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**Instructional Design Project
**

Coping with Mathematics Anxiety

Justin M. Keel 7/26/2012

Table of Contents

Synthesis Reflection Paper ............................................................................................................. 4 Part 1 – Topic .................................................................................................................................. 5 Learning Goal .............................................................................................................................. 5 Audience Description .................................................................................................................. 5 Rationale...................................................................................................................................... 5 Part 2 – Assessment Report ............................................................................................................ 6 Needs Analysis Survey................................................................................................................ 6 Needs Analysis Data Reporting .................................................................................................. 6 Learning Context Description ..................................................................................................... 7 Transfer Context Description ...................................................................................................... 7 Description of the Learners ......................................................................................................... 8 Task Analysis Flowchart ............................................................................................................. 8 Part 3 – Planning ............................................................................................................................. 9 Learning Objectives .................................................................................................................... 9 Objectives Matrix ........................................................................................................................ 9 ARCS Chart............................................................................................................................... 11 Part 4 – Instructor Guide ............................................................................................................... 13 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 13 Body .......................................................................................................................................... 14 Conclusion................................................................................................................................. 16 Part 5 – Learner Content ............................................................................................................... 17 Learning Materials .................................................................................................................... 17 Assessment Materials ................................................................................................................ 17 Technology Tool Justification ................................................................................................... 17 Part 6 – Formative Evaluation Plan .............................................................................................. 18 Expert Review ........................................................................................................................... 18 One-to-One Evaluation ............................................................................................................. 18 Small Group Evaluation ............................................................................................................ 18 Field Trial .................................................................................................................................. 19 2

Part 7 – Formative Evaluation Report .......................................................................................... 20 Evaluation Survey ..................................................................................................................... 20 Expert Reviewer Report ............................................................................................................ 20 Response to Review .................................................................................................................. 21 Part 8 – AECT Standards Grid...................................................................................................... 22 Professional Standards Addressed (AECT) .............................................................................. 22 Course Goals & Objectives ....................................................................................................... 23 AECT Standards (Applicable to EDTECH 503)....................................................................... 25 Appendix ....................................................................................................................................... 28 Appendix A ............................................................................................................................... 29 Needs Survey ........................................................................................................................ 29 Appendix B ............................................................................................................................... 31 Needs Assessment Data ........................................................................................................ 31 Appendix C ............................................................................................................................... 36 Student Worksheet ................................................................................................................ 36 Appendix D ............................................................................................................................... 38 Math Anxiety Plan ................................................................................................................ 38 Appendix E................................................................................................................................ 39 References ............................................................................................................................. 39

3

**Synthesis Reflection Paper
**

Instructional design (ID) is a road. Like a road, instructional design is a tool to use to get from your starting point to your destination. Continuing this metaphor, in instructional design, you know where you are starting from, and you know what the end will be, but in order to get to your destination, following a prescribed route is the most efficient method. This route is one of the instructional design models. Just like the variety in directions to a location, there are a variety of models an instructional designer can follow and still reach the destination. Throughout this course, I have learned many things about the instructional design process. First, that instructional design is a process that is used to improve instruction (Smith & Ragan, 2005, p. 8). ID isn’t just a process to create a lesson, unit, course, or curriculum, but it is also the process (tool) used to revise and improve the instruction. Another thing that stood out to me this semester, was that although not formally trained in instructional design, I (and most of the class) were using most of the major elements in the designing of our instruction. The formal instructional design process gives us a way to communicate (using a standard language) our design steps to another instructor or designer. One of the main points that has challenged my traditional thinking was how we think about student motivation. During our design project, we needed to look at student motivation throughout the lesson. We needed to see what was going to get the students attention at the beginning of the lesson (fairly common practice in basic education courses), but then we needed to look at how we would keep the students attention/motivation through parts of the lesson, and re-motivate the students if they lost motivation. As an instructional designer and adjunct instructor, learning about the design process will greatly relate to my current work. As new curriculums and lessons are designed, there are many additional facts about the learners that need to be considered prior to creating the instructional plan (and that plan must be based on your researched facts). I will encourage this type of research, planning, and then reflection when dealing with staff members in each of our new projects.

