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WITH SOME ADDITIONAL PLATES IN COLOUR AFTER OTHER ARTISTS EDITED BY CHARLES HOLME. NEW YORK .Studio- <^ecumr. LONDON. TONES. PARIS. ###BOT_TEXT###lt;3\V- OLD HOUSES IN BY HOLLAND TEXT AND ILLUSTRATIONS SYDNEY R. MGMXIII THE STUDIO" LTD.

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.. " Interior of a Dutch House " " Interior with Woman peeling . .. . .. Middelburg the Directors of the British Museum. ... A.... Vereeniging Secretary and Secretary of the Zeeuwsch Genootschap der Wetenschappen... Leeu. and the Wallace Collection. Frontispiece Apples " Dutch Interior " ". Amsterdam and D.. Jones .PREFATORY NOTE Editor desires to express his indebtedness to the following.. 80 98 " " Nijmegen. "The " Letter" " 66 Catherine Bisschop-Swift .. ILLUSTRATIONS IN COLOUR AFTER Pieter de Hooch . W. Pit.. of the Oud-Dordrecht Mr.... Jones Baron J. Leeuwarden Dr.. .... B. Gelderland Interior" " .. . " Hindeloopen Room Frisian the Museum.. . Polman Kruseman. .. Draaisma. rendered valuable assistance in the preparation of this volume Director of the Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis en Kunst.. and Messrs.. C. THE : . pages 136 8th century) ..... A.. the National Gallery.. warden".. . van Rijswijk.. .... the Victoria and Albert Museum. J. .... . of the Friesch Museum. & 144 & 138 146 111 . P. Johannes Vermeer . . .. Seventeenth-Century Dutch 130 at Sydney R. London. Sydney R.. 140 Enamelled Earthenware Tiles (early i8th century) Delft Dishes ( 1 . ... ....... . .... A. who have Mr.. Opposite page 1 6 44 .. ... Boeles other officials of the Rijks Museum. ... Hendrik Leys The Mirror .

Zeeland Franeker. North Holland iv - 4< . North Holland i? 18 Brigdamme. Zeeland OF DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE I. near Middelburg. 29 30 31 Laurens. Zeeland . North Brabant Middelburg. Gelderland (dated 1606) Zutphen. PAGE INTRODUCTION ILLUSTRATIONS : I Breda. North Holland 36 37 38 TO . Gelderland (dated 1544) Dordrecht. South Holland Leiden. Woudrichem. Haarlem. Zeeland 7 9 Nijmegen. South Holland Breda. (dated 1547) 43 . Veere. North Holland St. South Holland Dordrecht (dated 1702) Haarlem. Rhijnland Middelburg. Zeeland Haarlem. Zeeland 32 33 34 35 Hoorn. North Brabant 21 22 23 Gorinchem (Gorcum). Zeeland Nijmegen. Gelderland ' o 2 4I . THE DEVELOPMENT ILLUSTRATIONS : 19 Groningen (1509) Boxmeer. North Holland Veere. North Holland Alkmaar.CONTENTS. Rhijnland (dated 1612) n 13 15 Haarlem. North Holland (dated 1609) Hoorn. North Holland Spaarwoude. North Holland (dated 1612) Middelburg. North Brabant 5 Monnikendam. North Brabant Leiden. Friesland 24 25 26 27 28 Dordrecht.

North Brabant 74 75 Brigdamme. Friesland (dated 1634) Corbel from Dordrecht Mosaic brick and stonework from Dordrecht Dordrecht. North Holland (dated 1672) 's Gravenhage (The Hague). North Holland 66 67 68 69 70 showing construction of farmhouse . North Holland Broek. Zeeland (dated 1622) Beek. North Holland (dated 1673) Franeker. 1730. Gelderland Bridge Zuiderwoude. North Holland Zutphen. Friesland (dated 1663) Arnhem. North Holland (dated 1637) Alkmaar. North Holland 76 77 78 Well at Beugen. 1626. South Holland Huijs" Velsen. Kampen. South Holland (dated 1608) 5 51 52 Workum. North Holland (dated 1799) v 82 .PAGE Delft. North Brabant (dated 1671) Iron Wall-tie from Alkmaar 62 63 64 65 " T'Goutsmits Keur Alkmaar. North Holland Schooten. Overijssel 53 54 55 5*> The Guild Hall (dated 1571) Vlissingen (Flushing). Gelderland (dated 1642) Amsterdam Rembrandt's House (dated 1606) Zwolle. Friesland (dated 1662) 's Hertogenbosch. North Holland 72 73 The Ferry House. South Holland 46 47 48 49 5 Haarlem. 70 71 Spaarndam. Gelderland Bloemendaal. Gelderland near Gennep. North Brabant at 79 80 81 Beek. Zeeland (dated 1614) Dordrecht. Overijssel (dated 1631) (dated on dormers 1630 59 and 1619) Groningen The " Goudkantoor" (dated 1635) 60 61 Groningen (1661) Franeker. Gelderland Halfweg... South Holland (dated 1626) 57 5^ 1634. Beek. North Holland Spaarwoude.

.. Gelderland Haarlem.... Zeeland Monnikendam. Overijssel Kampen.. North Holland Haarlem. Arnhem. Marssum.. Zeeland The 9^ 97 Wooden Window-frame.. North Brabant (dated Leeuwarden. Rhijnland (dated 1655) " Scotch House " Veere. Kampen. .. from 98 Window Shutter from Velsen 98 Nijmegen Leiden Dordrecht s 99 99 Haarlem .. Friesland (dated 1713) Zeeland 92 . EXTERIOR FEATURES DOORS. North Holland (dated 1632) .. Overijssel (dated 1626) 102 . Friesland Gorinchem (Gorcum). WINDOWS. North Holland Dordrecht. lintel.. Dordrecht with iron fittings and lead glazing. Friesland (dated 1675) Leiden Rhijnland (dated 1612) (dated 1615) 89 89 9 9 . Gelderland 93 94 from Dordrecht . with iron fittings.. South Holland (dated 1566) 102 103 Kampen. r Vlissingen (Flushing). Rhijnland vi 109 . GABLES AND ORNA- MENTS ILLUSTRATIONS : Woudrichem. South Holland (dated 1523) 106 107 108 109 .. 89 Leeuwarden.. Friesland Delft. Overijssel 104 105 106 Vlissingen (Flushing). North Holland Leiden. Wooden Door. South Holland (dated 1547) 1 6n) 85 Haarlem. 95 95 with carved from Haarlem Leiden.PAGE II. (dated 1634) 102 Marssum. 99 100 100 101 Monnikendam Zwolle. Overijssel (dated 1665) Arnhem...

117 ii& . North Brabant Brick and Stone Mosaic from Zwolle .. Limburg (dated 1510) Cast-iron Fireback from Leiden vii 132 . South Holland Seventeenth-century Room 127 I2& Leeuwarden. 115 11 S ...PAGE Amsterdam. . Zutphen (dated 1615). work from Franeker 120 Workum. Nijmegen iifr Woudrichem Zwolle.-.. Sneek Haarlem ... Anna.. Friesland (curved gables dated 1573) Carved stone lettering from Haarlem panel from Franeker 112 112 113 114 114 i. Haarlem 116 Woudrichem. Gelderland Hoorn. 120 121 Iron Wall-ties Date-sign from St.. near Nijmegen Wall-tie from Nijmegen 122 122 122 122 122 Weather-vane from Broek Terminal from Middelburg Lead Spout-heads from Zutphen Oval Window with Stanchion-bar. North Holland no 111 Wood details from Gelderland and South Holland Zutphen.. Friesland Fireplace in the Bricklayers' Guild. INTERIORS AND DECORATION : ILLUSTRATIONS Brass Candelabrum from Haarlem from Dordrecht. 129 130 131 Amsterdam from Maastricht. North Holland Franeker. from Leiden 122 122 123 Iron Wall-tie from Beugen Door-furniture from Middelburg Door-knocker Weather-vane from Hees 123 124 Lead Finials from Hoorn 124 125 III. Overijssel (dated Friesland 1 118 119- 609) Detail of Diaper.... nf 115 116 Workum Middelburg (house dated 1590) .

. 43 (dated 1587) Lock and Bolt Door-handle and Escutcheon H3 H3 143 Carved Door fittings of Wall-cupboard.. Cast-iron Fireback from Middelburg X 34 35 36 . 147 147 148 148 . 8th century) 148 Corridor in " Hoorn. ... Carved Door from Groningen ( i yth century) Iron Lock-plate ( 1 H H2 J 6th century) .. North Holland Tiled Fireplace from Volendany North Holland Marken. Pietershofje. North Holland Brass Chimney-crane from Leeuwarden Frisian Museum. North Holland St. with pierced and engraved iron .PAGE Cast-iron Fireback from Nijmegen Zealand Fireplace from Middelburg." 149 150 151 Interior of a wooden house at Marken. H3 144 Wall-cupboard with iron lock and hinges Carved Table from Edam Cabinet from Haarlem ( 1 6th century) M5 ... 148 Foot-warmer (dated 1733) Lantern ( 1 148 ... Gromngen Interior of a wooden house at Marken.. 8th century) ) ) Tea-caddy Pastille-burner . 4 1 Leeuwarden Hindeloopen Room at the Frisian Museum. 145 Table from Amsterdam 146 Wrought-iron Brass Stair... Fire-irons and Fire-standard 139 T Oak Panelling from Leiden .Railing from Zierikzee 146 147 Warming-pan (dated 1602) Wickerwork Coffer with brass mounts Brass Fire-side set Candlestick ( ( ( 1 ( 1 8th century) .N> Fireplace from 134 J The Westerwold. North Holland 152 VIM . Leeuwarden Hindeloopen Room at the Carved Oak Panel from Zwolle ( 1 6th century) I3 6 J i.37 i3 8 Iron Hangers...

INTRODUCTION .

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." FROM PIETER DE HOOCH."INTERIOR OF AN OIL A BY PAINTING DUTCH HOUSE.

above raden fleches and red . nes. made a 1 brought philosophy and building. if accepted. roofs.he active d. .. events associated sunlit courts. The It n has produced the landscape. the stn pretensior. as in oth affecting the evolution other countries have i: Side by side with the c that.. the windmi t 1 \vhen the masters of Such king. in old a he rivers tnparting a number o days when tlu .v\ them the arquebu^ and man peculiar geograpf in n The have affected temperament of the Behind the dunes an accident by flood has kept the ancient enemy. seen.at ever appeal t> -.I life. mig extreme lack of initiative ever been an enterprising ed the inroads of the sea 'tierce. Trade was and continui' i .

Oi- A BV NO DUTCH HOUSE. . F*OM PIETtH DE HOOCH.

imparting a sense of quaintness and novelty extraordinary number of old buildings still existing.INTRODUCTION T is in the old towns of Holland that the architectural expression of the Dutch people is to be sought. if Side by side with the quered the inroads of the sea characterised their dealings in the domain of Trade was to them the great business of life. unchanged in form since the days when they were erected and mellowed by ages of sun and The fantastic gables rain. The peculiar geographical conditions that have always existed in Holland have affected in no small degree the development of the land and the temperament of the people. The influence of this natural check has been far-reaching. determined the character of the landscape. From very early times. and red roofs. the prosperity of the Low commerce. If the painters have gone and with them the arquebusiers and governors and burgomasters the gables. the Dutch have ever been an enterprising people. just other countries have imparted distinction to architecture. it is true. days But all Dutch towns more. . what may Much of their charm. are as characteristic now as when the masters of the great Dutch School of painting were living and Such scenes were to them inspiration to picture the intimate working. Most of the country is below sea level. is due to the rivers and canals that encircle and intersect them in all but it is the directions. external conditions imposed by Nature. together with the waterways and canal life. made accordant life and work. above which rise slender spires and belfries surmounted by leaden fleches and wrought vanes. Many of the towns continue to be busy and prosperous. affecting style. as in has other water been a building. conditions accepted. The same spirit that defied and conthat. concerned with everyday events. and the streets and waterways are quiet. others. : . regularity and order. to to a wonderful age possess. events associated was their delight. be termed an old-world atmosphere. and many other familiar features remain. and In the domain ot brought philosophy and fortitude to the national mind. Behind the dunes and dykes the sea threatens inundation the fear ot accident by flood has kept the nation watchful and in perpetual war with its ancient enemy. Theirs was an intimate and human architecture. might well be expected to have produced an attitude of extreme lack of initiative in those living amongst them. and changing skies. and continuing for a long period. spheres. the windmills. . the sunlit courts. that ever appeal to the eye and imagination. . and it developed out of the civil and domestic life. method. powerful underlying agent the evolution of as the forests and deserts of mountains. It has produced the system of canals. having any pretension degree. and new buildings here and there crowd in upon the picturesque groups of houses that for centuries have clustered in round the great churches and market-places of no commerce are the the come active merchants over.

the homes of virile civil and domestic communities. Hamburg. warehouses and merchants' premises. and from the industries which were fostered. There thus grew up properly a strong and strengthened. bear witness to those strenuous days. Novgorod the Great in Russia. reflective of the market-place. where the native building art developed vigorously and lingered longest in the countryside as many an old village. supervised. municipal finances were . Then followed the municipal charters. and pulsative life. over-sea trading. in Holland it was democratic in general trend. Unlike the English growth. trade and guild halls. the long-continued steadily developed their era of communal movement which was Then it was that the cities began 4 . So powerful did they become. great prosperity and each became practically self-governing and semi-independent. together with the towns of the most Flanders. As time went on the chief cities became members of the Hanseatic League. notable for its manufactures and commercial activities men congregated together for mutual gain. and trade was the influence that In a country gave it life. so well their organised trade. Many old buildings still existing. manor-house or farm will demon. neighbouring prosperous and wealthy in the world. the fireside and the home. To better appreciate the course of architectural development. unimpressionable. Through the impetus of this remarkable movement. but and and their comfortable homes were in keeping with charitable. matterof-fact side of everyday life. Amsterdam and Kampen on the Zuider Zee. its it was aspirations and its achievements corporeal rather than spiritual in And aspect. many dating from the thirteenth century. well to briefly cite the main circumstances connected with these A be towns and it will with the country's history. Records of Dutch towns prior to the twelfth are at that time century scanty. and by reason of the successes achieved by industry and sustained advances of conquest and colonization. weigh houses. An architecture in close touch with the events of the times developed through. which influential association embraced trading colonies in places as far apart as London.The towns became centres of busy Countries was foremost in Europe. strate the equivalent vernacular Dutch development was pre-eminently of the towns. sturdy race they were. although orderly government had begun to develop. that these cities came to be reckoned. It was urban rather than rural in its principles. so energetic was their municipal life. town halls. kindly their temperament. Visby on the island of Gotland. The phase of domestic art which is reviewed in this volume was essentially the expression of a nation urgently concerned with the material. Revenue was derived from the river commerce and markets. an art bound up in the interests of the people and existing for their good and welfare. while the continuous building tradition of certain other countries was allied to ecclesiasticism. and bore close kindred to its needs. These charters were granted by the feudal lords to the townspeople and secured to them certain rights and protection in return for taxation and levies was administered justice by various bodies and and the governing magistrates. or was a movement instigated by the aristocracy.

