteed in our )unda&enta a#. and !articu ar ' descri$in* the ! ace to $e searched. The ri*ht o) the !eo! e to $e secure in their !ersons. 3 Ao#e%er. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . not the indi%idua &a+in* the a))ida%it and see+in* the issuance o) the #arrant. 1?<4. there is an a$sence o) an' i&! e&entin* ru es and re*u ations !ro&u *ated $' the 7inister o) Nationa =e)ense.@ Another )actor #hich &a+es the search #arrants under consideration constitutiona ' o$"ectiona$ e is that the' are in the nature o) )ene'al wa''ants. said alle)ation cannot se've as &asis "o' the issuance o" a sea'ch wa''ant and it #as a *ra%e error )or res!ondent "ud*e to ha%e done so.ce!t u!on !ro$a$ e cause to $e deter&ined $' the "ud*e. =e)icient o) such !articu ars as #ou d "usti)' a )indin* o) the e. That ri*ht is *uaranteed in the )o o#in* !ro%isions o) Artic e IV o) the 1?:3 Constitution. the o))icers conductin* the search )ound in the !re&ises one Co t 7a*nu& re%o %er and ei*hteen i%e $u ets #hich the' con)iscated. The descri!tion o) the artic es sou*ht to $e seiBed under the search #arrants in 0uestion are too *enera .a&ination under oath or a))ir&ation o) the co&! ainant and the #itnesses he &a' !roduce. 819 An' e%idence o$tained in %io ation o) this or the !recedin* section sha $e inad&issi$ e )or an' !ur!ose in an' !roceedin*. the a!! ication )or a #arrant &ust contain a s!eci)ication statin* #ith !articu arit' the a e*ed su$%ersi%e &ateria s he has !u$ ished or intendin* to !u$ ish. The' are no# the $ases o) the char*e a*ainst the !etitioner. The sea'ch wa''ants a'e decla'ed null and void . A %areB %. Pro$a$ e cause )or a search is de)ined as such )acts and circu&stances #hich #ou d ead a reasona$ ' discreet and !rudent &an to $e ie%e that an o))ense has $een co&&itted and that the o$"ects sou*ht in connection #ith the o))ense are in the ! ace sou*ht to $e searched. and the !ersons or thin*s to $e seiBed. This $ein* the case. The &'oad state#ents in the a$$lication and 8oint a""idavit a'e #e'e conclusions o" law and does not satis"% the 'e(ui'e#ents o" $'o&a&le cause. 1 The !etitionerDs house #as searched t#o da's ater $ut none o) the artic es isted in the #arrant #as disco%ered. !a!ers and e))ects a*ainst unreasona$ e searches and seiBures o) #hate%er nature and )or an' !ur!ose sha not $e %io ated. @the oath re0uired &ust re)er to the truth o) the )acts #ithin the !ersona +no# ed*e o) the !etitioner or his #itnesses. 76 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. or such other res!onsi$ e o))icer as &a' $e authoriBed $' a#. #hi e in )act $o ted to the *round. -onBa es.. 4. In%o+in* these !ro%isions.!erson a*ainst #ho& the search #arrant is directed. It &a' or &a' not $e o#ned $' hi&.istence o) !ro$a$ e cause. The cha en*ed search #arrant #as issued $' the res!ondent "ud*e on 7a' 1.

de!ositions #ere ta+en o) the co&! ainantDs t#o #itnesses in addition to the a))ida%it e.@ and on ' $ecause @the a!! ication #as not 'et su$scri$ed and s#o& to. What #e see here is !ressure e. renderin* the search #arrant in%a id. ho d that the search #arrant is tainted #ith i e*a it' $' the )ai ure o) the (ud*e to con)or& #ith the essentia re0uisites o) ta+in* the de!ositions in #ritin* and attachin* the& to the record. Ae i&ited hi&se ) to the contents o) the a))ida%it. As this Court he d in Mata v. I&! e&entin* this re0uire&ent. $e)ore issuin* the #arrant.@ The su**estion is that he #ou d not ha%e as+ed an' 0uestions at a i) the a))ida%it had a read' $een co&! eted #hen it #as su$&itted to hi&. in addition to an' a))ida%its !resented to hi&. S/C. as re0uired $' sett ed "uris!rudence. B' his o#n account. !ersona ' e. or ho# )ar he #as )ro& the #indo#. considerin* that these acts #ere a*ainst the a#. The e.@ 11 In other #ords. there)ore.A/L=. i) he +ne# and understood the sa&e. to*ether #ith the a))ida%it !resented to hi&. $ut this is not entire ' true. the 2u es o) Court !ro%ided in #hat #as then 2u e 116. The res!ondent "ud*e a so dec ared that he @sa# no need to ha%e a!! icant Sui osaDs de!osition ta+en considerin* that he #as a!! 'in* )or a search #arrant on the $asis o) the in)or&ation !ro%ided $' the a)orena&ed #itnesses #hose de!ositions as a)ore&entioned had a read' $een ta+en $' the undersi*ned. The res!ondents a so ar*ue that the Co t 7a*nu& !isto and the ei*hteen ha%e $u ets seiBed )ro& the !etitioner #ere i e*a per se and there)ore cou d ha%e $een ta+en $' the &i itar' authorities e%en #ithout a #arrant. Instead. 11 7ere a))ida%its o) the co&! ainant and his #itnesses are thus not su))icient. the dec arations o) the #itnesses #ere readi ' acce!ted and the search #arrant sou*ht #as issued )orth#ith.@ 13 T One &a' #e #onder #h' it did not occur to the res!ondent "ud*e to as+ ho# the #itness cou d $e so certain e%en as to the ca i$er o) the *uns. Con)ronted #ith the ar&ed !resence o) the &i itar' and the !resu&!ti%e authorit' o) a "udicia #rit. In an' case.a&ine on oath or a))ir&ation the co&! ainant and an' #itnesses he &a' !roduce and ta+e their de!ositions in #ritin*. and attach the& to the record.#hat he did #as 0uestion Ca!tain Sui osa on the contents o) his a))ida%it on ' @to ascertain. the !etitioner had no choice $ut to su$&it. Nonethe ess.ecuted $' the&. G The &unici!a or cit' "ud*e &ust. As a &atter o) )act. to ho d ia$ e )or !er"ur' the !erson *i%in* it i) it #i) $e )ound ater that his dec arations are )a se. or i) the acts re ated #ere rea ' done o!en '. 1. the a!! icant #as as+in* )or the issuance o) the search #arrant on the $asis o) &ere hearsa' and not o) in)or&ation !ersona ' +no#n to hi&. #as #ai%ed #hen the !etitioner %o untari ' su$&itted to the search and &ani)ested his con)or&it' in #ritin*. the So icitor -enera ar*ues that #hate%er de)ect there #as. Bayona. Possession o) the 77 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. We do not a*ree. he did not as+ his o#n searchin* 0uestions.erted $' the &i itar' authorities. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ .istence or non5 e. 4. We.a&inin* (ud*e has to ta+e de!ositions in #ritin* o) the co&! ainant and the #itnesses he nia' !roduce and attach the& to the record. or #hether it #as on the )irst ) oor or a second ) oor. The !etitioner c ai&s that no de!ositions #ere ta+en $' the res!ondent "ud*e in accordance #ith the a$o%e ru e. or #h' his !resence #as not noticed at a . Ae did not ta+e the a!! icantDs de!osition in #ritin* and attach the& to the record. These #ou d ha%e $een "udicious 0uestions $ut the' #ere in"udicious ' o&itted. in the )u %ie# o) the #itnesses. a&on* others.istence o) the !ro$a$ e cause. E0amination of the applicant. #ho !ractica ' coerced the !etitioner to si*n the su!!osed #ai%er as a *uarant' a*ainst a !ossi$ e cha en*e ater to the %a idit' o) the search the' #ere conductin*. Such #ritten de!osition is necessar' in order that the (ud*e &a' $e a$ e to !ro!er ' deter&ine the e.

1<. !ro&u *ated $' either his de!art&ent or the State Attorne' -enera . The tria court *ranted the &otion to su!!ress.9C 1.said artic es. Prouse. In short. 1?< SC2A 4. The o))icerKs decision to initiate the tra))ic sto! #as not $ased u!on an' o$ser%a$ e tra))ic %io ation or sus!icious conduct $' Prouse. 1<: SC2A 311 81??. and there)ore did not constitute a !re%ai in* state interest that #ou d out#ei*h citiBensK !ri%ac' interests. The Court )ound that ProuseKs constitutiona ri*hts had in )act $een %io ated. Bur*os. The Court )ina ' reasoned that o))icers &ust ha%e !ro$a$ e cause )or such searches or e se it #ou d $ ur the i&itations i&!osed u!on the *o%ern&ent. 1:< SC2A 111 81?<?9C 1<5 SC2A 665 81??. Pano. SC2A 4. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . the ri*ht thereto #as not %a id ' #ai%ed $' the !etitioner. Va &onte %s. )indin* the sto! and detention to ha%e $een #ho ' ca!ricious. the o))icer )ound &ari"uana in the %ehic e. and that he &ade the sto! on ' in order to chec+ the dri%erDs icense and the carDs re*istration. the &i itar' o))icers #ho entered the !etitionerDs !re&ises had no ri*ht to $e there and there)ore had no ri*ht either to seiBe the !isto and $u ets. 2es!ondent #as su$se0uent ' indicted )or i e*a !ossession o) a contro ed su$stance. 2a&os. the !atro &an testi)ied that. Ae d. !articu ar ' #hen $orne out o) sto!s not $ased on !ro$a$ e cause. 151 SC2A 1:? 81?<:9 No asco %s.=. Prohi$ited artic es &a' $e seiBed $ut on ' as on* as the search is %a id. A)ter initiatin* the sto!.1 81??19 Peo! e %s. The !atro &an #as not actin* !ursuant to an' standards. 11 11 1. 81??:9 7) Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Aence. 1<66 and considered malum prohibitum. Whether or not the o))icerKs search o) ProuseKs %ehic e %io ated his constitutiona ri*hts a*ainst unreasona$ e search and seiBure !ursuant to the >ourth A&end&ent. he had o$ser%ed neither tra))ic or e0ui!&ent %io ations nor an' sus!icious acti%it'.? 81?<:9 Peo! e %s. 7a &stedt. U&i et a .9 In re. %s. and there)ore %io ati%e o) the >ourth A&end&ent. 3 1 1 15 14 13 A ih %s.. the We*a artic es cou d $e ta+en e%en #ithout a #arrant. 413 US 166 81?:39 =e a#are %s. Search and SeiBure >acts. The Court ru ed that rando& chec+s did not *reat ' i&!ro%e road sa)et'. 44. 19 there #as no %a id search #arrantC and 19 a$sent such a #arrant. The Court reasoned that the stateKs interests concernin* discretionar' tra))ic sto!s 8s!ot chec+s9 did not out#ei*h the !ri%ac' interests o) tra%e ers 8dri%ers9. it is ur*ed. *uide ines. #as %io ati%e o) P. US 64< 81?:?9 7ain To!ic. The &ari"uana #as u ti&ate ' used as e%idence in the success)u indict&ent a*ainst Prouse. At a hearin* on res!ondentDs &otion to su!!ress the &arihuana. In =e a#are. or !rocedures !ertainin* to docu&ent s!ot chec+s. !rior to sto!!in* the %ehic e. #hich is the !ur!ose o) the >ourth A&end&ent. US. it #as not $ecause. =e Vi a. 144 SC2A 1 81?<69 A &eida5SancheB %s. 13? SC2A 151 81?<:9C 14: SC2A 5. This case #as si*ni)icant $ecause the Su!re&e Court ru ed that a# en)orce&ent &ust ha%e so&e &odicu& o) !ro$a$ e cause in order to sto! a %ehic eC that there are i&itations to searchin* %ehic es and seiBin* e%idence. In this case. Issues. Castro.1 SC2A 151 81??19 7ana i i %s. a !o ice&an sto!!ed Wi ia& ProuseKs %ehic e in order to &a+e a routine chec+ o) his dri%erKs icense and re*istration. CA. Ae seiBed &ari"uana in ! ain %ie# on the car ) oor.

