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**Image Equalization Using Singular Value Decomposition and Discrete Wavelet Transform
**

Cagri Ozcinar1, Hasan Demirel2 and Gholamreza Anbarjafari3

1Department

of Electronic Engineering, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH Surrey 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimagusa, KKTC, via Mersin 10 3Department of Information Systems Engineering, Cyprus international University, Lefkosa, KKTC, via Mersin 10 1England 2,3Turkey

1. Introduction

Contrast enhancement is frequently referred as one of the most important issues in image processing. Contrast is created by the difference in luminance reflected from two adjacent surfaces. In other words, contrast is the difference in visual properties that makes an object distinguishable from other objects and the background. In visual perception, contrast is determined by the difference in the color and brightness of the object with other objects. Our visual system is more sensitive to contrast than absolute luminance; therefore, we can perceive the world similarly regardless of the considerable changes in illumination conditions. If the contrast of an image is highly concentrated on a specific range, e.g. an image is very dark; the information may be lost in those areas which are excessively and uniformly concentrated. The problem is to optimize the contrast of an image in order to represent all the information in the input image. There have been several techniques to overcome this issue (Shadeed et al., 2003; Gonzales and Woods, 2007; Kim et al., 1998; Chitwong et al., 2002). One of the most frequently used techniques is general histogram equalization (GHE). After the introduction of GHE, researchers came out with better techniques such as local histogram equalization (LHE). However, the contrast issue is yet to be improved and even these days many researchers are proposing new techniques for image equalization. In this work, we are comparing our results with two state-of-art techniques, namely, dynamic histogram equalization (DHE) (Abdullah Al Wadud et al., 2007) and our previously introduced singular value equalization (SVE) (Demirel et al. ISCIS 2008). As motioned before, in many image-processing applications, GHE technique is one of the simplest and most effective primitives for contrast enhancement (Kim and Yang, 2006),

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Si is summation of all histogram values of ith sub-histogram. In our earlier work (Demirel and Anbarjafari. 2007): Firstly. which can be interpreted as a matrix is written as follows: T A = U A Σ A VA (3) where UA and VA are orthogonal square matrices known as hanger and aligner respectively. Demirel and Anbarjafari. and x is a coefficient to control the strength of image contrast. If gray levels(GLs) of having frequencies within (µ-σ) to (µ+σ) is more than an specific value. DHE is obtained from dynamic histogram specification (Sun et al. Techniques such as DHE or SVE are preserving the general pattern of the PDF of an image. The objective of SVE proposed by Demirel et al. SVD of an image. and standard deviation. (ISCIS 2008) is to equalize a low contrast image in such a way that the mean moves towards the neighborhood of 8-bit mean gray value 128 in the way that the general pattern of the PDF of the image is preserved. SVE (Demirel et al. Demirel and Anbarjafari showed that the PDF of face images can be used for face recognition (Demirel and Anbarjafari.intechopen.Theory and Applications which attempts to produce an output histogram that is uniform (Weeks et al. 2007): rangei = i =1 ∑ weight i n weight i ∗ ( L − 1) (2) where L is total number of available GLs. the locations of local minimums of the histogram are found and then the histogram is divided into several subhistograms based on those local minimums. Then the range which is the expansion value to determine how many times to expand its subhistogram is calculated by using the fallowing formula (Abdullah Al Wadud et al. 1999).3% of the total number of GLs of a subhistogram.88 Discrete Wavelet Transforms . for each sub-histogram is calculated. and ΣA matrix contains the sorted singular values on its main diagonal.g. σ... 2008). GHE is applied for each sub-histogram.. 2008). hence preserving the shape of PDF of the image is of vital importance. then that sub-histogram can be considered as a normal distribution of frequencies and there is no dominating portion. singular value decomposition was used to deal with the illumination problem. IEEE Signal Processing Letter. The idea of using SVD for image equalization comes from this fact that ΣA contains the intensity information of the given image (Tian et al. 2007): weight i = span i × ( log Si ) x (1) where spani is GL range of sub-histogram i . One of the disadvantages of the GHE is that the information laid on the histogram or probability distribution function (PDF) of the image will be lost. 2003). e. ISCIS 2008. 68. µ. IEEE Signal Processing Letter.. DHE algorithm works in the following way (Abdullah Al Wadud et al.. the sub histogram splits again. The method uses the ratio of the largest singular value of the www. 2005) which generates the specified histogram dynamically from the input image..com . Then weights for GL range of ith sub-histogram are calculated by the following equation (Abdullah Al Wadud et al. Finally. 2008) technique is based on equalizing the singular value matrix obtained by singular value decomposition (SVD). But if it is less then that threshold value. Then the mean. where we introduced PDF based face recognition. IEEE Signal Processing Letter.

