AJANTA CAVES – MAHARASHTRA

SITE The Ajanta Caves (Ajiṇṭhā leni; Marathi: अज िंठा लेणी) in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra, India are about 30 rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BCE to about 480 or 650 CE

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
In the early 19th century (year 1819) some British soldiers were out hunting in the Deccan plateau. One of them suddenly saw, from a height, a horseshoe rock; His curiosity aroused by the entrance of a cave. The hunting party ventured across the ravine of the Waghur River. And they discovered several caves, against which bush, shrubs earth and stones had piled up. Goatherds for shelter were using a few.The Government was informed about this finding and soon the Archaeologists began excavate them. Many experts have been restoring them during the last fifty years. The shock of discovery was worldwide. All the rock-cut caves had paintings on verandahs, inner walls and ceilings, these revealed some of the most beautiful masterpieces of world art.

LOCATION
The caves are located in the Indian state of Maharashtra, Jalgaon, just outside the village of Ajinṭhā 20°31′56″N 75°44′44″E), about 59 km(36.6609 miles) from Jalgaon railway station on the Delhi – Mumbai line of the Central Railway zone, and 104km(4.62miles) from the city of Aurangabad. The Ajanta caves are cut into the side of a cliff that is on the south side of a U-shaped gorge on the small river Waghora (or Wagura), and although they are now along and above a modern pathway running across the cliff they were originally reached by individual stairs or ladders from the side of the river 35 to 110 feet below.

NUMBER OF CAVES
The total numbers of caves are 30. Most of them were finished, a few were half finished, A pathway, scooped out from stone, runs as a crescent by the caves for pedestrians. From this, one can have a glorious view of the ravine below for many years, expert scholars and other learned men form all over the world, have visited the Ajanta caves. Millions of pilgrims and tourists have been there. The great scholar, late Prof. D.D. Kosambi, suggested that all the caves in the caves in the Western Ghats, from Shudhaghar, through Karla, Bhaja, Nasik, Pitalkhora, to Ajanta are located on the crests of an ancient trade route from the Arabian sea in to the Deccan. This may be one good reason, which explain the carving in the Ajanta rocks, nearby were the Mandis or trade centers, of Deogiri and Jalgaon.The second reason was clearly the texture of the granite rock. This was in layers, which could be easily cut with instruments available to the craftsman in those days. The third reason is that the Buddhist monks always preferred to live in secluded spots. They went to collect alms from the village and small towns and trade centers, but came back for quiet contemplation in ravines and gorges, away from the crowds.

LOCATION MAP

AJANTA CAVES ON THE MAP OF INDIA

CONTEXT OF THE SURROUNDINGS
Located at Aurangabad in Maharashtra is the famous rock cut cave excavations, Ajanta. The caves at Ajanta are excavated in the semi-circular scarp of a steep rock about 76 m high. Totally thirty excavations were hewn out at Ajanta. These rock cut caves at Ajanta are considered to be one of the finest examples of Buddhist rock-cut architecture.

R E S T O R A T I O N A N D

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS

CAVE 13,22 PROTECTION SCULPTURES USED
The site is a protected site. It is protected by the UNESCO.

CAVE 17

CAVE 15,20

CAVE 6

CAVE 4

ARCHITECTURAL STYLE
Rock cut architecture was followed in both Ajanta and Ellora.

CAVE 7,9

CAVE 14

CAVE 3,5,10,18

CAVE 2

RELIGIOUS SIGNIFICANCE:
The painting and sculptures in the caves are of Buddhist origin; Gautama Buddha (600 B.C.) was against painting and Sculpture. He forbade image of himself. Also he was against the use of coluorful clothes such as may excite desire he did not admit women to the order of nuns. He felt that all life was pain. The best way to attain salvation (Nirvana) was to suppress all for happiness.

ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS
The monasteries mostly consist of vihara halls for prayer and living, which are typically rectangular with small square dormitory cells cut into the walls, and by the second period a shrine or sanctuary at the rear centred on a large statue of the Buddha, also carved from the living rock. This change reflects the movement from Hinayana to Mahāyāna Buddhism. The other type of main hall is the narrower and higher chaitya hall with a stupa as the focus at the far end, and a narrow aisle around the walls, behind a range of pillars placed close together. Other plainer rooms were for sleeping and other activities. Some of the caves have elaborate carved entrances, some with large windows over the door to admit light. There is often a colonnaded porch or verandah, with another space inside the doors running the width of the cave. The central square space of the interior of the viharas is defined by square columns forming a more or less square open area. Outside this are long rectangular aisles on each side, forming a kind of cloister. Along the side and rear walls are a number of small cells entered by a narrow doorway; these are roughly square, and have small niches on their back walls. Originally they had wooden doors. The centre of the rear wall has a larger shrine-room behind, containing a large Buddha statue. The viharas of the earlier period are much simpler, and lack shrines.Spink in fact places the change to a design with a shrine to the middle of the second period, with many caves being adapted to add a shrine in mid-excavation, or after the original phase. The plan of Cave 1 (right) shows one of the largest viharas, but is fairly typical of the later group. Many others, such as Cave 16, lack the vestibule to the shrine, which leads straight off the main hall. Cave 6 is two viharas, one above the other, connected by internal stairs, with sanctuaries on both levels.The four completed chaitya halls are caves 9 and 10 from the early period, and caves 19 and 26 from the later period of construction.

P R E S E R V A T I O N

STUPA INSIDE THE CAVES

PAINTINGS USED IN THE CAVES

PALLAVI MATHUR RICHA MALIK TANVIR KAUR

as in cave 1 (illustrated left).and the earlier two are thought to have used actual timber ribs. The ceiling decoration invariably consists of decorative patterns. some fluted and others carved with decoration all over. CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS AND MATERIALS These caves are excavated in horse–shoe shaped bend of rock surface nearly 76 m in height overlooking a narrow stream known as Waghora. then the spaces are filled with requisite colours in different shades and tones to achieve the effect of rounded and plastic volumes. the Satpura Range in the north. often changing profile over their height. kaolin. General deterioration of rock surface. The paintings were executed after elaborate preparation of the rock surface initially. Certain leakages inside the caves. bamboo. Archaeological Survey of India maintains and manages the property as per the provisions laid out in the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites & Remains Act 1958 and Rules 1959. with both chaitya halls using simple octagonal columns. Management The monument is maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India and governed by its rules and regulations. II. but allows walking behind it. which were painted with figures. In the semiarid tracts. which reflect timber forms. whereas in fresco the paintings are executed while the lime wash is still wet which. and mango and coconut trees. plant forms are rich with lofty trees. gypsum. geometrical as well as floral. 4. The colours and shades utilised also vary from red and yellow ochre. The paintings at Ajanta are not frescoes as they are painted with the aid of a binding agent. The authenticity of the World Heritage property is maintained without any change since the inscription of the property in the World Heritage List. variegated shrubs. The rock surface was left with chisel marks and grooves so that the layer applied over it can be held in an effective manner.ave 29 is a late and very incomplete chaitya hall.6. terra verte. R E S T O R A T I O N A N D P R E S E R V A T I O N LANDSCAPING Forests cover less than one-fifth of the state and are confined to the Western Ghats. Mangrove vegetation occurs in marshes and estuaries along the coast. In the second period columns were far more varied and inventive. to lime. Over this surface. Then the surface was finally finished with a thin coat of lime wash. and the Chandrapur region in the east. Many columns are carved over all their surface. wild dates are found. Factors affecting the site 1. View into the sanctuary of cave 1 from the central hall. The two later halls have a rather unusual arrangement (also found in Cave 10 at Ellora) where the stupa is fronted by a large relief sculpture of the Buddha. which have now perished. The chief binding material used here was glue. The forests yield teak. which is near the back. notably in upland Maharashtra.AJANTA CAVES – MAHARASHTRA ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS All follow the typical form found elsewhere. mainly their transverse ranges. and magnolia are common. paddy husk.4. 2. as walking around stupas was (and remains) a common element of Buddhist worship (pradakshina). Bamboo. often spreading wide. The later two have high ribbed roofs. with high ceilings and a central "nave" leading to the stupa. and other woods. myrobalan (for dyeing).Thorny savanna-like vegetation occurs in areas of lesser rainfall. Minor human agencies who at times try to scribble their names on the rock surface. A second coat of mud and ferruginous earth mixed with fine rock-powder or sand and fine fibrous vegetable material was applied over the ground surface. The ground layer consists of a rough layer of ferruginous earth mixed with rock-grit or sand. standing in Cave 19 and seated in Cave 26. Monitoring The monitoring of the property is carried out periodically by the administrative set up of Archaeological Survey of India through its various branches like Conservation. Entry of bat into the cave interior. The form of columns in the work of the first period is very plain and un-embellished. Science and Horticulture PALLAVI MATHUR RICHA MALIK TANVIR KAUR . vegetable fibres. Subtropical vegetation is found on higher plateaus that receive heavy rain and have milder temperatures. II. and with elaborate carved capitals. chestnut. On the coast and adjoining slopes. thereby acts as an intrinsic binding agent. The Buddha in the shrine room is seen through the aisle and vestibule.5. II. outlines are drawn boldly. lamp black and lapis lazuli. 3. grass and other fibrous material of organic origin on the rough surface of walls and ceilings.