Petitioner 7c/ ro' an Austra ian )i & &a+er. 131 SC2A 316 81?<49 P2IVACY O> CO77UNICATION AN= CO22/SPON=/NC/ 8S/C. Torres. o) 2A 6415. CA. In the cited cases.istence o) such )acts and circu&stances #hich cou d ead a reasona$ ' discreet and !rudent &an to $e ie%e that an o))ense has $een co&&itted and that the ite&. %s. 16. A'er Productions. artic e. Custo&s search 5. Search o) &o%in* %ehic es 3. en%isioned. SeiBure in ! ain %ie# 4. A Msto!5and5)ris+ o!erationN is another e.Petition )or re%ie# on certiorari o) a decision o) the Court o) A!!ea s Facts. 7ana i i c ai&ed that he #as not #a +in*C that he #as ridin* a tric'c e unti the three !o ice&en ordered the dri%er o) the tric'c e to sto! $ecause the dri%er and !assen*er #ere a e*ed ' under the in) uence o) &ari"uana. Wai%er $' the accused the&se %es o) their ri*ht a*ainst unreasona$ e search and seiBure. the Court o) A!!ea s a))ir&ed the decision o) the tria court. the atter a!!roached hi& and as+ed #hat he #as ho din* in his hands.. Tria court con%icted 7ana i i o) %io ation o) Section <. $ut the !o ice&en #ere !ersistent unti he 'ie ded his #a et #hich the' e.tent he i&! ied that the &ari"uana sa&! e )ound in his entit' #as )ra&ed u! $' the !o ice&en. To so&e e. 1. this is not a$so ute and e. >urther e. 2o&eo /s!iritu and Pat. The !ro!osed &otion !icture entit ed @The >our =a' 2e%o ution@. 81. so&eti&e in 1?<:. Ao#e%er.9 Issue: WON the e%idence seiBed durin* a sto!5and5)ris+ o!eration is ad&issi$ e. Pat. The *enera ru e is that a search and seiBure &ust $e %a idated $' a !re%ious ' secured "udicia #arrant. An*er Lu&a$as #ere !atro in* the %icinit' o) the Oa oo+an Cit' Ce&eter' dueto re!orts o) dru* addicts roa&in* the area. 1<3 SC2A 15? 81??:9 =a%id et a .a&ined and )ound to contain crushed &ari"uana residue.69 Ba$st %s.. Ae #as o$ser%ed to ha%e reddish e'es and to $e #a +in* in a s#a'in* &anner. 39 O! e %s. Search incidenta to a a#)u arrest 1. SC2A <61 81?<<9 >ACTS. When 7ana i i tried to a%oid the !o ice&en. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ .ce!tion to the *enera ru e. NIB. ? < : 7a acat %s. CA. U!on a!!ea .ce!tions ha%e $een conte&! ated $' the a#. Ae c ai&ed that he #as searched and his !ants #ere turned inside5out $ut nothin* #as )ound. and his &o%ie !roduction co&!an'.a&ination $' the >orensic Che&istr' Section o) the NBI con)ir&ed the )indin*s. 7ana i i tried to resist. (u$an #ho su**ested th the' consu t #ith the a!!ro!riate *o%ern&ent 6 5 4 7( Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Petitioners discussed this Pro"ect #ith oca &o%ie !roducer Lo!e V.8In his de)ense. )or co&&ercia %ie#in* and )or Phi i!!ine and internationa re ease. Artic e II. 4<? SC2A 16. Pro$a$ e cause 8in re ation to search and seiBure9 is the e. the search and seiBure &a' $e &ade on ' #ith !ro$a$ e cause as essentia re0uire&ent. The' chanced u!on a &a e 8#ho turned out to $e !etitioner A ain 7ana i i ' =iBon9 #ho see&ed to $e ]hi*h on dru*s in )ront o) the ce&eter'. In this case. the historic !eace)u stru** e o) the >i i!inos at /=SA. 1?3 SC2A 141 81??<9 Wu ueta %s. !ro$a$ e cause #as esta$ ished #ith 7ana i iKs sus!icious $eha%ior. 7aca!a*a 5Arro'o. 153 SC2A 66: 81??69 A'er %s. or o$"ect sou*ht in connection #ith said o))ense or su$"ect to seiBure and destruction $' a# is in the ! ace to $e searched. Ca!u on*. Held: Yes.

in other #ords. There #as. :Succinct ' !ut. such su$"ect &atter is one o) !u$ ic interest and concern. )i & or other &ediu& )or ad%ertisin* or co&&ercia e. It is desi*ned to $e %ie#ed in a si. or $ears su$stantia or &ar+ed rese&$ ance to /nri e. >reedo& o) s!eech and o) e. The ri*ht to in%ade a !ersonDs !ri%ac' to disse&inate !u$ ic in)or&ation does not e. Whether or Not ri*ht to !ri%ac' o) res!ondent #as %io ated. that !etitioners !ro!ose to )i & )9 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty.!ression. The su$"ect &atter o) @The >our =a' 2e%o ution@ re ates to the non5$ ood' chan*e o) *o%ern&ent that too+ ! ace at /!i)anio de os Santos A%enue in >e$ruar' 1?<6. durin* #hich the &o&entous e%ents. c ear ' o) !u$ ic concern. the ri*ht o) !ri%ac' cannot $e in%o+ed resist !u$ ication and disse&ination o) &atters o) !u$ ic interest. C ear '. no &atter ho# !u$ ic a he or she &a' $e 8 Whether the @$a ancin* o) interests test@ or the c ear and !resent dan*er test@ $e a!! ied in res!ect o) the instant Petitions.! oitation. or that o) an' &e&$er o) his )a&i ' in an' cine&a or te e%ision !roduction.tend to a )ictiona or no%e iBed re!resentation o) a !erson. and uti iBin* actua docu&entar' )oota*e as $ac+*round. 2TC ordered )or the desistance o) the &o%ie !roduction and &a+in* o) an' re)erence to ! ainti)) or his )a&i ' and )ro& creatin* an' )ictitious character in ieu o) ! ainti)) #hich ne%erthe ess is $ased on. no @c ear and !resent dan*er@ o) an' %io ation o) an' ri*ht to !ri%ac'. or !icture. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ .hi$ition o) his na&e. ? Bein* a !u$ ic )i*ure i!so )acto does not auto&atica ' destro' in toto a !ersonDs ri*ht to !ri%ac'. 2a&os and Senator (uan Ponce /nri e. < The interest sou*ht to $e !rotected $' the ri*ht o) !ri%ac' is the ri*ht to $e )ree )ro& un-arranted !u$ icit'. The !roduction and )i &in* $' !etitioners o) the !ro"ected &otion !icture @The >our =a' 2e%o ution@ does not.a*encies and a so #ith -enera >ide V. Aa 7c/ ro' ) ied a 7otion to =is&iss #ith O!!osition to the Petition )or Pre i&inar' In"unction contendin* that the &ini5series )i & #ou d not in%o %e the !ri%ate i)e o) (uan Ponce /nri e nor that o) his )a&i ' and that a !re i&inar' in"unction #ou d a&ount to a !rior restraint on their ri*ht o) )ree e. On ? 7arch 1?<<. nor is it )ocused u!on. @The >our =a' 2e%o ution@ is not !rinci!a ' a$out. re!roduction andUor e.@ 6 i+e the ri*ht o) )ree e. constitute an un a#)u intrusion u!on !ri%ate res!ondentDs @ri*ht o) !ri%ac'. The ri*ht o) !ri%ac' or @the ri*ht to $e et a one. to re)er to the ro e ! a'ed $' (uan Ponce /nri e in the !reci!itatin* and the constituent e%ents o) the chan*e o) *o%ern&ent in >e$ruar' 1?<6 At a re e%ant ti&es.!ression. A/L=.!ected to 'ie d &onetar' !ro)it. and the trian o) e%ents #hich ed u! to that denoue&ent. #ho had ! a'ed &a"or ro es in the e%ents !ro!osed to $e )i &ed. in the circu&stances o) this case.. Yes.hi$ited to an' audience.@ The !ro"ected &otion !icture #as as 'et unco&! eted and hence not e.!ression Aence the a!!ea ISSU/.!ression inc udes the )reedo& to )i & and !roduce &otion !ictures and e. is not an a$so ute ri*ht. a!!ro!riation.hi$it such &otion !ictures in theaters or to di))use the& throu*h te e%ision. A i&ited intrusion into a !ersonDs !ri%ac' has on* $een re*arded as !er&issi$ e #here that !erson is a !u$ ic )i*ure and the in)or&ation sou*ht to $e e icited )ro& hi& or to $e !u$ ished a$out hi& constitute o) a!u$ ic character. the Court $e ie%es that a di))erent conc usion &ust here $e reached. Ao#e%er. !resented in a @docu5dra&a@ st' e. Neither !ri%ate res!ondent nor the res!ondent tria (ud*e +ne# #hat the co&! eted )i & #ou d !recise ' oo+ i+e. and !etitioners !roceeded to )i & the !ro"ected &otion !icture. creatin* )our )ictiona characters inter#o%en #ith rea e%ents. )ro& the -rongful !u$ iciBin* o) the !ri%ate a))airs and acti%ities o) an indi%idua -hich are outside the realm of legitimate public concern.5hour &ini5series te e%ision ! a'. /nri e dec ared that he #i not a!!ro%e the use. i) it is to $e historica . !etitioners acceded to this de&and and the na&e o) /nri e #as de eted )ro& the &o%ie scri!t. a co&! aint #as )i ed $' /nri e in%o+in* his ri*ht to !ri%ac'. >urther&ore the circu&stance that the !roduction o) &otion !icture )i &s is a co&&ercia acti%it' e. the &an (uan Ponce /nri eD $ut it is co&!e ed. is not a dis0ua i)ication )or a%ai in* o) )reedo& o) s!eech and o) e.

