Eutrophication can be human-caused or natural.

Untreated sewage effluent and agricultural run-off carrying fertilizers are examples of human-caused eutrophication. Eutrophication generally promotes excessive plant growth and decay, favouring simple algae and plankton over other more complicated plants, and causes a severe reduction in water quality. hosphorus is a necessary nutrient for plants to live, and is the limiting factor for plant growth in many freshwater ecosystems. !he addition of phosphorus increases algal growth, but not all phosphates actually feed algae."#$ !hese algae assimilate the other necessary nutrients needed for plants and animals. %hen algae die they sink to the bottom where they are decomposed and the nutrients contained in organic matter are converted into inorganic form by bacteria. !he decomposition process uses oxygen and deprives the deeper waters of oxygen which can kill fish and other organisms. &lso the necessary nutrients are all at the bottom of the aquatic ecosystem and if they are not brought up closer to the surface, where there is more available light allowing for photosynthesis for aquatic plants, a serious strain is placed on algae populations. Enhanced growth of aquatic vegetation or phytoplankton and algal blooms disrupts normal functioning of the ecosystem, causing a variety of problems such as a lack of oxygen needed for fish and shellfish to survive. !he water becomes cloudy, typically coloured a shade of green, yellow, brown, or red. Eutrophication also decreases the value of rivers, lakes, and estuaries for recreation, fishing, hunting, and aesthetic en'oyment. (ealth problems can occur where eutrophic conditions interfere with drinking water treatment.")$ Eutrophication was recognized as a water pollution problem in European and *orth &merican lakes and reservoirs in the mid-#+th century.",$ -ince then, it has become more widespread. -urveys showed that .,/ of lakes in &sia are eutrophic0 in Europe, .)/0 in *orth &merica, ,1/0 in -outh &merica, ,2/0 and in &frica, #1/.".$

Human activities can accelerate the rate at which nutrients enter ecosystems. Runoff from agriculture and development, pollution from septic systems and sewers, and other human-related activities increase the flow of both inorganic nutrients and organic substances into ecosystems. Elevated levels of atmospheric compounds of nitrogen can increase nitrogen availability. Phosphorus is often regarded as the main culprit in cases of eutrophication in lakes subjected to point source pollution from sewage pipes. !he concentration of algae and the trophic state of lakes correspond well to phosphorus levels in water.

particularly where crops and commercially managed forests are concerned. runoff from farmland. and in dramatic changes in fish stocks. since it benefits animals and plants normally considered undesirable 5 including smaller cyprinid fishes such as roaches.Eutrophication Eutrophication involves rising plant productivity as a result of the increased availability of nutrients. and increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide. Eutrophication is basically a natural phenomenon. for example. eutrophication is typically reflected in the accelerated growth of forests. !errestrial ecosystems are also normally spared from the more harmful side effects of eutrophication such as oxygen depletion. 3ts effects can be seen in reduced water clarity and in the increased occurrence of massive blue-green algal blooms. overall diversity is likely to decline. however. 6ut where eutrophication becomes predominant. The challenge of preventing eutrophication 7nce a process of eutrophication has begun. since the species typically associated with nutrient-poor habitats will gradually disappear. Even if the external loads of nutrient pollution entering aquatic ecosystems can be cut. in winter oxygen depletion. Excess nutrient pollution in wastewater. but over time they may become richer in nutrients through natural processes. *utrients accumulate over many years in the water and the soil. %here nutrient pollution is widespread. increases in the productivity of plants are more welcomed. 3n water bodies. eutrophication particularly boosts the growth of planktonic algae. eutrophication often becomes a problem. 7n the land. 4ertain lakes or habitats are naturally poorer in nutrients than others. a self-perpetuating process can continue as internal loads of stored nutrients are repeatedly reabsorbed into the water. where they feed the renewed growth of plants. aquatic plants that can overgrow shores and bays. !his is particularly a problem in the 6altic -ea. Eutrophication on land and in the water 3n terrestrial ecosystems. it may be hard to curb. and atmospheric deposition can trigger harmful eutrophication processes. !his increased growth is particularly promoted by the deposition of nitrogen compounds from the air. Eutrophication may lead to increases in biodiversity 5 at least locally. and toxic blue green algae. Problems and benefits Eutrophication is widely seen as a negative trend in lakes and the sea. . 6irds are particularly attracted to lakes and wetlands affected by eutrophication.