BREDA. NORTH BRABANT 5 .

more often in brickwork than stone. . Of those that have to the late fifteenth survived most examples belong The current forms of the period or the first half of the sixteenth century. . . who had fortunes of the Dutch declined. so of the material not the nature responsive as stone in the hands of the Detail had limited the possibilities of ornamental treatment. of fine proportions. family of architects sunk enriched with a wealth of detail. conceived and Veere. is in the spirit of the late Gothic style. Admirals . . but the proportions The characteristic richness the peculiar grace of the belfry is outstanding. remain. dated 1544. panelling and and the whole is many turrets tiers of dormers break up the roof surface At tower. While owning some similarity to its fellow at the Keldermans family. somewhat 8 florid. of French influence the stone and are mentioned Gothic. C were employed panelling and projecting surface decoration. and Middelburg. when power acquired by trade found expression in its own which erected towns of the and the wealthy burghers municipal buildings Such is the Town Hall stand for all time as the embodiment of their ideals.continued to increase. It is in this early brickwork that the germs of the Dutch it was handled. but carefully wrought detail. Tromp and De Ruyter swept the seas. But the threatened by the appearance of the Dutch fleet in the to England and from that time the mastery of the sea eventually passed The election of William III. one of that famous at Middelburg by Ant. erection a stone It is of Malines. 11). but from the churches also vast piles whose bold masses and ornaments were logically developed out of the material. in brick of being symbolized importance and dignity capable distinctive forms. was then common which decoration of surface may also be seen on the " " at Gemeenlandshuis Delft. . the treatment is simpler. jointed together. are exquisite. sculptured figures. Not many Mediaeval domestic work followed in the wake of the civic. with its elaborate sandstone fa9ade of the The aforetraceries and parapet belonging to the early sixteenth century. is a smaller example (opposite) built in 1474 by another . rich. its root transitional Renaissance style are to be traced principles were derived not only from the public buildings. daughter of the Duke of York throne in 1689 marked the close of Holland's greatest days. arched window-heads ornamented with tracery circular brick turrets surmounted by conical roofs stepped gables having pinnacles rising from the copings steep roofs pierced by dormers and the . and whose millions of little bricks. Early Dutch secular architecture The most valuable monuments of that period are the civic buildings which assumed an as opposed to ecclesiastical herald a time when public life and stone . Keldermans the Younger. betray buildings but the especially individual Netherlandish interpretation of Gothic was Brickwork Was much employed and developed in the brick architecture. stand as impressive memorials of patient labour. craftsmen the to be simplified and adapted to the means available for carrying it out how of an instance furnishes example from Nijmegen (p. in 1667 the safety of London itself was naval victories gaining brilliant Thames. to the English married Princess Mary. not far surmounted by a noble boldly member of distant. .

ZEELAND 9 .VEERE.

one of the most distinguished of the travel Humanists. came into their full powers. lem 1602. are of this time and unrivalled . startling Van They and De der Heist. ground in Holland. a school of painting with original conceptive artistic this executive skill. during a life of much and varied residence he was often in the Low Countries. from Gothic to Renaissance are very numerous. a firmly-established and general practice. the greatest though it now seems. was born at Rotterdam in 1466. Existing examples prove was then carried on. with a host of brilliant companions. in architecture motifs became^ Classic of ill the use well or however applied. and quite beyond flourished at the close of those art movement that Holland has ever known wasthen that the painters. of architecture as life and faith were passing. might inherited style occurred. Paul Potter. continued on. troublous times when she was at warwith Spain. Haarfashion for the private dwellings. Nijmegen 1612. with suddenness. Bolsward 1614. The Gothic form of house long held its own or understood. Jan Steen. It Workum 1650. down from generation to handed The Gothic tradition. others. 10 . Transitional period where rows of houses. Contemporaneously with archidomestic of the peculiarly specific Dutch style activity developed how energetically the building craft tecture. rise from the canalsidesand paved roadways are surmounted by gables which They are narrow and very high and from the are often of fantastic shape and curious outline.those of the In contrast to the scarcity of Gothic domestic buildings. rendering showing French rather than Italian feeling. and the Dutch people clung to that which had been evolved they were unwilling to give up through long years of experiment So the new those forms that had been satisfying to their forefathers. which had been was opposed to innogeneration. Many examples are to be found in the old towns much out of the perpendicular. and literature revived interest in classical was Erasmus. and to it was added the heavy But nevertheless. Leiden 1598. Ruysdael in quick succession. Rembrandt. followed views created a new art. prosecuting his own self-culture and advocating his doctrines. not grasped Dutch interpretation of the newer styU^a. The national temperament vation. Hooch. picturesque of view and full of subject for the painter draughtsman's point reasonable explanation. following. It and Hals. and the buildings associated with it_in_ lasted The Transitional it is note that significant to long period known as^ of those resemble England. Gerard Dou. and with it came And in connection with it. although the ancient . and numerous in the sixteenth century that the influence of the Renaissance gained new canons and new impulses. art. and show how its characteristics were matured during the century the closing years of the sixteenth century and onwards through which set the Many of the Town Halls and Weigh Houses. erected in the style many ways The real significance of the revolutionary Renaissance arrwas^ Elizabethan. But the great changes in religious and intellectual thought that transpired influence the domain during the sixteenth century did not so quickly No sudden breach with the be supposed.

NIJMEGEN. GELDERLAND (DATED 1544) I I ..

betrays its Classic origin by which the architectural impulses were a changeful period/ during of the new and the retention f the old. which had become virtually the political at and commercial capital the centre of the arts. ^g of but there was evidently no unan.c terminated with a pointed arch quite and two years earlier unmistakably facade erected at Zwolle one hundred the details with which it is adorned. and the two forces . and the many large and sober gabled accomplishments are of seventeenthhouses suggest to the imagination the comparative splendour as Haarlem . Born at Ghent about the to 1631. . with de Keyzer and lived from 1561 worked principally at Haarlem and Leiden. Hendrik de Keyzer was born at Utrecht in 1565 and died at Dell One of his most notable works is the monument erected at elsewhere associated was Cornelius Danckerts to the memory of William the Silent. buildings as well in the places of their their followers and founded schools of architecture There was thus a vigorous body of men working professional activities. quaint architectonic qualities. they are inseparably connected human . The buildings of this period are . C04 and name is connected with to the city of Amsterdam town and buildings both in that Such men as these had as numerous private dwellings. window-heads and step gab late date of 1673. remained unaltered and the traditional forms of building established. Thus a house at las not uniform thL'ghout the country Alkrnaaj. still apparent. year 1560 Lieven de Key at Haarlem. his for fresh the earlier architects who turned to classicism Cornelius and were Lieven de Key. halting between the acceptance what they understood men who directed public taste eventually adopted Behind them was a strong tide of inherit "to be the Renaissance ideas. it. 'tradition which continued to flow ran sid of the new movement. while Amsterdam.and doorway freth or int nLent more became any vfewed it definite were simply added to them for no very types of ornament aduinfluence As time went on the Renaissance reason. in i Hendrik de Keyzer He was appointed architect Amsterdam in 1621. a remarkwas the author of the celebrated Meat Market it was and disparagement able building which has evoked both praise civic other of the He was responsible for design completed in 1603.imty others favour Some looked upon it with to that which had served to . of opinion on the merits keep with suspicion and preferred a consequence the development As To well for preceding generations. lacking in serious ot with the national sentiments they stand as lasting evidences 12 If somewhat and charming. has arched the bearing a while manner in the Goth. To it they brought their own on. . had its own who were particularly energetic in the city and assembly of architects The results of their exercised great influence in the adjacent districts. Af^ interpretation Fo^moItYmo'ng inspiration Danckerts. well as century Amsterdam.

SOUTH HOLLAND .DORDRECHT.

unconnected with conand restraint. them the impress of the intellectual The work itself is was concerned with their production. They buildings had not yet become detached were not architects within the present meaning of that term. and in it the two handled. inspired craftsmanship. 's Hertogenbosch. bricklayers.The streets emotion expressed through the medium of brick and stone." MSS. a wise to protect and guide the and excellent practice from might well take a lesson. They were described as masons. Results automatically grew out of the united efforts of the sculptors. and bring to rememlined with ancient houses are witnesses of a great past. where government by municipalities was so well developed. not surprising to find in this country. that the architects were often official servants of the towns. thoroughly Dutch in character. men Biographical Sketches of Dutch Architects. Two such are mentioned above Dryfhout was town architect of Middelburg. threatened and from and fought to save their fatherland tyranny Above all. but often lacking in appear. de Key. strapwork. had not yet been evolved. the structures bear upon streams of thought mediaeval and classic are seen harmoniously blended. and no doubt were masterbuilders who. That of the early Renaissance is the best. threshold brance those strong and earnest men who honoured hearth and ruin. life which materials are well the and full of suggestion. remarkable certainly Isolated stone ornaments. cartouches. was the city . armorial bearings. however. were applied to vacant wall spaces. Weenink. stonecutters. mason is ot Haarlem . had a personal hand in The idea that a the execution of the work of their own particular craft. Architecture as a separate force was not recognised. by J. So de Key. de Keyzer was sculptor to the city of Amsterdam It and these also are typical instances of the conditions then prevailing. trained director should conceive the work as a whole. 14 . in addition to supplying the design. yet it has the traditional signs of the new form of stepped gable while there is a freedom of handling discernible in the floor features which was dictated by convenience disposition of the ground All the work. .* The demand public artistic needs was which present-day authorities in England With the advancing seventeenth century came a keener desire for the employment of purer forms of Renaissance art. and marshal all the supplementary arts to proper subjugation. by Lieven illustrated opposite . Many of the subjects were seemingly derived from published pattern books and decorative and lack that independence of conception which distinguishes all designs. H. all vigorously carved. for fertility of invention. Architects turned their * " for qualified appreciated. and Ambrosius van Hanenberch held a similar position at . was not so rather than symmetrical arrangement. B. Gables of extraordinary and curious outline began to reasonable as this. Evidence goes to prove that the men who made the designs for the from the building trades. delicacy structive principles. carpenters and masons who were engaged on the same production. and the like. in addition to acting as a designer. is A influence are obvious in the details. They were decorated with lion-heads. good example from Leiden. winged heads and panels in relief.

V. LEIDEN. RHIJNLAND (DATED 1 6 1 2) .

thoughts to the Italian which they modified. the houses of even if worked strange appearance or sometimes fantastic beyond retained an unmistakable flavour of the vernacular and owned description were the heritage something of that playfulness and quaint invention that displace the of mediasval times. they. " their influence was in the air and predominant. had only an indirect effect upon the local architecture.peculiar decoration of porches traders. is one of the most It was erected between the years important buildings of this period. Most obviously the influence is to be seen in the Eastern counties. were never really at home. Apart influence from the were encouraged to settle for the purpose manufactures. and numbers of them found refuge in But the presence of foreigners such as these. as a Onward matter of course. most of whom England. among the exponents of the developed van Campen and Phillippus Vinckboons. . . left distinct impressions of their own ideas. nor did they ideal. Again. and symmetrical arrangements. was responsible for many immigrants to cite an instance. from the fourteenth century the influx of Flemings and Dutchmen into England was considerable and the reasons for their coming various." writes Professor Blomfield. and fireplaces. yet preserved in its Chief essential characteristics. during a long period of actively and settlement intercourse trading by merchants and artisans. Netherlands who early engaged in English commerce the germs of this . coming from Germany as well as the Netherlands. It was the imported artificers. Wiltshire as well as Kent. was in 1567 appointed commander of the forces. weakening influence of inherited tradition. notably in the long series of country houses with strapwork ornament. but. It is fitting to conclude this Introduction by referring to the effect of Dutch upon English architecture. too. For our style of domestic building has in the past owed something to knowledge gained from the Low Countries details have been derived from the Dutch and their practices adopted. The massive Town Hall of Amsterdam now the Royal Palace by van Campen. "Throughout the reign of Elizabeth. thousands of people left Holland when the harsh Duke of Alva. the with connected building trades. Not that many of these foreigners were are to be traced. In the general of work the Dutch national genius continued to assert itself. skilled artisans of improving the home . were not engaged in the building crafts. both of style were Jacob Amsterdam and Pieter Post of Haarlem. who brought a new development to English building. mass Up to and of character devoid became the time when the native architecture and trade buildings in which the people lived and personality. . Oppression. although Staffordshire can show it penetrated more or less throughout the country To those men of the it as well as Norfolk. But the lasting and altogether good effect of Dutch 16 . further new features were introand they are especially traceable in the admirable brickwork of the Anne style. and much patterned woodwork. with the advent of Dutch William duced Queen to the English throne. But the severe classic ideas." The results of it are obvious in work then erected. directing towards uniformity 1648 and 1655. acting for Philip of Spain.

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T devoid of character and and ar of the vernacular sometimes fantastic and owned ution that were the heritage of eferring to the effect >f domestic building has m the Low Countries . they. with the advent of .- and numbers of them found refuge in of whom tbreigners such as these.i Town both of Hall of one of the most between the years is .< . had only an indirect upon wt$ the imported artificers. !.. peculiar decoration of porches and Qui cd woodwork. as a Onward -i'vunct r:. >ve n." writes ProThe in the air and predominant. Oppression. manufactures." work then erected. too. 164. . Up to .thoii fied. . nor did they In the general tradition.. Not that tntnv of these foreigners were n< vu T: ..building trades. To men of :in v. '. t : who brought a new development to .onc. yet preserved in its nents of the developed nckboons. but. .sicft impressions of their own ideas. although Staffordshire can show the of this snmercc the germs ?J . further new features were introtrviCi ihe admirable brickwork of the and lasting altogether good effect of Dutch . .. . ti-t-irv the influx of Flemings and Dutchmen into rtcfsth those ' : < .8 an ancj . Again.. ' AmsAmster import. most effect ^ crafts. during a long period of t: ftjifment by merchants and artisans. was responsible instance.ere encouraged to settle for the purpose home . f-iiued to assert i itself. Eastern counties. was in 1567 acting for Philip j<kr o* - tr forces.it. thousands of people left Holland of Spain.wards uniformity at home.-*. . esse p: st |. .d f rheir practices adopted. coming from mis. notably in the long series rnament. was vu* m the reign of Elizabeth.ne which the peopk .

"INTERIOR WITH flu the 11'alZace Callfction. London.} WOMAN PEELING APPLES. ." FROM AN OIL PAINTING BY PIETER DE HOOCH.

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HAARLEM. NORTH HOLLAND .

influence was on traditional. ZEELAND 18 . the work remained Old villages can yet truly English in character. Suffolk. gave it qualities that helped to something . rather than academic architecture. BRIGDAMME. neither . blended with those motives were almost imperceptibly existing. a detail there. and turned their thoughts to home and to the houses on the tree-lined streets and make it what it was. And when they came to erect their dwellings on foreign soil. with corbie-stepped and curved gables the high brick barns of the Eastern counties and endless picturesque groupings of certain distinction that exist up and down the land. waterways of Holland. . or embody Such are the ideas drawn from other than local sources of inspiration. East Kentish cottages at Sandwich. and Essex. Reading Street and Sarre the halls and manor-houses of Norfolk. yet show buildings that bear upon them traces of an alien hand. suddenly nor inharmoniously. Ickham.A feature was added here. on those Here the foreign quiet and unpretentious buildings of the countryside. The industrious settlers from over the water certainly brought to our traditional architecture. they cherished the memory of their own country.

DIVISION I THE DEVELOPMENT OF DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE .

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colour arrangements.I. enrichment can only be obtained by careful disposition and arrangement of the units. The creation and as development of an architectural style. call into being considerable powers of ingenuity. The bonding of the walling. became very proficient in the use of bricks. in results are not easily The preconceived ideas the mind. in addition. Difficulties such as these have to be realised and over- come. width and finish of the mortar joints. THE DEVELOPMENT OF DOHE MESTIC ARCHITECTURE. quickly fore. even more than other forms of building. therepossibilities afforded by this material. brick-building has been practised continuously from the dawn of Dutch architecture to the present day. but not readily so. Moreover. and the . The inhabitants. are governed degree by the nature of the building material. and the disposition of features. in and plenty. upon a complete understanding of the tribute GRONINGEN (1509) 21 . only really^abundant building materials in Holland were br^otfs. but good secured. depending upon brickwork the medium for its execution. and apt to realize the There is. And for these reasons. the general proportions. almost unlimited scope possessed by both in stone. all con- to a markedly to the ultimate Good appearance of the whole. wood or plaster to size of and effects respect parts of surface decoration is nearly non-existent. brickwork depends. For the limitations of bricks are definite and circumscribed the unit is small and its size not subject to variation. after long and intimate association. skilful in applying them. valuable for the suggestions it presents. a great deal of old work of exceptional interest which is. Stone was available in limited quanBrick-earths there were tities. and the precise manner of forming details.

had uses too. their achieveQualified by experience gained through years of experiment. as our it Thus. illustrated opposite and plaster entered into the construction of many country buildings. They with brickwork. alive to its restrictions as well as its possibilities. employed plainly show. and All the features and and reasonable way. thought in as brickwork. vital building tradition 22 . tions Not that stone was ignored for carrying them it was doubtless used when it could be obtained. as may be seen in the half-timbered houses at Dordrecht or the wooden-fronted ones at Gorinchem (Gorcum). means on the illustra- contrary. doorways (shown and traceries. It was in . available as it were. mouldings definitely existing. handled it in a they spontaneous to details of some buildings had not very pliable material above). be suitably designed for execution in this gables (page 21). were thoroughly at home ments were dexterous and often daring. Problems such were satisfactorily solved. The old bricks themselves were particularly well shaped and the proportion How narrow of height to length gave a long and narrow appearance. decoration. dictated by the . the use of bricks that the Dutch were especially successful.BOXMEER. and forms were more or out. windows. details but often for the entire structures. 'But the prevailing conditions and through it the brought about an advanced development of brickwork was evolved. was not only for its ornamental Wood . The less craftsmen these. NORTH BRABANT skill in manipulating it is secondary only to ot the medium capabilities capacity for design.

z a I O O O 2 23 .

^ \ V *l ". BREDA. NORTH BRABANT 24 .

MIDDELBURG. ZEELAND 25 .

and with were laid bosch. bricks there are at in every town Breda they from lemon gradate yellow to a delicate salmon pink.when it is stated that it not infrequently they actually were will be realised inches high. . is carried out in unusually large bricks. The joints are widest in the older work and were either finished with dark mortar. Dutch brickwork shows wide a range of colouring. stretchers in every course. has bricks measuring 2^ inches by 9^ inches while a . FRIESLAND 26 . in Friesland. sibilities The pos- were appreciated. while It will be perceived that materials such as these offered means for harmonious combinations. Some may be rarely that comseen in the walls of Franeker. Flemish bond. as is often erroneously stated. upon a course all laid endways. the old Abbey at Middelburg. and about the country there exist many happy effects which were secu red by blendthe various It ing coloured bricks. or were raked out and pointed The bond almost universally adopted was that up with light mortar. It was only paratively large bricks were employed. . one course of bricks. six. was a favourite method ning to build walls with run- parti-coloured bands horizontally in the through them manner shown FRANEKER. " Flemish. Some is very dark and of a purple tint some is yellow. five. no lighter in tone than the bricks. and "Thvisvan Leeninge" (page 25). and if inches by 7 inches at Breda (page 24) -grid inehCiT by 9 inches at 's HertogenHaarlenT inches at to inches 8^ 7 or seven courses to the foot. and so the wall. They sometimes the door and window openings were formed with smaller sized . bricks than those used for the main walling. has alternate headers and at . Some of the sizes happens we find them no more than i^ at Workum i inches to inches by inches inches are noted 7 i| by 6| i^ inches by 8^ inches. all placed longways. continuously up rarely to be seen in Holland. situated in the same town." English bond consists of alternate courses of headers and stretchers that is to say. known by the name of " English " and not. . building which vary in size from 3 inches to 3^ inches by io| inches to 1 1^ inches. particularly in the neighbourhood of Dordrecht red . .

SOUTH HOLLAND 27 .DORDRECHT.

In addition with yellow bricks and the decorated window-heads to effects obtained by colour harmonies. of this. where four courses of red bricks interchange with one of yellow. the good qualities of pantiles show Where the country conspicuously. becoming successively bright in the in the sunlight or mellow-toned shadow. Mouldings and surrounds to openings often contrasted with the prevailing colour of the building. Many were made from a grey clay and look not unpleasing especially in the town and neighbourhood of Zutphen they can be well St. Among other familiar features of Dutch buildings are the mosaic decorations which generally occupy the arched Made up of simple units square or shaped spaces over window-heads.from Franeker (page 26). tions shown by the from Haarlem (page is illustra- DORDRECHT (DATED 1 702) 28 . too. while in the country thatching was freely Under certain conditions employed. They have the appearance. and T)ig changing sky-effects constantly recur. and they will be more fully considered in the following chapter on exterior features. and how successful this system of ornamentation can be will be realised by further reference to the two above-mentioned drawings. Their curved surfaces quickly play of light. both of the towns and of the villages. windows and string courses. As an illustration . they look particularly homely and suitable. Pantiles were almost universally used for roof-coverings in the towns. the the walls are formed example from Dordrecht (below) may be cited with red. enrichment was secured by It was confined principally to applying moulded and shaped brickwork. they blended in every way with the prevailing brick architecture. as 29) and Laurens (page 31). the doorways. by reason of these interesting and freely rendered details. They were not always of that bright red colour usually associated with pantiles. . is a moreover. Holland respond to country having the attributes for the successful use of these tiles . of the houses. such as that at Dordrecht patterns Many attain distinction (page 27). is level and the landscape low. of being well able to withstand the wind and the rain. bricks and little pieces of stone they were set together to form repeating and devices.

Q Z o a a h o z < a 29 .

o 33 K o. o z w Q D O r .

G Z < -J a o D m Q Q u Z w C/3 3 1 .

On page the other hand. The ridge was protected by a course of half-round tiles of which the farmhouse at Spaarwoude (page 30) furnishes an example. which would. The a fairly prevalent practice. it may be stated as a general rule that the ground plans of the old work were The very of practical requirements. and in such a case the way through was often placed more or less necessary centrally. arranged part in thatch and part in pantiles. as well. give access to the rooms and stairs and this is what was Such a pasgenerally done. This expedient was not directly . in the manner illustrated from Alkmaar on when 33. through from fiont to back. Passing from the consideration of building materials to that of planning. usually determined by the exigencies for variation houses little latitude of of the narrow frontage of many gave interior disposition for it will be noticed that the majority of the houses were built with gable-ends facing to the streets. sketched from the outside sage. or arranged pyramidally. NORTH HOLLAND 32 . and the roof of this building. The economical and practical way of treating such an area would be to arrange a passage at the side. Brought down directly from ridge to eaves. in a straightforward way. But the passage was an important feature of Dutch planning and gave the fundamental idea for general disposition. The internal arrangements were disclosed by the elevations and a guiding principle of Gothic design was thereby followed.thatched roofs of the countryside do not present any They were contrived to accomplish their purpose special characteristics. and here it gives immediate access to the front room. the at narrow house Hoorn (page 34) has a central entrance. The positions of HAARLEM. The measurement from front to back of each was thus much greater than that from side to side. the building had a wider frontage. pavement. is shown on this page. they have no added decoration in straw-work. is an instance of observed. and these consequently : became the principal elevations.

ALKMAAR. NORTH HOLLAND (DATED 1609) 33 .

NORTH HOLLAND (DATED l6ia) 34 .HOORN.

d 1 Rur'ia?.' /)' u Q Z N s D a Q Q 35 .**$.r :.

Utility and convenience set the theme for spontaneous fancy to adorn. The series of houses in the "Balans" at Middelburg (page 35) lofty rooms. is harmony between part and part no two are alike. the guiding impulses that lay behind the early work. were as much as possible made obvious on the outside of the buildings. NORTH HOLLAND ways of access. Gables of differing shape break the skyline. 36 . good example of a group that owed its inception to such influences. This practice led to many happy results.HOORN. staircases and different floor levels. and isolated features show with telling effect. One house is higher than its fellow one comes forward over the paved way while another recedes. Doorways and windows are conveniently. The brightly painted window-shutters give lively such as the staircase turret seen on the rightcolour. too evenly disposed. and they continued to operate with more or less force for many generations. the designers were able to give scope to their invention. but not furnishes a While there . These were the motive powers. Not fettered by artificial conventions or limited by unyielding laws.

NORTH HOLXAND 37 .HOORN.

The acute rake of the This circumstance. where two of the houses are not ended by a gable. each had composition and hinged painted shutters and a little steep Sometimes they were elaborated." were quite important factors in architectural . NORTH BRABANT . the dormers aesthetically serve The whole impression.Utilitarian in lighting the rooms of the roofs. lighted Holland is the Gables owning by dormerg. So the fore part consisted of a room (or rooms) which was generally assigned to se'^y^nts. together with gables determined the slant of the roofs. is to carry the eye up to the ridges. so powerful picturesque to a degree. this influence almost invariably have the lines of their two ascending sides broken by a series of steps which continue upwards from base to apex. eventually became a developed feature. the main roof would be hipped back. was used for storing uftd kindred purposes." and such gables will be observed in the drawing from Middelburg mentioned above. They are consequently called "stepped. examples such as those shown from Leiden (page 39). Contemplating an effect such as this. if irregular. as may roof. the fact that houses usually had little frontage to the streets. be seen. in its human appeal to the eye and mind. characteristic essential of domestic architecture in steeply-pitched gable. for instance. It was derived from Gothic sources. gave great roof spaces incapable of being adequately lighted by windows inserted in the walls. In much A certain number of dwellingswere built with one of the longest sides occupying the main The house at frontage. 38 WOUDRICHEM. one all-important among the latter being that of "drying washThese dormers ing. the drawing from in Hoorn The dormer (page 37). it is difficult to appreciate those arguments which are advanced against principles capable of giving such The most satisfying results. and the rear area.

LEIDEN. RHIJNLAND 39 .

ZEELAND 4 .MIDDELBURG.

GELDERLAND (DATED 1 6o6) 41 .NIJMEGEN.

this (page 38) disposed in way . propor- tionate to the rooms. Hoorn (page was The floor-joists. They not uncommonly measure from eleven to thirteen feet. GELDERLAND (see opposite page) through the walling. and there the joist-ends are carved with 36) so constructed. fore part of the hall. Similar examples occur at Vlissingen (Flushing). of which are size. have at the back two stories contained within is this The example from Woudrichem same height. . from which the adjoining room are almost twice as 42 . from floor to The windows. both in early and later work. Very noticeable.ZUTPHEN. Some houses. fanlights conspicuous occasionally nearly as large as the doors themselves. are exposed to view they project beyond the face of the ground floor wall and support an overhanging upper storey. with very high front rooms abutting on the street. each of different design. is the great height of groundfloor rooms and passages. carried representations of small human heads. are extremely Over entrance doorways are lofty. ceiling. gradually diminish upward from the ground. rooms imposed Heiffht/Qf. together With the the lofty as the passage seen bey/nd stairs give access to the intermediate floor. and the string/courses that . or even more. the drawing was made.

GELDERLAND (DATED 1547) 43 .ZUTPHEN.

The gateway from Nijmegen here again (page 41) was conceived in much the same spirit as the above. It and the features show with admirable is a highly successful piece of grouping. The walls are of brickwork and On the gable-end bands of stone alternate with the dressings of stone. or terminating member in quite the Gothic manner of the gable. The house from Middelburg (page 40) is given as an example. the band of diaper executed in brick and stone. but the crow-stone. ZEELAND externally far mark the position of the floors. will be observed. steepHow accurately the value roofed and soaring. 44 . and how cunningly they were opposed to each other. effect. neither one being divorced from the the Gothic buildings and those other. Especially is this demonstrated by which primarily betray a Gothic origin.VEERE. are consequently nearest together up the walls and gables. and the details of the windows (near to which the date of 1606 appears) point to other influences. courses of bricks. dominates the composition. of horizontal and vertical elements was estimated. while set back in the angle the well-placed turret. and Both' it and the pointed archway are the turret was effectively employed. It will be seen by the foregoing how construction and practical arrangement went hand in hand with design. .

.ifSiO'1 ' >-^v.-I ir.'M N OIL PAINTINO BV PIETER 06 HOOCH."DUTCH >':iseHm. .

but the crow-stone. given as .-iu hand in band with design.nfluences. The walls are of brickwork with alternate On the gable-end bands of stone the dressings of stone. al and vertical elements was estimated.HiiiRfim^^ ZEELAND of the jwHy mark the position walls anJ f. . accurately the value soaring. - 44 .vas conceived in much the same spirit as the above.ed to each other. dominates the composition. will be observed. and the >le. and features show with admirable effect. the band of diaper executed in brick of the windows (near to which the date of 1606 appears) point How f ! . or terminating member and stone. steepwhile of bricks.in 'example. floors. set back in the angle the well-placed turret. and here again Both it and the pointed archway are was effectively employed. c the Gothic manner . narily "betray It is a highly successful piece of grouping. neither one being this demonstrated by the Gothic buildings and those Especially is The house from Middelburg a Gothic origin. are consequently nearest together he seen by the foregoing how construction and practical arrangedivorced from the .iMt>.. and how cunningly they The gateway from Nijmegen .

i PAINTING BY PIETER DE HOOCH." FROM AN OIL Museum. Amsterdam." (In the Ryks DUTCH INTERIOR. .

.

NORTH HOLLAND 45 .HAARLEM.

DELFT. SOUTH HOLLAND 46 .

NORTH HOLLAND (DATED 1637) 47 .HAARLEM.

NORTH HOLLAND (DATED 1673) 48 .ALKMAAR.

FRANEKER. FRIESLAND (DATED 1634) 49 .

lofty A Above enriched. 1609 to the usually belong buildings having more artistic opening years of the seventeenth century. which served for the insertion of often extend from near the ground to windows. already considered. give bold upright lines. In arches at their extremities. turned with well up the gable. brick and stone fa9ade at Delft (page 46) has 5 all MOSAIC BRICK AND STONE WORK FROM the attributes DORDRECHT (see opposite page). are to be seen in almost all old towns (page 45). by the rebuilding The upper part. and the many windows ^jnply serve to light the The wooden mullions are simply shaped and rooms. Sometimes one influence shows predominThe antly. which affords protection from the The date of is carved upon it. while over them is a moulded cornice. . difficult solution to the and satisfactory problem of adewould quately lighting the entire side of a high room or shop this characteristic A CORBEL FROM not easily be found in the old It is not possible to work of any other country. noticeable treatment of the ground floor elevation is Alkmaar and Hoorn exemplified by the two drawings from and by that from (pages 33 and 34). is given in detail on turrets page 42. and other weather. Houses built in the traditional way. moulded bricks. The dividing projections. the arched head in this instance They by on each side by small circular pointed and supported and the shuttered window.On the exterior walls of the house from Zutphen (page 43) can be seen the sunk panels. Each is constructed principally in woodwork. and in a mixture of styles. set back from the main face of the brickwork. has been demonstrated in the Introduction how the later development did not advance evenly throughout the country. DORDRECHT make any fast di- hard and vision between Gothic and Renaissance work. sometimes another. showing the sunk panel bordered 1547. The ings for it actual dates of the build- form no conclusive key. Veere (page 44). Alkmaar the lower series of windows in the example is a projecting hood. the example cited these lines have evidently been broken It is dated of the first-storey wall.

