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CBSE BOARD EXAMINATION 2013
SUBJECT : PHYSICS SOLUTION
SET  3
Q1. Write the expression for the de Broglie wavelength associated with a charged particle having charge ‘q’
and mass ‘m’ when it is accelerated by a potential V.
Sol.
p
h
= λ , & we know that
E . K
m 2
p
2
= ⇒ E . K m 2 p =
K.E = eV ⇒ meV 2 p =
meV 2
h
= λ
Q2. The graph shown in the figure represents a plot of current versus voltage for a given semiconductor.
Identify the region, if any over which the semiconductor has a negative resistance.
Sol. The portion BC represent –ve resistance
Q3. Two charges of magnitudes +4Q and –Q are located at points (a, 0) and (3a, 0) respectively. What is the
electric flux due to these charges through a sphere of radius ‘2a’ with its centre at the origin?
Sol. flux =
0 0
enclosed
Q 4 q
ε
+
=
ε
C
u
r
e
n
t
(
m
A
)
Voltage (V)
A
B
C
Q
+4Q
O
(3a, 0)
(2a, 0) (2a, 0) (a, 0)
2 22 2
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Q4. The motion of copper plates is damped when it is allowed to oscillate between the two poles of a
magnet. If slots are cut in the plate, how will the damping affected?
Sol. The resistance will increase & hence eddy current decrease due to which damping reduces.
Q5. Two identical cells, each of emf E, having negligible internal resistance, are connected in parallel with
each other across an external resistance R. What is the current through this resistance?
Sol. We know in parallel circuit potential is same so potential across AB is also ε so
R R
V
I
ε
= = ⇒
R
I
ε
=
Q6. How does the mutual inductance of a pair of coils change when
(i) Distance between the coils is decreased and
(ii) Number of turns in the coils is decreased?
Sol. (i) When distance between the coil is decreased magnetic flux linked with secondary coil increases
therefore mutual inductance increases.
(ii) When number of turns in the coil is decreases, mutual inductance decreases because
l
A N N
M
2 1 0
µ
= where N1 & N2 are number of turns.
Q7. Define the activity of a given radioactive substance. Write its S.I. unit.
Sol. The activity of a radioactive substance is defined as the rate at which the nuclei of its atoms in the
sample disintegrate. If radioactive sample has N atoms at any time t. then its activity at time t is
dt
dN
R
−
=
ve sign shows that the sample is disintegrating .
It’s S.I unit is Becquerel (Bq) which is eual to 1 decay s
1
.
Q8. Welders wear special goggles or face masks with glass windows to protect their eyes from
electromagnetic radiations. Name the radiation and write the range of their frequency.
Sol. Welders wear special goggles or face masks with glass windows to protect their eyes from harmful
ultraviolet radiation. Range (frequency) of UV radiation is
4 × 10
14
Hz to 8 × 10
14
Hz.
Q9. In the circuit shown in the figure, identify the equivalent gate of the circuit and make its truth table.
A
B
A'
B'
Y'
Y
A
B
C
F
E
D
ε
ε
R
3 33 3
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Sol. Truth table for the following circuit is
A B A' B' Y' = A' + B'
Y = ' Y
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
A and B are inputs & Y is final output so this circuit represents AND gate
Y = A ⋅ B
Q10. Explain the term ‘drift velocity’ of electrons in conductor. Hence obtain the expression for the current
through a conductor in terms of ‘drift velocity’
OR
Describe briefly, with the help of a circuit diagram, how a potentiometer is used to determine the
internal resistance of a cell.
Sol. (vd) drift velocity: It is the average velocity an electron attains due to presence of electric field in a
region.
Let a cylindrical wire of length λ and crosssectional area a. If an electric field is applied electrons
acquire drift velocity (vd). So current
t
q
I = ..(1)
So time taken to cross that region is
d
v
t
l
=
If n is no. of electrons per unit volume
total volume = a × λ
So N = n × a × λ → total number of electrons.
So q = Ne
From eq(1)
t
Ne
I =
l
l e v na
I
d
= = navde
OR
Let AB be length of a potentiometer wire & E0 is driving cell so the circuit diagram to measure the
integral resistance (r) of a cell of emf E1 is
λ
E
r
4 44 4
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Where R is external resistance and K is key.
