# MEC 512, Spring 2012

Midterm
Take Home: Due March 29, 2012 - In Class
Name:—————————————————————————
Instructions
1. Answer the questions below pertaining to the following momentum equations governing the ‡ow of a
‡uid in a rotating coordinate frame:
0u
0t
+u ru +(r) + 2u +
0
0t
r =
1
j
rj +r j(ru + (ru)

) +g,
where u is the vector of velocity as observed in the rotating frame, t is time, is the vector of the
angular velocity of rotation, r is the position vector, j is pressure, j is the absolute molecular viscosity
of the ‡uid, g is the gravity vector, and an asterisk on a tensor implies the transpose of the tensor:
a) Derive the equations from …rst principles or the elemental control volume approach. (This carries
50% of the points for Qu. 1)
b) Write this equation in Cartesian tensor form
c) Non-dimensionalize this equation using suitable scales and assuming a Boussinesq free-convection
condition
d) Derive the analytical solution of the hydrostatic limit of the equations, and discuss its signi…cance.
2. Derive an equation for the energy rate
Z
V
0
0t
(
1
2
j juj
2
d\
of the ‡ow in Qu. 1 above, where \ is the volume of the 3D domain containing the ‡uid, and determine
the conditions, in terms of some suitable parameters, under which the energy of the system is bounded.
3. Consider the equation
r

)
"
n
+ )
0
n
+ `
2
n
r

(1 r
2
))
n
= 0,
with
)
n
(0) = 0, )
n
(1) = 1,
that arises from "separation of variables" of the Graetz problem (page 121 of text). Use the series
solution method of solving ODEs to solve this equation. Please write the solution in terms of known el-
ementary functions (such as the trigonometric, Bessels, Legendre, etc.), rather than as a series "running
all over the paper."
4. Consider a ‡uid ‡ow in which numerous …ne solid particles are suspended. The resulting suspension
could be assumed to be homogeneous in terms of the viscosity. If we further assume that the particle
dimension is very small compared to characteristic lengths of the ‡ow problem and the concentration
of the suspended particles is also small, estimate the e¤ective viscosity j of the homogenous problem
in terms of the viscosity of the pure ‡uid. Please state your assumptions very clearly.
1
5. Consider the ‡ow of a viscous ‡uid in a cylinder of elliptic cross sections, with the long and short
semi-axis lengths being a and /, respectively. The Cartesian form of the relevant ‡ow equation can be
written as
0
2
n
0j
2
+
0
2
n
0.
2
=
1
j
dj
dr
,
using the same notations as in class. By expressing this equation in elliptic coordinates, and proceeding
as we did in class for circular cross sections, explicitly derive the velocity pro…le n(j, .) for the ‡ow
inside the elliptic conduit. (You should assume similar boundary conditions as we did for the circular
cross section problem.) Find the ratio o /,a which gives the maximum ‡ow rate for a given ‡ow
area and a given pressure gradient. For a given pressure gradient, …nd the ratio of the discharge for
an elliptic pipe to that of a circular pipe having the same ‡ow area. Evaluate this ratio for o = 7,8.
2