SOUTH HOLLAND (DATED 5 1 608) 1 .DORDRECHT.

FRIESLAND (DATED 1663) 52 .r.- WORKUM.

GELDERLAND (DATED 1642) 53 .W\RNHEMET1 Oft ATV1 ARNHEM.

AMSTERDAM 54 REMBRANDT'S HOUSE (DATED I 606) .

ZWOLLE.THE GUILD HALL (DATED 55 . OVERIJSSEL .

dolphins. arches. " " De at Dordrecht Crimpert Salm (page 51). The heads cherubs. eagles and acanthus ornament are all subjects far removed from Gothic ideas. But in the latter instance the keystones are furnished with Renaissance ornaments. but the decorative details approximate Renaissance ideas. lion-heads. overhanging stories. Horizontal motives. as is the crowning pediment of the gable. Both have the customary in point of style. profuse accident or haphazard use of material.VLISSINGEN (FLUSHING). The three following buildings mark a further step forward in architectural development. and the Alkmaar window-heads. The more recently dated example shows. The balance of the design was well considered. stepped gable and But the spirit of the carved details is different. as are the delicately carved corbels from which the arches spring. pointed pinnacles. intensified below the obviously 56 . of 1608. in circles. ZEELAND (DATED 1614) of Goth\c/work. The first-named was built in 1637 and the second in 1673. presents a rich but the elaboration of the front was not achieved by appearance. vases. cornucopias. the earlier architectural form. Two other houses that owe much to Gothic influences are those from Haarlem (page 47) and Alkmaar (page 48). In general disposition of masses they accord with olden practices. stepped gable examples being elliptically arched and those at Haarlem pointed.

SOUTH HOLLAND (DATED 1626) 57 .DORDRECHT.

KAMPEN, OVERIJSSEL (DATED 1631)
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THE " GOUDKANTOOR

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GRONINGEN (l66l)
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|iiMjii| j[' imniji". FRANEKER.nu. FRIESLAND (DATED 62 1 662) .. i ^_ .

*S HERTOGENBOSCH. NORTH BRABANT (DATED 1671) 63 .

Two suffice to reach the gable-head and the side of each is finished steps only ments are concentrated. were thus getting farther away from Gothic architecture. while the Moulded equivalent space in the gable is filled with arranged brickwork. times. and there the curved elefirst-floor level. which was completed in 1663. however. obtained principally by the window openings and frames. front of the Upon a woodwork floor. bounded at each end by lion-heads in high relief. are similarly reduced towards the top. This is especially obvious in the gable which mounts up in quite the Gothic way. It has the traditional gable but the old type of step. plainly show that an]/ attempt was made to keep in touch with the preEach is terminated vailing mode of the period. the over the windows of next spaces storey (page 50). the mysticism. Time-honoured faiths were not only given up. was in agreement with the then advancing Classic taste. and to it he kept. a Corinthian and festoons of fruit are by capital carved upon the panels. . but were viewed with The powers that had swayed positive distrust. all contribute to the exuberance of the scheme. that from Workum (page 52) gives an instance both of the persistence of established practice and of the human desire for newness and change. low wall of stone and brick stands the Next in order comes a broad band ground of mosaic decoration executed in brick and stone (page 50). . a method of completion not employed in earlier Later in date than these two houses. The bricks used in the walls are plum coloured and measure but i^ inches wide. The political and religious events of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries revolutionized old beliefs. and divided centrally by a stone Other mosaics show in the arched panel with a salmon carved upon it.give a stable base for the lavishness overhead . repeat with less force and are finally carried up The vertical lines. storey. plain and carved. and poetry of their lives. The small example from Franeker (page 49) is built in brick and stone and was erected in 1634. small in height and width. It was a time of new life and faith. above. This 64 landers senses. They not unnaturally turned from a creed in whose name loathsome crimes had been committed and countless lives had been sacrij heed. was not followed. first and such doctrines fell meaningless upon their and were to them but unintelligible and empty forms. The pilasters on the ground with shaped stonework. they the gable by the steps. were unrealities to the great majority of seventeenth-century HolDesigners IRON WALL-TIE FROM ALKMAAR C^AtfAJVUXAA site (see Oppo- page) . the people of the Middle Ages. bricks and stonework. The builder evidently could neither forget nor abandon the general form of house arrangement that he knew so well. In these particulars the work. ideals.

NORTH HOLLAND (DATED 1672) 65 .ALKMAAR.

however. The date of 1606 appears on the upper storey. had almost spent itself. were All the features. order ridge. The net result is simple and reasonable and no means lacking in by : scholarship. The only But it was long before a fresh system of old order gave place to the new. motives. already more or less alienated from Its vitality was gone and the public sympathies. So far the work is in the style of the Renaissance. were often the direct outcome of Renaissance influences. Classic advanced intelligence. In some few cases such as the gateway at Arnhem of 1642 (page 53) the whole schemes were conceived in the Classic spirit and were evidently designed by men of tion and workmanship still persisted. with stone used for the dressings. and it is only by the windows below that earlier influences are recalled but the two themes are so well blended as to be perfectly harmonious. are Above in balanced while the roof. came to be planning generally accepted and mediaeval methods of construcarchitecture. SOUTH " "T'GOUTSMITS KEUR HUITS 66 . completes the studied arrangement.change in the trend of thought is amply reflected in the domestic The Gothic tradition. are built of ochre-coloured bricks. glory. Guild Hall erected Its too at Very different is the Zwolle (page 55). elaboration is in fussy sharp contrast with the comparative thirty-five HOLLAND GRAVENHAGE (THE HAGUE). elevations. 's years earlier. of former mere shadow as a a survival. and the entire increasingly applied to the decoration of many of the houses. able to who were the signifi- comprehend cance of the style in which they worked. It has no gabled front. but a projecting cornice and pediment make division between the roof and wall surface. steeply rising and hipped and having a chimney at each end of the two dormers placed . Rembrandt's house (page 54) sober and is at Amsterdam an able achievement. was it carried on. The walls dignified.

"THE LETTER.-.' FROM . PAINTING lv JOHANNES VER .

dignified. The h )f system of construc- ")vvever.:' former glon. Rembrandt's house . jo . -ently designed by to men of who were comprehend the ed. an able achievement.ige at Amsterdam 54) ' i -. e! earlier. ' were All . d and .i old order L' planning tion and incrcas. SOUTH "T'GOUTSMITS KFTR HUIJS rnparative HOLLAND " 66 ..amply refle.if id the style it is e. on.' CP. ii . arrangement. But it and n\-. Vt^ry different a: - lacking in is the Guild Hall erected coo fussy nage 55).lied < is end of the ridge. only v that earlier recalled e so well but the blended as irmonious. n the domestic already m> alienated : MC spent r' itself. from was gone and >. in contrast sharp 'S with GRAVENHAGE (THE HAGUE). s s r thirt. {'.id the entire were often reel outcome of lie gateway 53) M were conthe Classic spirit and intelligence. in steeply having a . >ed for the dressings. . Above balanced placed the roof. The : ner pie H and =is reason- able and by scholarship.. The vs are built < ochre-coloured bnck$. 606 appears on the It has no gabled rojecting cornice and ike division between wall surface.

\lttscuiH. ." FROM AN OIL PAINTING BY JOHANNES VERMEER. "THE LETTER.(in tkt Ryks .

.

NORTH HOLLAND 67 .ft.- VELSEN.

The general effect is rich and/ Complex. A smaller house in the same town. the/e features shaped and carved and fundamentally valuable in lighting. they were never coherent parts of a selfevolved whole. one only storey high and the dormers rise from it at the line of the eaves. has a single dormer It contributes the only. open wholly exception of the stones upon which the arches rest. arcade constructed in the with bricks. At the second storey is a Doric frieze. The shown from Dordrecht (page often of admirable 50) and Flushing (page 56). Houses that depended upon dormers for their controlling architectural idea were common in the seventeenth The front wall is usually century. while below appears the inscription BETHLEHEM 1631. Many details came to be used in a similar way. as those triglyphs. but the composition lacks breadth Some of the details disclose good craftsand is overladen with ornament. house of somewhat unusual appearance is that in the Voorstraat at At the top is an Dordrecht. but. dated 1626 and illustrated on page 57. and broken at intervals by lion-heads worked on the bases of the pilasters. mediaeval in feeling. it is further introduction of reclining satyrs and lascivious demi-gods the complicated by The designer evidently proposed to himthat quaintly break the skyline. . given-on page 58. The brick walls are relieved by stonework. satyrs and flowing foliage. just mentioned. carved gable. while projecting pilasters separate the large lead-glazed and shuttered A windows. although workmanship. When the frontage is wide and the building long and low. notably the frieze which runs across the entire front at the first with cupids on horseback. as is the case at Kampen (page 59). with sculptured circular ornaments and heads of bulls appearing in the metopes between the floor level. tl/e rooms of the roof show with good effect. is curly in outline .SPAARWOUDE. necessary interest to what would otherwise be On the frieze at its base is a carved stone " IN of the representation Nativity. for instance." 68 a very dull effort of building. such. NORTH HOLLAND Classicism was applied Rembrandt's house. without the Classic spirit and with little understanding of its real import. self the Italian ideal. old men with tridents. restraint of manship. but did not grasp the meaning or refinement of it.

'' I'tft.. GELDERLAND 69 . .l lllnM.'K-- V ZUTPHEN.

HALFWEG. which were heavily HALFWEG. There was evidently yet. Brickwork and stone continued to be employed and were still associated with excellent workmanship. men versed in that traditional skill which had down unbrokenly from come mediaeval Prominence days. Extreme influences bequeathed from former ages were running out. NORTH HOLLAND Those principles that imparted to the domestic architecture of Holland its it its most valued possession. as was the carpentry. many dated build- ings prove. of this period that cannot seriously be accepted as good. although showing certain originality and character. as the . freedom of design. a large body of men who had complete mastery of their particular crafts. were strained picturesqueness. however. and so gave to The to the uttermost as the freshness of the Transitional style declined. all the limitations of their art and gave themselves up to unreasonable overtrue for all time elaboration and the grotesque they ignored the fact But it must for ornamental detail. was Architects sometimes cast aside not accompanied by necessary restraint. certain work not be thought that this was always so. NORTH HOLLAND SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OF FARMHOUSE . that construction must form the basis There is. was nuand given to the merous door window 7 openings.

NORTH HOLLAND 71 .SPAARNDAM.

are the many stone details. Two panels are inscribed with "ANNO 1662." With the above-mentioned may be compared the two gables at Alkmaar character. Gables were shaped in endways and upon them almost every conceivable combination of curves was employed. bearing a motto and date of 1635. Another variation of gable outline is illustrated from 's a stone Hertogenbosch 72 . curiously shaped and laden with carved stone decorations. steps carvings resting upon them.SCHOOTEN. with strap ornament. swags and festoons. On the walls below the same complex treatment continues. all generally of debased Renaissance less lowing illustrations. especially on the "Goudkantoor. Pilasters and cornices. with the four steps supporting masses of coarsely-designed The heavy pediments to the windows are conspicuous. is a notable iron wall-tie of much larger size An enlarged drawing of it is reproduced on page 64. The Goudkantoor at Groningen (page 60). At Franeker (page 62) is an extreme development of the step gable. NORTH HOLLAND moulded and often surmounted by pediments. as ornamentation. and the have pediment. contributed to the rich profusion." the entrance doorway of which is emphasised by the work surrounding it. Whither events in architectural history were tending will be seen in the fol" " Each is crowned by (page 65) which betray the same source of origin. scrolls and ornate iron wall-ties. have quaint gables. and a house near to it of the year 1661 (page 61). Applied to the wall of the farthermost house. than was usual. and placed centrally between the windows of the second storey.

2 z z g 1 E w x h 73 .

The front face of this building is remarkable for the use of They are boldly carried up from bases to the head of the gable. and the last traces of native ideas are to be found in inconspicuous buildings such as that given from The Hague (page 66). pilasters. executed in unrelieved brickwork. The old of Inherited sources broken. And with the disappearance of it there went that which had given The links of the tradition were character to the architecture of Holland. have stone capitals of the There appears the date of Ionic order which carry an entablature. The pillars. a pure Renaissance domestic architecture did not tional style. When the tradi- owning both Gothic and Renaissance motives. are little carved bunches of fruit and flowers. wide projecting cornices and other Renaissance features were employed. as is shown by the drawings from Velsen (page 67).BEEK. and Zutphen (page 69). originality and vigour. MDCLXXI. The bricks are 2 inches wide by 9 inches long and are laid about five courses to one foot. It eventually came to pass that the gabled treatment. facing outwardly. Although hipped roofs. and on them. become established. was given up. were being lost. which had been the (page 63). had ceased to 74 . inspiration no longer served. guiding principle of house design for so many generations. ability and skill. GELDERLAND In this case the stone-capped sides follow the lines of sweeping curves.

BRIGDAMME. ZEELAND (DATED 1622) 75 .

They 76 . gabled brick and white-fronted houses. There also developed a type of building peculiar to the countryside. and give communication from on the quays life moves placidly. screened by The Ferry House. It is shown by the many farmhouses and cottages. Spaarndam (page 71) village view. yet in thorough harmony with their natural environment. with delicate greenery. and added adornment was but little employed. its village to village furnishes a typical . almost every country. the stream of design ebbed low. their buildings of the numerous villages. near Gennep (page 73). Their outward forms were determined by constructional principles. and on the front is diaper brickwork. curved and stepped. wind between meadows. The style of them shows little variation in the different localities. and houses became uninteresting and commonplace. not claiming especial distinction. They were brought into being by prevailing needs. GELDERLAND hold which until then had flowed conground. for the obtain is well suited to the simpler conditions that there style crowded activity of the town waterways is absent on the calm canals that its . has more ornate gables. They are unobtrusive examples of honest work.BEEK. and are the local representatives of that phase of native art which is to be found in Such village homes exist in all parts of Holland. tinuously Away in the country the town architecture is mirrored in the brick Less pretentious in appearance.

a 2 I 2 77 .

by living apartments. is in many cases reached from the . exterior by a ladder. and from the same village. as is exemplified by the drawing from Schooten (paofe 72). those of the Mansard In addition to the customary steeply-pitched roofs. Country work does not exhibit a great variety of building materials. A lean-to was frequently added to give an additional room. the remainder providing a huge barn. in this instance all upon the ground floor often they extend to a second in the which is then dormers.BROEK. The roof space. they are pleasant or tiled roof all the covered accommodation thatched great One side of the building is occupied contained. and the main roof brought down over it at a less steep pitch. or the beautiful country of North provinces of North and Grouping. with its hedgerows and woods and distant hills. as at Spaarwoude equally suited to are the windswept Friesland and rustic to see. homestead to that mentioned above. NORTH HOLLAND landscape. pantiles. were tarred. and the lower parts. also The great roof. Rather than left in their normal state. and keynote traditional form of building. continues in An illustration of the exterior of a similar use to the present day. Bricks. (page 68). were principally used for the walls. each other Under one by This the materials were employed according to their quality. and have similar low walls and large roofs. Beneath the eaves are the domestic rooms. will be observed. chance. The cottages follow roof. Houses 78 . valuable as a store. for about two feet upwards from the ground. practised for many generations. the watered South Holland. hipped at each end and covered with appears on page 70. perBrabant. These work. they were often thinly coated with plaster on the outer face. farmer's for the other conveniences and buildings were solidly constructed on a timber basis in the manner shown by the sectional view from Halfweg (page 70). pattern occiar less frequently. lighted by storey the same general constructive principles as the farms. where centre and side aisles are divided from Extreme durability was the the stout upright timbers. being made from the natural/product and consequently readily available. necessary for farm life is stalls for cattle. around old brick churches and sheltered by trees.

o z

79

WELL AT BEUGEN, NORTH BRABANT

and cottages of this description together form a characteristic group in the They were built upon a traditional country architecture of Holland. of the accumulated experience that was transmitted system which grew out from generation to generation. Customary examples are shown in the two drawings from Beek (pages 74 and 76), and by that from Broek in Waterland The farmhouse from Brigdamme (page 75) is of a similar (page 78).
;

Two at the entrance are two stone gate-piers, dated 1622. character The influences are to be traced in the farm at Bloemendaal (page 77). main building has the white plastered walls and large roof which in this while the adjoining gable case comes forward to cover an open verandah
of natural coloured bricks and more in the style of town work. Houses with wooden walls are prevalent, especially in North Holland. Upon a low brick wall, tarred, and varying in height from 18 to 30 inches, the timber frame was erected. Boards were simply nailed to it and the was left The framing commonly exposed to view on the exterior. well coated was with or tar for boarding paint protection against the A roof of thatch or tiles, well projecting at the eaves, covered weather. the whole. There was thus provided, by- simple and economical means, a type of building well suited for its The village of Broek has purpose. many examples of timber houses, such as those here given on page 79 while near by, at Monnikendam, Volendam, and on the Island of Marken,
is
;

are

numerous
80

others.