1 SC2A 455 81???9 Peo! e %s. The tria court con%icted hi& o) the cri&e o) 2o$$er' #ith Ao&icide and sentenced hi& to the su!re&e !ena t' o) =eath. a !u*i ist. Whether or not the con)ession is ad&issi$ e in e%idence. ho#e%er.#ere ta+in* ! ace. or an'one he chooses $' the &ost e. )t includes public officers( )a&ous in%entors and e. The !erson arrested sha ha%e the ri*ht to co&&unicate #ith his a#'er. No custodia in%esti*ation sha $e conducted un ess it $e in the !resence o) counse en*a*e $' the !erson arrested. i) an'. The interro*atin* o))icers $e*an to &au hi& and to torture hi& !h'sica '. 111 SC2A 53< 81?<39 Peo! e %s.!edient &eans J $' te e!hone i) !ossi$ e J or $' etter or &essen*er.a ted 2u er o) a od*e. and that an' state&ent he &i*ht &a+e cou d $e used a*ainst hi&. At the ti&e a !erson is arrested. ISSU/. Ae consistent ' &aintained his innocence. a !ro)essiona $ase$a ! a'er. 3 La*unBad Vda. their ri*ht to !ri%ac'. 81. =e So o %s.tent at east. to so&e e.@ Such !u$ ic )i*ures #ere he d to ha%e ost. $roader than this. 3.! orers. AriBona. -a it shou d $e ac0uitted. Aence this a!!ea . )t includes( in short( anyone -ho has arrived at a position -here public attention is focused upon him as a person. The' co%ered his )ace #ith a ra* and !ushed his )ace into a toi et $o# o) hu&an #aste. A/L=. a )i & reenact&ent o) the !eace)u re%o ution that )ai s to &a+e re)erence to the ro e ! a'ed $' !ri%ate res!ondent #ou d $e *ross ' unhistorica . Constitutiona 2i*ht to 2e&ain Si ent V Counse . -a it. 135 SC2A 465 81?<59 1 1 15 14 13 7ain To!ic. in the decisions@ that the' had sou*ht !u$ icit' and consented to it. public figure has been defined as a person -ho( by his accomplishments( fame( or mode of living( or by adopting a profession or calling -hich gives the public a legitimate interest in his doings( his affairs( and his character( has become a 'public personage. ?1 SC2A 4:6 81?:?9 IV 2II-ATS O> TA/ ACCUS/= 8S/CS. and no ess a !ersona*e than the -rand /..9 7ora es %s. or a!!ointed $' the court u!on !etition either o) the )1 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Con)essions and Inad&issi$i it' o) /%idence >rancisco -a it #as arrested )or +i in* Nati%idad >ernando on the occasion o) a ro$$er'.t o) the instant case $et#een the constitutiona )reedo& o) s!eech and o) e. Ae #as detained and interro*ated a &ost continuous ' )or 5 da's. Pri%ate res!ondent is a @!u$ ic )i*ure@ !recise ' $ecause. an in)ant !rodi*'. The ist is.' 1e is( in other -ords( a celebrity. -onBa eB. Three reasons #ere *i%en. There #as no e%idence to in+ hi& to the cri&e. -ar heroes and even ordinary soldiers. $' an' !erson on his $eha ). &a' $e &ar+ed out in ter&s o) a re0uire&ent that the !ro!osed &otion !icture &ust $e )air ' truth)u and historica in its !resentation o) e%ents. Ae sha $e in)or&ed o) his constitutiona ri*hts to re&ain si ent and to counse . 1? and 119 7iranda %s. It sha $e the res!onsi$i it' o) the arrestin* o))icer to see to it that this is acco&! ished. /nri e #as a @!u$ ic )i*ure.!ression and the ri*ht o) !ri%ac'. O$rero. /nri e. Because his !artici!ation therein #as &a"or in character. it sha $e the dut' o) the arrestin* o))icer to in)or& hi& o) the reason )or the arrest and he &ust $e sho#n the #arrant o) arrest. 1151:. 331 SC2A 1?. Ae then si*ned the con)ession the' !re!ared. and so cou d not co&! aint #hen the' recei%ed itC that their personalities and their affairs has already public( and could no longer be regarded as their o-n private business2 and that the press had a privilege( under the Constitution( to inform the public about those -ho have become legitimate matters of public interest. 7ahina'. The ine o) e0ui i$riu& in the s!eci)ic conte. 3<4 US 436 81?669 Peo! e %s. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . or an' other entertain&ent. &ore or ess indiscri&ate '. . inter alia. o) his !artici!ation as a !rinci!a actor in the cu &inatin* e%ents o) the chan*e o) *o%ern&ent in >e$ruar' 1?<6. a re ati%e. The ri*ht o) !ri%ac' o) a @!u$ ic )i*ure@ is necessari ' narro#er than that o) an ordinar' citiBen. The !risoner then ad&itted #hat the in%esti*atin* o))icers #anted hi& to ad&it. Obviously to be included in this category are those -ho have achieved some degree of reputation by appearing before the public( as in the case o) an actor..

TA/ PAYSICAL SCI/NC/ 2/PO2T. WON TA/ COU2T O> APP/ALS /22/= IN NOT >IN=IN.a&inin* the urine sa&! es su$&itted )or a$orator' in%esti*ation. to*ether #ith Noe 2e*a a. A so a)ter e. WON TA/ COU2T O> APP/ALS /22/= IN NOT >IN=IN. At the su!!osed re5enact&ent. 7etro 7ani a. A e.:5?4E<F dated 7arch ?. Instead there shou d $e se%era short and c ear 0uestions and e%er' ri*ht e. When the !o ice o!erati%es o) the PNP5 NA2CO7 ser%ed the search #arrant.hi$its MIN and M2N. (r.ecuted the Sa a'sa' that his re ati%es #ere a o#ed to see hi&. his sisters and other re ati%es did not +no# that he had $een $rou*ht to the NBI )or in%esti*ation and it #as on ' a$out 1 #ee+s a)ter he had e. =T51. contain his si*nature. SC a))ir&ed the con%iction o) the !etitioner. The ri*ht to counse &a' $e #ai%ed $ut the #ai%er sha not $e %a id un ess &ade #ith the assistance o) counse . 7oreo%er. (i&eneB and Oscar de Venecia. Accused is )ro& Sa&ar and there is no sho#in* that he understands Ta*a o*. #hich #as issued $' (ud*e 7artin Vi ara&a. Such a on* 0uestion )o o#ed $' a &onos' a$ic ans#er does not satis)' the re0uire&ents o) the a# that the accused $e in)or&ed o) his ri*hts under the Constitution and our a#s. =T51. at the ti&e o) his arrest. 335 SC2A 4:? 81. in connection #ith the en)orce&ent o) a search #arrant E3F in his residence at No. The "ud*&ent o) con%iction o) the o#er court #as a))ir&ed $' the Court o) A!!ea s. The PNP5NA2CO7 tea& a so ins!ected the cars o) accused and the' )ound a Winchester 2a'$an case 8sun* asses9 #ith an undeter&ined a&ount o) sus!ected sha$u residues and tooters in a $ ac+ ! astic container and a u&inu& )oi inside the car o) 2e*a a. sha $e inad&issi$ e in e%idence.. 1??4. 11 11 1. the' )ound the !etitioner and his three 839 co&!anions inside the co&)ort roo& o) the &asterKs $edroo&. The said 2ecei!ts )or Pro!ert' SeiBed. #hich descri$ed the !ro!erties seiBed )ro& the !etitioner $' %irtue o) the search #arrant. 331 Orti*as A%enue. Peo! e %s. considerin* that it #as o$tained in %io ation o) his constitutiona ri*hts. San (uan.! ained in si&! e #ords in a dia ect or an*ua*e +no#n to the !erson under in%esti*ation. #as arrested $' e e&ents o) the PNP NA2CO7. 14: SC2A 16? 81?<:9 Peo! e %s. Ais state&ent does not e%en contain an' #ai%er o) ri*ht to counse and 'et durin* the in%esti*ation he #as not assisted $' one. a re ati%e or a )riend. the )o o#in* sha$u &ateria s and other !ara!herna ias #ere )ound on to! o) a * ass ta$ e inside the &asterKs $edroo&. On 7arch 5. E4F =urin* the search. A'son. 1. 7etro 7ani a. sho#in* that the said urine sa&! es a tested !ositi%e )or the !resence o) &etha&!heta&ine h'droch oride 8sha$u9. 1??4. Peo! e. -reenhi s. )2 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. PNP >orensic Che&ist =e Vi a ca&e out #ith Che&istr' 2e!ort No. 2o"as. A/L=. at the second ) oor o) the house. An' state&ent o$tained in %io ation o) the !rocedure herein aid do#n. inas&uch as the said e%idence #ere o$tained #ithout the assistance o) a a#'er. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ .9 >acts. Pasi*.TAAT TA/ 2/C/IPT >O2 P2OP/2TY S/IW/=. 1. Branch 156.:5?4E:F and Ph'sica 2e!ort No. o) the 2e*iona Tria Court. a*ain accused #as not assisted $' counse o) his choice. (r. The a e*ed con)ession and the !ictures o) the su!!osed re5enact&ent are inad&issi$ e as e%idence $ecause the' #ere o$tained in a &anner contrar' to a#. in #ho e or in ! !ator' or incu !ator'.detainee hi&se ) or $' an'one on his $eha ). These constitute *ra%e %io ations o) his ri*hts. accused5a!!e ant =a%id -utan*. #hich are the 2ecei!ts o) Pro!ert' SeiBed.TAAT TA/ P2/SU7PTION O> INNOC/NC/ O> TA/ ACCUS/= AAS NOT B//N OV/2CO7/ BY P2OO> B/YON= 2/ASONABL/ =OUBT. and TA/ CA/7IST2Y 2/PO2T A2/ INA=7ISSIBL/ IN /VI=/NC/.. 1:5 SC2A 113 81?<?9 -utan* %s. Petitioner insists that the tria court erred in ad&ittin* in e%idence /. Accordin* to !etitioner. In )act. accused #as not !er&itted to co&&unicate #ith his a#'er. Issue. #hether e..

SC disa*rees.hi$it L9 )indin* the said ite&s seiBed to $e !ositi%e )or &ari"uana and sha$u are a so inad&issi$ e inas&uch as the' are &ere conc usions dra#n )ro& the said 2ecei!ts and hence a !art thereo). i. or his *ar&ents or shoes re&o%ed or re! aced. It has $een he d in a on* ine o) cases that the si*nature o) the accused in the 2ecei!t o) Pro!ert' SeiBed is inad&issi$ e in e%idence i) it #as o$tained #ithout the assistance o) counse .a&inations. The ri*ht to counse $e*ins )ro& the ti&e a !erson is ta+en into custod' and ! aced under in%esti*ation )or the co&&ission o) a cri&e.tra5"udicia con)ession #hich is !rohi$ited $' the Constitution. $oth dated 7arch ?.e. 7etro 7ani a. Aence. Sec. Petitioner c ai&s that the ta+in* o) his urine sa&! e a e*ed ' %io ates Artic e III. (r. #ithout runnin* a)ou o) the !roscri!tion a*ainst testi&onia co&!u sion. #hen it &a' $e &ateria . Ao#e%er. an accused &a' %a id ' $e co&!e ed to $e !hoto*ra!hed or &easured.a&ined. in the !etitionerKs contention that since the 2ecei!ts )or Pro!ert' SeiBed 8/.hi$its MLN and M7N. In other #ords. and !articu ar ' descri$in* the ! ace to $e searched and the !erson or thin*s to $e seiBed. )3 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Section 1 o) the Constitution. 1??4.tra5"udicia con)ession and.hi$it L9 inas&uch as the e. and e))ects a*ainst unreasona$ e searches and seiBures o) #hate%er nature and )or an' !ur!ose sha $e in%io a$ e. The )act that the 2ecei!ts o) Pro!ert' SeiBed 8/. SC disa*rees.! ained !ossession o) !rohi$ited dru*s is !unisha$ e $' a#. and no search #arrant or #arrant o) arrest sha issue e.:5?4 8/.hi$its I and 29 the a e*ed *ui t o) the !etitioner )or the cri&es char*ed #ere !ro%en $e'ond reasona$ e dou$t. Ao#e%er.hi$it = and 79 and Che&istr' 2e!ort No. $ut not an inc usion o) his $od' in e%idence.ce!t in #ritin* and in the !resence o) counse .a&ined &ateria s #ere e*a ' seiBed or ta+en )ro& the !etitionerKs $edroo& on the stren*th o) a %a id search #arrant du ' issued $' (ud*e Vi ara&a. e%en #ithout the 2ecei!ts o) Pro!ert' SeiBed 8/. #hich !ro%ides that. This #as a &echanica act the accused #as &ade to under*o #hich #as not &eant to unearth undisc osed )acts $ut to ascertain !h'sica attri$utes deter&ina$ e $' si&! e o$ser%ation. In )act.N SC a*reed. 9. houses. E11F The si*nature o) the accused on such a recei!t is a dec aration a*ainst his interest and a tacit ad&ission o) the cri&e char*ed )or the reason that. it )o o#s that the Ph'sica Science 2e!orts Nos. are a so inad&issi$ e in e%idence since his urine sa&! e #as deri%ed in e))ect )ro& an uncounse ed e.hi$it = and 79 and the Che&istr' 2e!ort 8/. /. or to &o%e his $od' to ena$ e the )ore*oin* thin*s to $e done.a&ination under oath or a))ir&ation o) the co&! ainant and the #itnesses he &a' !roduce.hi$its I and 29 are inad&issi$ e in e%idence does not render inad&issa$ e the Ph'sica Science 2e!orts 8/. are inad&issi$ e in e%idence )or $ein* M)ruits o) the !oisonous tree. #hen the in%esti*atin* o))icer starts to as+ 0uestions to e icit in)or&ation andUor con)ession or ad&issions )ro& the accused. the si*natures o) the !etitioner on the t#o 819 2ecei!ts o) Pro!ert' SeiBed 8/. in the case at $ar.hi$its I and 29 are not ad&issi$ e in e%idence.tra5"udicia con)ession. the a$orator' tests conducted thereon #ere e*a ' and %a id ' done. the sa&e $ein* tanta&ount to an uncounse ed e. The situation in the case at $ar )a s #ithin the e.:5?4 8/. the said 2e!orts containin* the resu ts o) the a$orator' e. aside )ro& the testi&onia and other rea e%idence o) the !rosecution.a&ined ca&e )ro& the $od' o) the accused. &ere une. o) the 2e*iona Tria Court o) Pasi*. The ri*ht o) the !eo! e to $e secure in their !erson. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . #hich are the res!ecti%e Che&istr' and Ph'sica 2e!orts.. are ad&issi$ e in e%idence and su))icient ' !ro%ed that the !etitioner used and had the said !rohi$ited dru*s and !ara!herna ia in his !ossession. =516<5?4 and =T51.e&!tion under the )reedo& )ro& testi&onia co&!u sion since #hat #as sou*ht to $e e. Petitioner a so !osits the theor' that since he had no counse durin* the custodia in%esti*ation #hen his urine sa&! e #as ta+en and che&ica ' e.said e%idence are tanta&ount to ha%in* $een deri%ed )ro& an uncounse ed e. !a!ers.tort co&&unication )ro& the accused. #hat the Constitution !rohi$its is the use o) !h'sica or &ora co&!u sion to e. There)ore. In )act. Since the said &ateria s #ere %a id ' seiBed or ta+en )ro& the $edroo& o) the !etitioner in his !resence. =T51.ce!t u!on !ro$a$ e cause to $e deter&ined !ersona ' $' the "ud*e a)ter e. the record sho#s that !etitioner and his co5accused #ere not co&!e ed to *i%e sa&! es o) their urine $ut the' in )act %o untari ' *a%e the sa&e #hen the' #ere re0uested to under*o a dru* test. Such ri*ht is *uaranteed $' the Constitution and cannot $e #ai%ed e. thus.hi$its I and 29 are inad&issi$ e in e%idence.

