CHARACTERISTI CS Basic, general structure

VIRUSES
• Very small: 20 to 450 nm; shapes can vary – round pointy helical • !ieces o" #$% or &$% are 'rapped in a symmetrical protein sheath called a capsid. (he capsid is made up o" sub)units called capsomeres. (he protein coat protects the nucleic acid "rom nuclease en*ymes in the host cell. • +ome viruses have , or 2 speci"ic en*ymes that are important "or replication in the host cell. • +ome viruses that in"ect animal cells have an envelope made "rom lipoproteins -that originate "rom the cell membrane o" the host.. • /acteriophages are viruses that speci"ically in"ect bacterial cells – their structure di""ers slightly "rom the traditional virus. /acteriophages tend to in0ect their #$% into the bacterial cell leaving its capsid on the outside o" the bacterial cell. • %ny kind o" organism -e1cept mosses2. can be in"ected by a virus. • $either. • Viruses only contain "ragments o" #$% or &$% 'hich may be linear circular single stranded or double stranded – this is the template "or the production o" ne' viral nucleic acids and proteins. %cellular. Viral particles not called viral cells but virions. $one. $one. (hey have no metabolism and there"ore do not need energy. !olydna viruses ) (he "ull genome o" this virus is integrated into the genome o" the speci"ic 'asp and the virus only replicates in the ovaries o" the "emale 'asp. (he virus is in0ected along 'ith the 'asp egg into the body cavity o" a host caterpillar and in"ects cells o" the caterpillar. 3ithout the virus in"ection blood cells 'ill encapsulate and kill the 'asp egg but the immune suppression caused by the virus allo's "or hatching and complete development o" the immature 'asp in the caterpillar. • (his can only take place inside a host cell. • Viruses connect to a receptor on the host cell4s sur"ace and by either "using 'ith the cell membrane or endocytosis the virus enters the host4s cell. • (he envelope is lost the protein capsid is broken do'n and the &$% or #$% is released in the cytoplasm. • (he host4s #$% is used to produce the components o" ne' virions -en*ymes so that the viral genome can be replicated as 'ell as proteins "or the ne' capsids.. • $e' viral particles assemble themselves to "orm virions and then leave the cell.

http://scienceaid.co.uk/biology/mi cro/viral.html

Prokaryote or Eukaryote

Uni- or multicellular Cell walls utrition Sym!iotic relations"i#s

Re#ro$uction

http://www.clinicaloptions.com/~/medi a/InPractice/HIV/Ch %2010%20Overview%20of %20 !V/Overview"of" !Vs"#i$%re2 .ash&

Positi%e e&&ect or role in en%ironment ' sym!iotic relations"i#s or economic uses

• Viruses can be used in vaccinations -live but 'eakened viruses "or 55& or "lu or inactivated viruses against hepatitis or polio. • 6t can be used in gene therapy to bring genetic material into cells to compensate "or an abnormal/mutated gene or to make a bene"icial protein. • Viruses can target and kill selected cell populations like rapidly dividing cancer cells e.g. liver and cervical cancer. • /acteriophages can be used as pesticides in agriculture targeting e.g. the bacteria that cause tomato spot. • 6t can be used "or the production o" proteins "or industrial and research purposes.

egati%e e&&ect or 6n"luen*a %6#+ herpes polio common cold chicken po1 measles mumps and rubella. $iseases
#eveloped by 7. 8o""man and !. 8anekom -65+(9+.