!his results in the death of many aquatic organisms such as fish. resulting in algal blooms. whose plant community is transformed from an aquatic environment to a recognisable terrestrial ecosystem. and has been transformed into a fully terrestrial community. !his progression can clearly spawn radical changes in the entire ecosystem. the most frequent culprit in eutrophication of lakes? and upgrading sewage treatment to reduce wastewater * and discharges to inland waters. prompting intense study in the 2:. . the community may evolve to be more of a bog or fen. 8uring the winter. • • • • • • 9ertilisers are often used in farming. which began as an aquatic habitat. which need the oxygen in the water to live. as human activities doubled the transport of * and tripled the transport of from Earth<s land surface to its oceans. Eutrophication is when the environment becomes enriched with nutrients. !he progression of eutrophication events for ponds and lakes can eventually create accumulation of a layers that produces successively shallower depths of surface waters. sometimes these fertilisers run-off into nearby water causing an increase in nutrient levels. !his can be a problem in marine habitats such as lakes as it can cause algal blooms. !his bloom of algae disrupts normal ecosystem functioning and causes many problems. albeit inhabited by a number of mesic plants and water oriented animals such as amphibians. Eutrophication has emerged as a key human stressor on the world<s coastal ecosystems.6adly affected lakes can be restored to some extent by laboriously removing nutrients from the ecosystem through selective fishing or the removal of excess plant growth. air may also be pumped into lakes to improve the oxygen content of their deeper waters and slow the release of nutrients from bottom sediments. !he algae may use up all the oxygen in the water. -ymptoms of eutrophication in estuaries and other coastal marine ecosystems >where * is the most frequent contributor to eutrophication? were clearly evident by the 2:1+<s. !his causes phytoplankton to grow and reproduce more rapidly. !his can cause problems along the food chain and affect any animal that feeds on them. Eutrophication was first evident in lakes and rivers as they became choked with excessive growth of rooted plants and floating algal scums. !he nutrient-rich silt on lake-beds may also be dredged or covered over. %hile this system may first emerge as a plant succession of marsh grasses and related aquatic forbs. leaving none for other marine life. Eventually the water body can be reduced to a marsh or bog. !he bloom of algae may also block sunlight from photosynthetic marine plants under the water surface.+<s=+<s and culminating in the scientific basis for banning phosphate detergents >a ma'or source of . -ome algae even produce toxins that are harmful to higher forms of life. and finally a vernal pool or meadow.

!here are numerous outcomes to the ecosystems associated with eutrophication environments. !he general types of ecological consequences includeA reduction in biodiversity. die-off of certain organisms. creating an additional challenge of reducing nutrient inputs from municipal waste. 3t usually has much more nitrogen because phosphorus is usually bound to soil components. Extensive use of fertilizers results in significant concentrations of nutrients particularly nitrogen. reduce * emissions from vehicles and power plants.substances that became cheap to produce in the mid #+th century 5 the era in which * and concentrations began to increase in surface waters carrying agricultural and urban runoff to the sea. • %hat are the sources of nutrients causing eutrophication of lakes and reservoirsB !here are many sources. and further increase the efficiency of * and removal from municipal wastewater. !he world<s human population is growing disproportionately in the coastal zone. reduce livestock densities. organisms may not have the time needed to migrate or adapt to the rapidly altered new environment. &s coastal fish and shellfish aquaculture expand. parks and urban gardeners presently use commercial fertilizers in large quantities -. roposed solutions to the eutrophication problem are multidimensional and include actions to restore wetlands and buffer zones between farms and surface waters. with potentially large economic and ecological costs. improve efficiencies of fertilizer applications. !he eutrophication problem illustrates how human activities on land can degrade the quality of coastal waters and habitats. treat urban runoff from streets and storm drains. 3n the case of utter transformation of lakes to bogs and meadows. @ost of these are viewed as unfavorable to the biota which have historically comprised a given habitat. ro'ections indicate that the largest future increases in * and delivery to the coastal ocean will occur in eastern and southern &sia where populations and economies are growing most rapidly. &ll activities in the entire drainage area of a lake or reservoir are reflected directly or indirectly in the water quality of these water bodies. and fertilizer runoff from lawns and gardens. although human induced additions of * and greatly accelerate the progression as compared to a natural landscape evolution. in agricultural runoff. both phosphorus and the nitrogen in the soil contribute to eutrophication. Erosion is often caused by deforestation which also results from unwise planning and management of the resource. management considerations of this rapidly growing internal source of nutrients will be required as well. septic systems. 8rainage water from agricultural land also contains phosphorus and nitrogen. 3n such accelerated circumstances. golf courses. 3f eroded soil reaches the lake. the ecological consequences are extreme. reduction in visibility and mobility functions due to biotic overgrowth >which effects can interfere with plant metabolism and with aquatic animal transport?0 reduction in dissolved oxygen and associated fitness reduction in animals dependent upon oxygen levels. @odern high-yield agriculture. and result in replacement of an original ecosystem with an entirely different one0 such progression occurs in the natural world. .

. aquaculture and factories. excess fish food pollutes the water as complete use of the food cannot be achieved > hoto #2?. *itrogen can only be reduced in rain water by extensive controls of the air pollution in the entire region. %hen lakes are used for aquaculture. *itrogen and phosphorus present in the excess food is dissolved or suspended in the water. !he nutrients released from sediments are referred to as the lakeDs internal loading. &noxic conditions may develop 3n general. -pecies diversity decreases and the dominant biota changes #. lant and animal biomass increase ). atmospheric deposition. &s nitrogen is more mobile in the atmosphere than phosphorus. !hese can be released to water. sewage from towns. !he sediment of a lake -its muddy bottom layer -contains relatively high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. 7ne can safely say that the main sources of pollution in the atmosphere are from industries and automobile exhaust without proper filtering systems. river run-off and erosion. Cate of sedimentation increases. nitrogen fixation. shortening the lifespan of the lake . particularly under conditions of low oxygen concentrations. .. !urbidity increases .Cain water contains phosphorus and nitrogen from air pollution. %hat are the sources of nutrients to aquatic ecosystemsB !here is nutrient supply from • • • • • • agriculture and husbandry. the nutrient elements limiting the primary production in freshwater is phosphorus >mainly phosphate? while that in the marine environments is nitrogen >mainly nitrate?. !he nutrients in the sediment come from the past settling of algae and dead organic matter. it is usually over #+ times more concentrated than phosphorus. !he use of lakes for aquaculture therefore needs careful environmental planning and management practices by the owners and workers. !he main effects caused by eutrophication can be summarized as follows ")$A 2.