Environment and civil society in Singapore GEM 2906/ SSU2005 Dr Joelle Lai & A/P Reuben Wong 2013-14 Semester 1 College

of alice & peter tan

Civil Society

Concepts and topics
What is ‘Civil Society’ Components of civil society Roles of environmental NGOs The changing environment of Singapore Environmental CSOs

and more civic-minded in their willingness to sacrifice for the common good. 2001) • “. and networks of public communication” (Bratton.. and organisations that have the goal of advancing or expressing a common purpose through ideas. civil society provides an intermediate layer of governance between the individual and the state that is capable of resolving conflicts and controlling the behaviour of members without public coercion.... 1994) • Classify persons..” • “At its best.. and demands on governments. and critical and independent thought” (Chong. but can also contribute to forming better citizens who are more aware of the preferences of others. more selfconfident in their actions. actions.What is ‘Civil Society’ • Sphere of social life that is public but excludes government activities (Meidinger.social interaction between the household and the state characterised by community cooperation.. 2005) . A viable civil society can mitigate conflicts. institutions.. not only can restrain the arbitrary actions of rulers. structures of voluntary association. independent of the state....” (Schmitter and Karl 1991) • “A society's coming of age where it develops the ability for contemplation. • “diverse units of social identity and interest.

• In the realm of environmental governance.Examples of Civil Society organisations (CSOs) • • • • • • • • • • academia activist groups charities citizens' militia civic groups clubs (sports. temples non-governmental organisations (NGOs) non-profit organisations (NPOs) • • • • • • • • • • policy institutions professional associations political parties private voluntary organisations (PVOs) religious organisations social enterprises support groups trade unions voluntary associations women's groups • • • • Diverse membership • Ranging from individuals to religious and academic institutions to issue-focused groups such as not-forprofit or non-governmental organisations. etc.) community foundations community organisations consumers/consumer organisations cooperatives • • • • • churches cultural groups environmental groups foundations intermediary organisations for the voluntary and nonprofit sector men's groups mosques. NGOs are the most prominent actors . social.

1997: 186) Roles of NGOs in global environmental governance 1. such as human rights. . 5. Collecting. (Charnovitz. 3. Assessing environmental conditions and monitoring compliance with environmental agreements. Providing input to agenda-setting and policy development processes. Advocating environmental justice. or to carry out programs on the ground. 4. such as disaster relief. It can have memberships ranging from local to global. and analysing information. 2.Groups of individuals organised for the myriad of reasons that engage human imagination and aspiration to advocate a particular cause. disseminating. Performing operational functions.

.Some examples of NGOs and publications • SIWI (Stockholm International Water Institute) • WWF (World Wildlife Fund for Nature) • IUCN (International Union for the conservation of Nature • Where government bodies and intergovernmental organisations often lack analytical capacity or are hampered by bureaucratic constraints and other obligations. NGOs (and CSOs) can focus on a dynamic research agenda and move very quickly to new issues.

000 species of animals and plants http://www.pdf • • • http://wildlifetradetracker. • To ensure international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species in the wild.cites.org/eng/app/2013/E-Appendices-2013-06-12. Works in close co-operation with the Secretariat of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).• Joint programme of World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).org/?db=lemis Singapore’s changing environment: What’s gone and what’s left? . and it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 34.

c. 2011 S tr a i t of Joh or Su ng Sembawang Park Sim pa MALAYSIA MALAYSIA ei S e m b a wa ng Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve Sungei Pang Sua Woodlands Su ng ei ng Khatib Bongsu Pulau Seletar Lim Chu Kang Sarimbun Reservoir Kranji Reservoir Sungei i Ma nda Pulau Punggol Barat Upper Seletar Reservoir Lower Seletar Reservoir Pulau Tekong Reservoir Pulau Punggol Timor Chek Jawa Coney Island Punggol Pulau Ketam Pulau Ubin Pulau Tekong Singapore Zoological Gardens ng go MALAYSIA Murai Reservoir l of Se pi Poyan Reservoir Jo ait Choa Chu Kang Su ra Central Catchment Nature Reserve Upper Peirce Reservoir Su ho ng oo n r Nee Soon Swamp Forest ei Serangoon Harbour Changi Changi Beach p iA ng Pu Lorong Halus Sun Lower Peirce Reservoir ng Str gei A ei Loyang Creek Pasir Ris Nature Park ne s m S ung ei Ta Tengeh Reservoir Jurong Lake Bukit Batok Nature Park Bukit Timah Nature Reserve MacRitchie Reservoir Bedok Reservoir pi ei Be Su ng do e i J ur on Jurong Bird Park Pandan Reservoir Su Singapore Botanic Gardens East Coast Park ng Tanah Merah g k Sung ei West Coast Park Kent Ridge Park Sultan Shoal Pulau Tekukor Pulau Salu Pulau Hantu Pulau Jong Pulau Sudong Pulau Semakau Sisters’ Islands Pulau Sebarok a Tu s Fort Canning Park Singa pore River Pa nd Ju ro ng Str ait Ch an ne l Marina East LEGEND an Strait of Singapore Marina Barrage Lake or reservoir River Primary forest Secondary forest Scrubland Swamp forest Coastal Ecosystem Rocky shore (Labrador) Sandy shore Mangrove forest Telok Blangah Hill Park Mt Faber Park Labrador Nature Reserve Pulau Keppel Pulau Brani Sentosa • Mt Serapong Jurong Island Pandan Strait Mt Imbiah Pulau Busing Pulau Bukom Pulau Seringat Kusu Island Lazarus Island St John’s Island Pulau Ubin Pulau Tekong Johor SINGAPORE Pedra Branca N Pulau Pawai Pulau Senang Horsburgh Lighthouse 0 5km Pulau Biola Pulau Satumu (Raffles Lighthouse) Land Area: 710km2 0 10km Ng. 2011.Singapore. The present extent of mangrove forests in Singapore.31 million (+150 K from 2011) Singapore. . Singapore Biodiversity: An encylopedia of the natural environment and sustainable development. Corlett & Tan. 1819 Population: 150 Yee et al. Nature in Singapore 3: 139-145 Nature Map Of Singapore Population 5. 2010. c..