CHARACTERIS TICS
Basic, general structure
• • • • •

BACTERIA
(hey come in various shapes: rods -bacilli. spherical -cocci. spiral -spirilla. or comma shaped -vibrio. can have one or more "lagella "or movement. /acteria are present in air 'ater plants animals even in hot springs and at a very lo' p8 -%chaea. %ll bacteria have a cell 'all cell membrane cytoplasm a single chromosome and ribosomes. +ome have a capsule on the outside o" the cell 'all -"or protection and to stick together. "lagella -hair like appendages "or movement in li:uids. and endospores -that make them resistant to harsh conditions.. /acteria carry out respiration although they do not have mitochondria. !rokaryotes ) they lack a true nucleus -genetic material included in a nucleus 'ith a membrane. %ll bacteria contain a single circular chromosome. %l'ays unicellular. ;occus and /acillus bacteria species o"ten "orm colonies e.g. diplococcic species -2 together. streptococci -cells in a chain. and staphylococci -mass o" cells.. (he cell 'all gives the cell its particular shape. !rokaryote cell 'alls are uni:ue – it contains a comple1 polymer kno'n as peptidoglycan. ('o types o" bacteria <ram positive and <ram negative. #i""erences in cell 'all structures make one type keep the gram stain and the other not. <ram = or ) is important especially "or diagnosing diseases. (he chemical composition o" the cell 'all plays an important role in the vulnerability to antibiotics. 5ost bacteria are heterotrophs "eeding on dead organic matter. +ome bacteria are photoautotrophs e.g. the C'ano(acteria)that contains chlorophyll -close to the cell membrane not in chloroplasts. +ome are chemoautotrophs that can e.g. convert ammonia and ammonium into nitrites and nitrates 'hich plants can use. >thers are parasites that live in association 'ith other living organisms. *scherichia)coli are normal inhabitants o" the intestines o" all animals including humans. (hey are straight rod)shaped <ram)negative bacteria 'hich normally serve a use"ul "unction in the body by suppressing the gro'th o" harm"ul bacterial species and by synthesising vitamin A and /. &uminants like co's and buck rely on bacteria in their stomachs to break cellulose do'n. -;ellulose gives rigidity to the cells; the bonds bet'een cellulose molecules are very strong.. 6n the Begume "amily are plants like peanuts soybean clover and rooibos that have symbiotic nitrogen "i1ing bacteria called !hi+o(i%m 'ithin nodules in their root systems. (hese bacteria chemically convert the nitrogen "rom the air and make it available "or the plant. 5ostly takes place ase1ually through a process called binary "ission -Cin t'o splittingD. % type o" se1ual reproduction can occur. -(he nuclei never completely "use but genetic in"ormation is passed "rom one bacterium to another resulting in genetic recombination.. +ome species are able to "orm spores -endospores. in un"avourable conditions -heat "ree*ing e1treme p8 chemicals and dehydration. 'hich enable them to become dormant/resting. 3hen "avourable conditions return the spores germinate to "orm a ne' cell again. #ecomposition o" organic matter in the soil maintaining soil "ertility. ;learing the environment by breaking do'n organic compounds e.g. dead plant material and animal carcasses. Eermentation o" milk to "orm yogurt and cheese 'here bacteria "erment/ break do'n sugars to "orm lactic acid 'hich sours the milk and hinders the gro'th o" pathogenic bacteria. <enetic engineering can put a human gene -e.g. the gene responsible "or producing insulin. inside bacteria 'hich then reproduce "ast under suitable conditions so that a lot o" insulin is produced in a short time. !roduction o" antibiotics e.g. streptomycin and tetracycline

Pro- or Eukaryote Uni- or multicellular Cell walls

• • • • • • • •

utrition

• • • •

Sym!iotic relations"i#s


http://schaechter.asmblog.org/sch aechter/200?/0@/e)coli)in) good).html

Re#ro$uction

• • •

Positi%e e&&ect or role in en%ironment ' or economic uses

• • • • •

#eveloped by 7. 8o""man and !. 8anekom -65+(9+.

• •

!roduction o" certain plastics ethanol and other chemicals #uring se'age treatment bacteria break do'n the material into acids carbon dio1ide and methane. /acteria cause diseases such as cholera tuberculosis tetanus bacterial pneumonia bacterial meningitis even tooth decay. 6n plants bacteria can cause blight rust lea" spot ect.

egati%e e&&ect or $iseases

CHARACTERIST ICS
Basic, general structure • • •

PR(TISTA
(his kingdom has a diverse group o" organisms that are all eukaryotes 'hich cannot be classi"ied as "ungi plants or animals. (hey vary hugely in si*e – some are microscopic others as large as trees -bro'n plant)like kelp.. 5any are "ree)living 'ith "lagella "or movement - *%$lena.; some have cilia or move 'ith pseudopodia. >thers have none o" these. +till others are sessile and attach themselves to e.g. rocks under the 'ater.

Prokaryote or Eukaryote Uni- or multicellular Cell walls utrition

7ukaryotes – all protists have a proper membrane bound nucleus. Very diverse. !rotists include single)celled organisms like Chlam'domonas colonial "orms e.g. Volvo& -made up o" 500 – F0 000 individuals. o" multi) cellular organisms such as ,piro$'ra and sea 'eeds. >n the outside o" the cell membrane di""erent protists can have di""erent material to "orm cell 'alls – pectin silica or cellulose. +ome like the green bro'n and red algae are autotrophs 'hich photosynthesise; others like the proto*oa are heterotrophs - moe(a)and the slime moulds that look like "ungi. or parasites that cause diseases -Plasmodi%m-).r'panosoma.. • !roto*oa living in the intestines o" termites digest the 'ood eaten by the termites • (he common "resh'ater ciliate Parameci%m)(%rsaria is an e1ample o" endosymbiosis by protists. <reen alge/endosymbionts "i1 carbon through photosynthesis 'hile the host provides nitrogen compounds. -7ndosymbiosis takes place in many a:uatic multicellular organisms that live in symbioses 'ith photosynthetic algae ) 'ell)kno'n e1amples are corals and sponges..