Lets first calculate balance length for E1 :
E1 =
1
kl ..(1)
Now close key K and calculate balance length for V.
V = k
2
l ..(2)
From (1) & (2)
2
1 1
V
E
l
l
= ..(3)
We know V = E1  Ir ⇒ V = I R
) r R (
R
V
E
1
+ = ⇒
(
¸
(
¸
− = 1 R r
2
1
l
l
Q11. A parallel beam of light of 450 nm falls on a narrow slit and the resulting diffraction pattern is observed
on a screen 1.5 m away. It is observed that the first minimum is at a distance of 3 mm from the centre of
the screen. Calculate the width of the slit
Sol. λ = 450 nm, D = 1.5 m
First minima at x1 = 3 mm = 3 × 10
3
m
Diffraction angle for first minima:
θ1 = rad 10 2
15
10 10 3
3
3
−
−
× =
× ×
We know, a sin θ1 = nλ n = 1
a sin θ1 = λ since, angle is very small so sin θ1 ~ θ1
3
9
1
10 2
10 450
a
−
−
×
×
=
θ
λ
= mm 225 . 0
2
10 450
a
6
=
×
=
−
Q12. In the block diagram of a simple modulator for obtaining an AM signal, shown in figure, identify the
boxes A and B. Write their functions.
Sol. Box A is square law device while Box B is Band pass filter centered at Wc.
Function of (A) square law device is:
λ
R
r
ε1
ε0
A
B
G
A
B
AM
wave
y(t)
x(t)
Modulating
Signal
Carrier wave
5 55 5
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It is a nonlinear device which gives an output in the form of y(t) = Bx(t) + Cx
2
(t) where B and C are
constant
Function of (B) Band pass filter: When y(t) passes through Band pass filter it rejects dc component and
the sinusoidal of frequencies Wm, 2 Wm and 2WC and retains the frequency Wc, Wc  Wm and WC + Wm
which is of amplitude modulated signal
t ) W W cos(
2
A
t ) W W cos(
2
A
M t W sin A ) t ( y
m c
c
m c
c
c c m
+
µ
− − + =
Q13. A convex lens of focal length f1 is kept in contact with a concave lens of focal length f2. Find the focal
length of the combination.
Sol. f1 → is focal length of convex lens.
f2 → is focal length of concave lens.
So net focal length of combined lens is
2 1 net
f
1
f
1
f
1
+ = f2 = ve
1 2
2 1
net
2 1 net
f f
f f
f
f
1
f
1
f
1
−
= ⇒
−
+ =
Q14. Draw typical output characteristic of an npn transistor in CE configuration. Show how these
characteristics can be used to determine output resistance.
Sol. Output characteristic of a CE npn transistor: These are the graphs between collector voltage (Vce)
and collector current (IC) at different constant value of base current (Ib):
a.c. output resistance: It is ratio of small change in collector voltage to small change produced in
collector current at constant base current. It is denoted by Rout.
0 I
c
ce
out
b
I
V
R
= ∆


¹

\

∆
∆
=
Q15. A slab of material of dielectric constant K has the same area as that of the plates of a parallel plate
capacitor but has the thickness 2d/3, where d is the separation between the plates. Find out the
expression for its capacitance when the slab is inserted between the plates of the capacitor.
Sol. A slab of thickness 2d/3 and plate area as same as that of capacitor in inserted between plates of a
parallel plate capacitor having plate separation d.
Now so formed system can be assured a series combination of the capacitor of capacitance C1 and C2 in
series & calculating the net capacitance.
Ib = 200 µA
Ib = 150 µA
Ib = 100 µA
Ib = 50 µA 2.5
Ic
3.0
7.5
(V) VCE
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5
6 66 6
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k
d/6 2d/3 d/6
A
A
Loop (L)
S1
S2
P
Q
IC
R
C1 → capacitance without dielectric medium & separation d/3.