Smith, P. L., & Ragan, T. J. (2005). Instructional design. (3 ed., pp. 8). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

4

Part 1 – Topic

Learning Goal

During a one and one half hour workshop students will develop two strategies to cope with math anxiety.

Audience Description

The audience will consist of college students who are currently enrolled in a developmental mathematics course and receiving tutoring services.

Rationale

Students who are enrolled in developmental math courses at the post-secondary level have a very low success rate (both at passing required math courses and receiving a degree). Often students who are placed in developmental math courses have had previous “bad” experiences with mathematics or mathematics courses and (because of those experiences) have developed anxiety related to mathematics and testing. The overall strategy used in this project will be supplantive. This strategy was chosen because of the students being in a high-anxiety situation and a limited workshop time. By using a high level of scaffolding in this workshop, the students will be more prepared to apply the knowledge learned in the short workshop. The major instructional strategy that will be used in this project is attitude. The major goal of this project is to develop math anxiety coping strategies. By learning and applying these strategies, the student’s attitude will change, reducing the amount of anxiety and increasing their confidence and learning. There will be no learning related to math content in this workshop. Only learning related to how students approach math.

5

**Part 2 – Assessment Report
**

Needs Analysis Survey

A paper and pencil survey was administered to 10 students in the Mathematics Tutoring Lab at Allegany College of Maryland. These students were currently enrolled in a developmental mathematics course and were receiving tutoring services for their math course. The survey included questions adapted from “Composite Math Anxiety Questions” and “The Math Autobiography” (Tobias, 1993). See Appendix A for the survey tool used.

**Needs Analysis Data Reporting
**

When looking at the thoughts and attitudes of developmental mathematics students receiving tutoring services, some patterns emerged when looking at some specific questions. Greater than 50% of the respondents indicated that math has always been their worst subject which would indicate a rationale for the students being placed in a developmental math course. However, 70% of the students indicated that they will need math for their future career and that math can help them make a living. 50% of respondents indicated that mathematics is a subject that they will constantly use.

I don't think I could do advanced mathematics.

Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

There were a wide range of responses on the open response questions. Some respondents indicated that math made them feel stupid or uneducated, while other respondents indicated that math made them feel smart or like meditation. Another case of a wide range of responses was a 6

question of previous math courses. Some students had previously completed a college algebra course while others had only completed high school statistics or geometry. The variety of answers in this section reflects the wide range of student ages, skills, and abilities in developmental mathematics courses. For a complete listing of all the results and statistics from the survey see Appendix B.

**Learning Context Description
**

Allegany College of Maryland is a rural community college with an average full time enrollment (FTE) of approximately 3,000 students. The mathematics department consists of 6 full time faculty members and approximately 8 adjunct faculty members (depending on semester). The mathematics department is in charge of administering 3 developmental level math courses in addition to the college level math courses. Placement into these developmental courses is accomplished by the “Accuplacer” placement test which is administered to all incoming students. These development math courses consist of Pre-Algebra (MATH 83), Beginning Algebra (MATH 90), and Intermediate Algebra (MATH 93). All are 3 credit courses. The college currently has no curriculum for math anxiety workshops. However; the college does operate a math tutoring lab and a math peer tutor program which is overseen by the Student Success Center (SSC). The workshop will be held in one of the classrooms with desks or tables arranged in a circle so everyone can discuss easily. There will also be a limit of 10 participants to the workshop to facilitate one-to-one interaction with all of the participants. A chalkboard, SMART board, or an easel and pad will be available for the participants to record ideas to share with the larger group. Writing utensils, worksheets, and blank paper will also be needed as some students at this level are often unprepared. The instructor for this workshop will be required to be comfortable and knowledgeable about mathematics. The instructor will also need a moderate knowledge of educational psychology and knowledge of the college’s developmental mathematics curriculum.

**Transfer Context Description
**

The transfer context will be a variety of locations including: the classroom, the testing lab, and anywhere the student studies. The student will be able to use the knowledge learned in this workshop for all of his/her remaining developmental mathematics courses, any additional required college level mathematics courses, and any program specific courses that require mathematics knowledge and computation (for example all of our nursing courses require medication calculation math exams as part of the course).