Sym!iotic relations"i#s

Paramecium
http://protist.i.hosei.ac./p/pd(/ima$e s/ciliophora/parameci%m/(%rsaria/sp "10.html

Re#ro$uction

• • •

%lgae divide ase1ually rarely se1ually. !roto*oa divide ase1ually via binary "ission sometimes se1ually by con0ugation -e1change o" nuclei. or by the production and "usion o" gametes. 5any protists can survive harsh conditions by "orming cysts -dormant "orms o" a cell 'ith resistant outer coverings in 'hich very little metabolism occur.. 6n a:uatic ecosystems algae release o1ygen and produce "ood during photosynthesis. 71tracts "rom sea'eeds are used "or agar plant gro'th hormones mineral salt tablets iodine in cosmetics paints medicine and salad dressings. #iatomes 'ith their silica cell 'alls "orm sediment ) this "ine clay is used "or

Positi%e e&&ect or role in en%ironment ' or economic uses

• • •

#eveloped by 7. 8o""man and !. 8anekom -65+(9+.

paper paint and as "ilters in some s'imming pools. egati%e e&&ect or • $iseases •
http://prosewor0s.(lo$spot.com/201 2/10/science1and1official1st'le1 %n%s%al1match.html

5alaria is caused by a protist)parasite belonging to the Plasmodi%m)group -the nopheles)mos:uito is the second host. .r'panosoma causes sleeping sickness. (he protists are not killed by the immune system because it has a glycoprotein -V+<. coating.

#eveloped by 7. 8o""man and !. 8anekom -65+(9+.

CHARACTERIS TICS
Basic, general structure
• • •

)U *I
%ll "ungi develop "rom spores and no "ungi display "lagella cilia or chloroplasts. 5any "ungi are made o" thread)like "ilaments called hyphae. &hi*oids are root)like parts o" hyphae that anchor the "ungus to the substrate; the stolons are the hyphae that gro' over the substrate 'hereas the sporangiophores stand up straight and carry the sporangia. (he 'hole tangled intert'ining mass o" hyphae are called the mycelium+ 5ycelium increases the sur"ace area o" the "ungi to absorb more nutrients. Eungal mycelium is mostly hidden "rom human vie' because it is usually hidden deep 'ithin its "ood source -such as rotting matter in the soil lea" litter rotting 'ood or dead animals.. (he mycelium remains undetected until it develops one or more "ruiting bodies containing the reproductive spores. (he "ruiting bodies are carried at the sur"ace o" the "ood source -not hidden 'ithin the substrate. and allo's "or spores to be shed and carried a'ay by 'ind 'ater or animals. 7ykaryote – #$% is enclosed in a double membrane to "orm a nucleus +ome multi)nucleated non septated species are said to be coenocytic -<reek CkoinosD meaning shared and CkytosD a vessel. +ome are unicellular -e.g. yeast. but most are multi)cellular. 5ost species have cell 'alls "rom chitin a minority has cell 'alls "rom cellulose. 7ach hyphae is one continuous cell but they may have septae/ cross)'alls that divide the cytoplasm or the cross)'alls may be per"orated or the cross)'alls may be absent -!hi+op%s-)2%cor.. 5ost "ungi are saprophytic heterotrophs that live on dead organic matter. +ome are parasitic. +aprophytic "ungi use digestive en*ymes to break do'n their "ood outside their bodies they then absorb the digested "ood. +ome "ungi live in a mutualistic relationship 'ith other organisms e.g lichens !redaceous "ungi specialise to capture microscopically small animals ) they can secrete a sticky substance on the hyphae or "orm a loop that s'ells and strangle e.g. round 'orms. 6n lichens a "ungus and a green algae or cyanobacterium co)e1ists. (he algae produce organic "ood via photosynthesise 'hereas the "ungus supplies the inorganic nutrients. 5ycorrhi*ae are mutually bene"icial associations bet'een plant roots e.g "ynbos plants in nutrient poor soils and "ungi. Eungus hyphae help in 'ater and mineral uptake "or the plant and in doing so increase plant gro'th 'hile the plant roots secrete a substance that the "ungus need. +ome "ungi "orm mutualistic relationships 'ith ants ) ants actively spread nurture and de"end the "ungus; the "ungus provides nutrients "or the ants in return. Eungi produce spores in both ase1ual and se1ual li"e cycles. 5ushrooms let out spores "rom their gills that are carried by the 'ind to meet other spores and become a ne' "ungus. Geast are unicellular and divide into ne' "ungal cells -mitosis. +aprophyte "ungi are essential decomposers that use non)living organic material. (his is important in recycling carbon nitrogen and essential mineral nutrients /reaking do'n o" rocks into soil. 9sed as "ood "or humans and animals -e.g mushrooms tru""els. 9sed in bread beer cheese -;amembert &o:ue"ort .and 'ine making Geasts – baking and bre'ing beer %ntibiotics – penicillin H cephalosporin !roduction o" organic acids – citric acid in ;oke +teroids and medicines – birth control pills



http://www.carta$e.or$.l(/en/themes/scie nces/lifescience/$eneral(iolo$'/micro(iol o$'/#%n$i/Classification/Classification.ht m

Prokaryote or Eukaryote
Uni- or multicellular

• • • • •

Cell walls

utrition

• • • •

Sym!iotic relations"i#s

• •

Re#ro$uction

• • •

• Positi%e e&&ect or role in en%ironment ' or • economic uses • • • • • •

#eveloped by 7. 8o""man and !. 8anekom -65+(9+.

egati%e e&&ect or $iseases

• •

#iseases like ring'orm athlete4s "oot thrush in humans !arasitic "ungi cause @0I o" plant diseases e.g. po'dery milde' on "ruit ergot parasite in rye rusts in plants

#eveloped by 7. 8o""man and !. 8anekom -65+(9+.