C2 → capacitance with dielectric medium & plate separation 2d/3
2 1 eq
C
1
C
1
C
+ =
1
⇒
A k
3 / d 2
A
3 / d
C
1
0 0 eq
ε
+
ε
=
A k 3
d 2
A 3
d
C
1
0 0 eq
ε
+
ε
= ⇒
A k 3
) 2 k ( d
C
1
0 eq
ε
+
=
) 2 k ( d
A k 3
C
0
eq
+
ε
=
Q16. A capacitor, made of two parallel plats each of plate area A and separation d, is being charged by an
external ac source. Show that the displacement current inside the capacitor is the same as the current
charging the capacitor.
Sol. Current charging capacitor /conduction current is represented by IC
Current inside capacitor/ displacement current by ID
Consider discharging of capacitor across resistance R
To prove IC = ID
We know that the displacement current arises due to varying electric field so
dt
E d
I
0
D
φ ε
=
It q be instantaneous charge & E is electric field between the plates of capacitor at that time. A is area of
plate.
A
q
E
0
ε
=
φ (flux between of capacitors) =
0 0
q
A
A
q
ε
= ×
ε
dt
dq q
dt
d
I
0
0 D
=


¹

\

ε
ε =
dt
dq
I
D
= …(1)
We known conduction current is defined as rate of flow of charge means.
dt
dq
I
C
= ..(2)
From (1) & (2)
IC = ID
We can also prove it alternatively using ampere’s law for two surface S1 and S2. Consider two surface S1
and S2. S1 surface has loop L and current IC whereas surface S2 has loop L but no IC S2 passes from space
between capacitor.
For surface S1 ID = 0 because S1 has IC only.
7 77 7
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C
A
B
D
4A
6A
1 mm
) I I ( d . B
D C 0
L
+ µ =
∫
l ⇒ ) 0 I ( d . B
C 0
L
+ µ =
∫
l = µ0IC ..(3)
For surface S2: IC = 0 because S2 has ID only.
So, ) I I ( d . B
D C 0
L
+ µ =
∫
l ⇒
D 0
L
I d . B µ =
∫
l ..(4)
From (3) & (4)
IC = ID
Q17. A wire AB is carrying a steady current of 6 A and is lying on the table. Another wire CD carrying 4A is
held directly above AB at a height of 1 mm. Find the mass per unit length of the wire CD so that it
remains suspended at its position when left free. Give the direction of the current flowing in CD with
respect to that in AB. (Take the value of g = 10 ms
2
)
Sol. Let AB has current in +ve xdirection
Current in wire AB = 6A
Current in wire CD = 4A
Separation between two wires = 1mm = 10
3
m
To keep the wire CD suspended in its vertical position when left free. For this magnetic force on CD due
to AB should balance mg due to its own weight.
Let m he mass of wire CD and L be its length
) B ( I F
mag
r
l
r
× =
( B
r
) magnetic field due to wire AB is =
3
AB 0
10
I 2
4
−
π
µ
L 4
10
I
4
F
3
AB 0
CD on mag
× ×
2
π
µ
=
−
⇒ mg F
CD on weight
=
3
0
10
L 4 6 2
4
mg
−
× × ×
×
π
µ
= ⇒
10 10
4 12 10
L
m
3
7
×
× ×
=
−
−
mm 10 8 . 4 10 48
L
m
1 5 − −
× = × =
And direction of current in CD should be opposite to that AB.
Q18. (a) For a given a.c., i = im sin ωt, show that the average power dissipated in a resistance R over a
complete cycle is R i
2
1
2
m
.
(b) A light bulb is rate at 125 W for a 250 V a.c. supply. Calculate the resistance of the bulb.
Sol. (a) t sin i i
m
ω = , →
m
i peak current , w is angular frequency
P = Vrms Irms cos φ, R = resistance
In a.c. across resistance vrms & Irms are in phase so cos φ = 1
Hence, φ = 0
8 88 8
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0 cos I v P
rms rms
=
2
V
V
m
rms
=
2 2
i V
P
m m
×
=
2
i
I
m
rms
=
2
i V
P
m m
= ..(1)
We know Vm = imR
So eq (1) becomes
R
2
i
P
2
m
= hence, prove
(b) P = 125 W, V = 250 V
Where P → Power & V → voltage
R
V
P
2
=
R =
125
250 250×
= 500 Ω
Q19. Draw V – I characteristics of a pn junction diode. Answer the following questions, giving reasons.