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**Description of the Learners
**

The learners will be students who have been placed into one of the three developmental mathematics courses and who are receiving tutoring services. The learners will be of varying ages with the youngest potential students being 16 years old. The majority of students that responded to the survey indicated that math has always been their worst subject, which is one reason for their fear and anxiety toward the subject.

**Math has always been my worst subject.
**

Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

All of the learners will have taken some math courses in the past. Some have had previous developmental college courses while some will only have had high school math courses. All of the learners are receiving math tutoring services. This means they have already put extra effort in improving their math knowledge and skills. These students will also have elected to participate in this workshop so they will be self-identified as having math anxiety and are looking for strategies to assist them with their mathematics coursework.

Task Analysis Flowchart

8

Part 3 – Planning

Learning Objectives

1. List 6 reasons students develop a fear of math 2. Evaluate personal math anxiety 3. Given a diagram, explain the “Math Anxiety Process” 4. Compare what "good" math students do differently 5. Explain positive self-talk and how it can be used to reduce anxiety 6. Describe how asking questions can increase your confidence while working on math 7. List 3 myths about learning math 8. Describe how facing and acknowledging anxiety helps overcome it 9. Analyze various anxiety coping strategies 10. Given a template, construct a personal plan on overcoming your math anxiety

Objectives Matrix

Learning Objectives Bloom’s Taxonomy Classification Knowledge Format of Assessment Description of Test Form Sample Items

1

Paper and Pencil

Short Answer

List reasons students develop a fear of math Give examples of math anxiety you experience, your current coping strategies, and your success with those strategies Explain the steps in the “Math Anxiety Process”

2

Evaluation

Performance

Essay

3

Comprehension

Paper and Pencil

Short Answer

9

4

Analysis

Paper and Pencil

Short Answer

List the differences of what you observe “good” math students doing that you are not doing Explain positive selftalk and how it can be used to reduce anxiety Describe how asking questions can increase your confidence while working on math List myths about learning math How does facing your anxiety help you overcome it? Pick 2 coping strategies and show how you could use them in your current math course

5

Comprehension

Paper and Pencil

Short Answer

6

Comprehension

Paper and Pencil

Short Answer

7

Knowledge

Paper and Pencil

Short Answer

8

Comprehension

Paper and Pencil

Short Answer

9

Analysis

Paper and Pencil

Short Answer

10

10

Synthesis

Performance

Observation with checklist

Construct a personal plan on overcoming your math anxiety

ARCS Chart

Attention A.1 – Perceptual Arousal A.2 – Inquiry Arousal A.3 – Variability The instructor will discuss the meaning of math anxiety and how this anxiety effects many students The students will break into groups and discuss how each group member feels about math Throughout the workshop, the instructor will use examples about math anxiety coping skills that directly relate to the feelings that each group shared with the larger group

Relevance R.1 – Goal Orientation R.2 – Motive Matching R.3 – Familiarity At the beginning of the workshop, the instructor will share the expectations and objectives of the workshop The students will choose which coping strategies will work best for their situation, and create a personal plan for using those strategies The instructor will use what the students have already experienced in past math courses when discussing anxiety coping strategies

Confidence C.1 – Learning Requirements C.2 – Success Opportunities C.3 – Personal Control The instructor will share step-by-step examples of how to use multiple anxiety coping strategies The students will receive feedback on their anxiety and potential coping strategies by the instructor and their small group members At the end of the workshop, the students will use their newly acquired knowledge to construct a personal plan to assist them in coping with math anxiety

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Satisfaction S.1 – Natural Consequences S.2 – Positive Consequences S.3 – Equity The students will be able to apply their newly acquired coping skills at the next meeting of their developmental math course Decreased anxiety in math courses and increased math grades will provide positive reinforcement of the math anxiety coping skills Students who have completed the workshop and effectively use coping skills will be asked to mentor students in the next anxiety workshop

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**Part 4 – Instructor Guide
**