compression (Lamard et al. The decomposition of images into different frequency ranges permits the isolation of the frequency components introduced by “intrinsic deformations” or “extrinsic factors” into certain subbands (Dai and Yan. Hence discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is a suitable tool to be used for designing pose invariant face recognition system.. The two-dimensional wavelet decomposition of an image is performed by applying the one-dimensional DWT along the rows of the image first. Nowadays. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letter. As it was mentioned in the introduction. In this work. 2010). after IDWT.com .var = 1) max ( Σ A ) ( ) (4) (5) where Ξ equalizedA is representing the equalized image A. the resultant image will be sharper. The frequency components of those subband images cover the frequency components of the original image. That is why. image equalization enhancement (Demirel et al. 2002). This task is eliminating the illumination problem. Hence. wavelets have been used quite frequently in image processing. and High-High (HH).var = 1) is the singular value matrix of the synthetic intensity matrix. Low-High (LH). The second important aspect of this work is the application of DWT.e.intechopen. As it was mentioned. changing singular values will directly affect the illumination of the image hence the other information in the image will not be changed. edges).Image Equalization Using Singular Value Decomposition and Discrete Wavelet Transform 89 generated normalized matrix over a normalized image which can be calculated according to equation (4). This process results in isolating small changes in an image mainly in high frequency subband images. ξ= where Σ N ( μ = 0. LH. 2005). It has been used for feature extraction (Wang and Chen. T Ξ equalized A = U A (ξΣ A )VA max Σ N ( μ = 0.. the proposed method has been compared with conventional GHE technique as well as LHE and some state-of-art technique such as DHE an SVE. where LL subband concentrates the illumination information. 2007). DWT is used to separate the input image into different frequency subbands. High-Low (HL). and face recognition (Liu et al. This coefficient can be used to regenerate an equalized image using equation (5). The results indicate the superiority of the proposed method over the aforementioned methods. The proposed image equalization technique There are two significant parts of the proposed method. The first one is the use of SVD. and then the results are decomposed along the columns. we have proposed a new method for image equalization which is an extension of SVE and it is based on SVD of LL subband image obtained by DWT. and HH). In this chapter. 2. separating the high frequency subbands and www. the singular value matrix obtained by SVD contains the illumination information. 2006).. the illumination information is embedded in LL subband. 2007). The edges are concentrated in other subbands (i. Hence. Therefore. only LL subband goes through SVE process.e.. which preserves high frequency components (i. This operation results in four decomposed subband images refer to Low-Low (LL). HL. denoising (Starck et al.

HLA . is first ˆ .intechopen. 3 and 4 (c) obtained by SVE and there is also no blurring effect like Fig. A. 3. GHE and LHE. also there is no wash out problem as it has occurred in Fig. DHE (d). 2 (a) illustrates a low contrast image which has been used in (Abdullah Al Wadud et al. 4 have been generated. Then both of these images are transformed by processed by using GHE to generate A DWT into four subband images. A = IDWT LL A .. Experimental results and discussions Fig. The quality of the visual results indicates that the proposed equalization technique is sharper and brighter than the one achieved by DHE. 3 and 4 (e) obtained by LHE. and Fig. and LHE. 2010). LHE (e). 1 illustrates all steps of the proposed image equalization technique. The correction coefficient for singular value matrix is calculated by using the following equation: ζ = max ΣLL ˆ max ΣLLA A ( ( ) ) (6) where ΣLL is the LL singular value matrix of the input image and ΣLL is the LL singular ˆ A A value matrix of the output of the GHE.. The resultant image generated by SVE is comparable with the image achieved by the proposed method. and HHA subband images of the original image are recombined by applying IDWT. LH A . GHE. 2007). HH A ( ) (8) In this chapter we have used db. but also it will be sharper. After reconstructing the final image by using IDWT. Fig 3. This image has been equalized by using GHE (b). Fig. In the following section the experimental results and the comparison of the aforementioned conventional and state-of-art techniques are discussed.9/7 wavelet function as the mother function of the DWT. The new LL image is composed by: ΣLLA = ζ ΣLLA LL A = U LLA ΣLLA VLLA (7) Now the LL A and LHA. Both figures are showing that the proposed method have a brighter and sharper output. www.com . to generate the resultant equalized image A . In order to show the superiority of the proposed method over the SVE.Theory and Applications applying the illumination enhancement in LL subband only. SVE (c). will protect the edge information from possible degradation (Demirel et al. The general procedure of the proposed technique is as follows. HLA. and the proposed equalization technique (f). The input image. the resultant image will not only be enhanced with respect to illumination.90 Discrete Wavelet Transforms . IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letter.