SPO 4 2u!erto Neri recei%ed an anon'&ous te e!hone ca su**estin* that a certain @Win*5#in*@ E1. #hen as+ed to si*n the steno*ra!hic notes. 1:1 SC2A 6<? 81??:9 >ACTS. WON TA/ LOW/2 COU2T /22/= IN NOT -IVIN. I i*an Cit' Cha!ter. !. ? < : 6 5 4 -a&$oa %s. On the sa&e da'. A/ 2/>US/= TO SI-N TA/ SA7/. a re!resentati%e o) the IBP Le*a Aid. he ans#ered in the ne*ati%e.istin* a# and "uris!rudence. At the !o ice station. Ae #as !ro%ided #ith the ser%ices o) Att'. at a$out 11. she e)t the c inic #ith C aro Li0ui*an. Bandu a..E16F Pa0uin*an then con)essed.9 /sco$edo %s. I inois. @Win*5#in*@ is (oe -onBa es. -onBa es con)essed that he #as !resent #hen the cri&e #as co&&itted and that he +ne# its !er!etrators. rushed to the ! ace #here her $od' #as disco%ered. When the' !arted #a's. The three accused #ere con%icted o) the cri&e o) 7urder as the +i in* #as attended $' the a**ra%atin* circu&stance o) treacher' ISSU/. #e a*ree #ith the tria court that the record is re! ete #ith other !ieces o) credi$ e e%idence inc udin* the testi&onia e%idence o) the !rosecution #hich !oint to the cu !a$i it' o) the !etitioner )or the cri&es char*ed. In the a)ternoon o) No%e&$er 15. ho#e%er. 31? SC2A 6<4 81. 3<< SC2A 11< 81?6:9 Peo! e %s. 2o&eo TarroBa. I i*an Cit'. E44F In Peo! ev. La*cao as+ed Pa0uin*an i) he #ou d a%ai the ser%ices o) counse and he ans#ered in the a))ir&ati%e. Aer )ather. 1??1. a co5e&! o'ee.E45F #e ru ed that an e. In the &ornin* o) No%e&$er 1?. Aer red $ ouse #as #ide o!en and her !ants re&o%ed. as a &edica techno o*ist. Leo Cahana!. @Lan**a@ and @(i&&'@. /sto&aca. 161 SC2A 641 81?<<9 United States %s. CruB. 2o&eo TarroBa dec ared that the' #ere his nei*h$ors. Under the Constitution and e. did not *i%e the surna&es o) the three sus!ects. AN= IN >ACT. /s!ano a and A$e o. .W/I-AT TO TA/ T/STI7ONY O> ACCUS/=5 APP/LLANT PASUIN-AN TAAT TA/ TAOIN. Y/S. )4 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. a con)ession to $e ad&issi$ e &ust satis)' the )o o#in* re0uire&ents.O> AIS A>>I=AVIT O> CON>/SSION BY CITY P2OS/CUTO2 LA-CAO WAS NOT VOLUNTA2Y. When as+ed i) he had a counse o) his o#n choice. Ca&a*ue.!ressC and 49 the con)ession &ust $e in #ritin*.E1F A)ter #or+in* )or ei*ht hours.3. Susan /cha%eB. Pa%i are.E4F Aer $od' $ore sta$ #ounds. She #as )ound dead. The )act that a!!e ant Pa0uin*an did not si*n his s#orn state&ent casts serious dou$t as to the %o untariness o) its e. -onBa es #as detained at the !o ice station. Ao#e%er.F$e in%esti*ated as he has +no# ed*e o) the cri&e. /s!ano a. (essette TarroBa )ai ed to co&e ho&e that )ate)u e%enin*. the e%idence o) the accused5a!!e ants !ro))ers the de)ense o) a i$i. and Att'. Aer !ant' #as i+e#ise re&o%ed #hi e her $raE5F #as cut. Chie) Lu$an* $rou*ht (i&&' Pa0uin*an to the Cit' ProsecutorDs O))ice )or the ta+in* o) his con)ession a)ter he &ani)ested to the "ai #arden his intention to con)ess. 19 the con)ession &ust $e %o untar'C 19 the con)ession &ust $e &ade #ith the assistance o) co&!etent and inde!endent counse C 39 the con)ession &ust $e e. A!!e ants contend that the tria court erred #hen it ru ed that the s#orn state&ent o) (i&&' Pa0uin*an #as %o untari ' *i%en $' hi& thou*h he re)used to si*n the sa&e.. Cit' Prosecutor U 'sses V. the tria court *a%e credence to the e%idence !resented $' the !rosecution. C aro noticed )our 849 !ersons in the !ath#a' eadin* to (essetteDs house. CONT2A2Y TO TA/ STAT/7/NT O> SAI= P2OS/CUTO2 TAAT IT WAS VOLUNTA2ILY -IV/N BY TA/ SAI= ACCUS/=5APP/LLANT IN VIOLATION O> TA/ 2I-AT O> TA/ ACCUSS/=. 1??1. The !o ice&en as+ed 2o&eo TarroBa #hether he +ne# the sus!ects. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . The' #ere *i%en ti&e to con)er #ith hi&. Pa0uin*an re)used sa'in* he #ou d #ait )or his &other )irst. 3:< US 4:< 81?649 Peo! e %s. !articu ar ' the testi&on' o) state #itness (oe -onBa es. .tra5 "udicia con)ession &ust $e re"ected #here there is dou$t as to its %o untariness. an in)or&ation )or ra!e #ith ho&icideE14F #as )i ed a*ainst Pa0uin*an. Ae identi)ied the& as @Bero'@. Ae in)or&ed that the three sta$$ed and ra!ed (essette TarroBa.&.Assu&in* arguendo that the urine sa&! es ta+en )ro& the !etitioner are inad&issi$ e in e%idence. Wade. (essette TarroBa #ent to #or+ at the 7erc' Co&&unit' C inic. -onBa es. It is inad&issi$ e e%idence.. the e*a counse o) the Cit' 7a'orDs O))ice.ecution. C aro o))ered to escort (essette to her house $ut she re)used sa'in* that she +ne# the !eo! e in the area. 156 SC2A 41? 81??69 Peo! e %s. A/L=.

The &e&$ers o) the tea& s#oo!ed do#n on a!!e ant and arrested hi&. The ri*ht to counse &eans ri*ht to co&!etent and inde!endent counse !re)era$ ' o) his o#n choice. Cahana! cannot 0ua i)' as an inde!endent counse . 161 SC2A 51< 81??69 Peo! e %s. 7a i&it. three 839 hand ro ed stic+s o) &ari"uana ea%es #hich are e*a ' considered !rohi$ited dru*s. A &ar+ed ten5!eso $i #as *i%en to the in)or&ant. Ais o))ice is a+in to a !rosecutor #ho undou$ted ' cannot re!resent the accused durin* custodia in%esti*ation due to con) ict o) interest..6 81??59 Peo! e %s. asserted his innocence to the char*e. Later. he #as &anhand ed and ordered to si*n the @2ecei!t o) SeiBed !ro!ert'@ #ithout the assistance o) counse . Ca%ite. #as )or&ed to conduct a $u'5$ust o!eration. 1?<:. As a e*a o))icer o) the cit'. The !oseur5$u'er then #ent to the house o) a!!e ant and en*a*ed hi& in a con%ersation. 146 SC2A 1. Su$se0uent '. Pa0uin*anDs s#orn state&ent #as ta+en on No%e&$er 15.Additiona '. at a$out 3. When a!!e ant as+ed #h' he #as arrested. Ae #as threatened #ith $odi ' har& i) $e )ai ed to si*n the docu&ent. a!!e ant #as $rou*ht to I&us. Nonethe ess. Ca%ite recei%ed an in)or&ation )ro& their con)identia in)or&ant that a certain @Si. E51F Assi*ned errors nu&$ered 1 and 3 are there)ore ru ed in )a%or o) the a!!e ants.h. Ae re ated that he sa# the stic+s o) &ari"uana !resented in e%idence a*ainst hi& )or the )irst ti&e in I&us. E4:F Custodia interro*ation $e)ore or a)ter char*es ha%e $een )i ed and non5custodia interro*ations a)ter the accused has $een )or&a ' char*ed are considered to $e critica !retria sta*es. a!!e ant #as $rou*ht to the district o))ice o) the NA2CO7 in I&us. An inde!endent counse cannot $e $urdened $' an' tas+ antithetica to the interest o) an accused. Si an*. #hen Pa0uin*an *a%e his con)ession. 2odri*o /s!iritu. 3?? SC2A 614 81. Ca%ite. A an A cantara. Tria court )ound hi& *ui t'. #e ho d that Att'.. 3 1 1 15 14 13 Peo! e %s. he #as to d that he #as !edd in* &ari"uana.. and Inad&issi$i it' o) /%idence >acts. Constitutiona 2i*ht to $e In)or&ed V Assisted $' Counse . 156 SC2A 1<1 81??69 Peo! e %s. A tea&. #as en*a*ed in the sa e o) &ari"uana ea%es. P. 164 SC2A 114 81??69 7ain To!ic. A!!e ant. is a critica !retria sta*e durin* #hich the ri*ht to counse a!! ies. A!!e ant a so c ai&ed that #hen he si*ned the Boo+in* Sheet and Arrest 2e!ort 8/. Won* Chuen 7in*. he $ein* a Le*a O))icer o) I i*an Cit'. Accordin* to the NA2CO7. and distri$ute and *i%e a#a' to another. It #as at that instant that the !oseur5$u'er raised his t5shirt. an in)or&ation )or ra!e #ith ho&icide had a read' $een )i ed a*ainst hi& and his co5a!!e ants. the ri*ht to counse a!! ies in certain !retria !roceedin*s that can $e considered @critica sta*es@ in the cri&ina !rocess.E4<F The in%esti*ation $' >isca La*cao o) Pa0uin*an a)ter the atter has $een )or&a ' char*ed #ith the cri&e o) ra!e #ith ho&icide. A!!e ant #as then $rou*ht to the &unici!a $ui din* in Si an*.@ a resident o) Baran*a' Sa$utan. #ho in turn. de i%erin*. assisted $' his counse 5de5o)icio. #ho #as a so tas+ed to act as the !oseur5$u'er. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . the !oseur5$u'er handed the &ar+ed ten5!eso $i to a!!e ant. 1??1. 164 SC2A 16: 81??69 Peo! e %s. Ae a so c ai&ed that a !o ice&an *ot the &ar+ed &one' )ro& the !oc+et o) S*t.. the sa&e #as ne%er )5 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. On the third da' o) his detention. CIC 2o$erto -e ido and Pat. On No%e&$er 11. e e&ents o) the Anti5Narcotics Co&&and 8NA2CO79 in Bacoor. >ro& Si an*. *a%e hi& a s&a !ac+a*e. 7orico #as accused o) the act o) se in*. Att'. co&!osed o) S*t. @=@9. at 3 oDc oc+ in the a)ternoon. the !re5 arran*ed si*na . another a#'er entered his a!!earance as counse 5de5!arte. the c ai& o) a!!e ant Pa0uin*an that he #as not assisted $' a counse o) his o#n choice #hen his a))ida%it o) con)ession #as ta+en is #orth notin*. Ca%ite. inc udin* the &aintenance o) !eace and order. 7orico. The' reco%ered )ro& hi& the &ar+ed ten5!eso $i . Cahana! !ro%ides e*a assistance and su!!ort to the &a'or and the cit' in carr'in* out the de i%er' o) $asic ser%ices to the !eo! e.39 Pecho %s. Aence. Therea)ter. Peo! e. Sun*a. A!!e ant c ai&ed that he #as #or+in* as a &ason at Baran*a' Sa$utan #hen he #as arrested. /s!iritu and handed the sa&e to hi&. Le*aB!i. At that ti&e. E4?F It is dou$t)u #hether the counse s *i%en to Pa0uin*an #ere o) his o#n choice. Pa0uin*an #as no on*er under custodia in%esti*ationE46F since he #as a read' char*ed in court.

