# Chemistry 2nd Nine Weeks Test Calculating the number of subatomic particles in an atom or an ion • atomic number: protons

and electrons • atomic mass-atomic number=number of neutrons Define an isotope • an atom that has the same number of protons (or the same atomic number) as other atoms of the same element do but that has a different number of neutrons (and thus a different atomic mass) Write an isotopic symbol for an element • use the abbreviation on the periodic table and the number to the left on top is its atomic mass and the number on the bottom is its atomic number Calculate the average atomic mass for an element • Average Atomic Mass Worksheet • Percent abundance x mass added to all the others Calculate the binding energy and mass defect • Mass defect - find mass of protons and neutrons (by multiplying the amount times their masses and add them) and then find the difference between that and the given mass • Binding energy - take the mass defect and convert it to kg (1.6605x10 -27 kg/amu) and then take this number and use the equation E=mc 2 (basically multiply it by speed of light squared m/s2) • This will give you an energy which is in J/nucleus Label a diagram of a wave Read the electromagnetic diagram

AT SPEED

ALL TRAVEL OF LIGHT

Calculate the energy, wavelength, or frequency • Energy: E=hv (h=6.626x10-34J/Hz)

Gold foil experiment which determined that the nucleus is positively charged . Rutherford .cathode rays determine that electrons are negatively charged 3. didn’t know particles had charges. orbitals Write a nuclear equation • Alpha decay • Beta decay • Positron Emission • Electron capture 0/-1 e • Gamma Decay .electrons orbit the nucleus in circles 5.00x108 m/s) Compare and contrast the 5 models of the atom 1. Dalton . thought atoms were shaped according to properties 2.the electrons are just zooming around not it perfect circles.most of an atom is empty space but there is a nucleus 4. Quantum . Bohr . Thomson .believed atoms were indivisible (5 part theory).• Wavelength (λ measured in m or nm) • Frequency (V measured Hz) • C= λv (C is the speed of light or 3.

5 is considered stable • Any element above 83 on periodic table is ALWAYS radioactive/unstable Calculate the half-life • • • • where AO is the initial amount and AE is the amount remaining t=elapsed time t1/2= duration of a half-life or to the nth power where n is the number of half lives Complete calculations using the mole • 1 mole=6.4 L • molecule is the compound as a whole but atoms are individual elements.022x1023 formula units (ionic compounds) or atoms (molecular compounds) • ionic compounds involve metals and nonmetals. then gamma (can go through skin and bones/Everything) Determine which elements are radioactive or stable based upon the band of stability • Use neutron-proton ratio: 1-1.isotopic symbol (C-14) Compare and Contrast the different types of radiation based upon the penetrating power of the radiation • Alpha rays are weakest (can’t go through skin). formula units are a whole and ions make it up . can’t go through lead).• Nucleon .a proton or neutron • Nuclide . use for X-rays. then beta (can go through skin but not bones. molecular compounds involve just nonmetals • 1 mole= molar mass (average atomic mass) • 1 mole=22.

100x12)+(16. 2-d.01)+(1.00x6) Write electron configurations and draw orbital diagrams • n = cloud size or what floor it’s on • l = which orbital it’s on (0-s. 1-p.Determine the percent composition • Mass/Total mass of the compound x 100 • the part over the whole Calculate molar mass • multiply how many atoms there are times its mass (C 6H12O6) would be (6x12. 3-f) • ml = is the number where it is on the orbital (±l) • ms = +1/2 or -1/2 depending on the spin • orbital notation: valence electrons • Aufbau Principle: an electron occupies the lo est-energ! orbital that can receive it" s#p#d#f#g#h#i • Pauli \$%clusion Principle: no t o electrons can have the same set of &uantum numbers because of opposite spins • 'und(s )ule: orbitals of e&ual energ! are each occupied b! one electron before an! orbital is occupied b! a second electron • *ouis +ot +iagram: sho s its valence electrons either at ground or e%cited state .