Introduction

This workshop will be taught in a single 1.5 hour session. It is best to limit the workshop to 10 people and use a room that can be configured with groups of desks or separate tables for small group discussions. Gain Attention The instructor will begin by asking students how they feel about math and their previous math classes. The instructor may need to ask mare leading questions including … How do you feel when the instructor is teaching a new math concept? How do you feel when you are home alone working on math homework? How do you feel when you are preparing to take a math test? The instructor will need to take the time to listen to each of the answers provided and document them on the chalkboard or pad and easel. Establish Purpose Inform the students that through this workshop they will learn several things they can do to help them cope with their feelings and anxieties about math. They may not need or use every strategy, but they will be about to pick the one(s) that work best for their situation and create a plan to cope with their math anxiety. Arouse Interest The students for this workshop have chosen to participate in the workshop and will be in a group that has been identified as having math anxiety (in a developmental math course and receiving tutoring services). In this, they have already demonstrated interest in this topic. To peak their interest, use some of the examples of feelings the students have already shared. (For example, if a student stated that their heart races, they start to sweat, and their mind goes blank when they have a math test, you may say … How would you like to be able to reduce or control your anxiety by calming yourself down so you could record on the test what you have learned?) Provide Overview The instructor should provide a brief overview of the topics the workshop will cover including: Where math anxiety comes from, thinking about how we think, talking about math, and myths about learning math.

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Body

Prior Knowledge Have the students break into small groups and answer the following questions. When did I start disliking (or feeling anxious about) math? What caused me to start disliking (or feeling anxious about) math? What do “good students” do in math class that I don’t do? Have them record their answers on the worksheet (worksheet attached in appendix). Present Information For the information presentation, use the examples from the students’ as you are presenting each topic. 1. Forgetting the past: myths about learning math a. Read the following statements to students and have them state if they are true or false. i. Males are better at math than females because males are more analytical. ii. Math is logical, not creative. iii. There is a best way to do every math problem iv. The most important thing in math is to get the answer correct. v. It’s bad to count on your fingers. vi. Real mathematicians do math quickly in their heads. vii. Some people just “get math” and some don’t. viii. Math is done by working intently until the problem is solved.

All of those statements are FALSE! … The instructor should briefly explain why all of the statements are false. If unsure, consult Mind over Math, full citation provided in appendix (Kogelman & Warren, 1978). 2. Talking about math a. The instructor will ask the students if they talk to their instructors, friends, or family about math. One key to learning math and overcoming anxieties is to talk about math. Not simply “I don’t like math”, but about the content. The best math students are the ones who ask questions! Not only in class, but after class. These students ask instructors, friends, family, and even tutor questions about math. When you ask a question, you get an answer! Learning and doing math is all about confidence, the more you talk about and discuss it, the more confident you will become. 3. Thinking about thinking a. Panicking during tests or homework The instructor will discuss one strategy suggested by Mind over Math (Kogelman & Warren, 1978) is to allow panic time. If you typically panic during a math test, schedule panic time. The 14

author of the text mentions that he always scheduled 5 minutes of panic time at the beginning of a test. For the first five minutes of the test he let his thoughts wander wherever, then, after five minutes, he would begin to take the test. This strategy allowed him to relax some before taking the test. i. Another strategy is (near the end of the panic time) to take a few deep abdominal breaths to increase oxygen to the body and allow the muscles to relax. b. Positive self-talk i. The instructor will ask the students, do you find yourself having conversations with yourself while you are doing math? Do most of the conversations have statements like: “I never could do math”, “I hate math”, “I’m stupid”, or “Everyone else knows how to do this but me”. ii. One strategy to overcome this is to use positive self-talk or positive reversal statements. This is accomplished by identifying what negative junk you are saying to yourself (usually best done by writing it down) and then positively reversing the statements. For example instead of saying “I feel overwhelmed”, you can say “I can do this one step at a time”. Another strategy to stop negative self-talk to yell STOP in your mind and then say calm. If you do this, it will give your mind a chance to get a short break from the negative junk and help you regulate your self-talk. (Arem, 1993) Practice The instructor will give the students a few minutes to write down strategies that they may use and questions that they may have about those (or any additional) strategies. The students will then take these strategies and create a plan to cope with math anxiety. Provide Feedback The instructor will briefly review the plans as he/she roams around the room. Students should also be receiving feedback from others in their small group.