The property continues to express its Outstanding Universal Value through its archaeological remains. Its early history is well documented in the accounts of Chinese travellers.SOC Report 2006 2006 –Decision . The long-term challenges for the protection and management of the property are to control the impact of visitors. Among the pilgrims was the Indian emperor Ashoka.SOC Reports .SOC Report 2009 2009 –Decision --33COM 7B. who erected one of his commemorative pillars there.Lumbini.SOC Report 2012 2012 –Decision . the remains within the Maya Devi Temple consisting of brick structures in a cross-wall system dating from the 3rd century BC to the present century and the sandstone Ashoka pillar with its Pali inscription in Brahmiscript. The delicate balance must be maintained between conserving the archaeological vestiges of the property while providing for the pilgrims.Cultural Properties .Lumbini. not to be rediscovered until they were identified in 1896 by Dr A Fiihrer and Khadga Samsher. and other establishments that they visited there. The inscription on the Lumbini pillar identifies this as the birthplace of the Lord Buddha.State of Conservation (Lumbini.SOC Reports -SOC Report 2005 2005 – Decision . the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha (Nepal) (C 666 rev) 2010 – Decision . Western Terai N27 28 8.SOC Report 2008 2008 –Decision . the Lord Buddha.66 Lumbini. the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha (Nepal) 2005 .Lumbini. Criterion (vi): The archaeological remains of the Buddhist viharas (monasteries)and stupas (memorial shrines) from the 3rd century BC to the 15th century AD. the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha (Nepal) (C 666 rev) 2012 –Decision -36COM 8D Clarifications of property boundaries and areas by States Parties in response to the Retrospective Inventory. the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha (Nepal) 2003 –Decision . where the archaeological remains associated with the birth of the Lord Buddha form a central feature. in the famous gardens of Lumbini. The remains of viharas.SOC Reports .95 ha Buffer zone: 23 ha DOCUMENTS 1997 .C.SOC Reports -SOC Report 2004 2004 –Decision -28COM 15B. Additionally there are the excavated remains of Buddhist viharas (monasteries) of the 3rd century BC to the 5th century AD and the remains of Buddhist stupas (memorial shrines) from the 3rd century BC to the 15th century AD. The site is now being developed as a Buddhist pilgrimage centre. The reasons for its ceasing to attract Buddhist pilgrims after the 15th century remain obscureThe Buddhist temples fell into disrepair and eventually into ruins. The property falls within the centre of the Master Plan area. the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha . the sacred area in Lumbini is one of the most holy and significant places for one of the world’s great religions. while she was on a journey from her husband's capital of Tilaurakot to her family home in Devadaha.35-43 State of conservation reports of cultural properties which the Committee noted 2002 – Decision .34COM 8B.29COM 7B. The site management is carried out by the Lumbini Development Trust.004 E83 16 33.26COM 21B.65 . provide important evidence about the nature of Buddhist pilgrimage centres from a very early period.Lumbini.SOC Reports . The site is now being developed as a Buddhist pilgrimage centre. the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha) 2008 . The entire property including the buffer zone is owned by the Government of Nepal and is being managed by the Lumbini Development Trust and therefore there is little threat of development or neglect. stupas.46 . The complex of structures within the archaeological conservation area includes the Shakya Tank.54 . then Governor of Palpa. However the