BTU Cottbus

Allgemeine Ökologie

midterm-exam-methods-ws-2011/12.doc

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Assignment ("midterm take-home exam"), Module M1 General and applied ecology, part „Methods of biodiversity assessment“, Winter Semester 2013/14
Name: Matriculation no.:

ATTENTION, read carefully: The assignment deals with concepts which are crucial to evaluation and decision-making in the context of biodiversity protection. Please write your name and matriculation no. in the prescribed place above. Anonymus assignments are invalid. Please use the complete question sheets as cover pages to your assignment. Assignments submitted without the question sheets are invalid. Write the answers on separate pages. Please stick to the sequence of questions. Repeat the question number to which your answer refers. Write your name on all separate sheets. Connect cover page and answer sheet with staples (no lose leaves, no paper clips, no complex folders, please). The answers are to be submitted as an assignment in hand written form by 20 January, 2014. Typed answers will be regarded as “not submitted”.

Recap on definitions and measurability 1. What is biodiversity? Give a short definition. In which “currencies” can we measure it best? (6 points) 2. What is the difference between α- and β-diversity? (4 points) 3. Name at least two correlates, surrogates or indicators that can be used for estimating total biodiversity of an area? (4 points) Species concepts 4. What is a species? Give a definition of the biological species concept and discuss alternatives for uniparentally reproducing “species”. (6 points) 5. How many (described) species are there on earth? In total? How many insect species? How many bird species? (6 points) 6. What is the difference between “speciation” and (adaptive) “radiation”? (4 points)

(6 points) .BTU Cottbus Allgemeine Ökologie midterm-exam-methods-ws-2011/12. according to the EU Habitats Directive). pollution. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of species protection vs. What should be regarded as a prioritarian goal of biodiversity protection? Enter priority ranking in the box below and give a short comment on each goal! Equal ranking is possible (5 points) To protect natural ecosystems? To protect productive species? To protect phylogenetically distinct species? To protect rare and endangered species? To protect endemic species 8. “Species protection” and “protection of habitats” (or habitat types) are popular strategies of biodiversity conservation (e. habitat fragmentation. What are the greatest threats to biodiversity? Habitat destruction.g. introduction of pests.doc 2 Strategic biodiversity protection 7. What is a biodiversity hotspot? Which criteria are used for definition? Name at least one hotspot? (4 points) 9. protection of habitats. (6 points) 12. What is relation between biodiversity and naturalness of an ecosystem? Are there differences between tropical and temperate ecosystems with respect to this relation? (4 points) 10. How to protect biodiversity best? Enter a priority ranking of strategies in the box below and give a short comment on your assessment of each strategy! Equal ranking is possible (5 points) By means of international conventions? By means of changing consumer’s attitude in developed countries? By means of creating large nature reserves in the tropics? By means of ex-situ protection in zoos and botanical gardens? By means of changing land use practice? Practical biodiversity protection 11. or invasive species? Anything else? Give a ranking.

doc 3 13. The result will be integrated with 25 percent into the final module grade.BTU Cottbus Allgemeine Ökologie midterm-exam-methods-ws-2011/12. Which practical issues of biodiversity protection have been discussed at the COP10 in Nagoya in October 2010? (4 points) Grading: 72 points are possible. . For students of matriculation year 2005 and earlier a separate grade will be calcuted. There is no exact pass level for this assignment. Explain the Principle of Complementarity in biodiversity assessment? Desribe at least one practical application! (4 points) 15. (4 points) 14. What is the function of Red Lists and Red Data Books? List some merits and shortcomings.