6415. 1:? SC2A :4. 819 No. Issue. Ae re)used. =o&anta'. Peo! e %s. No. A!!e ant sti *ui t' since des!ite the a$sence o) the dis0ua i)ied !ieces o) e%idence. -ue%arra. 3. Section 4 and Section 15 are t#o se!arate and distinct o))enses. distri$utes and trans!orts an' !rohi$ited dru*s. But e%en disre*ardin* this e. the re&ainin* e%idence on record is su))icient to sustain a!!e antDs con%iction. Ae d. 7orada. Andan. 819 Whether or not the tria court erroneous ' con%icted hi& o) an o))ense #hich is not char*ed in the in)or&ation. 819 The in)or&ation on ' char*ed a!!e ant #ith %io atin* Section 4. 839 Whether or not his si*nin* on the 2ecei!t o) Pro!ert' #ithout the assistance o) a counse is %io ati%e o) his constitutiona ri*hts and &ust $e ad&issi$ e as e%idence. as a&ended. se s.hi$it. se s.e. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . 3. the re&ainin* e%idence sti has #ei*ht and is ade0uate to con)ir& his con%iction. An' ad&ission ta+en )ro& a!!e ant. Section 15 !ena iBes an' !erson #ho #ithout authorit' o) a#.! ained to hi& nor #as he assisted $' counse .: SC2A 1 81???9 FACTS: The Court reso %es the so e issue o) con) ict o) "urisdiction $et#een the Cit' Court o) Na*a 8!resided $' res!ondent "ud*e9 and the (u%eni e and =o&estic 2e ations Courts )or Ca&arines Sur and Cities o) Na*a and Iri*a o%er cri&ina cases #here the accused is 16 $ut under 11 'ears o) a*e and ru es that the issuance o) the Chi d and Youth We )are Code 8P= 6. A!!e antDs ar*u&ent shou d $e sustained. E1?<?F9.e. Artic e II o) 2. Accordin* to 7orico.. Section 4 !ena iBes an' !erson #ho. On the )ourth da' o) his detention.A. the !o ice&en de&anded &one' )ro& hi& )or his re ease. To do so #ou d constitute a %io ation o) his constitutiona ri*hts.tra5"udicia state&ent and cannot $e the $asis o) a "ud*&ent o) con%iction 839 Yes. to $e in)or&ed o) the char*es a*ainst hi& and his ri*ht to due !rocess 8Peo! e %. ad&inisters de i%ers. 11 11 1. The Boo+in* Sheet is &ere ' a state&ent o) the accusedDs $ein* $oo+ed and o) the date #hich acco&!anies the )act o) an arrest. he #as con%icted o) a cri&e not char*ed on the in)or&ation. as a resu t o) a %io ation o) his constitutiona ri*ht. un ess authoriBed $' a#. distri$utes and trans!orts an' re*u ated dru*s. An accused cannot $e con%icted o) an o))ense not char*ed in the in)or&ation. It is not an e. a!!e antDs si*nature on this docu&ent is a dec aration a*ainst his interest and a tacit ad&ission o) the cri&e char*ed. 819 Whether or not his si*nin* in the $oo+in* sheet #ithout the assistance o) a counse is %io ati%e o) his constitutiona ri*hts and &ust $e ad&issi$ e as e%idence. ad&inisters. it is not incri&inatin* in nature. is inad&issi$ e in e%idence a*ainst hi&. It is a !o ice re!ort and &a'$e use)u in char*es o) ar$itrar' detention a*ainst the !o ice the&se %es.: SC2A 1 81???9 Peo! e %s. 16? SC2A ?5 81??:9 Peo! e %s. he #as con%icted o) %io atin* Sections 4 and 15 o) the sa&e a#. i. Ao#e%er.39 #hich inc udes such accused #ithin the de)inition o) 'outh)u o))enders 8o%er ? 'ears $ut under 11 'ears at the ti&e o) the co&&ission o) the o))ense9 did not trans)er "urisdiction o%er such cases )ro& the re*u ar courts 8the )6 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty.

!ress ter&s. the atter a&endin* the )or&er con)er "urisdiction on 'outh)u o))enders #ho are a$o%e 16 'ears $ut under 11 'ears o) a*e at the ti&e o) the co&&ission o) the cri&e u!on the (=2C o) Ca&arines Sur and re&o%e the sa&e )ro& the Cit' Court. I) it #ere the intent and !ur!ose o) P.N retains the c assi)ication and !ro%ides that the a!! ication )or con)ine&ent o) truants or out o) schoo 'ouths sha $e )i ed #ith the !ro!er court o) >irst Instance o) the !ro%ince or cit' sa%e that in the case o) 'ouths )7 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty.3.N A *enera a# cannot re!ea a s!ecia a# $' &ere i&! ication. 1?:5 stren*thens the !rosecutionKs stand that "urisdiction o%er accused #ho are 165'ears o d u! to 11 'ears re&ains #ith the re*u ar courts #hi e the (u%eni e Courts retain their i&ited "urisdiction on ' o%er those under 16 'ears. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . =. 6. 65?1 or P. Artic e 1<?9 o) 'outh)u o))enders 8o%er ? and under 11 'ears o) a*e9 did not #ithdra# )ro& the re*u ar courts their "urisdiction to tr' accused !ersons #ho are 16 $ut $e o# 11 'ears o) a*e and trans)er the sa&e to the (u%eni e Courts #hose cri&ina "urisdiction is e. 1?:6. 1.!ress ' i&ited to those #here the accused is under 16 'ears o) a*e. The issuance o) a ater decree.39 concernin* the #e )are o) the chi d and 'outh throu*hout the countr' is a *enera a# #hi e 2. 6. #hich #ent into e))ect on Se!te&$er 11. 2e!u$ ic Act 65?1 #hich too+ e))ect on Se!te&$er 3. 1?:6 $' the Na*a Cit' )isca Ks o))ice #ith %a*ranc' 8Artic e 1.A.!ress ' that it can tr' in cri&ina cases in%o %in* o))enders $e o# the a*e o) &a"orit' on ' those accused #ho are under 16 'ears o) a*e at the ti&e o) the )i in* o) the case. =. :?<. the (u%eni e and =o&estic 2e ations Court o) Ca&arines Sur is a court o) s!ecia and i&ited "urisdiction and the en ar*e&ent or con)er&ent o) additiona "urisdiction on said court to inc ude accused !ersons #ho are 16 'ears and under 11 'ears o) a*e &ust !ositi%e ' a!!ear in e. 6.=. :?<. 1. Thus. P.teen 'ears o) a*e at the ti&e o) the )i in* o) the case. >urther&ore. P. ISSUE: Which court has "urisdiction to tr' cases in%o %in* 'outh)u o))enders 8o%er ? 'ears $ut under 11 'ears at the ti&e o) the co&&ission o) the o))ense9I HE !: The Court sustains the !etition on the )o o#in* *rounds. 6. In an Order dated 7arch 6. as o!ined $' res!ondent "ud*e. 2es!ondent5accused 2o&u o Intia ' 7orada.3 that #ou d sustain res!ondent "ud*eKs ru in* on reconsideration that Mto*ether. 1?:1 created the Ca&arines and i&ited "urisdiction o%er Mcri&ina cases #herein the accused is under si.!ress and s!eci)ic.3 +no#n as the Chi d and Youth We )are Code #hich too+ e))ect on (une 11. It is 0uite !atent that the &ere de)inition in a sin* e artic e o) the Chi d and Youth We )are Code 8P. #as char*ed on >e$ruar' 1. The su$se0uent issuance o) P.. it #ou d ha%e e. The re!ea &ust $e e. 1: 'ears o) a*e.3 to re&o%e )ro& the Cit' Court the "urisdiction o%er 'outh)u accused #ho are 16 $ut $e o# 11 'ears o) a*e and trans)er the sa&e to the (u%eni e Court. 1?:5 and de)ines in Artic e 1<? a 'outh)u o))ender as Mone #ho is o%er nine 'ears $ut under t#ent'5one 'ears o) a*e at the ti&e o) the co&&ission o) the o))enseN did not $' such de)inition trans)er "urisdiction o%er cri&ina cases in%o %in* accused #ho are 16 'ears and $e o# 11 'ears o) a*e )ro& the re*u ar courts 1 to the (u%eni e Court. (urisdiction is con)erred $' a# and there is nothin* in either 2. 6.!ress ' so !ro%ided )or re!ea o) the corres!ondin* !ro%ision as #hen it re!ea ed the Ci%i Code !ro%isions on Ado!tion in Artic e 16 thereo). !ara*ra!h 1 o) the 2e%ised Pena Code9 in res!ondent "ud*eKs court.A. No.=. these t#o a#s. res!ondent "ud*e dis&issed the case on the *round that her court Mhas no "urisdiction to continue to ta+e )urther co*niBance o) this caseN #ithout !re"udice to the re5)i in* thereo) in the (u%eni e Court.=. =. No. MAuthoriBin* the Con)ine&ent in 2eha$i itation Centers or 2e)or&atories o) Truants and Youths out o) Schoo )or No Le*iti&ate 2eason. The Chi d and Youth We )are Code 8P. 65?1 #hich de)ined and con)er "urisdiction on the (u%eni e and =o&estic 2e ations Court )or Ca&arines Sur is a s!ecia a# 3 c assi)'in* e.1.=..Cit' Court in this case9 to the (u%eni e Courts.

under 16 'ears o) a*e the a!! ication sha $e )i ed #ith the (u%eni e Court #here such a court has $een esta$ ished. ACCO2=IN-LY, the dis&issa orders o) res!ondent "ud*e dated 7arch 6, 1?:6 and A!ri 1, 1?:6 are set aside. The case )i ed #ith res!ondent "ud*eKs court is ordered reinstated )or !ro&!t tria and deter&ination on the &erits. ? < : 6 5 4 3 1 1 15 Ace%edo %s. Sar&iento, 36 SC2A 14: 81?:;9 Peo! e %s. Ta&!a , 144 SC2A 1;1 81??59 Peo! e %s. Ta&!us, ?6 SC2A 614 81?<;9 =e a Ca&ara %s. /na*e, 41 SC2A 1 81?:19 To entino %s. Ca&ano, 311 SC2A 55? 81;;;9 /nri e %s. PereB, -2 No. 14::<5, 2eso ution o) the Court /n Banc on 7a' 5, 1;;1 Peo! e %s. Sandi*an$a'an, 4?1 SC2A 1<5 81;;69 Bu aon* %s. Peo! e, 1: SC2A :46 81?669 Peo! e %s. 2e o%a, 14< SC2A 1?1 81?<:9 7e o %s. Peo! e, <5 Phi :66 81?6;9 V. AAB/AS CO2PUS 8S/C. 15 A2T. VII, S/C. 1<9 14 13 Barce on %s. Ba+er, 5 Phi <: 81?;59 Lansan* %s. -arcia, 41 SC2A 44< 81?:19