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Conclusion

Summarize and Review The instructor will briefly summarize the coping strategies discussed in the workshop. Provide Remediation and Closure The instructor will once again answer questions from the workshop students. The instructor will advise the students to put a copy of their plans in their math book to remind them of these strategies in class and when working on homework. Assess Learning The students will be asked to provide the instructor and their tutor with a final copy of their coping plan. (The tutor will assist them in being accountable to their plan) Feedback and Remediation The instructor will review all of the plans and offer (with comments) positive feedback about each plan. The instructor will also offer additional suggestions for the student to include in their plan. For remediation, the instructor will include information about additional workshops when returning plans to students.

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**Part 5 – Learner Content
**

Learning Materials

The learning material for this workshop is a single student worksheet. This worksheet is intended for the students to fill out ideas and questions during the discussions. Ideas from this worksheet will then be used to complete the math anxiety plan. This worksheet is available in Appendix C.

Assessment Materials

The math anxiety plan will be used as the assessment of this workshop. The instructor will receive a copy of this plan at the end of the workshop and then return it to the student with comments and suggestions. It is also suggested that the instructor conduct short interviews with the students at the end of the semester to further assess the effectiveness of the workshop. The Math Anxiety Plan Template is available in Appendix D.

**Technology Tool Justification
**

There are no technology tools required for this workshop.

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**Part 6 – Formative Evaluation Plan
**

Expert Review

Mrs. Shirley Wilson a staff member from Allegany College of Maryland’s Student Success Center will serve as my subject matter expert. As part of Mrs. Wilson’s position, she oversees all tutors and tutoring labs (including math tutors and the math tutoring lab). Mrs. Wilson is also in charge of meeting with students and selecting one-to-one tutors with those meeting the qualifications. The materials were delivered to Mrs. Wilson on July 19, 2012. The review was complete on July 26, 2012.

**One-to-One Evaluation
**

The one-to-one evaluation will be completed by selecting three students from the applicable group to volunteer to evaluate the material. I will then lead the workshop to these three students. In this phase, the following questions will be answered. Do the students understand the directions for the activities and the group discussions? Are the students able to complete the personal plan with limited additional instructions? Do the students feel the presented information will assist them in their math classes?

**Small Group Evaluation
**

The small group evaluation will be completed by selecting a developmental mathematics instructor or appropriate student success personnel conduct the workshop with three (different) selected students from a group that matches the workshop description. During the small group evaluation, the following questions will be answered. Is the instructor able to effectively follow the instructor's guide? Do the changes made after the one-to-one evaluations have the desired effect? Is the workshop too short/long for the 1.5 hr. timeframe? Is the content on a level the students could understand and use? Do the students already possess the information presented? Do the students feel the knowledge gained was valuable and useable?

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Field Trial

In the context of the field trial, the instructor will be selected from the developmental math faculty or appropriate student success personnel. The instructor will conduct the full workshop including ten students selected from volunteers from a group that matches the workshop description. During the field trial, the following questions will be answered. Do the changes made during the small group evaluation have the desired effect? Is the instructor able to implement the workshop as designed? Did students show up for the workshop? Did the workshop maintain its 1.5 hr timeframe? Did the students feel the instruction was something they could use? Did the instructor feel the students were grasping the coping strategies? What (if any) changes did the instructor make in the content or the way the plan presented material?

19

**Part 7 – Formative Evaluation Report
**

Evaluation Survey

When the project was submitted to the subject matter expert (SME), the following questions were asked. Are the learning objectives clear (please explain)? Is the instructors manual laid out in a clear manner (please explain)? Do you feel the coping strategies presented will assist the students with their math coursework (please explain)? Do you feel there are other strategies that should be included (please explain)? Do you feel the students will be able to complete an effective plan using the worksheet (please explain)?

