# Core 1 and Core 2

Trigonometry
Triangle ABC

Sine Rule

࢙࢏࢔ ࡭ ࢙࢏࢔ ࡮ ࢙࢏࢔ ࡯ can be used upside down if trying to find an angle Important that side a is opposite angle A and side b opposite angle B and side c opposite angle C

=

=

Cosine Rule is given in formulae sheets but you need to be able to
rearrange to get ‫ ܣ‬as the subject

࡭=

૛ ૛ ૛ ି૚ ࢈ ାࢉ ିࢇ ࢉ࢕࢙ ( ) ૛࢈ࢉ

૛ important that the angle C is the angle between the two sides a and b

Area of Triangle

ࢇ࢈࢙࢏࢔ ࡯

‫ܖܑܛ‬૛ ࡭ + ‫ܛܗ܋‬૛ ࡭ = ૚ Radians Sector Area Arc length ࣊ࢉ = ૚ૡ૙ᵒ
૚ ૛ ࢘ Ɵ ૛

࢚ࢇ࢔ ࡭ =

ࢉ࢕࢙ ࡭

࢙࢏࢔ ࡭

࢘Ɵ

Basic Trigonometry SOHCAHTOA ࢕࢖࢖ ࢇࢊ࢐ ࢕࢖࢖ ࢙࢏࢔ ࡭ = ࢉ࢕࢙ ࡭ = ࢚ࢇ࢔ ࡭ =
ࢎ࢟࢖ ࢎ࢟࢖ ࢇࢊ࢐
www.chattertontuition.co.uk 0775 950 1629 Page 1

chattertontuition.Core 1 and Core 2 ‫ૢ(ܖܑܛ = ࡭ ܛܗ܋‬૙ − ࡭) ‫ૢ(ܛܗ܋ = ࡭ ܖܑܛ‬૙ − ࡭) ‫(ܖ܉ܜ = ࡭ ܖ܉ܜ‬૚ૡ૙ + ࡭) ‫(ܖܑܛ = ࡭ ܖܑܛ‬૚ૡ૙ − ࡭) ‫(ܖܑܛ‬−࡭) = ‫(ܖܑܛ‬૚ૡ૙ + ࡭) ࢉ࢕࢙ ࡭ = ࢉ࢕࢙ (૜૟૙ − ࡭) ࢉ࢕࢙ (−࡭) = ࢉ࢕࢙ ࡭ Useful Trigonometric Triangles Just remember that sin 30ᵒ = ଶ and you can work out the rest using Pythagoras’ Theorem and basic trigonometry ଵ Just remember that tan 45ᵒ = 1 and you can work out the rest using Pythagoras’ Theorem and basic trigonometry 1 60ᵒ 2 1 30ᵒ √૜ 1 ‫ ܖܑܛ‬૝૞ᵒ = ‫ ܛܗ܋‬૝૞ᵒ = ‫ ܖ܉ܜ‬૝૞ᵒ = ૚ 45ᵒ √૛ 45ᵒ ૚ ૚ √૜ ‫ ܖܑܛ‬૜૙ᵒ = ‫ ܛܗ܋‬૜૙ᵒ = ૛ ૛ ૚ ‫ ܖ܉ܜ‬૜૙ᵒ = √૜ √૛ www.uk 0775 950 1629 Page 2 .co.

eg ݁ ଶ௫ + 6݁ ௫ + 8 = 0 Let ‫ ݁ = ݕ‬௫ so we have ‫ ݕ‬ଶ + 6‫ ݕ‬+ 8 = 0 or ‫ ݔ‬+ 2‫ ݔ‬− 8 = 0 let ‫ ݔ = ݕ‬ both of which can be solved మ య భ య భ య so we have ‫ ݕ‬ଶ + 2‫ ݕ‬− 8 = 0 www. -21) Line of symmetry ‫ = ݔ‬2 Hidden Quadratics By using substitution we can change an equation into a quadratic that can be solved.co. complete the square or quadratic equation Quadratic Equation ܽ‫ ݔ‬+ ܾ‫ ݔ‬+ ܿ = 0 ଶ ࢞= ି࢈±ඥ࢈૛ ି૝ࢇࢉ ૛ࢇ Completing the square we can use this to work out where the turning points are and to help sketch the curve or to solve quadratic equations. Eg 4‫ ݔ‬ଶ − 16‫ ݔ‬+ 5 = 4(‫ ݔ‬ଶ − 4‫ )ݔ‬+ 5 = 4((‫ ݔ‬− 2)ଶ − 2ଶ ) − 5 4((‫ ݔ‬− 2)ଶ − 4) − 5 = 4(‫ ݔ‬− 2)ଶ − 21 Turning point (2.chattertontuition.uk 0775 950 1629 Page 3 .Core 1 and Core 2 Solving quadratics factorise.