7ain To!ic. Sus!ension o) Aa$eas Cor!us >acts. In the e%enin* o) Au*ust 11, 1?:1, at a$out ? !.&., #hi e the Li$era Part' o) the Phi i!!ines #as ho din* a !u$ ic &eetin* at P aBa 7iranda, 7ani a, )or the !resentation o) its candidates in the *enera e ections schedu ed )or No%e&$er <, 1?:1, t#o hand *renades #ere thro#n at the ! at)or& #here said candidates and other !ersons #ere. /i*ht !ersons #ere +i ed and &an' &ore in"ured. Proc a&ation <<? #as issued $' the President sus!endin* !ri%i e*e o) Writ o) Aa$eas Cor!us statin* that there is a cons!irac' o) re$e ion and insurrection in order to )orci$ ' seiBe !o itica !o#er. Petitions )or #rit o) ha$eas cor!us #ere )i ed $' !ersons 8139 #ho ha%e $een arrested #ithout a #arrant. It #as stated that one o) the sa)e*uards o) the !roc a&ation #as that it is to $e a!! ied to !ersons cau*ht in ) a*rante de icto. Incidenta ', Proc. <<?5A #as issued as an a&end&ent, insertin* the #ord Mactua ' sta*in*N. Proc. <<?5B #as a so issued i)tin* the sus!ension o) !ri%i e*e in 1: !ro%inces, 3 su$5!ro%inces and 16 cities. Proc. <<?5C #as issued restorin* the sus!ension in 13 !ro%inces and cities 8&ost ' in 7indanao9. Proc. <<?5= )urther i)ted the sus!ension in : !ro%inces and 4 cities. On ' 1< !ro%inces and su$5!ro%inces and 1 cities #hose !ri%i e*e #as sus!ended. Petitioners &aintained that Proc a&ation No. <<? did not dec are the e,istence o) actua @in%asion insurrection or re$e ion or i&&inent dan*er thereo), ho#e%er it $eca&e &oot and acade&ic since it #as a&ended. Petitioners )urther contend that !u$ ic sa)et' did not re0uire the issuance o) !roc a&ations statin*. 8a9 that there is no re$e ionC 8$9 that, !rior to and at the ti&e o) the sus!ension o) the !ri%i e*e, the -o%ern&ent #as )unctionin* nor&a ', as #ere the courtsC 8c9 that no unto#ard incident, con)ir&ator' o) an a e*ed (u '5Au*ust P an, has actua ' ta+en ! ace a)ter Au*ust 11, 1?:1C 8d9 that the PresidentDs a e*ed a!!rehension, $ecause o) said ! an, is non5e,istent and un"usti)iedC and 8e9 that the Co&&unist )orces in the Phi i!!ines are too s&a and #ea+ to "eo!ardiBe !u$ ic sa)et' to such e,tent as to re0uire the sus!ension o) the !ri%i e*e o) the #rit o) ha$eas cor!us. A reso ution #as issued $' &a"orit' o) the Court ha%in* tentati%e ' arri%ed at a consensus that it &a' in0uire in order to satis)' itse ) o) the e,istence o) the )actua $ases )or the !roc a&ations. No# the Court reso %es a)ter conc usi%e decision reached $' &a"orit'. Issues. 819 Whether or Not the authorit' to decide #hether the e,i*enc' has arisen re0uirin* sus!ension 8o) the !ri%i e*e o) the #rit o) ha$eas cor!us9 $e on*s to the President and his decision is )ina and conc usi%e u!on the courts and u!on a other !ersons. 819 Whether or Not !u$ ic sa)et' re0uire the sus!ension o) the !ri%i e*e o) the #rit o) ha$eas cor!us decreed in Proc a&ation No. <<?5A. Ae d. The President has authorit' ho#e%er it is su$"ect to "udicia re%ie#. T#o conditions &ust concur )or the %a id e,ercise o) the authorit' to sus!end the !ri%i e*e to the #rit 8a9 there &ust $e @in%asion, insurrection, or re$e ion@ or @i&&inent dan*er thereo),@ and 8$9 @!u$ ic sa)et'@ &ust re0uire the sus!ension o) the !ri%i e*e. President has three 839 courses o) action. 8a9 to ca out the ar&ed )orcesC 8$9 to sus!end the !ri%i e*e o) the #rit o) ha$eas cor!usC and 8c9 to ! ace the Phi i!!ines or an' !art thereo) under &artia

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11 11 1;

a#. Ae had, a read', ca ed out the ar&ed )orces, !ro%ed inade0uate. O) the t#o other a ternati%es, the sus!ension o) the !ri%i e*e is the east harsh. Petitioners contention that CPP5NPA has no a$i it', is ne*ated $' the +i in* o) 5 &a'ors, 1; $arrio ca!tains and 3 chie)s o) !o iceC that there #ere )ourteen 8149 &eanin*)u $o&$in* incidents in the -reater 7ani a Area in 1?:;. CPP has &ana*ed to in)i trate or esta$ ish and contro nine &a"or a$or or*aniBationsC has e,! oited the 8119 &a"or student or 'outh or*aniBationsC a$out thirt' 83;9 &ass or*aniBations acti%e ' ad%ancin* the CPP. Ve asco %s. CA, 146 SC2A 6:: 81??59 7oncu!a %s. /nri e, 141 SC2A 133 81?<69 So&$on* %s. CA, 151 SC2A 663 81??;9 VI. LIB/2TY O> ABO=/ AN= T2AV/L 8S/C. 69 2u$i %s. Pro%incia Board o) 7indoro, 3< Phi 66; 81?1<9 Vi a%icencio %s. Lu+$an, 3? Phi ::< 81?1<9 Sa on*o %s. Aer&osa, ?: SC2A 111 81?<;9 7anoto+ %s. CA, 141 SC2A 14? 81?<69 Oant O#on* %s. PC--, 156 SC2A 111 81?<:9 7arcos %s. 7an* a!us, 1:: SC2A 66< 81?<?9 VII. C2U/L, =/-2A=IN- O2 INAU7AN PUNISA7/NT and /LC/SSIV/ >IN/S 8S/C1?9 Peo! e %s. /stoista, ?3 Phi 64: 81?539 /che*ara' %s. Secretar' o) (ustice, 16: SC2A 651 81??:9C 1?: SC2A :54 81??<9 VIII. >2//=O7 O> /LP2/SSION 8S/C. 49 -it o# %s. Ne# Yor+, 1<< US 651 81?159 Te,as %s. (ohnson, 4?1 US 3?: 81?<?9 Schen+ %s. US, 14? US 4: 81?1?9 A$ra&s %s. US, 15; US 616 81?1?9

? < : 6 5 4

3 1

1 15 14 13

7ain To!ic. Li&itation to >reedo& o) S!eech >acts o) the Case The de)endants #ere con%icted on the $asis o) t#o ea) ets the' !rinted and thre# )ro& #indo#s o) a $ui din*. One ea) et si*ned @re%o utionists@ denounced the sendin* o) A&erican troo!s to 2ussia. MThe )irst o) these ea) ets sa's that the PresidentDs co#ard ' si ence a$out the inter%ention in 2ussia re%ea s the h'!ocris' o) the ! utocratic *an* in Washin*ton. It inti&ates that @-er&an &i itaris& co&$ined #ith a ied ca!ita is& to crush the 2ussian e%o ution @ 55 *oes on that the t'rants o) the #or d )i*ht each other unti the' see a co&&on ene&' 55 #or+in* c ass en i*hten&ent, #hen the' co&$ine to crush it, and that no# &i itaris& and ca!ita is& co&$ined, thou*h not o!en ', to crush the 2ussian re%o ution. It sa's that there is on ' one ene&' o) the #or+ers o) the #or d, and that is ca!ita is&C that it is a cri&e )or #or+ers o) A&erica, Vc., to )i*ht the #or+ersD re!u$ ic o) 2ussia, and ends @A#a+e^ A#a+e, 'ou Wor+ers o) the Wor d, 2e%o utionists^@ A note adds It is a$surd to ca us !ro5-er&an. We hate and des!ise -er&an &i itaris& &ore than do 'ou h'!ocritica t'rants. We ha%e &ore reasons )or denouncin* -er&an &i itaris& than has the co#ard o) the White Aouse.N The second ea) et, #ritten in Yiddish, denounced the #ar and US e))orts to i&!ede the 2ussian 2e%o ution. MThe other ea) et, headed @Wor+ers 55 Wa+e U!,@ #ith a$usi%e an*ua*e sa's that A&erica to*ether #ith the A ies #i

)( Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$

&arch )or 2ussia to he ! the CBec+o5S o%a+s in their stru** e a*ainst the Bo she%i+i, and that this ti&e the h'!ocrites sha not )oo the 2ussian e&i*rants and )riends o) 2ussia in A&erica. It te s the 2ussian e&i*rants that the' no# &ust s!it in the )ace o) the )a se &i itar' !ro!a*anda $' #hich their s'&!ath' and he ! to the !rosecution o) the #ar ha%e $een ca ed )orth, and sa's that, #ith the &one' the' ha%e ent or are *oin* to end, @the' #i &a+e $u ets not on ' )or the -er&ans, $ut a so )or the Wor+ers So%iets o) 2ussia,@ and )urther, Wor+ers in the a&&unition )actories, 'ou are !roducin* $u ets, $a'onets, cannon, to &urder not on ' the -er&ans, E!616F $ut a so 'our dearest, $est, #ho are in 2ussia and are )i*htin* )or )reedo&. It then a!!ea s to the sa&e 2ussian e&i*rants at so&e en*th not to consent to the @in0uisitionar' e,!edition to 2ussia,@ and sa's that the destruction o) the 2ussian re%o ution is @the !o itics o) the &arch to 2ussia.@ The ea) et #inds u! $' sa'in* @Wor+ers, our re! ' to this $ar$aric inter%ention has to $e a *enera stri+e^@ and, a)ter a )e# #ords on the s!irit o) re%o ution, e,hortations not to $e a)raid, and so&e usua ta ta + ends, @Woe unto those #ho #i $e in the #a' o) !ro*ress. Let so idarit' i%e^ The 2e$e s.@N The de)endants #ere char*ed and con%icted )or incitin* resistance to the #ar e))ort and )or ur*in* curtai &ent o) !roduction o) essentia #ar &ateria . The' #ere sentenced to 1; 'ears in !rison. Issue. Whether or not the a&end&ents to the /s!iona*e Act or the a!! ication o) those a&end&ents in this case %io ate the )ree s!eech c ause o) the >irst A&end&ent. Conc usion No and no. The actDs a&end&ents are constitutiona and the de)endantsD con%ictions are a))ir&ed. In C ar+eDs &a"orit' o!inion, the ea) ets are an a!!ea to %io ent re%o ution, a ca )or a *enera stri+e, and an atte&!t to curtai !roduction o) &unitions. The ea) ets had a tendenc' to encoura*e #ar resistance and to curtai #ar !roduction. Ao &es and Brandeis dissented on narro# *round. the necessar' intent had not $een sho#n. These %ie#s #ere to $eco&e a c assic i$ertarian !ronounce&ent.