Municipal Mustiim. A**>ttntam.)

j-

CA1

WELL AT

BRABANT

and
countr\

"c

in the description together form a characteristic group a traditional were built of Holland. upon They

system w

from
drav*

t;c

(page
inrluen.
.

.Tew out of the accumulated experience that was transmitted M :* generation. Customary examples arc shown in the two and 76), and by that from Broek in Waterland igcs 74. farmhouse from Brigdamme (page 75) is of a similar

main
is

;

Two the entrance arc two stone gate-piers, dated 1622. The co be traced in the farm at Bloemendaal (page 77). which in this bat the white plastered walls and large root
while the adjoining gable cover an open verandah ricks and more in the style of town work.
'i-r

case o;

of na<

in North Holland. in from 18 to 30 inches, and .!, tarred, varying, height Upi Boards were simply nailed to it and the erected. the tirr.i The left fra: .inoniy exposed to view on the exterior. >ated with or tar for boar paint protection against the thatch or tiles, well projecting at the eaves, covered weath,icre vvas thus the wh >ie. provided, by simple and economical means, well a type suited for its purpose. The village of Broek has as here given on page 79 such those houses, many example while near by, at Monnikendam, Volcndam, and on the Island of Marken,

Houses

walls are prevalent, especially

I

,

;

are

numerous
80

others.

j BY CATHERINE BISSCHOP-SWIFT."THE MIRROR. ." (In tilt FROM AN OIL PAINTING Municipal Mustum. Amsttritam.

o z
W Q W O

'i/SM

81

BRIDGE

AT ZUIDERWOUDE, NORTH HOLLAND (DATED

An

extravagant use of paint is conspicuous in the country as well as the It is renewed at frequent intervals and, in the main, it is well towns. Shutters and doors and window frames, and frequently the whole applied. But the effects are not unpleasing. house front, are freely covered with it. Plain schemes an air of to the villages gaiety and freshness. They give one general a district while of colour are wisely adhered to, throughout note will be followed. On the island of Walcheren it is apple-green and while the woodwork white north of Amsterdam bluey-green and cream of the house at Beek (page 81) is painted in the tones of buff that find favour in the locality of Nijmegen. There are many other domestic features worthy of note to be seen in the villages of Holland quaint appliances for wells, ingeniously worked
;
; ;

(page 80), or little bridges that span dividing dykes, and connect homesteads with the highways. One from Zuiderwoude, near the edge of
the Zuider Zee,

on this page. It is built of brick relieved the of the arch appears the date of by keystone The wooden 1799. gates above give access to the farm and the fields. The Dutch, too, have a marked fondness for natural beauty, as is demonstrated by the skill they All towns can display in laying-out open spaces. show flower gardens and lawns, or old fortifications overlooked by gaunt
is

illustrated

a little stonework.

On

watch-towers, transformed into pleasant
this respect. noteworthy Very of which that at Brigdamme
in

pa.rks.

Nijmegen and Arnhem

are

lined

with many trees from the wind, and gratify the eyes with
82

charming, too, are the village streets, (page 18) is a typical instance. They are that afford and shade in summer shelter kindly
traceries of green.

DIVISION

II

EXTERIOR FEATURES DOORS, WINDOWS, GABLES &: ORNAMENTS

.

or elliptic When there shapes. GABLES & ORNAMENTS. They were based on the current forms that were employed in ecclesiastical and civic architecture. A careful examination of them discloses much inventive readiness and meritorious execution. The arches at| tne heads are pointed. similarly these details. trefoil. while the crowning gables. are label . or some quaint conceit of peculiar and subtle meaning. crowsteppedorcurved. Panels. decorated the walls. Among the examples extant. They were re- garded as more than mere ways of access and upon them the best skill of the craftsmen confrequently A centrated.mouldings above they follow the WOUDRICHEM. and The many and crowded accentuated. Particular prominence was given to external doorways. NORTH BRABANT (DATED 1611) 85 . the date of the work. those of the early period incline to greatest simplicity. whether for a public building or private dwelling. ROM skill the time when Dutch houses were built in a definite recognised style the features were always treated with openings were became Doorways imposing through the enrichment that surrounded them and windows were care. II. and ironwork emphasised.EXTERIOR FEATURES DOORS. completed the richness of the buildings. personal note would be added by was the introduction of the owner's arms or initials. carvings. great labour was expended. WINDOWS. The manner of Upon all their treatment varied widely. The openings are spacious and are surrounded by mouldings.

Another doorway from the same town (page 88) is built of stone and moulded bricks. FRIESLAND curves of the arches and support or surround the arms. It is composed of six boards and upon the outer face of each are shallow grooves running continuously from top to bottom. From carved stops at each side spring the simple extend that round the opening. trefoil is one of the series that That other early repeat across the building. give further interesting ornamentation. The wooden door is noteworthy. peculiar type ground 86 . while the label is terminated by a finial. contained within a trefoil arch. together ironwork. and a scroll with the date of The semi-circular arch which surrounds the 1547. The space at the head. house. enclosed by mouldings and filled by a winged cherub's head carved in relief. The doorway at Delft (page 87) is a good example of work dictated by Gothic influences. It is surmounted by a label.LEEUWARDEN. near mouldings the centre of which is a three-sided space. of forits windowed floor front constructed in wood. Projecting nailheads arranged in vertical with other lines. has carved upon it a shield lacking armorial bearings supporters. panels. or other decorations.

DELFT. SOUTH HOLLAND 87 .

SOUTH HOLLAND (DATED 1547) .DELFT.

NO M Q ==V Q X 05 Z Q 3 *\ vO Q W h Q Z z u Q a CO Bd h o z 3 .

circular arch followed The They were Those from Leiden (below). and Leeuwarden The (page 86) are characteristic. below which appears an ogee (page 89). Stone was now almost exclusively used for this feature. pedi- ments and mouldings. rich in pilasters. by the application of contrasting tints of paint. un- accompanied by brick. had its entrance doorway made with three plain stout timbers. It is crowned by mouldings. is doubtless the earliest of the three and most nearly allied to the work of usually built in stone and bricks. of which that from Haarlem (page 89) is an instance. the pointed although simultaneously a modified form of the latter. Flushing (page 91). lished seventeenth-century Renaissance detail gradually became - estab- and doorways of the seventeenth century were frankly treated in a Classic way. with the carved details picked out in differ- which The whole be- of it is ent colours. Leiden doorway of 1615. the preceding century. one at each side and one across the top as a An elaboration of the simple wooden doorway occurs at Leiden lintel. affected by the to exterforces They were same that altered the outward character of late sixteenth and houses. new treatment nal doorways.such as is given from Veere on page 44. painted. friezes. The parti-coloured effect of the door itself is achieved arch shaped in wood. with an especial preference for an adapted form of the Ionic order. Two ways 9 illustrated doorhere are LEIDEN. at "Delvitt's Poort" Woudrichem shows of 161 a (page 85) rather to advanced it development 1 for the period longs. RHIJNLAND (DATED 1615) . were erected in a manner that became general and which examples customary. with moulded opening and carved archstones. capitals. particularly to be observed in the Changing taste brought a enrichment of the iambs. Of circular-arched doorways there are endless continued to be used. The two remaining examples incline to later influences.

ZEELAND 91 .VLISSINGEN (FLUSHING).

extreme degree noted. the century French influence was predominant. over which is a broken pediment surmounted by particularly wellThe frieze at Leeuwarden rendered armorial bearings carved in stone. Less complicated within the heavily moulded pediment is a coat It is crowned from Leiden of is the 1655 (page 96). eighteenth-century doorways were unduly florid and may well be That from Marssum in Friesland (below). doorway by mouldin relief. were based on the Louis XV. original. Upon the frieze immediately above the arch of the Kampen example (page 93) will be seen the inscription and date of 1665. use of ironwork on is the door from Dordrecht (page 95) it carried to an . small cottage doors and doorways in villages such as Broek have all the attributes of the then prevailing mode. FRIESLAND (DATED 92 . situated as it is amongcottages in a quiet Later in village street. be the fittings MARSSUM. Metal locks. is of this kind. the of a poor stage-setting. The festoons above and decorated below will show the ings by fashion of the time. They are distinguished by the elaboration that appears at their heads. all but. (page 89) of arms. rather than serious of design suggest unreality while the incongruity of the work can only be appreciated architecture an inspection of the by Many . belonging described as rococo. such noticeable in the Arn- hem doorway affected the (page 94). hinges and nails are conspicuous in The the early specimens. style which not only work of the towns but permeated into The the heart of the country. The overladen ornament and peculiarities to the year 1713. tending towards correctness in design.well designed and proportioned. in this the date case being 1675. while is similarly inscribed. bolts. with details carefully thought out and well executed. The wooden doors were much with enriched either applied ironwork. as are Details. or mouldings and panels.

x XS ###BOT_TEXT###quot;' v - \. V KAMPEN.. OVERIJSSEL (DATED 1665) 93 .

the Gothic period. The gabled classic not given up pedi- ARNHEM. were not uncommonly A fine series of"such window-heads is to be seen on the built over them. " there are others at Scotch House at Veere (page 97) stone front of the Kampen and on a house in the Groenmarkt at Dordrecht. how- ever. windows. Two examples. and the establish- ment of the a short circular arch was but and natural step in development. continued. they were divided vertically by mullions . a section of w-hich is given. until They were displaced by ments. ") The elliptical shape. It was only after needs had been provided for that embellishment was added. are type presented drawing from Zwolle (page 101). They were customarily built in brickwork. having for sailing on rough water. Except in cases where the openings were small. or the overhead feature was altogether abandoned. both of Gothic design and of sixteenth are century workmanship. although arched spaces. or set back from the face of the walling. illustrated. discernible in the shaping of the lock-plates and hinges and the arrangement of the nailheads. The lower windows were closed by wooden shutters. These two forms obtained for many stances of either in the Insucceeding years. Late Gothic windows have also pointed and elliptical arches over the heads unenriched by decoration. Pointed arches ceased to be generally used after the coming of the Renaissance. usual in early civic buildings. The centre of the more from Haarlem (page 95) is occupied by a large sunk panel recent example surrounded by mouldings. Windows of houses were almost always square-headed. jointed and pegged together. and innumerable others are shown by the illustrations in this volume. existing to A good piece of its subject a ship examples belonging were rarely adopted for house pointed heads. GELDERLAND 94 . with the window spaces flush. filled with tracery. is The Dordrecht shutter constructed of beauti- fully grained pieces of oak. from and Dordrecht (page Nijmegen 99). woodcarving is that appearing on the/lintel. They appear so in The traceries and and transversely by cross-bars.have a practical purpose.

95 .

LEIDEN. RHIJNLAND (DATED 1655) 96 .

'..-! s. ZEELAND THE " SCOTCH HOUSE 97 . ' - ''M I <J ''-Z.'!' JUW...)!*. .1^. K VEERE. 1 JlH'.t.. * *.'p(^si>iJ 1 * N* niMmif'. vr.. fw:.|ii ' iC^Jfcu..1' liuVmi'ii B "JL. m&k Jfe . mlL! "1 * *!ljl ..f' *-f 'tw ..

front at in stone Gorinchem (page 103). siderably more than the upper WOODEN WINDOW-FRAME. customary. has circular arches The appearing over the windows. is fastened to the window-frames by iron straphinges. The openings were divided centrally by transoms. from North and South Holland. Seventeenth-century shutters are not comparable. shows shutters painted in red and black while several specimens. or diamond panes were used. Much interesting sculpture is also distributed over the gable and walls of this building. But during the seventeenth century the employment of wooden first Windows were bars became universal and leadwork went out of fashion. They the however. which site) . with hinges to open and shut. frequently devoid of ornament. giving colour to are. red and black and numerous others. thelower windows receding inwards conones. The glazing of windows was first enclosed by casements. and the character of the work seems to be advanced for the period to which it apparently belongs. green and red yellow and black . were They were occasionally large enough to cover the whole window. enclosed spaces are richly decorated by stone carvings.WITHIRON FITTINGS AND LEAD GLAZING. Dordrecht (page 98). FROM DORDRECHT. glazed with leaded Small squares of glass. groups. but usually only the lower half was furnished with them. white. as at lights. . SOUTH HOLLAND Wooden still shutters. opening outwards. brightly painted and are interesting in consequence. green and white . After casements came sash windows. Many harmonious schemes are to be observed . The coloured drawing from Nijmegen (oppoarchitectural . are given (pages 98 to 100). . built and brick. in point of carved enrichment. with those of Gothic times the woodwork. and fitted with bolts and catches. WINDOW SHUTTER FROM VELSEN J> .

. fsoM* WATERSYDNEY R.COLOUR DRAWING BY NIJMEGEN. GELDERLAND. JONES.

bt observed . thelower windows receding inwards considerably DEN WINDOW-t-RAME. ws. the < juently devoid of ornament. hnghtly painted and are consequence. giving colour to rai . But during the seventeenth century the employment of wooden bars became universal and leadwork went out of fashion. has circular arches The appearing over the windows. iirst enclosed and shut. or diamond panes were used. 98 i to 100). first glazed with leaded Small squares of glass. aces are richly decorated by stone carvings. The openings . WITH IRON rriNGS AND LEAD GLAZING. as at Dordrecht (page 98). FROM DORDRECHT. '. is the window -frames by iron strap'. green andyellow and jnd numerous others.Tom Nijmegen (oppomted in red and black .r Gorinchem (page 103). opening outwards. customary. rrn And red . from North and t" . built 1C and brick. . Wooden still shutters. in point of carved enith those of Gothic times .n.ts. wcvcr. and the character of the encl : work seems to be advanced period to which it apparently for the belongs. titled with bolts and catches. ndows were were divided centrally by transoms. were They were occasionally n to cover' the whole window. interesting sculpture is also distributed over the gable and walls of Much this building. >nly the lower half was furnished Seventeenth-century shutters comparable.if tij n Many harmogroups. WINDOW SHtTTTER which FROM VELSEN . SOUTH HOLLAND I more than the upper ones.