co.uk 0775 950 1629 Page 4 .Core 1 and Core 2 Laws of logarithms ࢒࢕ࢍࢇ ࢞ = ࢟ ⇔ ࢇ࢟ = ࢞ ࢒࢕ࢍࢇ ࢇ = ૚ ࢒࢕ࢍࢇ ૚ = ૙ ࢒࢕ࢍࢇ ࢞ + ࢒࢕ࢍࢇ ࢟ = ࢒࢕ࢍࢇ ࢞࢟ ࢒࢕ࢍࢇ ࢞ − ࢒࢕ࢍࢇ ࢟ = ࢒࢕ࢍࢇ ቀ ቁ ࢟ ࢞ ࢑࢒࢕ࢍࢇ ࢞ = ࢒࢕ࢍࢇ ࢞࢑ Change of base Solving equations with logs ௟௢௚భబ ହ ࢒࢕ࢍࢇ ࢈ = ࢒࢕ࢍ࢈ ࢇ ૚ Eg ‫ = ݕ‬5௫ take logs of both sides ݈‫݃݋‬ଵ଴ ‫݃݋݈ = ݕ‬ଵ଴ (5௫ ) = ‫݃݋݈ ݔ‬ଵ଴ 5 ௟௢௚ ௬ ‫ = ݔ‬భబ could also have taken logs to base 5 and then would get the same answer ‫ = ݔ‬ ௟௢௚ఱ ௬ ௟௢௚ఱ ହ = ݈‫݃݋‬ହ ‫ݕ‬ www.chattertontuition.

maximums and points of inflection Differentiate and set =0 and solve to find ‫ݔ‬ To investigate whether a minimum or maximum differentiate again to get substitute in the ‫ ݔ‬value and if positive then minimum.chattertontuition.co.uk 0775 950 1629 Page 5 .Core 1 and Core 2 Calculus Differentiation multiply by power and reduce power by 1 ࢟ = ࢞࢔ ࢊ࢟ ࢊ࢞ = ࢔࢞࢔ି૚ Integration ‫ ࢞ ܖܔ = ࢞ࢊ ࢞ ׬‬+ ࢉ ૚ increase power by 1 and then divide by new power ‫࢔ = ࢞ࢊ ࢔࢞ ׬‬ା૚ ࢞࢔ା૚ + ࢉ ૚ ૛ Area under curve ‫׬‬ ࢟ ࢊ࢞ between curve and ‫ ݔ‬axis ࢞ ࢞ Area under curve ࢌ ࢞) = ᇱ( ࢊ࢟ ࢊ࢞ ࢟૛ ࢞ ࢊ࢟ between curve and y axis ‫׬‬ ࢟૚ ૚ ࢌ ࢞) = ᇱᇱ ( ࢊ૛ ࢟ ࢊ࢞૛ Stationary Points Minimum. if negative then maximum. Increasing function Where the gradient is positive (sloping upwards) Decreasing function Where the gradient is negative (sloping downwards) www. if 0 then a point of inflection ௗ௬ మ ௗమ௫ .

co. b) and radius r (࢞ − ࢇ)૛ + (࢟ − ࢈)૛ = ࢘૛ ( ࢞૚ ା࢞૛ ࢟૚ ା࢟૛ ૛ Midpoint If have two points on the line (‫ݔ‬ଵ .Core 1 and Core 2 Coordinate Geometry Equation of a line Gradient of line If have gradient m and a point (‫ݔ‬ଵ .chattertontuition. ‫ݕ‬ଶ ) . ‫ݕ‬ଵ ) and (‫ݔ‬ଶ . ૛ ) Length of a line If have two points on the line (‫ݔ‬ଵ . ‫ݕ‬ଶ ) Equation of a circle Centre (a. ‫ݕ‬ଵ ) that the line goes through ࢟ − ࢟૚ = ࢓(࢞ − ࢞૚ ) ࢟૚ ି࢟૛ ࢞૚ ି࢞૛ If have two points on the line (‫ݔ‬ଵ . ‫ݕ‬ଵ ) and (‫ݔ‬ଶ . ‫ݕ‬ଵ ) and (‫ݔ‬ଶ . ‫ݕ‬ଶ )By Pythagoras’ Theorem ඥ(࢞૚ − ࢞૛ )૛ + (࢟૚ − ࢟૛ )૛ Normal is perpendicular to Tangent The gradients are the negative reciprocal of each other eg gradient tangent − then gradient normal is ଷ ଶ ଷ ଶ www.uk 0775 950 1629 Page 6 .