The detailed steps of the proposed equalization technique. and V for LL subband image and find the maximum element in Σ. Calculate the U . Σ. 1. by using eq (7).intechopen. www. and V for LL subband image and find the maximum element in Σ. Σ.com . IDWT Equalized image Fig.Image Equalization Using Singular Value Decomposition and Discrete Wavelet Transform 91 Low contrast input image Equalized image using GHE DWT DWT HH HL LH LL LL LH HL HH Calculate the U . Calculate ζ using eq (6) Calculate the new Σ and reconstruct the new LL image.

com . (d) DHE. 2. (a) Low contrast image. Equalized image using: (b) GHE. Equalized image using: (b) GHE.intechopen. (d) LHE. www. and (f ) the proposed technique. (a) Original (b) GHE (c) SVE (d) LHE (e) Proposed Technique Fig. (c) SVE. (e) LHE.Theory and Applications (a) Original (b) GHE (c) SVE (d) DHE (e) LHE (f) Proposed Technique Fig. (a) Low contrast image. 3. (c) SVE. and (e ) the proposed technique.92 Discrete Wavelet Transforms .

Sartor. The technique was compared with the GHE. pp: 1165-1195. Shie. (a) Low contrast image. ‘Histogram specification of 24-bit color images in the color difference (C-Y) color space’. “Local discriminant wavelet packet coordinates for face recognition”. 5.1300–1305.com . Universiti Sains Malaysia for providing the equalized output images of DHE technique. (d) LHE. it reconstructed the image in the spatial domain by using IDWT. No. C. C. R. DHE and SVE techniques. Yan. Acknowledgements Authors would like to thank Haidi Ibrahim and Nicholas Sia Pik Kong from School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. and H. S. Liu. J. www. Equalized image using: (b) GHE. 51. 8. W. Journal of Machine Learning Research. C. Weeks. “Dynamic contrast enhancement based on histogram specification”. J. C. L. C. Q. a new image equalization technique based on SVD and DWT was proposed. 4. IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics. The proposed technique converted the image from spatial domain into the DWT domain and after equalizing the singular value matrix of the LL subband image. and T. D. M. and (e ) the proposed technique. Myler. and H. Ruan. Vol. pp. Sun. R. The experimental results were showing the superiority of the proposed method over the conventional and the state-of-art techniques. Dai. Conclusions In this work.Image Equalization Using Singular Value Decomposition and Discrete Wavelet Transform 93 (a) Original (b) GHE (c) SVE (d) LHE (e) Proposed Technique Fig.intechopen. 2005. 2007. 4. References A. 3646. Vol. Proc. 319–329. LHE. pp. Pai. (c) SVE. 6. SPIE. 4. 1999.

