# AP Calculus BC Syllabus

In AP Calculus BC, students study Functions, Graphs, and Limits; Derivatives and their Applications; Integrals and their Applications; and Polynomial Approximations and eries! Calculus pulls together many o" the concepts the students have studied in previous courses, and it also helps them to see the relevance o" the material they #ere taught prior to Calculus! I \$elieve that AP Calculus BC gives the students a strong "oundation "or the math and science courses they #ill ta%e in college!

Course Planner
First Semester Chapter 1: Limits and Their Properties (10 days—one test La\$ on limits An introduction to limits, including an intuitive understanding o" the limit process &sing graphs and ta\$les o" data to determine limits Properties o" limits Alge\$raic techni'ues "or evaluating limits Comparing relative magnitudes o" "unctions and their rates o" change Continuity and one(sided limits Geometric understanding o" the graphs o" continuous "unctions Intermediate )alue *heorem In"inite limits &sing limits to "ind the asymptotes o" a "unction Chapter !: "i##erentiation (1\$ days—t%o tests +ooming(in activity and local linearity &nderstanding o" the derivative , graphically, numerically, and analytically Approximating rates o" change "rom graphs and ta\$les o" data *he derivative as- the limit o" the average rate o" change, an instantaneous rate o" change, limit o" the di""erence 'uotient, and the slope o" a curve at a point *he meaning o" the derivative(((translating ver\$al descriptions into e'uations and vice versa *he relationship \$et#een di""erentia\$ility and continuity Functions #hich have a vertical tangent at a point Functions #hich have a point on #hich there is no tangent Di""erentiation rules "or \$asic "unctions, including po#er "unctions and trigonometric "unctions .ules o" di""erentiation "or sums, di""erences, products, and 'uotients *he chain rule Implicit di""erentiation .elated rates Chapter &: Applications o# "i##erentiation (1\$ days—t%o tests /xtrema on an interval and the /xtreme )alue *heorem .olle0s *heorem and the 1ean )alue *heorem and their geometric conse'uences La\$ on the First Derivative *est Increasing and decreasing "unctions and the First Derivative *est

and f ′′ 2ptimi3ation including \$oth relative and a\$solute extrema *angent line to a curve and linear approximations 4e#ton0s 1ethod Di""erentials Application pro\$lems including position. acceleration.di""erentiation and integration Bases other than e and applications Chapter 0: "i##erential . right. velocity. and rectilinear motion Chapter ': (nte)ration (1* days—t%o tests Antiderivatives and inde"inite integration.iemann sums. and \$y ta\$les o" data Discovery lesson on the First Fundamental *heorem o" Calculus &se o" the First Fundamental *heorem to evaluate de"inite integrals &se o" su\$stitution o" varia\$les to evaluate de"inite integrals Integration \$y su\$stitution Discovery lesson on the econd Fundamental *heorem o" Calculus *he econd Fundamental *heorem o" Calculus and "unctions de"ined \$y integrals *he 1ean )alue *heorem "or Integrals and the average value o" a "unction Chapter *: Lo)arithmic+ .elating the graphs o" f .iemann sums and trape3oidal sums to approximate de"inite integrals o" "unctions that are represented analytically.-am (t%o re3ie% days . including exponential gro#th &se o" slope "ields to interpret a di""erential e'uation geometrically Dra#ing slope "ields and solution curves "or di""erential e'uations /uler0s method as a numerical solution o" a di""erential e'uation First Semester . including le"t.-ponential+ and . and midpoint sums *rape3oidal sums &se o" .iemann sums .La\$ on concavity and points o" in"lection Concavity and its relationship to the "irst and second derivatives econd Derivative *est Limits at in"inity A summary o" curve s%etching(((using geometric and analytic in"ormation as #ell as calculus to predict the \$ehavior o" a "unction . f ′. graphically.1uations (/ days222one test olving separa\$le di""erential e'uations Applications o" di""erential e'uations in modeling. including antiderivatives "ollo#ing directly "rom derivatives o" \$asic "unctions Basic properties o" the de"inite integral Area under a curve 1eaning o" the de"inite integral De"inite integral as a limit o" .ther Transcendental Functions (/ days—one test *he natural logarithmic "unction and di""erentiation *he natural logarithmic "unction and integration Inverse "unctions /xponential "unctions.