effects of industrial development in the region have been identified as a threat to the integrity of the property.State of conservation reports of cultural properties noted by the Committee 2000 – Decision . stupas and numerous layers of brick structures from the 3rd century BC to the present century at the site of the Maya Devi Temple are proof of Lumbini having been a centre of pilgrimage from early times. Kenzo Tange between 1972 and 1978.35COM 7B.Lumbini.Lumbini. In the early 14th century King Ripu Malla recorded his pilgrimage in the form of an additional inscription on the Ashoka pillar. HISTORICAL DESCRIPTION The Shakya Prince Siddharta Gautama. PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS The property site is protected by the Ancient Monument Preservation Act 1956. testified by the inscription on the Asoka pillar.Ortophotomap of the inscribed property 2012 . INTEGRITY The integrity of Lumbini has been achieved by means of preserving the archaeological remains within the property boundary that give the property its Outstanding Universal Value.62 Lumbini.Examination of minor boundary modifications . The entire property is owned by the Government of Nepal.SOC Reports . wife of King Suddodhana. Rupandehi District. The significant attributes and elements of the property have been preserved. Lumbini was a site of pilgrimage until the 15th century AD.53 . the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha (Nepal) 2004 .79 .74 . the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha (Nepal) 2006 .55 . was born in 623 B. who described the temples.996 Date of Inscription: 1997 Property : 1. R E S T O R A T I O N A N D P R E S E R V A T I O N CRITERIA Criterion (iii): As the birthplace of the Lord Buddha. an autonomous and non-profit making organization. was born to Queen Mayadevi. the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha . the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha (Nepal) (C 666 rev) 2011 –Map -Lumbini.32COM 7B. BRIEF DESCRIPTION Siddhartha Gautama. The buffer zone gives the property a further layer of protection.Map of the inscribed property 2011 –Map -Lumbini. AUTHENTICITY The authenticity of the archaeological remains within the boundaries has been confirmed through a series of excavations since the discovery of the Asoka pillar in 1896.Lumbini. where the archaeological remains associated with the birth of the Lord Buddha form a central feature. the planning of which was initiated together with the United Nations and carried out by Prof. in 623 BC at the famous gardens of Lumbini.75 . PALLAVI MATHUR TANVIR KAUR RICHA MALIK .Advisory Body Evaluation Advisory Body Evaluation 1997 –Decision . ruler of Kapilavastu.27COM 7B. Further excavations of potential archaeological sites and appropriate protection of the archaeological remains are a high priority for the integrity of the property. and natural impacts including humidity and the industrial development in the region. better known as the Lord Buddha.36COM 7B. the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha (Nepal) 2011 .23COM XB. notably Fa Hsien (4th century AD) and Hsuan Tsang (7th century AD).24COM VIIIiii. the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha (Nepal) 1999 – Decision -State of Conservation Report: 1999 1999 –Decision . which soon became a place of pilgrimage. discovered the Ashoka pillar.Report of the 21st Session of the Committee 1997 – Decision .SOC Report 2011 2011 – Decision . the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha (Nepal) (C 666) 2009 .SOC Reports .21COM VIIIC Inscription: Lumbini. The property boundary however does not include the entire archaeological site and various parts are found in the buffer zone.LUMBINI – THE BIRTHPLACE OF LORD BUDDHA INTRODUCTION Lumbini Zone.58 .30COM 7B.