(i) Why is the current under reverse bias almost independent of the applied potential upto a critical
voltage.
(ii) Why does the reverse current show a sudden increase at the critical voltage.
Sol.
(i) In reverse bias of pn junction diode the small current is due to minority carrier and hence
resistance is also very high so very large increase in voltage leads to a veryvery small increase in
reverse bias currents so we conclude that in reverse bias reverse current almost independent of
applied potential upto a critical voltage because after this critical voltage current increase suddenly
(ii) In reverse bias reverse current through junction diode is due to minority carries. As reverse bias
voltage is increased electric field at function becomes significant. When reverse bias voltage becomes
equal to zener voltage, electric field strength across function becomes high. Electric field across
function is sufficient to pull valance electron from the host atom on pside & accelerate them towards
nside. The movement of these electrons across the function account for high current which is observed
at break down reverse voltage.
I
Knee Voltage
V
Knee Voltage
V
I
Forward bias Reverse bias
9 99 9
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6Ω
4 Ω
9 Ω
R1
G
Zener diode & Photodiode operates under reverse bias.
Q20. Define the current sensitivity of a galvanometer. Write its SI unit. Figure shows two circuits each having
a galvanometer and battery of 3 V.
When the galvanometers in each arrangement do not show deflection, obtain the ratio R1/R2.
Sol. Current sensitivity of a galvanometer: Current sensitivity of a moving coil galvanometer is defined as
deflection produced in the galvanometer per unit current passed through it. It is given by:
Current sensitivity =
k
NBA
I
=
φ
Its S.I. unit is rad A
1
If G has zero deflection then
9
6
R
4
1
= ⇒ 6
6
9 4
R
1
=
×
=
R1 = 6Ω
so
12
8
6
R
2
= R2 = Ω =
×
4
12
8 16
Ratio =
2
3
4
6
R
R
2
1
= =
Q21. A rectangular conductor LMNO is placed in uniform magnetic field of 0.5 T. The field is directed
perpendicular to the plane of the conductor. When the arm MN of length of 20 cm is moved towards left
with a velocity of 10 ms
1
, calculate the emf induced in the arm. Given the resistance of the arm to be
5 Ω (assuming that other arms are of negligible resistance) find the value of the current in the arm.
8 Ω
R2
12 Ω
6 Ω
G
R2
6 Ω
8 Ω
12 Ω
G
3V
G
4Ω
R1
6 Ω
9 Ω
60 Ω
3.0V
R2
6 Ω
8 Ω
12 Ω
G
3.0V
1.20 Ω
10 10 10 10
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OR
A wheel with 8 metallic spokes each 50 cm long is rotated with a speed of 120 rev/min in a plane
normal to the horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field. The Earth’s magnetic field at the
place is 0.4 G and the angle of dip is 60°. Calculate the emf induced between the axle and the rim of the
wheel. How will the value of emf be affected if the number of spokes were increased?
Sol. θ = φ cos S . B θ = O
S . B = φ ⇒
dt
d
e
φ −
=
⇒
dt
x Bd
e
× −
=
l
where B = 0.5 T, v = 10 ms
1
⇒
dt
dx
B e l = λ = 20 cm = 20 × 10
2
m, R = 5Ω
⇒ e = Bvλ ⇒
2
10 20 10
10
5
−
× × × = 1 V
e = 1 V
R
V
I =
A 2 . 0
5
1
I = = ⇒ I = 0.2 A
Or
Number of spoke = 8
Length of each spoke or radius = 50 × 10
2
m
n = 120 rpm = 2 rps
B = 0.4 × 10
4
T
As wheel rotates, linear velocity of spoke end at the rim = rω and linear velocity of spoke end at axle = 0
Average linear velocity =
2
r
2
r 0 ω
=
ω +
emf = Bvλ = l ×
ω
×
2
r
B
= Brπnλ = 0.4 × 10
4
× 50 × 10
2
×
2
10 50 2
7
22
−
× × ×
= 6.2 × 10
5
V
All the spoke are in parallel so emf developed between axle and rim of wheel the same. So emf
will not be change if the number of spokes were increased
λ
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
×
L
O
N
M
v
B
r
11 11 11 11
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Q22. (a) What is linearly polarized light? Describe briefly using a diagram how sunlight is polarized.