11 11 1; ? < : 6 5 4 3 1 1 15 14 13

Branden$ur* %s. Ohio , 3?65 US 444 81?6?9 Sa on*a %s. Pano, 134 SC2A 43< 81?<69 -onBa es %s. Co&e ec, 1: SC2A <35 81?6?9 =ennis %s. US, 341 US 4?4 81?519 US %s. ODBrien, 3?1 US 36: 81?6<9 >CC %s. Paci)ica >oundation, 43< US :16 81?:<9 2eno %s. ACLU, 1:: S. Ct. 131?C 13< L. /d. 1d <:4 81??:9 Cha! ins+i %s. Ne# Aa&!shire, 315 US 56< 81?419 Cohen %s. Ca i)ornia, 4;3 US 15 81?:19 2AV %s. St. Pau , 111 St. Ct. 153< 81??19 US %s. Bustos, 3: Phi :31 81?1<9 7utuc %s. Co&e ec, 36 SC2A 11< 81?:19 Tin+er %s. =es 7oines Schoo =istrict, 3?3 US 5;3 81?6?9 Near %s. 7innesora, 1<3 US 6?: 81?9 -ros"ean %s. A&erican Press Co., 1?: US 133 81?369

(9 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$

or the nu&$er o) !eo! e reached and not the nu&$er o) ad%ertise&ent.. a&on* other thin*s on the *round that the ta.. In this sense. Ao#e%er. it is curtai in* the ri*ht o) the !eo! e to !artici!ate in )or&in* o!inions a$out &is*o%ern& shou d not $e a o#ed.. &a* as the one under consideration. the ta. historica '. >irst. its e))ect #as to curtai the a&ount o) re%enue rea iBed )ro& ad%ertisin*C and. The Court reca ed the i&!ortant )unction o) the !ress. The a!!e ees )i ed )or an in"unction.... sha .. constituted a %io ation o) the ri*ht to )reedo& o) e. )ir&. Issue. &onthsD i&!rison&ent o) si.D under consideration cou d not $e "usti)ied. The e%i s to $e !re%ented #ere not the censorshi! o) the !ress &ere '. #as desi*nated as an ad%ertisin* ta.. It 0uoted #ith a!!ro%a )ro& one o) the standard e*a te.ercise o) their ri*hts as citiBens. Ae d.!ression. the ne#s!a!ers o) each en"o' a circu ation o) &ore than 1. #as !unisha$ e $' a )ine. >or these reasons. co!ies !er #ee+. the Court considered that its direct tendenc' #as to restrict circu ation. or $oth. the ta... such ta. The )or& o) the ta. o) 1 !ercent on the *ross recei!ts deri%ed )ro& ad%ertise&ents carried in their ne#s!a!ers #hen. )or ad%ertisin* and )or re*istration.. the Dre*istration ta.!ression. The Court considered that. !a' a icense ta. nine !u$ ishers o) ne#s!a!ers. and other "ourna s o) the countr'. and on ' #hen. co!ies !er #ee+ . or curtai the o!!ortunit' )or. en*a*ed in the $usiness o) se in*...D >ai ure to !a' the ta. acted as a dou$ e restraint. second. o!erated as a ta. had $rou*ht a suit to en"oin the en)orce&ent a*ainst the& o) a e*is ati%e re0uire&ent Dthat e%er' !erson. sanction constituted a %io ation o) the ri*ht to )reedo& o) e.. as it ser%es as a dou$ e restraint #ith t#o a'ers o) ta. The ne#s!a!ers. #hether !rinted or !u$ ished .. &onths. *rantin* a !er&anent in"unction. #hatsoe%er. association or cor!oration . &ore i*ht on the !u$ ic and $usiness a))airs o) the nation than an' other instru&enta it' o) !u$ icit'C and since in)or&ed !u$ ic o!inion is the &ost !otent o) a restraints u!on &is*o%ern&ent. The Court considered that the ta. re%enue to the *o%ern&ent #as o) su$ordinate concern.. The Court considered )urther&ore that it had no dou$t $een the intention o) the )ra&ers o) the Constitution to ensure that such a$usi%e i&!osition o) ta.7ain To!ic. constituted a %io ation o) the ri*ht to )reedo& o) e... Yes..ation and >reedo& O) the Press >acts.. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . These #ere re&iniscent o) Mta. Whether or not the ta. !u$ ication #ith a circu ation o) &ore than 1. ha%e shed and continue to shed.i&u& sentence o) si. $ut an' action o) the *o%ern&ent $' &eans o) #hich it &i*ht !re%ent such )ree and *enera discussion o) !u$ ic &atters as see&s a$so ute ' essentia to !re!are the !eo! e )or an inte i*ent e. or $' a &a. The Court considered that the ta. the do&inant and contro in* ai& #as to !re%ent.t$oo+s. in an' . ad%ertisin* or )or ad%ertise&ents. it is sa)e to sa'. the su!!ression or a$rid*e&ent o) the !u$ icit' a))orded $' a )ree !ress cannot $e re*arded other#ise than #ith *ra%e concern. . The o#er court he d )or a!!e ees.!ression. The a!!e ees. These #ere !rotested a*ainst not due to their )inancia ta. In the instant case. there) on +no# ed*eN #hich #ere ra&!ant on the o den da's as enacted $' the /n* ish Cro#n J the &ain ro e o) #hich is to su!!ress the chea!er !a!ers #hich #ere the on ' &edia a%ai a$ e to the !oorer &asses. Instead.. itse ) as sus!icious since its $asis is the circu ation. $urden $ut on its a$i it' o) den'in* in)or&ation to the !eo! e. 8re)erence o&itted9 The Court reiterated that this shou d not $e inter!reted as re ie%in* ne#s!a!ers and other !u$ ishers )ro& !a'in* an' ta... (1 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. the ac0uisition o) +no# ed*e $' the !eo! e in res!ect o) their *o%ern&enta a))airs. or &a+in* an' char*e )or.

Su i%an. :1?5 o) the Cit' o) 7ani a.. Ba*atsin*. 141 SC2A 1:1 81?<69 /astern Broadcastin* %s. US. Inc. co&&unicatin* thou*hts $et#een citiBens. The in%ocation o) the ri*ht to )reedo& o) !eacea$ e asse&$ ' carries #ith it the i&! ication that the ri*ht to )ree s!eech has i+e#ise $een disre*arded. It is i&!ortant to note that since ti&e i&&e&oria Luneta has $een used )or !ur!oses o) asse&$ '. A a$a&a. #hether an indi%idua or a *rou!. =ans. on the choice o) Luneta as the ! ace #here the !eace ra ' #ou d start. Ao#e%er (ustice A0uino dissented that the ra ' is %io ati%e o) Ordinance No. 363 US 463 81?669 7i er %s. 115 SC2A 553 81?<39 7ain To!ic.. Aence the Court reso %es.59 Ne#s#ee+ Inc. 2o$ert We ch. 35: US 44? 81?5<9 -er&an %s. a the necessar' ste!s #ou d $e ta+en $' it @to ensure a !eace)u &arch and ra '. Oa a#5Oati*$a+. 4:: SC2A 4<1 81. (urado. There can $e no e*a o$"ection.ercise o) the constitutiona ri*hts to )ree s!eech and asse&$ '. Theonen. in the a)ternoon. !rohi$itin* the ho din* o) ra ies #ithin a radius o) )i%e hundred 85.11 11 1. :13 81?:19 -inB$ur* %s. It is sett ed a# that as to !u$ ic ! aces. !ursuant to the Vienna con%ention.istence o) a c ear and !resent dan*er o) a su$stanti%e e%i that cou d "usti)' the denia o) a !er&it. 2es!ondent su**ested that a !er&it &a' $e issued i) it is to $e he d at the 2iBa Co iseu& or an' other enc osed area #here the sa)et' o) the !artici!ants the&se %es and the *enera !u$ ic &a' $e ensured.9 )eet )ro& an' )orei*n &ission or chancer' and )or other !ur!oses.N Ao#e%er the re0uest #as denied. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . %s. %s.istence o) a c ear and !resent dan*er o) a su$stanti%e e%i . US. 41< US 313 81?:49 VaB0ueB %s. 15: SC2A 64: 81?<<9 -onBa es %s. Constitutiona 2i*ht To Peace)u Asse&$ ' >acts. 141 SC2A 1:1 81?<69 In 2e. a$sent the e. 135 SC2A 514 81?<59 2e'es %s. \. US. a short !ro*ra& #ou d $e he d. 314 SC2A 46 81???9 Phi s.. 1?<3 )ro& 1.!ected to attend. and discussin* !u$ ic (2 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. 44< SC2A 5:5 81.. IAC. there is )reedo& o) access. Nor is their use de!endent on #ho is the a!! icant )or the !er&it.. Baran*an. to 5. and in an o!en s!ace o) !u$ ic !ro!ert'. Petitioner sou*ht a !er&it )ro& the Cit' o) 7ani a to ho d a !eace)u &arch and ra ' on Octo$er 16. Issue. Whether or Not the )reedo& o) e. An ora ar*u&ent #as heard and the &andator' in"unction #as *ranted on the *round that there #as no sho#in* o) the e... Yes. 13: SC2A :1: 81?<59 7T2CB %s. The &arch #ou d $e attended $' the oca and )orei*n !artici!ants o) such con)erence. There #as i+e#ise an assurance in the !etition that in the e. startin* )ro& the Luneta to the *ates o) the United States /&$ass'. ? < : 6 5 4 3 1 1 15 14 13 NY Ti&es %s. That #ou d $e )o o#ed $' the handin* o%er o) a !etition $ased on the reso ution ado!ted at the c osin* session o) the Anti5Bases Coa ition. 3:6 US 154 81?649 -ertB %s. Ca i)ornia. es!ecia ' so as to !ar+s and streets.!ression and the ri*ht to !eacea$ ' asse&$ e #as %io ated.59 NAACP %s. 2e)erence #as &ade to !ersistent inte i*ence re!orts a))ir&in* the ! ans o) su$%ersi%eUcri&ina e e&ents to in)i trate or disru!t an' asse&$ ' or con*re*ations #here a ar*e nu&$er o) !eo! e is e. Once there. ABS5CBN Broadcastin* Cor!.. (ourna ists. Inc. Ae d. 413 US 15 81?:39 NY Ti&es %s. CA.

there #as no sho#in* that there #as %io ation and e%en i) it cou d $e sho#n that such a condition is satis)ied J it does not )o o# that res!ondent cou d e*a ' act the #a' he did. The a!! icants )or a !er&it to ho d an asse&$ ' shou d in)or& the icensin* authorit' o) the date. )eet. CONT2ACTS CLAUS/ 8S/C.. 1.9 2utter %s.5 81?<:9 Su&u on* %s.1 Phi . 2e'es. Vi e*as. on ' the consent o) the o#ner or the one entit ed to its e*a !ossession is re0uired.. 81?<. Such a!! ication shou d $e )i ed #e ahead in ti&e to ena$ e the !u$ ic o))icia concerned to a!!raise #hether there &a' $e %a id o$"ections to the *rant o) the !er&it or to its *rant $ut at another !u$ ic ! ace. 111 SC2A 156 81?<39 S#a**art 7inistries %s. 354 US 1?< 81?5:9 IL ACC/SS TO PUBLIC IN>O27ATION 8S/C. US. ?9 /strada %s. CA. :9 Le*as!i %s.< SC2A 1 81. 154 SC2A 461 81?<:9 7anoto+ %s.0uestions. =i%ision o) Schoo s. 1:. =u a'. /7IN/NT =O7AIN =e Oneecht %s. 15. 4< SC2A 3<1 81?:19 Yates %s. Pu$ ic /states Authorit'. 1.9 Aeirs o) (uancho Ardona %s. /ste$an. the denia is #ithout $asis.3 US 6. 15. SC2A 156 81?<?9 Cha%eB %s. OurtB&an. $een a !art o) the !ri%i e*es. Board o) /0ua iBation.39 Le&on %s. 3<6 81?5:9 /$rani a* %s. the !u$ ic ! ace #here and the ti&e #hen it #i ta+e ! ace. 2/LI-ION AN= NON5/STABLISA7/NT O> 2/LI-ION 8S/C. 15? SC2A 51? 81??69 LI. Such use o) the !u$ ic ! aces has )ro& ancient ti&es. -uerrero. 4?3 SC2A 3:< 81??. Na%arro %s. >errer. Bautista. ri*hts. ? < : (3 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Cit' o) 7ani a. 4. 14? SC2A 3. Ci%i Ser%ice Co&&ission. 11? SC2A 35? 81?<49 Peo! e %s. SC2A 53. 81?<39 /PWA %s. 3?1 US 136 81?6<9 A&erican Bi$ e Societ' %s. 31 SC2A :31 81?6<9 7a a$ana %s. ?3 Phi 6< 81?:?9 Ausorio %s. There #as no c ear and !resent dan*er in this case nor is there an' !roo) that the distance $et#een the e&$ass' and the area is ess than 5. 81?<:9 Va &onte %s.. 1: SC2A 15 81?669 11 11 1. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . (r. NAA. CA2. 4. A su&&ar' o) the a!! ication )or !er&it )or ra '. 113 SC2A 11. A en. there)ore. 2a&ento.. Be &onte. SC2A <? 81?<:9 LII. SC2A 66. i&&unities. /scritor. With re*ard to the ordinance.9 I* esia ni Cristo %s. and i$erties o) citiBens. ? < : 6 5 4 3 1 1 15 14 13 11 11 1. 3<4 SC2A \\\ 81. Notice shou d $e *i%en to a!! icants )or the denia . 1.19 L. The %a idit' o) his denia o) the !er&it sou*ht cou d sti $e cha en*ed. It is an indis!ensa$ e condition to such re)usa or &odi)ication that the c ear and !resent dan*er test $e the standard )or the decision reached..1 81?:19 Board o) /ducation %s. I) it #ere a !ri%ate ! ace.