. … Periodic the terms start repeating eg 3. .chattertontuition.Core 1 and Core 2 Sequences Formulae given in booklet but do need to recognise if a geometric sequence or arithmetic Geometric Arithmetic eg . 4. 2. 5.co. 2. 5.uk 0775 950 1629 Page 7 . 4. 2. ଵ ଵ ଵ ଵ each term is a constant multiple of the previous term each term is a constant addition to the previous term each term gets closer and closer to a number Convergent ଶ ସ ଼ ଵ଺ . 3. 23. 5. 4. 3. 15.… each term does not converge Divergent eg 7. 31.… has period 4 Period is number of terms before the sequence repeats ∑࢔ ࢘ୀ૚ ࢌ(࢘) ∑ହ ௥ୀଵ(4‫ݎ‬ sum of terms from r = 1 up to r = n eg − 1) = 3 + 7 + 11 + 15 + 19 = 55 (sum of all the terms from r = 1 up to r = 5) www.

b and c = (࢈ାࢉ√ࢊ)(࢈ିࢉ√ࢊ) Page 8 ࢇ(࢈ିࢉ√ࢊ) www.uk 0775 950 1629 .co.Core 1 and Core 2 Indices ࢇ࢔ ‫࢔ࢇ = ࢓ࢇ ܠ‬ା࢓ ࢇ࢔ ÷ ࢇ࢓ = ࢇ࢔ି࢓ (ࢇ࢔ )࢓ = ࢇ࢔࢓ ࢇ૙ = ૚ ࢇ ି࢔ = ࢇ = √ࢇ ࢇ࢔ ૚ ࢓ ૚ ૚ ࢔ ࢔ ࢇ = ൬ࢇ ൰ = ൫ √ࢇ൯ Polynomials Factor Theorem ࢔ ࢓ ࢔ ࢓ ࢔ If ࢌ(ࢇ) = ૙ then ࢞ = ࢇ is a root and (࢞ − ࢇ) is a factor Remainder Theorem When ࢌ(࢞) is divided by (࢞ − ࢇ) the remainder is ࢌ(ࢇ) To sketch a cubic polynomial try to factorise Surds ࢇ√࢈ ࢞ ࢉ√ࢊ = ࢇࢉ√࢈ࢊ ࢈ାࢉ√ࢊ ࢇ (‫ ݔ‬− ܽ)(‫ ݔ‬− ܾ)(‫ ݔ‬− ܿ) = 0 will cross the ‫ ݔ‬axis at a.chattertontuition.

Core 1 and Core 2 Quadratic inequalities solve (‫ ݔ‬− ܽ)(‫ ݔ‬− ܾ) < 0 ‫ ݔ( ݎ݋‬− ܽ)(‫ ݔ‬− ܾ) > 0 solve where this equals 0 (when ‫ )ܾ = ݔ ݎ݋ ܽ = ݔ‬ and then see whether we want the bit between a and b or the bits either side A positive quadratic has a ∪ shape so will be below the ‫ ݔ‬axis between a and b (࢞ − ࢇ)(࢞ − ࢈) < ૙ ࢇ < ࢞ < ࢈ (࢞ − ࢇ)(࢞ − ࢈) > ૙ ࢞ < ࢇ ࢇ࢔ࢊ ࢞ > ࢈ Transformations ࢌ(࢞) + ࢇ translation of a units in the positive y direction ࢌ(࢞ + ࢇ) translation of a units in the negative ‫ ݔ‬direction ࢇࢌ(࢞) stretch of scale factor a parallel to the y axis ଵ ࢌ(ࢇ࢞) stretch of scale factor ௔ parallel to the ‫ ݔ‬axis Discriminant ࢈૛ − ૝ࢇࢉ Part of the quadratic equation.co. ࢈૛ − ૝ࢇࢉ > ૙ ⇔ ૛ ࢘ࢋࢇ࢒ ࢘࢕࢕࢚࢙ ૛ ࢈ − ૝ࢇࢉ = ૙ ⇔ ૚ ࢘ࢋࢇ࢒ ࢘࢕࢕࢚ (or repeated roots) ࢈૛ − ૝ࢇࢉ < ૙ ⇔ ࢔࢕ ࢘ࢋࢇ࢒ ࢘࢕࢕࢚࢙ Circle Theorems A tangent meets a radius at right angles The perpendicular distance from the centre of a circle to a chord bisects that chord Angles in a semicircle are right angles www.chattertontuition. Tells us how many real roots there are.uk 0775 950 1629 Page 9 .

Core 1 and Core 2 Curves The angle ‫ ݔ‬gets repeated at π .chattertontuition.uk 0775 950 1629 Page 10 .‫ݔ‬ The angle ‫ ݔ‬gets repeated at π + ‫ݔ‬ www.‫ݔ‬ The angle ‫ ݔ‬gets repeated at 2π .co.

chattertontuition.uk/A-level-maths-papers Chatterton Tuition offer tuition in all subjects as well as A level maths.uk 0775 950 1629 Page 11 . www.Core 1 and Core 2 ࢟ = ࢋ࢞ If you found these helpful and would like to see some more then visit our website http://www. We are local to North Yorkshire but also offer online tutoring.co.chattertontuition.co.