emainder *he .ule L05opital0s .evie# o" \$asic integration rules Integration \$y parts *rigonometric integrals Integration \$y partial "ractions olving logistic di""erential e'uations and using them in modeling Discovery la\$ on L05opital0s .-ponential+ and .ule and its use in determining limits Discovery activity on improper integrals Improper integrals and their convergence and divergence.Second Semester Chapter *: Lo)arithmic+ . \$iological. including the use o" the de"inite integral #ith an initial condition and using the de"inite integral to "ind the distance traveled \$y a particle along a line Chapter /: (nte)ration Techni1ues+ L56opital5s 7ule+ and (mproper (nte)rals (14 days— t%o tests .ule Chapter \$: (n#inite Series (14 days—t%o tests La\$ on e'uences Convergence and divergence o" se'uences De"inition o" a series as a se'uence o" partial sums Convergence o" a series de"ined in terms o" the limit o" the se'uence o" partial sums o" a series Introduction to convergence and divergence o" a series \$y using technology on t#o examples to gain an intuitive understanding o" the meaning o" convergence Geometric series and applications *he nth(*erm *est "or Divergence *he Integral *est and its relationship to improper integrals and areas o" rectangles &se o" the Integral *est to introduce the test "or p(series Comparisons o" series Alternating series and the Alternating eries . including the use o" L05opital0s .ther Transcendental Functions (' days—one test Inverse trig "unctions and di""erentiation Inverse trig "unctions and integration Chapter 4: Applications o# (nte)ration (10 days—one test *he integral as an accumulator o" rates o" change Area o" a region \$et#een t#o curves )olume o" a solid #ith %no#n cross sections )olume o" solids o" revolution Arc length Applications o" integration in physical. and economic contexts Applications o" integration in pro\$lems involving a particle moving along a line.atio and .oot *ests *aylor polynomials and approximations(((introduction using the graphing calculator Po#er series and radius and interval o" convergence .

e do discovery exercises on limits. relationships \$et#een the "unction and the "irst and second derivatives. velocity. distance traveled Analysis o" curves given in parametric and vector "orm Polar coordinates and polar graphs Analysis o" curves given in polar "orm Area o" a region \$ounded \$y polar curves AP . integration o" series.*aylor and 1aclaurin series "or a given "unction 6 x 1aclaurin series "or sin x. including su\$stitution. addition o" series. multiplication o" series \$y a constant and7or a varia\$le. meaning o" a derivative.C: "i##erential . and "orming a ne# series "rom a %no#n series *aylor0s *heorem #ith the Lagrange Form o" the . improper integrals.-am 7e3ie% (minimum o# 1* days AP . L05opital0s . the average value o" a "unction. cos x. di""erentiation o" series. local linearity. speed.1uations+ and Polar Cur3es (1! days—one test Plane curves and parametric e'uations Parametric e'uations and Calculus Parametric e'uations and vectors:motion along a curve.emainder 8Lagrange /rror Bound9 Chapter 10: Plane Cur3es+ Parametric .-am A#ter the AP .-am (t%o re3ie% days Teaching Strategies Learnin) by "isco3ery8 I li%e to introduce each unit #ith a discovery exercise! I thin% that exploration and discovery are great #ays "or students to learn \$ecause they have more o#nership in the material \$eing covered than they have "rom a traditional lecture approach! It also gives them a chance to discuss the concepts #ith other students in the class! *he discovery lessons are done in groups o" t#o or three students! . I "eel that it is very important "or .1uations (0 days—one test De"initions and \$asic concepts o" di""erential e'uations First order linear di""erential e'uations econd order homogeneous linear e'uations Chapter *: 6yperbolic Functions (' days—one test 5yper\$olic "unctions and applications Second Semester . acceleration. and 6− x 1anipulation o" series.-am: Appendi. the Fundamental *heorems o" Calculus. e . and convergence and divergence o" a se'uence and a series! 9raphin) Calculator8 1any o" the discovery exercises descri\$ed a\$ove rely heavily on the use o" the graphing calculator! *he calculator helps students develop a visual understanding o" the material that they #ould not other#ise have! 1y students use the *I(<= graphing calculator almost every day in class and also on home#or%! 5o#ever. position. many home#or% pro\$lems and a\$out hal" o" the pro\$lems on 'ui33es and tests are done #ithout the use o" the graphing calculator! ince the AP /xam is hal" calculator and hal" noncalculator.ule.

