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Trigonometry

Triangle ABC

Sine Rule

can be used upside down if trying to find an angle Important that side a is opposite angle A and side b opposite angle B and side c opposite angle C

=

=

**Cosine Rule is given in formulae sheets but you need to be able to
**

rearrange to get ܣas the subject

=

ି ା ି ( )

important that the angle C is the angle between the two sides a and b

Area of Triangle

**ܖܑܛ + ܛܗ܋ = Radians Sector Area Arc length = ૡᵒ
**

Ɵ

=

Ɵ

**Basic Trigonometry SOHCAHTOA = = =
**

www.chattertontuition.co.uk 0775 950 1629 Page 1

chattertontuition.Core 1 and Core 2 ૢ(ܖܑܛ = ܛܗ܋ − ) ૢ(ܛܗ܋ = ܖܑܛ − ) (ܖ܉ܜ = ܖ܉ܜૡ + ) (ܖܑܛ = ܖܑܛૡ − ) (ܖܑܛ−) = (ܖܑܛૡ + ) = ( − ) (−) = Useful Trigonometric Triangles Just remember that sin 30ᵒ = ଶ and you can work out the rest using Pythagoras’ Theorem and basic trigonometry ଵ Just remember that tan 45ᵒ = 1 and you can work out the rest using Pythagoras’ Theorem and basic trigonometry 1 60ᵒ 2 1 30ᵒ √ 1 ܖܑܛᵒ = ܛܗ܋ᵒ = ܖ܉ܜᵒ = 45ᵒ √ 45ᵒ √ ܖܑܛᵒ = ܛܗ܋ᵒ = ܖ܉ܜᵒ = √ √ www.uk 0775 950 1629 Page 2 .co.

eg ݁ ଶ௫ + 6݁ ௫ + 8 = 0 Let ݁ = ݕ௫ so we have ݕଶ + 6 ݕ+ 8 = 0 or ݔ+ 2 ݔ− 8 = 0 let ݔ = ݕ both of which can be solved మ య భ య భ య so we have ݕଶ + 2 ݕ− 8 = 0 www. -21) Line of symmetry = ݔ2 Hidden Quadratics By using substitution we can change an equation into a quadratic that can be solved.co. complete the square or quadratic equation Quadratic Equation ܽ ݔ+ ܾ ݔ+ ܿ = 0 ଶ = ି±ඥ ି Completing the square we can use this to work out where the turning points are and to help sketch the curve or to solve quadratic equations. Eg 4 ݔଶ − 16 ݔ+ 5 = 4( ݔଶ − 4 )ݔ+ 5 = 4(( ݔ− 2)ଶ − 2ଶ ) − 5 4(( ݔ− 2)ଶ − 4) − 5 = 4( ݔ− 2)ଶ − 21 Turning point (2.chattertontuition.uk 0775 950 1629 Page 3 .Core 1 and Core 2 Solving quadratics factorise.

co.uk 0775 950 1629 Page 4 .Core 1 and Core 2 Laws of logarithms = ⇔ = = = + = − = ቀ ቁ = Change of base Solving equations with logs భబ ହ = Eg = ݕ5௫ take logs of both sides ݈݃ଵ ݈݃ = ݕଵ (5௫ ) = ݈݃ ݔଵ 5 ௬ = ݔభబ could also have taken logs to base 5 and then would get the same answer = ݔ ఱ ௬ ఱ ହ = ݈݃ହ ݕ www.chattertontuition.

maximums and points of inflection Differentiate and set =0 and solve to find ݔ To investigate whether a minimum or maximum differentiate again to get substitute in the ݔvalue and if positive then minimum.chattertontuition.co.uk 0775 950 1629 Page 5 .Core 1 and Core 2 Calculus Differentiation multiply by power and reduce power by 1 = = ି Integration ܖܔ = + increase power by 1 and then divide by new power = ା ା + Area under curve between curve and ݔaxis Area under curve ) = ᇱ( between curve and y axis ) = ᇱᇱ ( Stationary Points Minimum. if negative then maximum. Increasing function Where the gradient is positive (sloping upwards) Decreasing function Where the gradient is negative (sloping downwards) www. if 0 then a point of inflection ௗ௬ మ ௗమ௫ .