2006MapSwayambhu Monument Zone.2 – 2005 .76 . 2006MapChangunarayan Monument Zone. 2006SOC ReportsSOC Report 2006 2006Decision30COM 8B. doorways and roof struts have rich decorative carvings. These developed into a growing spiritual orientation towards Tantrism.Minor Modifications to the Boundaries (Kathmandu Valley) 2006Decision30COM 8C.75 .66 Kathmandu Valley (Nepal) (C 121) HISTORICAL DESCRIPTION The Kathmandu Valley has been the politically and culturally dominating part of Nepal. Patan and Bhaktapur. which reached an apogee between 1500 and 1800 AD. Kathmandu Valley. 2006 . in particular new infrastructure. and Changu Narayan comprises traditional Newari settlement. OUTSTANDING UNIVERSAL VALUE BRIEF SYNTHESIS Located in the foothills of the Himalayas.3 . providing the highest level of national protection. The windows. the Kirati period.SOC Reports . PALLAVI MATHUR TANVIR KAUR RICHA MALIK .Properties maintained in the List of World Heritage in Danger 2006 .Kathmandu Valley (Nepal) (C 121) 2007Mission ReportJoint ICOMOS-UNESCO mission.26 . The unique tiered temples are mostly made of fired brick with mud mortar and timber structures.KATHMANDU VALLEY INTRODUCTION Kathmandu Valley N27 42 14. Prithvi Narayan Shah.28COM 15A. and some of the monuments had to be rebuilt using much of the original elements and decoration. Criterion (vi): The property is tangibly associated with the unique coexistence and amalgamation of Hinduism and Buddhism with animist rituals and Tantrism. R E S T O R A T I O N A N D P R E S E R V A T I O N CRITERIA Criterion (iii): The seven monument ensembles represent an exceptional testimony to the traditional civilization of the Kathmandu Valley. Kathmandu Valley (24-29 April 2007) (ICOMOS-UNESCO) 2007SOC ReportsSOC Report 2007 2007Decision31COM 7A. The coexistence and amalgamation of Hinduism and Buddhism with animist rituals and Tantrism is considered unique. local government and non-governmental organizations within the responsibilities and authorities clearly enumerated in the Integrated Management Plan for the Kathmandu World Heritage Property adopted in 2007. that of Bauddhanath includes the largest stupa in Nepal. ensembles and urban fabric illustrating the highly developed culture of the Valley. From the middle of the 13th century. In 1769 the valley was conquered and united by a leader coming from the outside. ensembles of temples and stupas are unique to the Kathmandu Valley. Pashupati and Changu Narayan. ICOMOS International) 2012SOC ReportsSOC Report 2012 2012Decision36COM 7B. there is a dark period until 14th century and the arrival of the Mallas. The property has been managed by the coordinative action of tiers of central government. 2006MapBhaktapur Durbar Square Monument Zone.MapPatan Durbar Square Monument Zone. The implementation of the Integrated Management Plan will be reviewed in five-year cycles allowing necessary amendments and augmentation to address changing circumstances. competing between themselves and bringing the artistic expressions to the highest point by the mid 18th century. the authenticity of the historic ensembles as well as much of the traditional urban fabric within the boundaries has been retained. Ratish NANDA. Pashupati has an extensive Hindu temple precinct.24 Kathmandu Valley (Nepal) 2005 – Decision . the city of Bhadgaon (Bhaktapur) prospered and became a major training centre.23 Kathmandu Valley (Nepal) (C 121 bis) 2007Decision31COM 8C. displaying a highly developed traditional craftsmanship and situated within a traditional urban or natural setting. He made Kathmandu his royal city. After the 9th century. The religious ensemble of Swayambhu includes the oldest Buddhist monument (a stupa) in the Valley. with gilded brass ornamentation. Even though the Kathmandu Valley has undergone immense urbanization. 