**Expert Reviewer Report
**

Are the learning objectives clear (please explain)? The learning objectives indicated for this mathematic research project are clear and precise. They take place in an order that a student would come in contact with them. There is no learning objectives listed that would not occur or has not occurred for students. These learning objectives are assessed in a manner that allows students to feel comfortable in taking part in the assessment process. Is the instructors manual laid out in a clear manner (please explain)? The instructor’s manual is definitely designed in a clear manner. Each section is categorized in a fashion that helps the reader understand what function is taking place in each section. Within the statement of elaboration, each category is explained in detail and gives the reader an exact insight to how the operation of the category is going to occur. Do you feel the coping strategies presented will assist the students with their math coursework (please explain)? Talking about math, thinking about thinking, and positive self-talk are great coping strategies for mathematics. The more a student can discuss their math anxiety with their instructor and other students, who are having math anxiety as well, the easier it will be for the student to understand and take control of their own math anxiety. Mind over matter is excellent in coping with situations, especially anxiety. Once the student becomes aware of their negative motivator they will be able to detain what triggered the 20

negativity and turn into a positive motivator. When a person can stop and regroup, the situation is no longer a situation but an activity to be completed. Positive thinking is not only a coping strategy for math anxiety, but is also a self-esteem builder. Do you feel there are other strategies that should be included (please explain)? There are two simple strategies that should be included within this research. One strategy is small study sessions each night. Explain to students the importance of going over the day’s material each night for at least 10 minutes. The review of material and notes should take place 30 minutes to an hour after all assignments are completed. This will give the student a fresh insight to the material and the completed assignment. Another strategy, which can be the most beneficial, is a good night sleep before the exam or major assignments. Once the body is rested and the mind is clear, anxiety can become less prominent Do you feel the students will be able to complete an effective plan using the worksheet (please explain)? By using the provided worksheet, students will be able to complete an effective plan. The worksheet allows students to find their own anxiety trigger. The worksheet contains questions that spark the student to ponder and do a self-evaluation regarding their anxiety about mathematics. Once the student completes their self-evaluation, they are able to find the right coping strategies for them.

Response to Review

Overall the review from the SME validated most of the research that I had completed. In the next revision of this workshop, I will include a section on studying to assist in decreasing anxiety as recommended by the SME.

21

**Part 8 – AECT Standards Grid
**

Professional Standards Addressed (AECT)

The following standards, developed by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT), and used in the accreditation process established by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), are addressed to some degree in this course. The numbers of the standards correspond to the numbers next to the course tasks show on the list of assignments. Not all standards are addressed explicitly through student work.

Assignments meeting standard in whole or part Standard 1: DESIGN 1.1 Instructional Systems Design (ISD) 1.1.1 Analyzing 1.1.2 Designing 1.1.3 Developing 1.1.4 Implementing 1.1.5 Evaluating 1.2 Message Design 1.3 Instructional Strategies 1.4 Learner Characteristics Standard 2: DEVELOPMENT 2.0 (includes 2.0.1 to 2.0.8) 2.1 Print Technologies 2.2 Audiovisual Technologies 2.3 Computer-Based Technologies 2.4 Integrated Technologies Standard 3: UTILIZATION 3.0 (includes 3.0.1 & 3.0.2) 3.1 Media Utilization 3.2 Diffusion of Innovations 3.3 Implementation and Institutionalization 3.4 Policies and Regulations Standard 4: MANAGEMENT 4.0 (includes 4.0.1 & 4.0.3) 4.1 Project Management 4.2 Resource Management 4.3 Delivery System Management 4.4 Information Management Standard 5: EVALUATION 5.1 Problem Analysis 5.2 Criterion-Referenced Measurement 5.3 Formative and Summative Evaluation 5.4 Long-Range Planning X X X X X X X X ID Project ID Project ID Project ID Project ID Project Selected Discussion Forums; ID Project ID Project ID Project

X X X

ID Project Reading Quiz; ID Projects (all assignments)