I start giving the students an AP . optimi3ation pro\$lems.evie# heet each #ee%.e also discuss the techni'ues needed to use the calculator most e""iciently 8storing "unctions in the y > screen. as they are learning applications o" integration. to give them the opportunity to communicate their #or% and their reasoning in #ords! *hey are as%ed to discuss the meaning o" their ans#ers. it is very important that students do their home#or% each night so that they gain the maximum \$ene"it "rom the home#or% discussion that occurs the next day in class! Assessment8 2ur school district re'uires a minimum o" three ma?or grades and six daily grades "or every nine(#ee% period! *he ma?or average and the daily average each count as CA percent o" a student0s six(#ee% grade! I generally use tests as ma?or grades! I use 'ui33es and home#or% as daily grades. I also include a pro\$lem that is similar to the AP .e tal% a lot a\$out the amount o" #or% they need to sho# and a\$out the correct #ay to ?usti"y their #or% on various types o" pro\$lems! 6ome%or. usually re'uiring a\$out @A to BC minutes o" their time! In order to cover all o" the Calculus BC topics. etc!9! 7ule o# Four8 I give my students many opportunities to #or% pro\$lems presented in a variety o" #ays. particularly #hen #or%ing related rates pro\$lems. numerical.e spend time in class discussions tal%ing a\$out the types o" 'uestions that they must %no# ho# to #or% with their calculators and the types o" 'uestions that they must %no# ho# to #or% without their calculators! . 'ui33es. #hich consists o" "ree(response 'uestions and multiple choice 'uestions "rom previous AP /xams! *he students #or% a "e# pro\$lems each night along #ith their home#or% on the topic \$eing studied! I try to pic% 'uestions "rom topics that the students learned several #ee%s 8or months9 earlier so that they are revie#ing as they #or% the pro\$lems! For example. I might give them a related rates 'uestion or a pro\$lem in #hich they are given a graph o" the derivative and as%ed 'uestions a\$out it! 2n each ma?or test. #e move very 'uic%ly through each chapter. and tests.evie# pro\$lems that they have #or%ed on recently! 1y students "eel that the AP . analytical. so they do not "orget the topics they learned earlier in the year! . \$oth oral and #ritten.students to have practice #or%ing pro\$lems \$oth #ays! . storing values that #ill \$e used later in the pro\$lem. and ver\$al! 1any o" the pro\$lems in my primary text\$oo% are #ritten #ith an analytical representation so I "re'uently supplement these pro\$lems #ith pro\$lems giving a graph or ta\$ular data! tudents are "re'uently given #ord pro\$lems in #hich they have the opportunity to apply the concepts they have learned to a real(#orld situation! tudents are o"ten as%ed "or ver\$al explanations.evie# heets provide them #ith constant revie# "or the "ree(response section o" the AP /xam. and applications o" integration pro\$lems! I also as% them to discuss the steps they have used to arrive at their ans#ers! *hey have additional opportunities "or discussion #hen they #or% in small groups on the discovery exercises and #hen they present home#or% pro\$lems to the entire class! :usti#ication o# Ans%ers8 I as% my students to ?usti"y their ans#ers on home#or%. #ith an occasional pro?ect counting as a daily grade! AP 7e3ie%8 During the third nine(#ee% period. and I pre"er that they #rite the ?usti"ications in sentences! .graphical.8 1y students have home#or% each night.