(b) Unpolarized light is incident on a Polaroid. How would the intensity of transmitted light change
when the Polaroid is rotated?
Sol. (a) Linearly polarized light: Linearly or plane polarized light is that light in which vibration of electric
field vector are taking place only in one particular plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation
of light wave.
Sunlight is Unpolarized light having electric field vector oscillating in all planes, when it passes through
a polarizer which can be a nicol prism or tourmaline crystal only those vibrations of light pass through
crystal which are parallel to axis of polarizes and hence we get a plane polarized light having vibrations
in one plane. Plane polarized light can be observe by using analyzer
(b) Let Unpolarized light is having intensity I0 and when this light is polarized using a polarizer its
intensity becomes I1 which is actually
2
I
0
. Now another polarizer is placed and is rotated and let at any
time angle between the axis of two polarizer is θ. Then its intensity get reduced according to
I = I1 cos
2
θ (law of Malus)
I = is intensity obtained after crossing 2
nd
polarises.
Q23. Draw a labelled ray diagram of a refracting telescope. Define its magnifying power and write the
expression for it. Write two important limitations of a refracting telescope over a reflecting type
telescope.
Sol. Magnifying Power: It is defined as ratio of angle subtended by image at eye as seen through telescope
to the angle subtended by object lie at infinity.
* *
M
N
II = I0/2 III = IIcos
2
θ
P
Q
Where θ is
P
Q
M
N
θ
Analyzer
axis of Polarizer
* *
Intensity I0
Unpolarized
light
I0/2
Plane polarized
light
12 12 12 12
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β → image angle , α = object angle
From ∆A'B'C from ∆A'B'C'
C ' A
' B ' A
tan = α
' C ' A
' B ' A
tan = β
As angles are small so
α
β
= M ⇒
C ' A
' B ' A
' C ' A
' B ' A
M=
e
0
u
f
' C ' A
C ' A
M = = ..(1)
For final image at infinity ue should be fe. So eq(1) becomes
e
0
f
f
M=
Limitations:
(i) It suffers from chromatic aberration and hence the image obtained is multicoloured and blurred
(ii) As a lens of large apparatus can’t be manufactured easily its light gathering power is low and hence
can’t be used to see faint stars.
Q24. Write Einstein’s photoelectric equation and point out any two characteristic properties of photons on
which this equation is biased.
Briefly explain the three observed features which can be explained by this equation.
Sol. Einstein’s photoelectric equation
2
max 0
mV
2
1
h h + ν = ν .
ν → frequency of incident radiation
ν0 → threshold frequency
2
max
mv
2
1
→ maximum kinetic energy
2
max 0
mV
2
1
h h + ν = ν
Two characteristics properties of photon on which equation is biased
∞ ∞∞ ∞
α
α β
From ∞ ∞∞ ∞
Objective
Eye piece
A'
f0
ue
C
C'
B'
13 13 13 13
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1. Photoelectric emission will take place only if frequency of incident radiation is greater than on
equal to threshold frequency ν ≥ ν0
2. When a photon collides with a electron it gives all its energy to electron.
Three features: (i) Since ν > ν0 the maximum K.E. is directly proportional to frequency of incident
light. If on increasing intensity of light more photons falls on metal surface, it may result in ejection of
greater number of electron but their energy remains unchanged.
(ii) If ν > ν0 then according to hν  nν0 =
2
1
2
max
mv K.E. depends on frequency of incident light.
(iii) if ν < ν0 , the K.E. is –ve, which is impossible. Hence, photoelectric emission does not take palce for
incident radiation below threshold frequency.
Q25. Name the type of waves which are used for line of sight (LOS) communication. What is the range of
their frequencies?
A transmitting antenna at the top of a tower has a height of 45 m and the receiving antenna is on the
ground. Calculate the maximum distance between them for satisfactory communication in LOS mode.
(Radius of the Earth = 6.4 × 10
6
m)
Sol. Space wave communication require LOS communication LOS → line of sight. Electromagnetic
radiowaves of frequencies more than 50 MHz sent directly from transmitting antenna to receiver
antenna. In terrestrial TV telecast, radar, satellite communication etc.