Catastrophic extinctions follow deforestation in Singapore. 2003. 54 km2 after) Brook et al. Nature 424: 420-423 .8 km2) forest is primary rainforest • Extensive alteration of coastline • Loss of mangrove forests • Loss of coral reefs (>100 km2 before land reclamation.• Extensive Habitat loss • > 95% of original forest cover (540 km2 in 193 years • Less than 10% of remaining 24 km2 (2.

e. phasmid species • 5-7% of amphibian and reptile species • Data suggests total local extinction = 73% Singapore The price of Progress • Remaining forest reserves occupy 2. Indonesia. decapod crustaceans. birds and mammals) • 25% of vascular plants.The price of Progress • 34-43% of extinct taxa were forest specialists (butterflies. fish. Malaysia .5% of Singapore’s land area • Contains >50% of remaining forest biodiversity • Bukit Timah & Nee Soon Swamp Forest • Incredibly tiny forest patches and harbour endemic species • Few known marine extinctions although ~60% coral reefs have been seriously impacted • Waters connected to coral rich regions i.

.Picture of last tiger shot (and documented) in Singapore (1930s) Living dead of Singapore Andie Ang.

Feared extinct.Ratufa affinis (Raffles. 1821) Giant Cream coloured squirrel Not seen in wild since 1995. Living dead of Singapore Andie Ang. Type locality: Singapore (!) Living dead of Singapore Andie Ang. .

Living dead of Singapore Dryocopus javensis (Horsfield.Living dead of Singapore Dryocopus javensis (Horsfield. native to Singapore 10 (1980s). 1838) Banded leaf monkey. 1821) White bellied woodpecker (<5 individuals) Prebystis femoralis (Martin. but still critically endangered Andie Ang. 1821) White bellied woodpecker (<5 individuals) Andie Ang. 20 (1990s) 2010 shows a larger population. .

IUCN 100 most critically endangered species on earth More depressing statistics • 77% of our surviving biodiversity is considered threatened (IUCN) • Protected areas ~ 0.html Johora singaporensis . harbour ~ 50% of remaining taxa • 25% of remaining fish and decapod crustacean (crabs. prawns) fauna are found in only one 5 ha patch in a single reserve .25% of total land area.org/dbtw-wpd/html/RL-2009-001/section8f11.http://data.iucn.

insects Long legged flies (Dolichopodidae) in Singapore • 10 species in Singapore mangroves (Evenhuis & Grootaert. 2002) • One year’s active sampling (weekly traps) • Sungei Buloh 61 species 92 species } Pulau Ubin Chek Jawa 59 • species Whole of Singapore? . algae. Fungi. NUS et al.000 species of native vascular plants 75 species of ferns and fern allies 58 species of mammals 376 bird species 282 butterfly species 102 reptile species 27 amphibian species 25 bat species Marine Environment ~200 hard coral species 111 reef fish species 11 sea grass species NParks. NSS. molluscs.What’s left? Terrestrial Environment 14. crustaceans.

UJECLLQWjac . Kranji and Mandai are feeding grounds for migratory birds from Siberia. http://www.jpg http://wildshores.• Singapore harbours more than 50 anemone species.gov. We are a part of the East Australasian Flyway • Mudflats and mangroves around Sungei Buloh. more than the entire Pacific coast of North America.html#.blogspot.au/ biodiversity/migratory/publications/ images/landings-map.environment.sg/2009/09/migratory-birdssupremely-designed-for. Russia and China every winter in the Northern Hemisphere.

disturbance) • Road kills Photo credit: Marcus Chua .Threats to Biodiversity in Singapore • Development • Invasive species • Human encroachment (poaching.

com/72589917 Some Singapore environmental CSOs and NUS student groups RMBR Toddycats .be/7lQ0_fJ_Mv0 http://vimeo.Singapore got wildlife meh? http://youtu.

For next session (in groups of 4) • Oral presentation • Investigate one local environmental CSO/student group. • Explain the organisation. Reminder • Combined session this coming Thursday. outreach methods and efficacy in engaging the government/university management and members of public/ student population. aims and objectives. 6-8 PM. . • SRC. activities. its background. LT 50. recent campaigns.