co. b) and radius r ( − ) + ( − ) = ( ା ା Midpoint If have two points on the line (ݔଵ .Core 1 and Core 2 Coordinate Geometry Equation of a line Gradient of line If have gradient m and a point (ݔଵ .chattertontuition. ݕଶ ) . ݕଵ ) and (ݔଶ . ) Length of a line If have two points on the line (ݔଵ . ݕଶ ) Equation of a circle Centre (a. ݕଵ ) that the line goes through − = ( − ) ି ି If have two points on the line (ݔଵ . ݕଵ ) and (ݔଶ . ݕଵ ) and (ݔଶ . ݕଶ )By Pythagoras’ Theorem ඥ( − ) + ( − ) Normal is perpendicular to Tangent The gradients are the negative reciprocal of each other eg gradient tangent − then gradient normal is ଷ ଶ ଷ ଶ www.uk 0775 950 1629 Page 6 .

. … Periodic the terms start repeating eg 3. .chattertontuition.Core 1 and Core 2 Sequences Formulae given in booklet but do need to recognise if a geometric sequence or arithmetic Geometric Arithmetic eg . 4. 2. 5.co. 2. 5.uk 0775 950 1629 Page 7 . 4. 2. ଵ ଵ ଵ ଵ each term is a constant multiple of the previous term each term is a constant addition to the previous term each term gets closer and closer to a number Convergent ଶ ସ ଼ ଵ . 3. 23. 5. 4. 3. 15.… each term does not converge Divergent eg 7. 31.… has period 4 Period is number of terms before the sequence repeats ∑ ୀ () ∑ହ ୀଵ(4ݎ sum of terms from r = 1 up to r = n eg − 1) = 3 + 7 + 11 + 15 + 19 = 55 (sum of all the terms from r = 1 up to r = 5) www.

b and c = (ା√)(ି√) Page 8 (ି√) www.uk 0775 950 1629 .co.Core 1 and Core 2 Indices = ܠା ÷ = ି ( ) = = ି = = √ = ൬ ൰ = ൫ √൯ Polynomials Factor Theorem If () = then = is a root and ( − ) is a factor Remainder Theorem When () is divided by ( − ) the remainder is () To sketch a cubic polynomial try to factorise Surds √ √ = √ ା√ ( ݔ− ܽ)( ݔ− ܾ)( ݔ− ܿ) = 0 will cross the ݔaxis at a.chattertontuition.

Core 1 and Core 2 Quadratic inequalities solve ( ݔ− ܽ)( ݔ− ܾ) < 0 ݔ( ݎ− ܽ)( ݔ− ܾ) > 0 solve where this equals 0 (when )ܾ = ݔ ݎ ܽ = ݔ and then see whether we want the bit between a and b or the bits either side A positive quadratic has a ∪ shape so will be below the ݔaxis between a and b ( − )( − ) < < < ( − )( − ) > < > Transformations () + translation of a units in the positive y direction ( + ) translation of a units in the negative ݔdirection () stretch of scale factor a parallel to the y axis ଵ () stretch of scale factor parallel to the ݔaxis Discriminant − Part of the quadratic equation.co. − > ⇔ − = ⇔ (or repeated roots) − < ⇔ Circle Theorems A tangent meets a radius at right angles The perpendicular distance from the centre of a circle to a chord bisects that chord Angles in a semicircle are right angles www.chattertontuition. Tells us how many real roots there are.uk 0775 950 1629 Page 9 .

Core 1 and Core 2 Curves The angle ݔgets repeated at π .chattertontuition.uk 0775 950 1629 Page 10 .ݔ The angle ݔgets repeated at π + ݔ www.ݔ The angle ݔgets repeated at 2π .co.

chattertontuition.uk/A-level-maths-papers Chatterton Tuition offer tuition in all subjects as well as A level maths.uk 0775 950 1629 Page 11 . www.Core 1 and Core 2 = If you found these helpful and would like to see some more then visit our website http://www. We are local to North Yorkshire but also offer online tutoring.co.chattertontuition.co.

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