R h 2 d
T
= where hT = 45 m
R = 6.4 × 10
6
6
10 4 . 6 45 2 d × × × = = 24 × 10
3
Q26. One day Chetan’s mother developed a server stomach ache all of a sudden. She was rushed to the
doctor who suggested fro an immediate endoscopy test and gave an estimate of expenditure for the
same. Chetan immediately contacted his class teacher and shared the information with her. The class
teacher arranged for the money and rushed to the hospital. On realizing that Chetan belonged to a
below average income group family, even the doctor offered concession for the test fee. The test was
conducted successfully.
Answer the following questions based on the above information:
(a) Which principle in optics is made use of in endoscopy.
(b) Briefly explain the values reflected in the action taken by the teacher.
(c) In what way do you appreciate the response of the doctor on the given situation?
Sol. (a) TIR → total internal reflection is the principle in optics is mode use of in endoscopy.
(b) Value reflected in the action taken by teacher:
(i) Awareness
(ii) Prompt action
(iii) Social responsibility
(iv) Action by example
14 14 14 14
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nd
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EB
q
+q
a a
A
B
2a
EA
P
θ
θ
EA sin θ
EB sin θ
EB cos θ
EA cos θ
(d) Symphetic and quick response
Q27. (a) Define electric dipole moment. Is it a scalar or a vector? Derive the expression for the electric field of
a dipole at a point on the equatorial plane of the dipole.
(b) Draw the equipotential surfaces due to an electric dipole. Locate the points where the potential due
to the dipole is zero.
OR
Using Gauss’s law deduce the expression for the electric field due to a uniformly charged spherical
conducting shell of radius R at a point (i) outside and (ii) inside the shell.
Plot a graph showing variation of electric field as a function of r > R and r < R. (r being the distance from
the centre of the shell.)
Sol. (a) Electric dipole moment: It is a vector quantity whose magnitude is equal to product of magnitude of
either of charge and the distance between them
l
r
2 q p × = , l
r
2 q ) moment dipole ( p =
Actually it is a combination of two equal and opposite charges placed at some separation.
Let we have to calculate electric field at point. P on the equatorial point of a dipole at distance r from
centre of dipole.
EA be electric field at p due to –q and EB be due to +q resultant electric field at P is
B A
E E E
r r r
+ =
Let us resolve
B A
E & E
r r
along and perpendicular to dipole axis. We find EA sin θ and EBsin θ nullify each
other
θ + θ = cos E cos E E
B A net
r r r
= ( ) θ + cos E E
B A
r r
=
2 2
2 2
0 r a
a
.
) a r (
q
4
1
2
+
+ πε
×
2 / 3 2 2
0
2 / 3 2 2
0
) a r ( 4
p
) a r ( 4
qa 2
E
+ πε
=
+ πε
=
r
(b) Potential at equatorial plane is zero everywhere
B A net
V V V + = 0
) a r (
kq
) a r (
kq
2 2 2 2
=
+
+
+
−
=
2λ
q +q
15 15 15 15
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So equipotential surface should be at equatorial plane
OR
(i) Field outside shell: Consider a thin spherical shell of radius R with centre O. Let charge +q be
distributed uniformly over the surface of shell. To calculate electric field intensity at P where OP = r,
imagine a sphere S, with centre at O and radius r. the surface of sphere is Gaussian surface over at every
point electric field is same and directed radially outwards.
Applying gauss theorem
0
S
q
S d . E
ε
=
∫
r r
⇒
0
S
q
dS
ε
=
∫
2
0
r 4
q
E
π ε
= ⇒
2
0
r 4
q
E
πε
=
[ r
r
is distance of point from centre where E is calculated]
Inside the shell: As we know electric field inside a conductor or is zero. So
0
q
dS . E
ε
= hence, 0 E=
r
(b) at r < R E
r
is zero & at r = R E is maximum
at r > R E is decreasing
at
2
r
1
E∝
2a
Equipotential
surface
q +q
E
r
r
r = R
2
r
1
E =
x
O
r
E
r
n
ˆ
16 16 16 16
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nd
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Q28. Using Bohr’s postulates, derive the expression for the frequency of radiation emitted when electron in
hydrogen atom undergoes transition from higher energy state (quantum number ni) to the lower state,
(nf). When electron in hydrogen atom jumps from energy state ni = 4 to nf = 3, 2, 1, identify the spectral
series to which the emission lines belong
Or
(a) Draw the plot of binding energy per nucleon (BE/A) as a function of mass number A. Write two
important conclusions that can be drawn regarding the nature of nuclear force.