“Road traffic sign detection in color images”. M. ISBN 013168728X. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letter. K. IEEE Transaction on Consumer Electronics. Yang. Starck. Wang. A. 334-338. W. Kim. and G. 2008. Q. Y. Prentice Hall. “Wavelet and face recognition”.Dewan. Cazuguel. April 2010. S. 15. 98–106. www. Abdullah-Al-Wadud. J. Tan. 8-11 Oct. W. No 2. Demirel and G. “A dynamic histogram equalization for image contrast enhancement”. K.Theory and Applications D. E. and D. Anbarjafari. Vol. Daccache. pp: 670-684. Kang. G. pp.94 Discrete Wavelet Transforms . Shadeed. L. 649 – 655. M.intechopen. 10th International Conference on Environmental and Computer Science. J. C. 890-893. “Contrast enhancement system using spatially adaptive histogram equalization with temporal filtering. Chapter 4. Woods. Chen. 44. H. Anbarjafari. I. 2002. Vol. Vol. and M. Y. and B. G. 5. pp. ‘Enhancement of colour image obtained from PCA-FCM technique using local area histogram equalization’. 27th Annual International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. C. G. Boonmee. Dai and H. 2865 – 2868. “Pose invariant face recognition using probability distribution function in different color channels". 82–86. S.S. N. pp: 4010 – 4013. pp. T. "Satellite Image Contrast Enhancement Using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Singular Value Decomposition". Ozcinar. pp: 59-74. 2. 1998. Cheevasuvit. M.” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics. Delac and M. D. Tian. Kabir. 2. Demirel. Vol. T. Lamard. Roux. Yan. J. T. No. 1. ISBN: 978-3-902613-03-5.com . H. Cochener. Face recognition. 2006. 2007. IEEE Signal Processing Letter. and M. IEEE International Conference on Image Processing. “Do singular values contain adequate information for face recognition?”. R. “A Multidimensional Histogram Equalization by Fitting an Isotropic Gaussian Mixture to a Uniform Distribution”. pp. 23rd IEEE International Symposium on Computer and Information Sciences. pp. pp. Fang. pp. and R. "Use of a JPEG-2000 wavelet compression scheme for content-based ophtalmologic retinal images retrieval". May 2007. 4787. and B. Digital Image Processing. 53. No. Vol. C. Jahromi. Vol. IEEE-EMBS 2005. C. No. 1-5. Chitwong. W. K. 537 . SPIE. Kim. “The curvelet transform for image denoising”. Gonzalez. Donoho. 2007. pp. Oksam. A. “Eye detection based on head contour geometry and wavelet subband projection”. 2002. Vol. and Y. Pattern Recognition. Wang and W. "Image equalization based on singular value decomposition". Vol. T. L. S. 7. pp. H. 593-600. and F. 36. Candes. J. Anbarjafari. Mismar. Y. Abu-Al-Nadi. Proc. Demirel. H. 2003. 2006. Grgic (Eds). Paik. Austria.540. H. Turkey. Oct 2008. 11. Optical Engineering. Dec 2003. J. 45. E. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing.

2011 Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) algorithms have become standard tools for discrete-time signal and image processing in several areas in research and industry. Juuso T. Yan An Road (West). Olkkonen (Ed. Each book chapter is a separate entity providing examples both the theory and applications. How to reference In order to correctly reference this scholarly work. China Phone: +86-21-62489820 Fax: +86-21-62489821 . InTech.Discrete Wavelet Transforms . 2011 Published in print edition April.).Theory and Applications Edited by Dr. The present book: Discrete Wavelet Transforms: Theory and Applications describes the latest progress in DWT analysis in non-stationary signal processing. 256 pages Publisher InTech Published online 04. multi-scale image enhancement as well as in biomedical and industrial applications. As DWT provides both frequency and location information of the analyzed signal. Croatia Phone: +385 (51) 770 447 Fax: +385 (51) 686 166 www. Available from: http://www. Hasan Demirel and Gholamreza Anbarjafari (2011). April. Shanghai. Juuso T. feel free to copy and paste the following: Cagri Ozcinar. Office Block. Hotel Equatorial Shanghai No. Image Equalization Using Singular Value Decomposition and Discrete Wavelet Transform.Theory and Applications. The book comprises of tutorial and advanced material. ISBN: 978-953-307-185-5.com/books/discrete-wavelet-transforms-theory-and-applications/image-equalizationusing-singular-value-decomposition-and-discrete-wavelet-transform InTech Europe University Campus STeP Ri Slavka Krautzeka 83/A 51000 Rijeka. Olkkonen ISBN 978-953-307-185-5 Hard cover.intechopen. It is intended to be a reference text for graduate students and researchers to obtain in-depth knowledge in specific applications.com InTech China Unit 405. Dr. it is constantly used to solve and treat more and more advanced problems. 200040.intechopen. Discrete Wavelet Transforms .65.

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