BOTH TRANSITIVELY AND INTRANSITIVELY USED ENGLISH VERBS

Yüksel Göknel

2013

BOTH TRANSITIVELY AND INTRANSITIVELY USED ENGLISH VERBS BOTH TRANSITIVELY AND INTRANSITIVELY USED ENGLISH VERBS
(The Ambitransitive English Verbs)
Some English verbs are both transitive and intransitive. There are few verbs used in this fashion in Turkish. Therefore, those who are studying English or Turkish as a second language face some difficulties in learning them. In the following list, you can find frequently used English verbs that are used both transitively and intransitively. The Turkish equivalents of such verbs and how their allomorphs change are given in the examples below. As it has already been noted, the identical vowels that follow each other combine, and the single underlined consonants detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following allomorphs during the syllabication process: Yumurta-lar kayna-ı.yor. (yu*mur*ta*lar / kay*nı*yor ↷) The eggs are boiling. (The Turkish and the English verbs are intransitive.) Fatma yumurta kayna-at-ı,yor. (fat*ma / yu*mur*ta / kay*na*tı*yor ↷) Fatma is boiling eggs. (transitive) In the first Turkish sentence above, the intransitive verb “kayna” has changed into “kaynat” transitive verb fram e to take the object “yumurta”. However, the English verb “boil” has not changed. This shows us that the English verb “boil” can be used both transitively and intransitively. In the following sentences, the explanations in parentheses are about the Turkish sentences. However, when necessary, both Turkish and English verbs are explained in parentheses: Ateş yan-ı.yor. (a*teş / ya*nı*yor ↷) The fire is burning. (intr.) Ateş parmaklarını yak-ar. (a*teş / par*mak*la*rı*nı / ya*kar ↷) Fire burns your fingers. (tran.) Dükkân-lar saat yedi-de kapa-an-ır. (dük*kân*lar / sa*at / ye*di*de / ka*pa*nır ↷ ) Shops close at seven. (reflexive) (They close themselves.)

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BOTH TRANSITIVELY AND INTRANSITIVELY USED ENGLISH VERBS
Onlar dükkân-lar-ı yedi-de kapa-at-ır-lar. (on*lar / dük*kân*la*rı / sa*at / ye*di*de / ka*pa*tır*lar ↷) They close the shops at seven. (tran.) Dükkân-lar saat yedi-de kapa-at-ıl-ır. (dük*kân*lar / sa*at / ye*di*de / ka*pa*tı*lır ↷) The shops are closed at seven. (passive) Renk-ler sonbahar-da değiş-ir. (renk*ler / son*ba*har*da / de*ği*şir ↷) The colors change in the autumn. (intr) (O) giysi-ler-i-/n/i değiş-tir-i.yor. (o ~/ giy*si*le*ri*ni / de*ğiş*ti*ri*yor ↷) He is changing his clothes. (tran.) Şimdi mutfak-ta yemek piş-ir-i.yor. (şim*di / mut*fak*ta / ye*mek / pi*şi*ri*yor ↷) She is cooking in the kitchen now. (Turkish tran.) (English intr.) O, balık piş-ir-i.yor. (o / ba*lık / pi*şi*ri*yor ↷) She is cooking fish. (tran.) Yemek piş-ti. (ye*mek / piş*ti ↷) The meal has cooked. (intr) Meyve-ler olgun-laş-ın.ca ağaç-lar-dan düş-er. (mey*ve*ler / ol*gun*la*şın*ca / a*ğaç*lar*dan / dü*şer ↷) Fruits drop from trees when they ripen. (intr.) Kalem-i-/n/i düş-ür-dü. (ka*le*mi*ni / dü*şür*dü ↷) She dropped her pencil. (tran.) Bazı nehir-ler yaz-ın kuru-ur. (ba*zı / ne*hir*ler / ya*zın / ku*rur ↷) Some rivers dry up in the summer. (intr.) El-ler-i-/n/i ben-im havlu-um-la kuru-la-ma. (el*le*ri*ni / be*nim / hav*lum*la / ku*ru*la*ma ↷) Don’t dry your hands on my towel. (tran.)