/L5POST >ACTO L/-ISLATION AN= BILL O> ATTAIN=/28S/C.6 Nor&an %s. AernandeB. 31 Phi 51? 81?159 Co %s.ecuti%e !o#ersC Aas BP 11 trans*ressed the constitutiona inhi$ition a*ainst i&!rison&ent )or de$tI To ans#er the 0uestion. ! enar'. *ood order and 5 4 3 1 1 15 14 13 (4 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. Because o) its de eterious e))ects on the !u$ ic interest. The So icitor -enera .ercise o) the !o ice !o#er and is not re!u*nant to the constitutiona inhi$ition a*ainst i&!rison&ent )or de$t. The thrust o) the a# is to !rohi$it. NON5I7P2ISON7/NT >O2 =/BT AN= INVOLUNTA2Y SU2VITU=/ 8S/C. Linda'a*. Ao#e%er. $ut an o))ense a*ainst !u$ ic order. 1<9 -ana#a' %s. Is it the )ai ure o) the &a+er o) the chec+ to !a' a de$tI Or is it the &a+in* and issuance o) a #orth ess chec+ in !a'&ent o) a de$tI What is the *ra%a&en o) the o))enseI This 0uestion ies at the heart o) the issue $e)ore us.a&ine #hat the statute !rohi$its and !unishes as an o))ense. insistent and i i&ita$ e 8 east i&ita$ e9 o) !o#ers@ #hich ena$ es it to !rohi$it a thin*s hurt)u to the co&)ort. Inserto. 819 it o))ends the constitutiona !ro%ision )or$iddin* i&!rison&ent )or de$tC 819 it i&!airs )reedo& o) contractC 839 it contra%enes the e0ua !rotection c auseC and 849 it undu ' de e*ates e*is ati%e and e. 11: SC2A 444 81??39 LIV. rooted in the conce!tion that &an in or*aniBin* the state and i&!osin* u!on the *o%ern&ent i&itations to sa)e*uard constitutiona ri*hts did not intend there$' to ena$ e indi%idua citiBens or *rou! o) citiBens to o$struct unreasona$ ' the enact&ent o) such sa utar' &easures to ensure co&&una !eace. @suita$ ' %a*ue and )ar )ro& !recise ' de)ined. Cara. contendin* that no o))ense #as co&&itted.5 81?119 Sera)in %s. Non5i&!rison&ent )or =e$t and In%o untar' Ser%itude >acts. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . The *ra%a&en o) the o))ense !unished $' BP 11 is the act o) &a+in* and issuin* a #orth ess chec+ or a chec+ that is dishonored u!on its !resentation )or !a'&ent. it is necessar' to e. the Su!re&e Court )inds it "usti)ia$ e to inter%ene )or the re%ie# o) o#er courtDs denia o) a &otion to 0uash. the &a+in* o) #orth ess chec+s and !uttin* the& in circu ation. as the statute is unconstitutiona . The a# is not intended or desi*ned to coerce a de$tor to !a' his de$t. Issue. 146 SC2A 313 81?<69 7ain To!ic. -ui en. A &otion to 0uash the char*e a*ainst the !etitioners )or %io ation o) the BP 11 #as &ade. Whether or not BP 11 is constitutiona as it is a !ro!er e. <: SC2A 166 81?:<9 US %s. sa)et' and #e )are o) societ'. 1?4 US 14. under !ain o) !ena sanctions. Ba ti&ore. Ae d. Such &otion #as denied $' the 2TC. It is not the non5!a'&ent o) an o$ i*ation #hich the a# !unishes. Vito. 7artineB. the !ractice is !roscri$ed $' the a#. ?? Phi ?34 81?569 Peo! e %s. The !o ice !o#er o) the state has $een descri$ed as @the &ost essentia . CA. It is a !o#er not e&anatin* )ro& or con)erred $' the constitution. sa)et'. The enact&ent o) BP 11 a %a id e. 41 Phi <16 81?119 A"eno %s. :1 SC2A 166 81?:69 LoBano %s. co&&ented that it #as !re&ature )or the accused to e e%ate to the Su!re&e Court the orders den'in* their &otions to 0uash. The !etitioners thus e e%ate the case to the Su!re&e Court )or re ie). The a# !unishes the act not as an o))ense a*ainst !ro!ert'.ercise o) !o ice !o#er o) the State. 119 2e!u$ic %s. 81?359 LIII. $ut inherent in the state. 41 Phi <. Those #ho 0uestion the constitutiona it' o) BP 11 insist that.

the a# shou d !unish $oth the s#ind er and the s#ind ed. not &a u& in se $ut $ecause o) the har& that it in) icts on the co&&unit'. The )reedo& o) contract #hich is constitutiona ' !rotected is )reedo& to enter into @ a#)u @ contracts. #e &ust $ear in &ind that chec+s cannot $e cate*oriBed as &ere contracts. This ar*u&ent is tanta&ount to sa'in* that. under !ain o) !ena sanctions.ercise o) its !o ice !o#er. We )ind no %a id *round to sustain the contention that BP 11 i&!airs )reedo& o) contract. The o*ic o) the ar*u&ent stretches to a$surdit' the &eanin* o) @de e*ation o) e*is ati%e !o#er. to *i%e e0ua !rotection. The a# !unishes the act not as an o))ense a*ainst !ro!ert'. B' no stretch o) o*ic or i&a*ination can it $e said that the !o#er to de)ine the cri&e and !rescri$e the !ena t' there)or has $een in an' &anner de e*ated to the !a'ee. in"ure the $an+in* s'ste& and e%entua ' hurt the #e )are o) societ' and the !u$ ic interest.@ What cannot $e de e*ated is the !o#er to e*is ate. in this &ode& da' and a*e. the !o#er to de)ine the o))ense sou*ht to $e !unished and to !rescri$e the !ena t'. It is a so su**ested that BP 11 constitutes undue or i&!ro!er de e*ation o) e*is ati%e !o#ers. The !etitionersD !osture i*nores the #e 5acce!ted &eanin* o) the c ause @e0ua !rotection o) the a#s. The har&)u !ractice o) !uttin* %a ue ess co&&ercia !a!ers in circu ation. it is a &ista+en charit' o) "ud*&ent to ! ace hi& in the sa&e cate*or' #ith the honest &an #ho is una$ e to !a' his de$ts. there ha%e $een cases #herein #e he d that the constitutiona !ro%ision on non5i&!air&ent o) contracts &ust 'ie d to the !o ice !o#er o) the state. e. Whether the !o ice !o#er &a' o%erride the constitutiona inhi$ition a*ainst i&!rison&ent )or de$t is an issue #e do not ha%e to address. The thrust o) the a# is to !rohi$it.#e )are. has $eco&e a con%enient su$stitute )or &one'C it )or&s !art o) the $an+in* s'ste& and there)ore not entire ' )ree )ro& the re*u ator' !o#er o) the state. or the !o#er to &a+e a#s #hich &eans.i*encies o) chan*in* ti&es. there #ou d $e no cri&e.@ The c ause does not !rec ude c assi)ication o) indi%idua s. I) the !a'ee does not !resent the chec+ to the $an+ )or !a'&ent $ut instead +ee!s it. Neither do #e )ind su$stance in the c ai& that the statute in 0uestion denies e0ua !rotection o) the a#s or is discri&inator'. It is contended that the !a'ee is "ust as res!onsi$ e )or the cri&e as the dra#er o) the chec+. An act &a' not $e considered $' societ' as inherent ' #ron*. the &a+in* and issuance o) a #orth ess chec+ is dee&ed !u$ ic nuisance to $e a$ated $' the i&!osition o) !ena sanctions. There are occasions #hen the !o ice !o#er o) the state &a' e%en o%erride a constitutiona *uarant'. $ut a so an in"ur' to the !u$ ic. As stated e se#here. The &ischie) it creates is not on ' a #ron* to the !a'ee or ho der. As a!t ' stated.ercise o) the !o ice !o#er and is not re!u*nant to the constitutiona inhi$ition a*ainst i&!rison&ent )or de$t. It is a co&&ercia instru&ent #hich. on the theor' that the o))ense is not co&! eted $' the so e act o) the &a+er or dra#er $ut is &ade to de!end on the #i o) the !a'ee. $ut an o))ense a*ainst !u$ ic order. The state can do this in the e. since #ithout the indis!ensa$ e !artici!ation o) the !a'ee $' his acce!tance o) the chec+ there #ou d $e no cri&e.a&! e. Besides. The e))ects o) the issuance o) a #orth ess chec+ transcends the !ri%ate interests o) the !arties direct ' in%o %ed in the transaction and touches the interests o) the co&&unit' at ar*e.ce!t in cases o) )raud #as intended as a shie d and not a s#ord. $ut not the !a'ee. the &a+in* o) #orth ess chec+s and !uttin* the& in circu ation. !o ice !o#er is a d'na&ic )orce that ena$ es the state to &eet the e. it can $e out a#ed and cri&ina ' !unished as &a u& !rohi$itu&. This $rid*e has not $een reached. MThe Dchec+ ) asherD does a *reat dea &ore than contract a de$tC he sha+es the !i ars o) $usinessC and to &' &ind. hence. as a!! ied to the !resent case. so there is no occasion to cross it. can %er' #e !o ute the channe s o) trade and co&&erce. We ho d that BP 11 does not con) ict #ith the constitutiona inhi$ition a*ainst i&!rison&ent )or de$t. &u ti! ied a thousand )o d. and )or #ho& the constitutiona inhi$ition a*ainstD i&!rison&ent )or de$t. >or e. as a &atter o) !u$ ic !o ic'.@ The enact&ent o) BP 11 is a dec aration $' the e*is ature that. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . #e )ind the enact&ent o) BP 11 a %a id e. Contracts #hich contra%ene !u$ ic !o ic' are not a#)u . since it !ena iBes the dra#er o) the chec+. Neither is there an' !ro%ision in the statute that can $e (5 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty.N In su&. #ho &a' $e accorded di))erent treat&ent under the a# as on* as the c assi)ication is no unreasona$ e or ar$itrar'.

>2// ACC/SS TO COU2TS AN= OTA/2 SUASI5(U=ICIAL A-/NCI/S 8S/C. 11: SC2A 5?1 81??39 2e'es %s. 11< SC2A :1? 81??39 =/CS %s. CA.1 81??19 UP %s. su!ra A cuaB %s. ? < : 6 (6 Constitutional Law Review – Bill of Rights / Atty. 6< SC2A 1:: 81?:59 Isa$e o %s. 1?4 SC2A 4. 1<.construed. CA. SC2A 534 81?<?9 and Ta$ arin %s. as undue de e*ation o) e. Jose Grapilon PLM LAW – Bat h !"#$ . no &atter ho# re&ote '. PSBA. 119 LVI. Per!etua Ae !. -utierreB. 154 SC2A :3. 81?<:9 Non %s. 161 SC2A : 81?<<9 11 11 1. The su**estion that the statute un a#)u ' de e*ates its en)orce&ent to the o))ended !art' is )ar)etched. >acu t' Ad&ission Co&&ittee. San =ie*o.ecuti%e !o#er. LV. ACA=/7IC >2//=O7 -arcia %s. (ud*e =a&es.