GELDERLAND. JONES. .NIJMEGEN. FROM COLOUR DRAWING BY A WATER- SYDNEY R.

.

z w Q M w s h h D O Q Z 99 .

. The Kampen gable has pinnacles rising from the coping late of the steps. are worthy of notice. The ing distinguish- gables so often mentioned. belonging to the eighteenth on page 102. associated with the first quarter of the sixteenth century. the illustrations. It is impossible to consider here in detail . fantastic and the shapes. followed the trend of design lent prevathe time of their at erection. century.were substituted are for in the older form. being surlrfunded by mouldings Dormer windows also. WINDOW SHUTTER FROM MONNIKENDAM Thus. as has and carvings. years 1626 from Marssum. are in keeping with the current forms of the Gothic period. 105) . all shown teenth centuries. the two gables.appearing There many shown Those from Flushing (page house dated 1625. became much-developed already been stated. and a later dormer. and intimately associ- ^**" ated with exhibit house deve- WINDOW SHUTTER FROM HAARLEM lopment infinite varieties Between the early stepped outlines of later days. They of treatment. usual features in work or the time while the twisted finials at Dordrecht. WINDOW SHUTTER FROM HAARLEM 100 . there is an innumerable succession. from Kam- pen (page 104) and Dordrecht (page 107). features during the seventeenth and eigh- on a somewhat from the Three characteristic specimens are given: two from Kampen. of the and 1634. They are both built of stone and decorated on the face with sunk panels and carvings. differ usual type.

OVERIJSSEL 101 .ZWOLLE.

Four typical gables. is that from Arnhem (page 108).the numerous vicissitudes through which the development of the gable passed during the many years that Gothic and Renais- were acting together as Roughly and briefly. all sketched in North Holland. mouldings. and stone decorations. achieved by the use of oppositive curves. ber of different outlines that Among MARSSUM. OVERIJSSEL (DATED 1626) brick. 102 KAMPEN. Work the handling of dewas carried out wholly in KAMPEN. guiding influences. mediaeval character was observed in respect to construction and general management evident by the stepped and of masses curved gables with a marked tendency sance motives to Classic feeling in tails. and the stonework of the copings extends to the strapwork ornament. or in brick relieved by the large numstone. those based on the oriform show predominantly. are illusA good trated (pages 1 06 and 109). OVERIJSSEL (DATED 1634) . ginal stepped But the spirit of the times is discernible in the culminating pediments. example of shaping. FRIESLAND are in evidence.

GORINCHEM (GORCUM). SOUTH HOLLAND (DATED 1566) I0 3 .

Fascia-boards. ) Both are enriched with stone representations of fruit and flowers. The which are planted at on the outer faces of the gables their highest points. of the simplest form. The house opposite the bridge in the Franeker illustration (page 113) has such a gable. are similarly decorated plified in . straight and The two unshaped. with edge of them Both methods are figured in detail pendants appearing at the lower ends. applied to overhanging stories of wooden houses. are not uncommonly protected by barge-boards. numbers 6 and 7. all quite in the spirit of late seventeenth and eighteenth-century work. When were employed. running apex. has similar characteristics. may mouldings or the undersides are diversified by repeating curves. from to base have worked at the timbers. in drawings i. How effectively window-heads and copings were handled. they generally remained. obscured from view these objects of shaped and perforated.Two (page 109) are well carried out in brickwork. Another. . bordering the street. shafts usefulness. 2. There is an absence of chimneys in Solely utilitarian. 2. Many stacks have neither mouldings KAMPEN. for the gable . the wall. and 4 on page 1 1 1. two are exem- wooden finials. vases and festoons. ends of the high and narrowfronted houses. and the details numbered I. serving the for which were purpose devised. chimneys came into greater But even then with prominence. is demonstrated by the larger drawing the brickwork is flush and obliquely tailed into the horizontal courses of gables from Leiden . yet withal in a perfectly workmanlike way. The sides of the gables of farmhouses and country cottages. 3 and 5 give four examples of them. are variously interesting^) Holland. therefore. instead of gables. traditional forms to give the basis for the evolution of a settled type they did not constitute important decorative factors in the architectural scheme. they owing nothing to beauty or orna- ment and little to precedent. from Amsterdam (page 10). and it is dated 1735. hipped roofs an absence of developed. Long sweeping curves were much employed in the shaping of later gables. OVERIJSSEL 104 .

ZEELAND 105 ..=. Xo* **"'* VLISSINGEN (FLUSHING)..=. ^ .....

NORTH HOLLAND . NORTH HOLLAND high up on fancy suggested over gables. Isolated stone ornaments are numerous. The rich appearance of the buildings is in no small measure due to the extravagant use of these That bizarre kind of ornament. was freely used. Among the latter may be mentioned the more or less conventional representation of human forms. fishes and beasts. four are exemplified by the accompanying quently occurring in bearing.nor other projection at the top. the HAARLEM. and well shown in the Arnhem gable (page 108). drawings from Zutphen (page 115) and Haarlem (pages 1 14 to pride of green.arms which keep 1 1 6) . popularly used as a gable termination. and both have while the moulded heads . Equally symbolic of are the carved coats -of. Hoorn example has a pyra- midal hood covered with lead and supported by four metal uprights. and inscriptions . around doorways. dates. with prominence given to heads of lions. on or distributed windows. known by the name of strapdetails. They were in- serted into walls with freedom and wheresoever caprice or MONNIKENDAM. work. fruit and flowers. They deviate plain somerectan- what from the gular shape. birds. mottoes. Chimneys a little more elaborate than was usual are shown by the two illustrations from Hoorn and Zutphen (page 112). what would otherwise have been unrelieved spaces. home by 1 06 visible sign. Of a more homely and perare sonal character the fre- panels well-cut figures and letters. as was carved work based upon Italian motives. or the complete animal in the attitude sejeant.

and other appliances relevant to human convenience or suggestive of enterprise. SOUTH HOLLAND (DATED 1523) memory these ot the decoration from little One such armorial on 1644. red. page 115. together with a ship from Haarlem 107 . high in relief and A painted black. gold and white. water and wind forces of Nature. carvings in stone. dated is illustrated craftsmanship they essentially express the sentiments of the man who caused the stones to be laid. windmills. Workum. examples of builder and the honour of his house. with ships. All so than are more mere enrichments. Decoratively treated water. that is The to say.DORDRECHT. constantly seen. windmill from Sneek. were especially favoured. Things to be observed in everyday/life naturally furnished subjects for . greatly influential in Holland anil all that resulted therefrom were turned to for inspiration.

As . are illustrated Interesting is the wall-panel at Franeker (page 114). The mosaic decorations are of unusual inte'rest. higher up the building. and distant houses The house known as " Inde Steenrotse. while the water. from local there is much spirit shown in the scene history depicted upon it carving of the men and horses. materials were used with just regard for their suitable adaptnot employed unreasonably. with a (page 115). dated 1590.V ARNHEM. represent biblical scenes from the Book of Exodus. 108 . GELDERLAND appearing in an oval panel surrounded by a scrollwork frame. by a wealthy mason. various with connected the subjects portray episodes working of stone and two are here given (page 116) others. was customary. for they are of a kind more or less peculiar to this country. They were formed by inlaying small pieces of brick and stone set together to make repeating patterns or panels. drawbridge. the Dwars Quay at Middelburg. . or strained to accomplish ability to purpose . is noteworthy for its large It was built Five of the carved panels in high relief." situated on are well managed.

NORTH HOLLAND LEIDEN. RHIJNLAND ICQ . NORTH HOLLAND HAARLEM.HAARLEM. RHIJNLAND LEIDEN.

Turning to external metalwork the most characteristic objects are the iron wall-ties. as is demonstrated by the many and varied forms produced by the blacksmiths. who regarded these accessories. AMSTERDAM. All were achieved by others from a house near by. both carried out in red and a frieze at the yellow bricks.which they were not fitted. Endless varieties are to be found./ The kind appears on the house at Zwolle. inscribed " Iden Salamander 1606" houses at Woudrichem (page 117) " " have notable examples of mosaics in the and Zuden Gulden Engel 1593 Two of the patterns are shown in detail on page 118. less frequently it appears in bands carried horiwindow-heads over spaces that for . the possibilities for artistic treatment which the wall-ties offered were by no means overlooked. They were applied to walls to give them But stability. and illustrated on page 1 19. especially noticemanipulating Work of a similar able being the starlike figures with radiating points. These circumstances all suggest the origin of the employment of such work in Holland. and the analogy with the East is further strengthened by the fact that mosaic was a medium extensively used by Byzantine and Saracenic artists. portions of inlay enclosed feeling by arch-shaped lines curved horseshoe fashion. with two together little shaped pieces of brick to form devices. The horseshoe arch was essentially a product of Morocco. On page 118 is represented a small section of the horizontal mosaic band that appears over the archway at Nijmegen (page 41). before all things. such as are shown the illustrations on page 121. as the particular field for the display of their skill. window-heads. Two examples are here given. this with the two main in evident design. dated 1609. zontally across the buildings. NORTH HOLLAND I 10 . by work on . The units were simple and results This ornamental work was principally used to enrich the arched legitimate. Simpler patterns were also formed with ordinary narrow bricks and mortar. first level of a at house Workum and from Franeker storey shaped spaces (page 120). certain patterns being local to specific districts. Upon ordinary houses and they were practically invariably used are they usually no more elaborate than might be achieved by direct the anvil of honest but unambitious appearance and shaped in simple ways. An enlarged drawing of one of the window-heads (page 118) gives the There is quite a Moorish precise arrangement of the brick and stonework.

WOOD DETAILS FROM GELDERLAND AND SOUTH HOLLAND
But the
labour.
wall-ties of

more important buildings

are often complicated affairs

;

beautiful

examples of design and craftsmanship which were wrought with

They are rich in scrolls and curves with foliated ornament, and one of the examples here given (page 123) has the date of 1798 worked Iron letters and figures also decorate the fronts of many houses. within it. Each is detached and secured to the wall by a single stay. They are An example has already been arranged to denote dates or monograms. seen at the base of a gable at Middelburg (page 35) ; another specimen, from St. Anna, near Nijmegen, is reproduced on page 122. Other wrought ironwork was used for various purposes on doors and
1 1 1

windows,
effect

as well

as

to

heighten the

of

certain
its

features.
is

A

good

instance of
strated

application

demon-

by the key-escutcheon, with Midsupporting iron decorations, from

delburg (page 123). The workmanship is of a traditional kind, with Gothic forms recalled by the cusps on the The iron door-knocker, pierced plates. interappearing on the same page, is an and esting example of curious design or seventeenth to the sixteenth belongs
century.

For windows, ironwork was

the stout stay-bars and stanchions, instances of which, fitted to an oval opening, are furnished from Leiden

used in

(page 122).

ZUTPHEN, GELDERLAND

The

magnificent wrought vanes of Holland, surmounting lofty belfries on

public buildings, are justly famous and are reflected in the less elaborate shapes that adorn the roof points or gable ter-

minations

and dwellinghouses. One, from Middelburg (page is a beautiful 122), example of an iron terminal. The crowning figure and fleur-de-lis are gilded, while signs and symbols of the Zodiac are worked around the outer and inner open-framed
of business

Simpler vanes are common throughout the country, attached to farmhouses or stables. That from
globes.

Broek (page 122) is shaped like a swan one may be seen at Veere which takes the form of a ship. The shaft of the weathercock from Hees (page 124) is made up of iron scrolls, welded together, and four projecting arms point to north, south, east and west. The leadwork to be observed on do;

mestic buildings
interest.

is

not of remarkable

There are no wonderful deco-

rated rain-water heads such as

may

be

HOORN, NORTH HOLLAND

112

vr>

M Q

Q

H

9

seen elsewhere, and lead heads, when used at all, are for the most part comparatively
projections.
ples
plain,

square

The exam-

from Zutphen, reproduced on page 122, illustrate two ordinary An interesting feature, prevalent in North Holland, is the lead forms. There are many examples in finial placed at the apex of a hipped roof. the streets of Hoorn, three of which are shown on page 124. Notice

CARVED STONE LETTERING FROM HAARLEM

should be taken of the delicate little fretwork heads the repousse patterns and the iron vane which surmounts one of the on the upright sides These objects, although of little practical use, have a decorative examples. In all these exterior features and value that well justifies their existence. details, whether executed in wood or stone, metal or brick, there is especial evidence of the type of mind that was concerned with their production ; Such work they pertinently give the key to temperament and character.
;
;

resulted rrom

deliberate

thought and calculation, rather than from imaginative imSometimes it verged pulse. on dulness, yet there is always traceable a certain solid This is strength and vigour.
well seen in the stone carvings, here illustrated, whose subjects
are often lacking in originality or follow some oft-repeated theme. They are excellently

carved, however,

and

attain

interest in consequence.

For

the individuality of the masons is reflected in the inanimate

They gave life to their work and freshness to old subEach man followed his jects. own bent. Some were a little
advance of their time, some behind it, so there are endless
in

stone.

variations to patterns that su-

new turn perficially agree. was given to a scroll here, a
arrangement there ; small just things that served to raise work from the conventional and
different

A

commonplace.

CARVED STONE PANEL FROM FRANEKER

114

ANNO DOMINI .: CARVED STONE PANEL FROM ZUTPHEN (DATED 1615) CARVED STONE PANEL FROM SNEEK CARVED STONE PANEL FROM HAARLEM CARVED STONE PANEL FROM HAARLEM CARVED STONE PANEL FROM WORKUM .

were customary and usual. Traditions of ornamentation were just as much founded upon accumulated experience as were the main styles of architecture. the abiding waterways.CARVED STONE PANELS FROM MIDDELBURG. They were ordered governed by principles that slowly grew together and became established. the ancient churches standing as they had done in times long past. Certain ornaments continued to be used. respect for the permanence of spiritual and material things that he pursued his craft. and it was in a spirit of . active yet unchanging. almost unaltered. This was altogether good. the treatment of features. Methods of workmanship. ZEELAND (HOUSE DATED 1590) The olden craftsmen respected tradition. as a whole. Not that patterns were slavishly followed on the contrary. principles that served to check the introduction of inharmonious innovations which would have been out of sympathy with all those forms that. each man gave his own interpretation of what he knew had served so well. and fashioned his work in his own way. The worker saw around him the forces of Nature. CARVED STONE PANEL FROM HAARLEM 116 . But he remembered something of that which had gone before. Forms that became established by custom were handed down from generation to generation. were gradually evolved. and types of enrichment. over a very long period.

NORTH BRABANT (DATED l6o6 AND .WOUDRICHEM.

they do not often appear misplaced or offend the For the natural conditions of eye. are so plentifully applied. The many houses. gables and ornaments. The low-lying lands and ever-present water demand a special type of architecture which shall be in thorough sympathy with the surroundings. . or small part to traditions. It that incongruities was by such methods were avoided. But nothing Craftsmen happened suddenly. the country have always been peculiar. by their particular appearance. are FROM WOUDRICHEM 118 . elsewhere. doorways came the circularheaded gables of simple outline in course of time became more complex fashions in the shaping . Holland which would be out of place. Period followed After the pointed-arched period. laid his bricks. wrought his iron. mark various steps in a long-continued process BRICK AND STONE MOSAIC FROM ZWOLLE of development. of wall-ties changed. therefore. windows. or even bad. appearing BRICK AND STONE MOSAICS where they do. were content to solve their own problems without any show of haste. BRICK AND STONE MOSAIC FROM NIJMEGEN national The temperament always as- serted itself and each individual as he carved his stone. did his keep alive the inherited and pass them on so that meet the they should be vigorous to needs of future generations. worked his (wood. The ornamental features that appear on the exterior walls impart to the buildings of Holland much of that quaintness for which they are disAlthough the decorations tinguished.Doorways. as well as outwardly express the character of those people who live amongst Much is possible and good in them.