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BOTH TRANSITIVELY AND INTRANSITIVELY USED ENGLISH VERBS
Savaş son-a er-di. (sa*vaş / so*na / er*di ↷) The war ended. (intr.) Savaş-ı son-a er-dir-di-ler. (sa*va*şı / so*na / er*dir*di*ler ↷) They ended the war. (tran.) Bir bomba patla-dı. (bir / bom*ba / pat*la*dı ↷), or (bir / bom*ba / pat*la*dı ↷ ) A bomb exploded. (intr.) Onlar bir bomba patla-at-tı-lar. (on*lar / bir / bom*ba / pat*lat*tı*lar ↷) They exploded a bomb. (tran.) İnekler tarla-da besle-en-i.yor-lar. (i*nek*ler / tar*la*da / bes*le*ni*yor*lar ↷) The cows are feeding (grazing) in the field. (reflexive) Köpek-im-i her sabah besle-er-im. (kö*pe*ği*mi / her / sa*bah / bes*le*rim ↷) I feed my dog every morning. (tran.) Sokak-lar kış-ın çamur-la dol-ar. (so*kak*lar / kı*şın / ça*mur*la / do*lar ↷) The streets fill up with mud in winter.(intr.) Kalem-im-i siyah mürekkep-le dol-dur. (ka*le*mi*mi / si*yah / mü*rek*kep*le / dol*dur ↷) Fill my pen with black ink. (tran.) İş henüz bit-me-di. (iş / he*nüz / bit*me*di ↷) The work hasn’t finished yet. (intr.) İş-im-i henüz bit-ir-me-di-im. (i*şi*mi / he*nüz / bi*tir*me*dim ↷) I haven’t finished my work yet. (tran.) Kuş-lar hava-da uç-ar. (kuş*lar / ha*va*da / u*çar ↷) Birds fly in the sky. (intr.)

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BOTH TRANSITIVELY AND INTRANSITIVELY USED ENGLISH VERBS
Çocuk-lar uçurtma uç-ur-u.yor-lar. (ço*cuk*lar / u*çurt*ma / u*çu*ru*yor*lar ↷) The boys are flying kites. (tran.) Patates-ler kızar-ı.yor. (pa*ta*tes*ler / kı*za*rı*yor ↷) The potatoes are frying. (intr.) O, balık kıza-art-ı.yor. (o~ / ba*lık / kı*zar*tı*yor ↷) She is frying fish. (tran.) Pamuk Adana’da yetiş-ir. (pa*muk / a*da*na*da / ye*ti*şir ↷) Cotton grows in Adana. (intr.) Adana’da pamuk yetiş-tir-ir-ler. (a*da*na*da / pa*muk / ye*tiş*ti*rir*ler ↷) They grow cotton in Adana. (tran.) Kapı-/n/ın arka-/s/ı-/n/a sakla-an-ı.yor. (ka*pı*nın / ar*ka*sı*na / sak*la*nı*yor ↷) He is hiding behind the door. (reflexive) (He is hiding himself.) Mektup-lar-ı-/n/ı sakla-ar. (mek*tup*la*rı*nı / sak*lar ↷) She hides her letters. (tran.) Zorluk-lar-ım.ız art-ı.yor. (zor*luk*la*rı*mız / ar*tı*yor ↷) Our difficulties are increasing. (intr.) Hız-ın-ı art-ır-ma. (hı*zı*nı / ar*tır*ma ↷) Don’t increase your speed. (tran.) Çiçek-ler sabah-le.yin aç-ar. (çi*çek*ler / sa*bah*le*yin / a*çar ↷) Flowers open in the morning. (intr.) Sabah-le.yin pencere-ler-i aç-ar-ız. (sa*bah*le*yin / pen*ce*re*le*ri / a*ça*rız ↷) We open the windows in the morning. (tran.) (The verb "aç" is used both transitively and intransitively in Turkish as it is used in English.)