(b) Use this graph to explain the release of energy in both the processes of nuclear fusion and fission.
(c) Write the basic nuclear process of neutron undergoing βdecay. Why the detection of neutrino
found very difficult?
Sol. When a hydrogen atom receive energy by process such as electron collisions or heat, the atom may
acquire sufficient energy to raise the electron to higher energy states let from n = 1 to n = 2 it is said to
be in excited state. When an electron fall back from excited state to lower energy state by emitting there
a photon of particular energy & of particular frequency. Suppose
1
E = Energy of electron in n1th orbit,
E2 = energy of electron in n2 th orbit.
hν = E2 – E1
2 2
1
4 2 2 2
2 2
2
4 2 2 2
n n
e Z mK 2
n n
e Z mK 2 π
+
π
− =


¹

\

−
π
= ν
2
2
2
1
2
4 2 2 2
n
1
n
1
h
e Z mK 2
h ⇒
(
¸
(
¸
−
π
= ν
2
2
2
1
3
4 2 2 2
n
1
n
1
h
e Z mK 2
i 2 f 1
n n & n n → → so
(
¸
(
¸
−
π
= ν
2
i
2
f
t tan Cons
3
4 2 2 2
n
1
n
1
h
e Z mK 2
According to
(
¸
(
¸
−
π
= ν
2
i
2
f
3
4 2 2 2
n
1
n
1
h
e K mZ 2
If an electron jumps from ni = 4 to nf = 1 the spectral series will be Lyman series.
If an electron jumps from ni = 4 to nf = 2 the spectral series will be Balmer series.
If an electron jumps from ni = 4 to nf = 3 the spectral series will be Paschen series.
OR
17 17 17 17
Pi Scholastics: Premier Institute for the preparation of IITJEE
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Two conclusions from BF/nuclear v/s mass no. curve about nature of nuclear force.
1. As mass number increases so nuclear force decreases gradually. The decrease may be due to
coulomb repulsion between protons.
2. For mass number 2 to 20, there are sharply defined peaks corresponding to 2He
4
, 6C
12
, 8O
16
etc. The
peak indicate that there nuclei are relatively mass stable than the other nuclei in their
neighborhood.
(b) Release of energy in both process of nuclear fission and fussion:
(i) When we move from heavy nuclei region to middle region, we find that there will be a gain in overall
binding energy and hence release of energy. This indicates that energy can be released when a heavy
nucleus breaks into two roughly equal fragments/ nuclear fission.
(ii) Similarly, when we move from lighter nuclei to heavier nuclei, we find that there will be gain in
overall binding energy and hence release of energy. This indicates that energy can be released when
two or lighter nuclei fuse together to form heavy nucleus/ nuclear fussion.
It tells us the possibility of release of nuclear energy by nuclear fission and fussion.
(iii) In Betadecay a neutron breaks into a proton, electron and neutrino as
neutrino anti electron
0
1
proton
1
1
neutron
1
0
v e H n
−
−
+ + →
Detection of neutrino’s are difficult because they are charge less and have spin only it is
very difficult to detect spin even it is very unstable particle.
Q29. (a) Using BiotSavart’s law derive the expression for the magnetic field in the vector form at a point on
the axis of a circular current loop.
(b) What does a toroid consist of? Find out the expression for the magnetic field inside a toroid for N
turns of the coil having the average radius r and carrying a current I. Show that the magnetic field the
open space inside and exterior to the toroid is zero.
OR
(a) Draw a schematic sketch of a cyclotron. Explain clearly the role of crossed electric and magnetic
field in accelerating the charge. Hence derive the expression for the kinetic energy acquired by the
particles.
(b) An αparticle and a proton are released from the centre of the cyclotron and made to accelerate.
(i) Can both be accelerated at the same cyclotron frequency? Give reason to justify your answer.