2006MapPashupati Monument Zone. and a Hindu temple complex with one of the earliest inscriptions in the Valley from the fifth century AD. The valley was divided into three rival kingdoms.Kathmandu Valley (Nepal) (C 121) 2011SOC ReportsSOC Report 2011 2011Decision35COM 7B. Patan is believed to have expanded into a consolidated town by the end of the 7th century.29COM 7A. These encompass the seven historic ensembles and their distinct contexts. is manifested in the unique urban society which boasts of one of the most highly developed craftsmanship of brick. UNESCO World Heritage Centre . 1956. referred to as the Newars. Its legendary and documented histories are so interrelated that these are difficult to separate. making it difficult to separate purely Buddhist from purely Hindu art. The cultural traditions of the multi ethnic people who settled in this remote Himalayan valley over the past two millennia.25 Kathmandu Valley 2004Decision28COM 15A.42 . The stupas have simple but powerful forms with massive.Update of the World Heritage List in Danger (Retained Properties) 2006Decision30COM 7A. the Kathmandu Valley World Heritage property is inscribed as seven Monument Zones. timber and bronze in the world. AUTHENTICITY The authenticity of the property is retained through the unique form. However the property continues to be vulnerable to encroaching development.22 E85 18 30. 2006MapBauddhanath Monument Zone. C 1121bis) from 23 to 28 November 2011 (Feng JING. which is an important period for the flourishing of Nepalese art and architecture. which are closely associated with legends.2 .28COM 15C.Royal Palaces of Abomey.SOC Report 2005 2005 – Decision .888 Date of Inscription: 1979 Minor modification inscribed year: 2006 Property : 167 ha Buffer zone: 70 ha DOCUMENTS 2004 . This was followed by the Kichchhavi Dynasty from the 3rd to 9th centuries.Kathmandu Valley (Nepal) (C 121) 2012Mission ReportReport on the Joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring Mission to Kathmandu Valley (Nepal. These monument zones are the Durbar squares or urban centres with their palaces. In 1833 and 1934. stone. whitewashed hemispheres supporting gilded cubes with the all-seeing eternal Buddha eyes. two catastrophic earthquakes brought destruction. Criterion (iv): The property is comprised of exceptional architectural typologies. INTEGRITY All the attributes that express the outstanding universal value of the Kathmandu Valley are represented through the seven monument zones established with the boundary modification accepted by the World Heritage Committee in 2006. The symbolic and artistic values are manifested in the ornamentation of the buildings. The roofs are covered with small overlapping terracotta tiles. Bauddhanath. the urban structure and often the surrounding natural environment. The town of Kathmandu was established by a later Lichchhavi king. The exquisite examples of palace complexes. Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve.Update of the list of the World Heritage in danger removal . Everglades National Park 2008SOC ReportsSOC Report 2008 2008Decision32COM 7B. The majority of listed buildings are in good condition and the threat of urban development is being controlled through the Integrated Management Plan.2 .SOC Report 2004 2004 – Decision . design.SOC Reports . A political establishment of the area is dated to the beginning of the Christian era. and the religious ensembles of Swayambhu. rituals and festivals.MapHanuman Dhoka Durbar Square Monument zone. and the Hanuman Dhoka Palace his residence. Protection and management requirements The designated property has been declared a protected monument zone under the Ancient Monument Preservation Act.25 . material and substance of the monuments.Kathmandu Valley (Nepal) 2004 – Decision . temples and public spaces of the three cities of Kathmandu (Hanuman Dhoka).29COM 8C.