Describe the functions and limitations of a fuse as an electrical protection device. The functions of a fuse: • The fuse is a weak link in the live supply that melts when heated by excess current flowing under fault conditions, thus protecting the equipment and its wiring

The limitations of fuse: • • 2. Its action is too slow to prevent electric shock. It can be easily replaced inappropriately with a fuse of higher rating

Identify TWO advantages that a residual current device (RCD) has over a fuse. Advantages of residual current device (RCD) over a fuse: • • • Rapid and sensitive electrical response. Ease and safety of testing. It is not easily defeated


Describe the principles of operations of the following types of electrical protection. a. b. Earthing Reduced voltage;

EARTHING: It is a means of connecting electrical equipment and conductive items to earth by a cable or pipe work such that the route to earth provides the path of least resistance to a current flowing under fault conditions. REDUCED VOLTAGE: of the lowest practicable voltage should be practiced in every circuit (the use of 110 V transformer is recommended). 4. Outline: a). The effects on the human body of a severe electric shock. b). The emergency action to be taken if a person suffers a severe electric shock. a.) The effects on the human body of a severe electric shock: • Primary effects due to electric shock on the human body physiology leading to: Painful shock.

• • • • • 7. The emergency action to be taken if a person suffers a severe electric shocks • • • • 5. bleeding. Excavating near underground cables. . Isolation of the electric supply “ if possible” Summoning help Removal of the casualty from electric contact (using insulating material). 6. Cardio pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) Outline the practical measures to reduce the risk of electric shock when using portable electrical appliances The practical measures to reduce the risk of electric shock when using portable appliances: • • • • • Proper selection of the equipment “to be suitable for the purpose” Inspection and testing of the equipment The use of reduced voltage or battery-powered equipment. Earthing. List the items that should be on an inspection checklist designed to ensure the safety of portable electrical appliances. and plugs are free from damage. connectors. switch. Double insulation. b).• Muscle cramps and convulsion Electric burns in skin & internal organs Cardiac & respiratory arrest Secondary effects due to fall from a height including for example. cables. etc. fractures. Outline the precautions to protect against electrical contact when: a). Accessible and appropriate means of isolation. Equipment is appropriate for the task Equipment is appropriate for the environment Equipment is regularly tested Equipment.

8. Outline control measures to minimize the risk of electric shock during such work. etc. • • • • b). Precautions to protect electrical contact when Excavating near underground cables. with signs). for instance. Erection of barriers to define clearance distances. a). The main hazards are: • • ELECTRICAL HAZARDS: due to live work / not isolated / reenergized.b). Digging with hand tools rather than by mechanical excavator Precautions to protect electrical contact when working in the vicinity of overhead power lines: • • • • Isolation of the electrical supply. access or lighting . due to restricted working space.. ERGONOMIC HAZARDS. List the main hazards associated with maintenance of electrical equipment.. Working in the vicinity of overhead power lines. ISOLATION refers to shutting off the electrical supply to an item of equipment or part of an electrical system by a safe means in order. Isolation Over current protection. with tunnels). Clear marking of danger zones (e. b). Isolation of the electrical supply The identification of cable routes from plans and by the use of cable detectors Marking of cable routes on site. OVER CURRENT PROTECTION is method of preventing the flow of excess current by cutting the supply under fault conditions by means of a fuse or circuit breaker (as a miniature circuit breaker) 9. to carry out maintenance work. Lack of protective equipment. In relation to electrical safety.g. a). explain the meaning of the following terms. Ensuring safe access routes under lines (e.g. a ).

• • • • Visual inspection of the appliance general condition Integrity of plug and cable. Appliance is double insulated.b). 10. b). Provision of training & supervision. Fuses are of correct rating Electrical connections are sound Earthing continuity is achieved. Voltage is low reduced voltage. The checks that should be made to ensure the electrical safety of the sander are: A. The required control measures are: • • • Provision of adequate working space. Further checks depending on type of equipment as to ensure that it is protected by a residual current device. . Integrity of any extension leads. Noise hazards. identify. Vibration hazard. FOUR hazards associated with the use of the sander.) Outline the checks that should be made to ensure the electrical safety of the sander Other than electricity. Checks by the user immediately before use. Dust hazard. A decorator uses a hand-held electric sander for the preparation of wood prior to painting a) b) a. access and lighting Adoption of good working practices. Checks to ensure that the equipment meets the recognized standards • • • • • B. Four Hazards associated with the use of sander. Integrity of the sockets from which the supply is taken C.

- Tripping due to trailing cables Ergonomic hazard (related either to equipment design or to the way in which the work is carried out). suitable for the task. electric burns are deeper than other burn types and take longer time to heal Fire and explosion. is dangerous as it can cause stopping of heart and respiratory rhythm and necessitate rapid interference Tissue burns. Establishing correct fuse rating. with CE quality mark. Cable is secured and not damaged Plug is not damaged. Ensuring circuits and sockets are not over loaded. 12. . Fuses is fitted and correctly rated. Outline the dangers associated with electricity. Unsafe electrical equipment may give sparks that can catch fire if near to a paint can for example 13. • • • Electric shock. ON / OFF button is accessible. Outline measures that should be taken to minimize the risk of fire from electrical equipment. 11. • • • • Proper selection of the electrical equipment. not damage and working efficiently. Inspection of the equipment by the user prior to use. State the items that should be included on checklist for the routine inspection of portable electrical appliances: • • • • • Casing of appliances is in good condition. etc. electrical spark is one of the ignition sources that may initiate a fire.