H
2
H
3
Li
6
He
6
C
12
N
14
O
16
O
18
S
32
MO
100
I
127
W
184
Au
197
U
238
B
i
n
d
i
n
g
e
n
e
r
g
y
/
N
u
c
l
e
o
n
(
M
e
V
)
50
100
150
200
250
Mass number(A)
18 18 18 18
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(ii) When they are accelerated in turn, which of the two will have higher velocity at the exit slit of the
dees.
Sol. Consider a circular loop of radius a carrying a current i. we have to find the magnetic field at a point P
on the axis of the loop at a distance ‘x’ from its centre O. as shown in figure, the loop is perpendicular to
the plane of the figure while its axis is in the plane of the figure. The current comes out of the plane at M
and goes into it at N. Consider a current element l d i of the wire at M.
3
0
r
r d
i
4
B d
r
l
r
r
×
π
µ
=
As l
r
d is perpendicular to the plane of the figure, r d
r
l
r
× must be in the plane. The figure shows the direction of
B d
r
according to the rules of vector product. The magnitude of the field is
2 2
0
2
0
x a
d
4
i
r
d
4
i
dB
+ π
µ
=
π
µ
=
l l
The component along the axis is ;
2 / 3 2 2
0
) x a ( 4
d ia
cos dB
+ π
µ
= θ
l
Now consider the diametrically opposite current element at N. the field due to this element will have the same
magnitude dB and its direction will be along the dotted arrow as shown in figure. The two fields due to the
elements at M and at N have a resultant along the axis of the loop. Dividing the loop in such pairs of diametrically
opposite elements, we conclude that the resultant magnetic field at P must be along the axis. The resultant field at
P can, therefore, be obtained by integrating the righthand side of (i), i.e.
∫
+ π
µ
= l d
) x a ( 4
ia
B
2 / 3 2 2
0
= a 2
) x a ( 4
ia
2 / 3 2 2
0
π ×
+ π
µ
B =
2 / 3 2 2
2
0
) x a ( 2
ia
+
µ
The righthand thumb rule can be used to find the direction of the field.
(b) A toroid is a solenoid bent to form a ring shape. Let n number of terns per unit length of toroid and I be
current flowing
Consider a loop (region II) of radius r passes through the centre of toroid.
Let (region II) B
r
be magnetic field along the loop. Line internal of magnetic field along the loop is.
turns of number I d . B
0
L
× µ =
∫
l
r r
i
⊗
P
r
r
θ
0
i
a
M
N
dB
dB
θ
x
dl
19 19 19 19
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B2πr = µ0 × 2 × r × nI
B = µ0nI
Let (region I) B1, is magnetic field inside open special toroid encloses loop of radius r1 through a point P then
according to ampere’s law.
I n d B
0
L
1
1
µ =
∫
l
r r
as I = zer for loop L.
0 B 0 d . B = =
r
l
r r
Similarly, let (region III)
2
B
r
be magnetic field outside toroid in open space. Draw a amperian loop L2 of radius r2
through point Q. Now apply ampere’s law.
nI d B
0
L
2
2
µ =
∫
l
r
As I = 0 because due to circular turn current coming out of plane of paper is cancelled exactly by current going
into it. So net
I = 0 eqn (1) becomes
0 d B
2
L
2
=
∫
l so 0 B
2
=
r
OR
(a) Role of crossed electric and magnetic field in cyclotron: The magnetic field makes the charged particle to
cross the gap between the dees again and again by making it to move along circular path, while the oscillating
electric field, applied across the dees, accelerates the charged particle again and again and hence increases its K.E.
(b) An αparticle is 2He
4
and proton is 1H
1
.
(i) Cyclotron frequency is given by
m 2
Bq
T
1
π
= = ν
No, both can not be accelerated to same frequency because frequency depends upon mass and charge if magnetic
field is same proton has more frequency than αparticle because ν is inversely proportional to mass and directly
proportional to charge.
T 2
1
= ν
α
⇒
T
1
proton
= ν
20 20 20 20
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(ii) Velocity is given by the formula
m
Bqr
= ν
Velocity is also inversely proportional to mass & directly proportional to charge
Hence,
m 2
Bqr
m 4
Bqr 2
= = ν
α
⇒
m
qr
proton
B
= ν
Velocity of proton is high as comparison to αparticle.