Cali"!.John .eleased /xams. Paul A! Calculus—Concepts an! Applications /meryville. 4e# Ior%. #e use the multiple(choice section "rom the most recent .)enture Pu\$lishing! Dic%. AP . Pu\$lishing Company! Finney. and Charles 1! Patton! Calculus of a Single Variable Boston.iley K ons! Best. Cali"!. 1enlo Par%. Arnold. so that they reali3e they need to get a good night0s sleep \$e"ore exam day and eat a good \$rea%"ast \$e"ore ta%ing the exam! Teacher Resources Primary Te-tboo. I B4 A(G6<(CA@AB(< Supplementary Texts I supplement 'uite a \$it #ith materials "rom other calculus text\$oo%s. George. <th edition. and Douglas Cra\$tree! Concepts an! Calculators in Calculus! Fnd edition. #hile others are given as a 'ui3 or test! *he calculus teachers in my district also administer a practice AP /xam on a aturday morning a\$out a #ee% and a hal" \$e"ore the actual AP /xam is given! For the practice exam. \$y 5oughton 1i""lin.P. .Ley Curriculum Press! 5ughes(5allett. Nu#erical. 5o#ard! Calculus—A New Horizon Hth edition.eleased /xam and the previous year0s "ree(response 'uestions! I grade the practice exams. De\$orah. and Paul +orn! Calculus fro# "raphical. et al! Calculus—Single Variable Bth edition. 1ass!. Algebraic @rd edition. FAAG. tephen Carter.esley! Foerster. Cali"!Broo%s7Cole Pu\$lishing Co! .eleased /xams! ome o" these are assigned "or home#or%. *homas P!. students #or% on the sample 'uestions in the AP Calculus Course Description and on multiple(choice and "ree(response 'uestions "rom . and "ree(response 'uestions "rom AP Central! 1y resources include the "ollo#ing text\$oo%s• • • • • • • • Anton.John . James! Calculus\$ Concepts an! Contexts! @rd ed! Paci"ic Grove. Calculus of a Single Variable.oss.iley K ons! 2ste\$ee.cott(Foresman7Addison(.I try to allot a minimum o" three #ee%s \$e"ore the AP /xam to devote to revie#! During this three(#ee% period. an! Sy#bolic Points of View! Fnd ed! Boston. Andover. 4e# Ior%. Nu#erical. et al! Calculus—"raphical.5oughton 1i""lin! te#art. and #e spend the next "e# days discussing the pro\$lems! *he practice exam lets students see #hich topics they need to revie#! It also gives them an idea o" ho# exhausting the DrealE exam #ill \$e.

5oughton 1i""lin! Foerster.3earning %y Disco/ery\$ A 3ab for Calculus.Barron0s /ducational eries!! 1athematical Association o" America 1AA 4otes! *esources for Calculus Collection! . Cali"!.o\$ert Fraga! 1AA 4otes 4um\$er F<! o )olume @. %ylight Pu\$lications! DK 1ar%eting ystems o 'ultiple(Choice an! )ree(*esponse +uestions in Preparation for the AP Calculus .*ea!ings for Calculus.Calculus Proble#s for a New Century.ashington.0(46 "raphing Calculator o Preparing for the Calculus A% &xa# o Preparing for the Calculus %C &xa# • • • • • .&xa#ination o 'ultiple(Choice an! )ree(*esponse +uestions in Preparation for the AP Calculus . Bruce 5!. edited \$y &nder#ood Dudley! 1AA 4otes 4um\$er @6! )enture Pu\$lications o AP Calculus with the . edited \$y 1ichael B! Jac%son and John . Paul A! 0nstructor1s *esource %oo2! /meryville.1AA. edited \$y Anita olo#! 1AA 4otes 4um\$er FH! o )olume F. edited \$y Philip tra""in! 1AA 4otes 4um\$er F=! o )olume B.amsay! 1AA 4otes 4um\$er @A! o )olume C. and 1artha 1ontgomery! %e Prepare! for the AP Calculus &xa#. 6==@! o )olume 6.he#es for A!/ance! Place#ent Calculus <th ed! Boston.Proble#s for Stu!ent 0n/estigation.Ley Curriculum Press! 5oc%ett. D!C!.Applications of Calculus.0(45 o AP Calculus with the .on Larson. 4!I!. hirley 2!. 1ar%.More Resources • • 5o#ell. .A%.o\$ert P! 5ostetler! .&xa#ination /d#ards.%C. edited \$y . and David Boc%! How to Prepare for the AP Calculus A!/ance! Place#ent &xa#! Hth ed! 5auppauge.! . and .