ZWOLLE. OVERIJSSEL (DATED 1609) .

It requires but little imagi- nation to people once again the streets and waterways with children men and women and who lived in byEvidences are on every gone centuries. There is a personal note about each dwelling. WORKUM. or similar motives worked around doorways. they cannot see fail ment. the carved And in this monograms and dates are full of meaning. especially give to the brick and stone-built walls a home-like and Students of English architecture will have observed how fireside quality. mosaics and ironwork such as are shown by the illustrations in this section with in coloured bricks fashioned many them ways. Rich with ornaments. the appearance of the houses of Holland just as they ideas affected homely did those of England. of their lives hand. The stones they lovingly caused to be carved are there.admirably conceived. places to be treasured by suc- And the ceeding generations. They are houses that look like homes. The work was done that it should last and yet it stands. the heavy studded doors that yielded to their hands are still framed by old entrance ways. FRIESLAND I2O . house The glory of the may have departed . solid and good. Similar sentiments obtained in both countries and indirectly brought kindred DETAIL OF DIAPER-WORK FROM FRANEKER features to the buildings. date panels. little carvings. yet there still remains the material record of lives well-spent and duties well- performed. dates and inscriptions. evidences of pride of possession to be seen in the isolated panels carved with arms. and doorways and to appeal to those who in their natural environ- windows highly decorated.

IRON WALL-TIES 121 .

WITH STANCHION BAR.NEAR NIJMEGEN IRON DATE-SIGN FROM ST. FROM LEIDEN IRON WEATHERVANE FROM BROEK IRON WALL-TIE FROM NIJMEGEN LEAD SPOUT-HEAD FROM ZUTPHEN 122 IRON TERMINAL FROM MIDDELBURG LEAD SPOUT-HEAD FROM ZUTPHEN . OVAL WINDOW. ANNA.

w I Z o o Q 2 O O o c w D h 2 OS D . -: 5j?VW?SlCS O O Q Z O W O D xS o - w NH h Z o 123 .Ks&ii--'-***u.

o IRON WEATHER-VANE FROM HEES LEAD FINIAL FROM HOORN LEAD FINIAL FROM HOORN LEAD FINIAL FROM HOORN 124 .

DIVISION III INTERIORS AND DECORATION .

.

inscribed with the homely maxim "Oost West. That it should be continuous and abiding was the keynote of the old work which to this day is fresh and beautiful. beyond the thresholds of country farms. although the makers of it have long since gone are And while and forgotten. inare hidden They away from the outer world behind high gabled fronts of sober houses. admirably adapted for displaying the blueand-white wareand pictureswhich . gave results tending towards Rooms became imposing by their massive ceiling extreme elaboration. The chimney- sumptuous. floors . of oak. upon the walls carved oaken doors fireplaces in wood and stone adorned with columns. that they should stand from generation to generathat men's memories might be honoured by their children and tion their children's children. They tell of bygone times and bring vivid pictures of civic and home life to the imagination. rest against is it. full of life and vitality. . INTERIORS AND DECORATION are. a seven- good impression of teenth-century room may be gathered from the accompanying illustration from Dordrecht (page The walls are panelled in 128). or glazed painted glass brass candelabrums quarries hanging from the ceilings. alternately and sober. so also were they made to please the eye and gratify the senses. or maybe Spanish leather or tapestry. within the old buildings ^HERE terior effects of rare charm. of Holland. Thuis piece BRASS CANDELABRUM FROM HAARLEM 127 . Solidly built. oak up to a certain height above is a deep white frieze. . Forming the dividing line between mantel and fireplace is a mantel-cloth of blue material. These interiors are rich in memories of the past. dignified above with panelling and projecting frieze. things were made to be durable. veined marble. . in A many places. . Good construc. accompanied by much enrichment. charming below gay the mantel with brightly-coloured tiles and shining metal utensils.III. figures and other devices coloured tiles ot cast-iron firebacks and metalwork many patterns wrought panels ot tion. with movable furniture and ornaments disposed in the windows . beams supported by sculptured corbels panelling. . they were erected with due to thought permanence. .

SOUTH HOLLAND 128 .SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY ROOM FROM DORDRECHT.

SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY ROOM FROM LEEUWARDEN. FRIESLAND 129 .

a particularly beau- Town in the Hall at Zwolle. to the decoration of given the them. but there are certain essentials com- mon to all and a general resemblance between each. . and a blue velvet mantel-cloth. with curved decorated brackets branching from shaped shafts. example of a brass candelabrum. window Another is are circular panels of painted glass. with . many being 130 rich beyond AMSTERDAM (iJTH CENTURY) . behind is Upon copper fire-holder In the lead-glazed a cast-iron fireback adorned with an armorial subject. Similar Equally characteristic is the room at Leeu warden (page 129). twenty-seven candles. Apart from their uses for purposes of illumination. while the floor is covered with matting." and bearing a brace of crossed tobacco-pipes worked at each end of it. seen for it will be how effectively they were made. and heavy.Best. appearance of FIREPLACE IN THE BRICKLAYERS' GUILD. with an image of the Virgin and leaf-like tiful candelabrum pierced. they are highly successful as centre ornaments. Patterns are various. probably represents the extreme capacity of this old-fashioned system of lighting. Many such still exist in old-world rooms. ordinarily there are ten or three twelve while an example noticed at Haarlem. Thus. It is of a type that was customary. and carved woodwork features will be observed panelling ceiling joists and beams. but an elaboration of the simple familiar form. first in importance come the fireGreat thought was places. tiles. suspended from high ceilings by chains or rods. shown by the drawing from Haarlem (page 127). is brackets. Of interior features. . completes this picture of material comfort and pleasantness. which are here supported by moulded corbels blue-and-white The hearth is of squares of ware. Some carry lights only. similar to the two one above-mentioned. massive beam. it stands a black and white marble. good specimen of a brass candelabrum is attached to the central ceiling A Solid oak furniture. .

A .TINO BY BARON J.1 FROM N StVENTEENTH-CENTUftV Ob OIL Pi.

but there certain essentials i<- arc com- mon all and a general ir. Apart from their uses for purposes '. massive matting. st white. AMSTERDAM (l/TH CENTURY) IN . a the tire- Great ro thiKiijht vva 1 - the . moulded corbels 1 . black a casttil. th attached to the central ceiling Solid oak furniture.>f thtsm. was from of ill h . first in im. It is of a type that Haarlem (page 127). of material comfort at and pleasantness. places. Leeuwarden V Similar features carved ling and ceiling joists and beam: ware.CE . squares of behind is fire-holder a it stands copper In the lead-glazed n armorial subject. . ou&.i 1 blue-and-white s of The h. * ' catxttt^ pr*>iv ilg. cs. 129). the k. similar to the one above-mentioned. r- come det.! : highb on We ' Zt ' ter ped shafts. show.)-pipes worked at each end of it.. suspended rods. rum. the c ! >( A. . is n and Equal! . exist in old-world rooms. window Another exam pitis painted glass. an example Haarlem. with gin and the simple twehc ' . many being 130 rich THE BRICKLAYERS OT/ILD.

A. . HENDRIK LEYS.) "SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY DUTCH INTERIOR. Amsterdam." FROM AN OIL PAINTING BY BARON J.(In the Ryks Mttsfunt.

.

FIREPLACE FROM MAASTRICHT. LIMBURG (DATED .

enriched with mouldings or appearing as columns. Such chimney-pieces are by no means rare in Holland and may generally be ascribed to the seven- CAST-IRON FIREBACK FROM NIJMEGEN 132 . they were skilfully combined to produce harmonious results. this date being carved the sandstone jambs are worked Gothic stops resting on square bases. Details of fireplaces changed with passing of Gothic influences. Thewooden figures on the mantel-shelf are merely placed thereon and are not inherent to the design. cusps. mouldings which spring from shaped broad frieze is rich with carvings of angels. or less frequently. although the olden form was still the retained. bearing the arms of Maastricht and Liege. Upon year 1510. They commonly supported a carved oak frieze sur- mounted by a projecting cornice. the imposing compositions.Numerous kinds of description. all giving value to . were substituted for moulded jambs. The jambs. Classic columns. and two shields. The CAST-IRON FIREBACK FROM LEIDEN fireplace at Maastricht (page 131) is a good specimen of the late Gothic type. It belongs to the on the centre scroll. conventional flowers. The openings were of ample size. And so the materials were although various. Fireplaces were brought forward from the walls and not set back within them. marble and slate. The rear of the opening is lined with pressed terra-cotta tiles that exhibit a variety The of designs in low relief. coloured tiles and terra-cotta. Against it is set an iron fireback ornamented with a heraldic device. wide and high. human figures and grotesques. materials were used for their adornment brick and stone. wood. supported massive hoods that extended upwards to the ceiling.

FIREPLACE FROM MIDDELBURG. ZEELAND '33 .

together with the bases and corbels. now at Groningen. from Middelburg. and by the parti-coloured floor laid with red and yellow quarries. belongs to a later period than the A wooden preceding example. almost chimney-shelf in black colour. admirably decorative in themselves. They fires where generally burned on open hearths. It is situated in the room of the Guild and is of early Bricklayers' CAST-IRON FIREBACK FROM MIDDELBURG chimney-breast above is seventeenth -century workmanship. Over the mantel-shelf is a curved of Amsterpediment with the arms Fitted to the it. hooked within the opening. were used The CAST-IRON FIREBACK FROM JISP '34 . protecting fireback rests against it. The opening is framed of stone. and pilasters. dam carved upon a small oval brickwork. but the jambs behind them. already been illustrated teenth from Leeu- Another example. painted panel enclosed by the Westerwold The fireplace from (page 135). are of slate and are decorated with strapwork patterns. is faced with blue-and-white tiles and red bricks. is here given The columns are of (page 133). The oak mantel is inlaid with bands and wood. Tiles of blue. A.One. century. support the tapering The back of the fireplace hood. is further enhanced by the pure white surrounding walls. on page 129. while a hanger. white marble. has warden. panels of light white and yellow cover the back. The chimney-piece at Amsterdam (page 130) is of an unusual pattern. and border the upright sides of the iron hearth. effect of this fireplace and its acces- sories. holds The the metal pot over the fire. Cast-iron firebacks have been noticed in the previous illustrations.

GRONINGEN 135 .FIREPLACE FROM THE WESTERWOLD.

design to The are of the good. All the work is in rather low relief. containing placed upon the floor in as front of chairs. scrolls and flowers. withal. serviceably made. bordered by fruit and Middelburg. is One such on It page i 39.INTERIOR OF A WOODEN HOUSE AT MARKEN. They are of square or oval 136 BRASS CHIMNEY-CRANE FROM LEEUWARDEN . served foot-warmers (page 148). The one from Leiden is dated 1609. floral and heraldic subjects. Small boxes fire. cast upon them. Both the remaining specimens. It is. and was drawn at in the Museum lines Dordrecht. NORTH HOLLAND and were taken from wooden models. 1650. observed especially in the engaged scrolls and be shaping of the top. given is an iron fire-standard suited for holding peat. from Jisp and from Nijmegen. are decorated with figure subjects. or designs suggested with are ornamented They by classical myths and bible stories. two have armorial bearings. surrounded by rich borders. Fuel. and the other. Of the four examples illustrated on pages 132 and 134. was responsible for certain utensils in which it could be conveniently burned. in the form of peat or charcoal. castings are rather light and thin.

Z U oc w S H Ui a: x j. X h 0: a - 7 .aC _.

i i is an iron fire-sta! suited for holding peat. on is page 33. made. NORM) HOLLAND castings are rather lighr They are ornamented wi i i and wev iken from wooden models. and heraldu -ur>iects. lining on the .ii or charcoal. in the form of pe.^s. and the other. two have jrmorial bearif. 1650. ral . pages 32 and 74.< cast upon them. from Nijmegen. are decorated with figure uhiects. 2 was drawn in the Museum at Dordrecht. especially to be observed ?he engaged scrolls and It is. given 1 thin. >rh the renu.I--' f- \T MARKEN. was responsible for certain utensils in which it could be conveOne suth niently burned.f I floor served A 3 BRASS CHIMNMr-CRANE FROM LEEUWARDEN . from Jisp and fruit and Mtddelburg. 4 v>f the top. Leiden The from . bordered by relief. mens. surrounded by rich borders. Fuel. The Iinc5 of the design are good. or designs suggested "ur examples illustrated on Of f by classical myths and bible stories. in low AH the work is rather scrolls and liowcrs. Jated 1609.' \ i RIOR OF A .

2 & h z (d CJ oo h w w w ex K h - z w .

.

HINDELOOPEN ROOM AT THE FRISIAN MUSEUM. LEEUWARDEN 1 37 .

also from Middelburg (page 139). A (page small crane is A forwards. which might. that of swinging backwards and warden. Some tiles were pure white others had conventional floralformspainted upon them. with no provision made for carrying away the smoke. be swung over or away from the fire. drawing is Allied to the crane. Out of handy The curved arm is made of brass. The tongs at the extreme left are so fashioned that one arm. and classical sources. being hollow. which were set the fireplaces towards the centre of the rooms. which are of brass.shape. The of fire-irons. and the date of 1787. furnishes admirable examples of useful objects. were decorated with devices derived from . is shown set in detail. inseparably associated with Delft and other places in Holland. with scallop-like indentations at its upper edge. is enriched with incised decoration. nautical. The also were sides are frequently patterned and the lids perforated. and used for a it to and fro. the Dutch had admira- central object ble material for interior decoration. specimens appearing on page 139 are from Middelburg. suitably adorned. With the exception of some of the ends and terminations. letters. historical. brightly polished. one by means of a ratchet. They can be made to hang high or low. motives. and both are constructed ot iron. Units such CARVED OAK PANEL FROM ZWOLLE (i6rH CENTURY) 138 . or pot rests upon it. The plate to which the fire-irons hang. contained in iron pots which stood upon oak stools . if desired. Many. birds. again. may be used as a blowpipe. rural. depicting a ship. Upon the flat handle is further incised floral based upon ornamentation. The specimen here reproduced (page 136) is from LeeuIt has one simple movement. trees. The former system is exemplified by the drawing from Leeuwarden (page 137). scriptural. In the glazed tiles. and shaped to resemble a fish. The is a blowpipe. kettle often seen attached to the back of the fireplace. Fires within or they burned in little iron hearths. and the latter by an illustration from a cottage at Marken 136). Next in order is a ladle adapted for scooping up ashes from the hearth. which fits into pierced holes and for similar purpose. the mouth comes the iron kettle-holder with a small chain affixed. and the other by a catch. and a second pair of tongs completes the set. The two the hanger that was suspended from the flue. these implements are made of iron.