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BOTH TRANSITIVELY AND INTRANSITIVELY USED ENGLISH VERBS
At-lar yarış-ı.yor. (at*lar / ya*rı*şı*yor ↷) The horses are racing. (intr.) At-lar-ı yarış-tır-ı.yor-lar. (at*la*rı / ya*rış*tı*rı*yor*lar ↷) They are racing the horses. (tran.) Elma-lar sıcak hava-da olgun-laş-ır. (el*ma*lar / sı*cak / ha*va*da / ol*gun*la*şır ↷) Apples ripen in warm weather. (intr.) Note: "Ol" is a verb root, "ol-gun" is an adjective stem, "ol-gun-laş" is an intransitive verb frame, "ol-gun-laş-tır" is a transitive verb frame. Sıcak hava elma-lar-ı olgun-laş-tır-ır. (sı*cak / ha*va / el*ma*la*rı / ol*gun*laş*tı*rır ↷) Warm weather ripens the apples. (tran.) Zil çal-ı.yor. (zil / ça*lı*yor ↷) The bell is ringing. (intr.) Zil-i çal. (zi*li / çal ↷) Ring the bell. (tran.) (Both "çal " and "ring" verbs are used both transitively and intransitively in Turkish and English.) Bazen kaya-lar tepe-ler-den aşağı yuvarlan-ır. (ba:*zen / ka*ya*lar ~/ te*pe*ler*den / a*şa*ğı / yu*var*la*nır ↷) Sometimes rocks roll down the hills. (reflexive) Bazı kimse-ler tepe-den aşağı kaya-lar-ı yuvarla-ı.yor-lar. (ba:*zı / kim*se*ler~ / te*pe*den / a*şa*ğı / ka*ya*la*rı / yu*var*lı*yor*lar ↷) Some people are rolling rocks down the hill. (tran.) Bazı kız-lar nehir-de yüz-ü.yor. (ba:*zı / kız*lar / ne*hir*de / yü*zü*yor ↷) Some girls are swimming in the river. (intr.) Çocuk-lar model kayık-lar-ı-/n/ı yüzdür-ü.yor. (ço*cuk*lar / mo*del / ka*yık*la*rı*nı / yüz*dü*rü*yor*lar ↷) The children are sailing their modal boats. (tran.)

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BOTH TRANSITIVELY AND INTRANSITIVELY USED ENGLISH VERBS
Yer sarsıl-ı.yor. (yer / sar*sı*lı*yor ↷) The ground is shaking. (reflexive) İlaç-ı iç-me-den önce şişe-/y/i çalkala (sars). (i*la*cı / iç*me*den / ön*ce / şi*şe*yi / çal*ka*la ↷) Shake the bottle before taking the medicine. (tran.) İkinci Dünya Savaşı/n/-da birçok gemi bat-tı. (i*kin*ci / dün*ya: / sa*va*şın*da / bir*çok / ge*mi / bat*tı ↷) A lot of ships sank during The Second World War. (intr.) İkinci Dünya Savaşı/n/-da birçok gemi batır-dı-lar. (i*kin*ci / dün*ya: / sa*va*şın*da~ / bir*çok / ge*mi / ba*tır*dı*lar ↷) They sank a lot of ships during The Second World War. (tran.) Gömlek-im-e çay dökül-dü. (göm*le*ği*me~ / çay / dö*kül*dü ↷) Tea spilled on my shirt. (reflexive) Seyhan Nehri Akdeniz-e dökül-ür. (sey*han / neh*ri / ak*de*ni*ze / dö*kü*lür ↷) The Seyhan River pours into the Mediterranean Sea. (reflexive) Limonata-/y/ı yer-e dök-tü-üm. (li*mo*na*ta*yı / ye*re / dök*tüm ↷) I have spilled (spilt) the lemonade on the floor. (tran.) Araba-lar dur-du. (a*ra*ba*lar / dur*du ↷) The cars stopped. (intr.) Polis araba-lar-ı durdur-du (po*lis / a*ra*ba*la*rı / dur*dur*du ↷) The police officer stopped the cars. (tran.) Tekerlek-ler dön-ü.yor. (te*ker*lek*ler / dö*nü*yor ↷) The wheels are turning. (intr.) Motor tekerlek-ler-i döndür-ür. (mo*tor / te*ker*lek*le*ri / dön*dü*rür ↷) The engine turns the wheels. (tran.)

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BOTH TRANSITIVELY AND INTRANSITIVELY USED ENGLISH VERBS
Parmak-ı-/n/a bir iğne bat-tı. (par*ma*ğı*na / bir / iğ*ne / bat*tı ↷) A needle stuck in her finger. (intr.) Parmak-ı-/n/a bir iğne batır-dı. (par*ma*ğı*na / bir / iğ*ne / ba*tır*dı ↷) She stuck a needle into her finger. (tran.) Bu pul iyi yapış-ma-ı.yor. (bu / pul / i*yi / ya*pış*mı*yor ↷) This stamp doesn’t stick well. (intr.) Mektup-un üst-ü-/n/e bir pul yapıştır. (mek*tu:*bun / üs*tü*ne / bir / pul / ya*pış*tır ↷) Stick a stamp on the letter. (tran.)

If one hesitates over whether an English verb is transitive or intransitive or whether it is used both transitively and intransitively, he should consult a good dictionary. Note: This document is taken from my book titled "TURKISH GRAMMAR UPDATED ACADEMIC EDITION YUKSEL GOKNEL SEPTEMBER 2013". If you want to download and read it freely, you could find it on the internet. Yüksel Göknel

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