.

that nadc of hra^s.itemed anvhich stood little . t small used for a and rane. ble material for interior decoration. the Dutch had admira. which are of brass. 139 are be was suspen from to han M structc -a. inseparably asso- ciated with Delft and other places Holland.?.age 136) is from Leeuing backwards and . historical. letters. Next in order is a ladle adapted for scooping up ashes from 'the hearth. are cong. of the ends and terminations. may be used as blowpipe. The two the flue. by also a catch. . again. brightly polished. nautical. adorned. trees. A kettle pot rests upon it. In the glazed in tiles. from the fire. Allied t er that e spec i ITU . i made of a ratchr* is ud :<**. depicting a of left t i!.nd : fro.s at the extreme are so fashioned that one arm. Some tiles were pure white others had conventional floral forms painted upon thetn. Fires set up . and classical sources. ' ! lovement. one by means pierced holes and i show set oi The fire from Middelburg (page suitably irnishes admirable examples of Mt( : bjects. rural. Upon the flat handle is further incised floral is based upon ornamentation. central object a blowpipe. forwards. The motives. btrvU. fireplace. Many. ar plate to which the is - wi* enriched -jpper edge. scallop-like indentations a ship. were decorated with devices derived from scriptural. these implements are made of iron. chain affixed.>n i Out of th> .'cd to resemble a fish. and both r low. and a second pair of tongs completes the With the exception of some set. The ij warden. and the date .orated. stools within iro' p> which were for no carrying the drawing from n from a cottage at - made crane or . k handy similar . Units such Aftveo OAK PANEL FROM ZWOLLE (i6xH CENTURY) . which swung over or away . a being hollow.

oi h z a u CC Pi C/D i-l NH h X h Q K d u S < z .

.

o z h </) a E Q CO Z O H 05 05 o: o z 1 K) .

these. It is remarkable to note the great similarity between the dein Holland velopment of cular example and are panelling in terns The earlier patboth employed countries practically identical. marked by elaboration rather than sim- although there are not wanting examples of rooms wainscoted with plain framed woodwork divided into Of ornapanels by stiles and rails. The drawing belongs to the seventeenth original woodwork of the coloured The back of the fireplace. such as those exemplified from Leiden on this page. where carved vine ornaments appear between two curved and moulded scrolls set back to back. is faced entirely with tiles from floor to Those towards the floor have blue and white patterns upon them . they were employed in other Notable rooms are to be seen whose good appearance depends ways. satisfactorily they were used will have been already observed in the fireplaces previously described. blue and green and yellow while in larger houses stone and marble were em. Another design that was favoured is shown in the illustration taken from Zwolle (page 1 38). ployed with pleasing results. Panelling was by no means infrequently It was often applied to interior walls. The room of the other illustration (page 137) dates from the eighteenth century. mental panels there are certain definite plicity. It has similar tiles on the walls and Floors were also quarries on the floor. primarily upon the skilful manipulation of tiles. laid in alternate colours. Frisian They are from Hindeloopen. apart from giving value to fireplaces. a later date round-headed arches and pilasters were introduced. and in the window recess. while Dutch England. But. and are now in the Museum at Leeuwarden. beautiful in How one in colour (opposite). ceiling. kinds. laid with other coloured quarries. This partiis attributed to the beof the sixteenth At ginning century. Two such are illustrated.as themselves. they are white but for the narrow blue borders round the angles. Characteristic are those adorned with linen-fold patterns. Upon the floor are glazed quarries of red and black. as well as carved friezes and moulded cornices. above. These tiles were made at Makkum. were capable of giving lively and gay effects when arranged together. well as the walls surrounding it. 140 in OAK PANELLING FROM LEIDEN . as century.

JONES. FROM A WATER COLOUR DPA>\ EV SYDNEY R. *<.- .HINDELOOPEN ROOM AT THE FRISIAN MUSEUM. LEEUWARDEN.

and . od Two . Another design that was favoured is shown in the plicity. . It is remarkable to note the great similarity between the development of panelling in Holland and in England. of the other illustration (page Floors were also similar tiles on the walls and quarries on the floor. . The earlier example pat- terns arc employed 140 practically both countries identical. "es from the eighteenth century. ved "entirely with tiles from floor to blue and white patterns upon them are white but for the narrow blue Ics. with other coloured quarries..und the angles. illustration i taken from Zwolle (page where carved vine ornaments ap38). alternate . . iindeloopen. loyed in other they we> iseum . two curved and moulded between pear scrolls set back to back..iry. as well as carved friezes and moulded cornices. blue i while in larger and green and yellow houses stone and marble were employed with pleasing results.7cJ quarries of red and black. -vere made at Makkum.as these !e effec of giving lively and gay were used will torily they have . It was often applied to interior than simrather elaboration marked by although there are not wanting examples of rooms wainscoted with woodwork divided into plain framed Of ornapanels by stiles and rails. mental panels there are certain definite kinds. laid in . Upon the The colours. Characteristic are those adorned with linen-told patterns. while Dutch in OAK PANELLING FROM LEIDEN .are now in the iwork of the coloured The back of the fireplaa t'. . such as those exemplified from Leiden on this page. Panelling was by no means infrequently wails. previously described.. This particular is attributed to the bethe of sixteenth century.: . at Lee u war k. At ginning a later date round-headed arches and pilasters were introduced. "} r. belongs tu th ic walls i Those appearance depends such are illustrated.

I. FROM A WATER-COLOUR DRAWING EY SYDNEY R. . LEEUWARDEN. JONES.I HINDELOOPEN ROOM AT THE FRISIAN MUSEUM.

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HINDELOOPEN ROOM AT THE FRISIAN MUSEUM. LEEUWARDEN 141 .

Some of these doors. are quite plainly made. such as can be seen at the left hand of the window in the coloured reproduction from Leeuwarden given here. The metal fittings attached to doors locks. handles. and Further carved. the good The three hinges. Wooden doors harmonised with the wainscot of the walls. is decorated with projecting ornaments the other is adorned with applied metalwork. Both are of sixteenth-century ship. One. Groningen (below) furnishes a seventeenth-century specimen. bearing the date of 1587. They were divided into panels and often richly carved. A feature common to Dutch rooms is the small cupboard in the wall. hinges. from the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam. belong to the sixteenth century. . the ironwork on each is notable. and the Two lock-plates (page 143). highly decorated with carvings and metalwork. examples of iron door-furniture. bolts. with one or two panels.seventeenth-century woodwork bears great resemblance to that of our Jacobean period. Doorways were given importThe door from ance by the pilasters and cornices that surrounded them. attached all have peculiarly graceful branched CARVED DOOR FROM GRONINGEN (IJTH CENTURY) 142 to the larger door. furnish examples of beautiful crafts- manship. They are both made of iron. But generally a wooden door was fitted to the opening. bolt from Dordrecht (page 143). Others. covered by a curtain that may be drawn to and fro. which show how well and cunningly artificers in wood and metal exercised their skill. simply but pierced are illustrated by the handle from Middelburg and the effectively treated. elaborately carved with forms peculiar to the time. illustrated 1 Two (pages are here 143 and 44). The recess is sometimes merely . wherein many and sundry articles were stored. Rijks Museum. like are of good design and workmanship. and are workmanin now the Apart from wood-carving.

WITH PIERCED AND ENGRAVED IRON FITTINGS '43 .IRON LOCK-PLATE ( I 6TH CENTURY) IRON LOCK-PLATE (DATED 1587) IRON LOCK AND BOLT IRON DOOR-HANDLE AND ESCUTCHEON CARVED DOOR OF WALL-CUPBOARD.

the natural WALL-CUPBOARD WITH IRON LOCK HINGES (i6xH CENTURY) AND 144 . It is not unusual to find pieces of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries amid surroundings which they were originally intended. Most commonly occurring are chairs and tables. resembling a ship's berths. They are closed by wooden doors which have of panels at their heads to permit the open-work passage air. also. Other old Dutch interiors cheerful with coloured plates. The rooms at Dordrecht (page 128) similar to those for and Groningen (page 135) both have suitable furniture that valuably contributes to the success of the schemes. chests and cabinets. further illustration of a Hindeloopen room from Leeu warden (page The 141) around the walls are cupboard-like apartments especially interesting. The and curiously shaped and painted. Haarlem. Two characteristic tablesare also one from Edam and one from Am(page 145) sterdam (page 146). and an elaborate from specimen. These steps are movable of which will be seen in the reproduction. Some of the cabinets offer large splendid examples of skilful handiwork. furnish instances of this particular shining brass and carved woodwork of accommodation. disposition sleeping The old furniture was of a kind that well harmonised with the fitted woodwork and other decorations of the rooms. The earlier oak work was jointed and pegged It was together. two beds. eighteenth century it became the fashion in certain parts of Holland to heavily paint fitted and movable furniture with coloured patterns. lock-plates. are reached by flights of steps. are admirably devised. tiles and quarries. appears on page 145. very solidly made and ornamented in a reasonable way. as is demonstrated by the flight in the foreground with its side boards made to imitate birds and flowers. rooms were not crowded with objects that were neither utilitarian nor good to look upon. while the hinge of the second example is pierced and engraved with a The is floral pattern.terminations. In the illustrated. for that afforded accommodation for sleeping. All is more or less directly useful .

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WALL-CUPBOARD WITH IRON LOCK AND HINGES (i6rH CENTURY) the natural 144 . Most commonly occurring are chairs and tables. steps are two of which v. The earlier oak work was jointed and pegged to look thcr. tiles and quarries. ths. unusual to find pieces of the ' CCI similar to I -urruu iosc for whic were o. it In the eighteenth century the fashion in certain parts of became Hand to heavily. and flowers. abinets offer large splendid exkilful :>orate handiwork.r >ed with the fitted >t wood- rhcr dt rooms.id example is pierced and irably devised. rooms it and G" have >* The 1) 28) 135} both that valu- to the success ably contributes of the schemes. b 7 wooden the ermit P passage of -d by flights of steps. rooms were not crowded with objects that were neither utilitarian nor good upon. All is more or less directly useful .li ^ e apartments ' arc >close(i doors which haThe beds air. ar.n. tances of this particular . from ears on page 145.niturc 'id that well h . It made i and was very ornamented solidly in a Some of the reasonable way.paint fitted movable furniture with ured patterns. foreground with'it^ Id by the birds m'g ht us made to imitate Dutch i -cheerru! witi ' brass and woodwork -. c further is il: : especiallv that afforde warden (page 141) d . These ited movable in the and curiously sha. and specimen. chests and cabinets. plates. tablesarealso "istic one from Pi dam and one from A m146).

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the brush and tongs and shovel are hooked. Each upright side decorated with repousse H5 . The nj placing on the floor in front of chairs. Upon three curved . Brightly polished they were quite in accord with the prevailing gayness of the and shining. some being purely ornamental. It is made of brass and has CARVED CABINET FROM HAARLEM is eight sides. Fireplaces were adorned with sundry articles of brass. The brass chimney-crane (page 136) belongs to this latter class. with pastoral and sea views. the tongs 23 inches long. little flowers. it can be transferred from room to room. for. such as have for been already mentioned. and the shovel An example 23 inches long.beauty of the wood being thus All kinds of objects were ornamented. birds and animals. being movable. Familiar objects for many purposes were fashioned of obscured. tiles and other metalwork. Brass was much used in the making of domestic utensils. The favoured motifs were floral scrolls. The stand takes the form of a baluster stem which rests upon an ornamental basic tripod it is surmounted a circular by attachment that supports the kettle. arms. rooms and well harmonised CARVED TABLE FROM EDAM with the fitted woodwork. furniture. scriptural scenes. This set is of eighteenth-century workmanstand is i foot inches high. others achieving some useful mission. the brush 2 1 inches long. and in a somewhat amateurish way. as does the fire-side set reproduced on page 147. of the portable foot-warmers ship. The latter is a particularly handy contrivance. is here illustrated (page 148). branching outwardly. this material.

engraved with the letters and date " i. pastille-burner is made wholly of Upon 146 the baluster WROUGHT-IRON STAIR-RAILING FROM ZIERIKZEE . belongs to the It has eighteenth century." It is surrounded with floral scrolls. w.inches. of brass. but of a later date than the above. and around the outer margin of the pan is a Dutch inscription which embodies the date of 1602. geometrically and are ar- ranged.work. is 1 2-. forming the back. All the three windows are surrounded by a border of floral openwork. appear on the tea-caddy here illustrated latter (page object This 148). The central figures represent Venus and Cupid. is 6 inches (page high and 4 inches wide. circular bosses alternating with panels of flowers. The slightly curved top has a medallion in the centre. The fourth side. The also TABLE FROM AMSTERDAM by the hinged attachments and the width. The height is 1 8^ inches to bracket. Each little part of the design is engraved. The cover of the warming-pan. from bracket in candlestick (page 148). has a panel in the centre. very finely pierced with a pattern common to the eighteenth century. The 148) brass. patterns between pierced the holes is through which the heat distributed. given on page 147. beasts and birds. HM. as will be seen the illustration. Further well-executed piercing and engraving. furnishes an excellent specimen of perforated and engraved brasswork. Another old-fashioned object used for lighting is the brass lantern with arched top (page 148). 1733. two curved brackets which are adjustable. while interwoven with the strap and foliated ornaments are grotesque figures.

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engraved with the letters i and date " i. 6 inches wide. of brass. wtfh i pattern corrji. has a p-^--! in the centre.ZEE . The height is 1 8^ inches Another old-fashioned 'cket to bracket. w. geometrically and are ar- ranged. a later appear ihus- on latt ' This !. the back." It is surrounded with floral 11s.-id e -it and t of . .g .work.-. has The . HM. is 1 2g inches. furnishes an excellent "4-pan. two curved brackets which are adjustable. a . 1733. candlestick (page 148). belongs to the It has eighteenth century.: -n to the eighteenth century. as "will be seen also The cnts in the illustration. given on pa-^t 147. brass lantern with arched top (page 148).iy curved top a medallion in the centre. is the .< arc surrounded hy * border of floral openwork.erns between pierced the holes is >ugh which the heat ibuted. circular bosses i alter- nat panels of flowers. (page oily of baluster -RAILING FROM ZIERIK.

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'47 .

WARMER (DATED 1733) BRASS LANTERN (l8TH CENTURY) 148 .BRASS TEA-CADDY (i8xH CENTURY) BRASS CANDLESTICK (i8TH CENTURY) BRASS PASTILLE- BURNER BRASS FOOT.

PIETERSHOFJE.CORRIDOR IN " ST." HOORN. NORTH HOLLAND 149 .

three And lastly. JONES. In them history has been made. Upon the concave surface are longitudinal and transverse ribs whose corridor at intersections are emphasised by carved bosses. the timbering of the walls being visible. SYDNEY R. ideals and ambitions of those who built them. Another shows a room in a wooden nary a place of access house at Marken (page 152). And. the coffer reproduced en page 147 is adorned with handsomely shaped and perforated brass mounts that extend around it. The Hoorn (page 149) belongs to the seventeenth century. '5 . Made of wickerwork. simple fireplaces faced with ordiand blue white Dutch tiles. the houses keep their secrets well. There stand the old and sober gabled buildings. clustering around the market-places where life yet . that hold the charms for those who sojourn in that fascinating country towns rich in associations that unbrokenly date back to a buried and untraceable antiquity.TILED FIREPLACE FROM VOLENDAM. But it is the old towns of Holland. Another detail associated with is the wrought-iron railing from Zierikzee (page 146). The vault is supported at each side by decorated wooden brackets. silent monuments to the thoughts. NORTH HOLLAND stem and circular base are rococo designs beaten-up in relief. It has a timber roof springing from the two side-walls in the form of a barrelvault. centres as it did in days gone by. rather than the villages. Two. from Volendam typical village interiors are given. and Marken have (above) (page 151). or reflected in still waters.

- .S. TILED FIREPLACE FROM MARKEN. NORTH HOLLAND .

NORTH HOLLAND 52 .INTERIOR OF A WOODEN HOUSE I AT MARKEN.

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Sydney Robert Old houses in Holland . 2 Jones. MAY 3 5 1978 PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE FROM THIS POCKET CARDS OR SLIPS UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY NA 7361 J6 cop.BINDING SECT.