X

(all assignments) ID Project

X

X X X

ID Project ID Project

22

**Course Goals & Objectives
**

The overall goal for the course is for each student to consider and use the systematic process of instructional design to create an instructional product. To achieve this goal, students will engage in activities that promote reflective practice, emphasize realistic contexts, and employ a number of communications technologies. Following the course, students will be able to: 1. Discuss the historical development of the practice of instructional design with regard to factors that led to its development and the rationale for its use 2. Describe at least two reasons why instructional design models are useful 3. Identify at least six instructional design models and classify them according to their use 4. Compare and contrast the major elements of three theories of learning as they relate to instructional design 5. Define “instructional design.” 6. Define the word “systematic” as it relates to instructional design 7. Define “learning” and synthesize its definition with the practice of instructional design 8. Relate the design of instruction to the term “educational (or “instructional”) technology” 9. Describe the major components of the instructional design process and the functions of models in the design process 10. Provide a succinct summary of various learning contexts (declarative knowledge, conceptual, declarative, principle, problem-solving, cognitive, attitudinal, and psychomotor) 11. Build an instructional design product that integrates major aspects of the systematic process and make this available on the web. a. Describe the rationale for and processes associated with needs, learner, context, goal, and task analyses i. ii. Create and conduct various aspects of a front-end analysis Identify methods and materials for communicating subject matter that are contextually relevant

23

b. Describe the rationale for and processes associated with creating design documents (objectives, motivation, etc.) i. ii. iii. Construct clear instructional goals and objectives Develop a motivational design for a specific instructional task Develop assessments that accurately measure performance objectives

c. Select and implement instructional strategies for selected learning tasks i. Select appropriate media tools that support instructional design decisions

d. Describe the rationale and processes associated with the formative evaluation of instructional products i. Create a plan for formative evaluation

12. Identify and use technology resources to enable and empower learners with diverse backgrounds, characteristics, and abilities. 13. Apply state and national content standards to the development of instructional products 14. Meet selected professional standards developed by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology 15. Use various technological tools for instructional and professional communication

24

**AECT Standards (Applicable to EDTECH 503)
**

1.0 Design

1.1 Instructional Systems Design 1.1.a Utilize and implement design principles which specify optimal conditions for learning. 1.1.b Identify a variety of instructional systems design models and apply at least one model. 1.1.1 Analyzing 1.1.1.a Write appropriate objectives for specific content and outcome levels. 1.1.1.b Analyze instructional tasks, content, and context. 1.1.2 Designing 1.1.2.a Create a plan for a topic of a content area (e.g., a thematic unit, a text chapter, an interdisciplinary unit) to demonstrate application of the principles of macro-level design. 1.1.2.b Create instructional plans (micro-level design) that address the needs of all learners, including appropriate accommodations for learners with special needs. 1.1.2.d Incorporate contemporary instructional technology processes in the development of interactive lessons that promote student learning. 1.1.3 Developing 1.1.3.a Produce instructional materials which require the use of multiple media (e.g., computers, video, projection). 1.1.3.b Demonstrate personal skill development with at least one: computer authoring application, video tool, or electronic communication application. 1.1.4 Implementing 1.1.4.a Use instructional plans and materials which they have produced in contextualized instructional settings (e.g., practica, field experiences, training) that address the needs of all learners, including appropriate accommodations for learners with special needs. 1.1.5 Evaluating 1.1.5.a Utilize a variety of assessment measures to determine the adequacy of learning and instruction. 1.1.5.b Demonstrate the use of formative and summative evaluation within practice and contextualized field experiences. 1.1.5.c Demonstrate congruency among goals/objectives, instructional strategies, and assessment measures. 1.3 Instructional Strategies 1.3.a Select instructional strategies appropriate for a variety of learner characteristics and learning situations. 1.3.b Identify at least one instructional model and demonstrate appropriate contextualized application within practice and field experiences. 1.3.c Analyze their selection of instructional strategies and/or models as influenced by the learning situation, nature of the specific content, and type of learner objective. 1.3.d Select motivational strategies appropriate for the target learners, task, and learning situation. 1.4 Learner Characteristics 1.4.a Identify a broad range of observed and hypothetical learner characteristics for their particular area(s) of preparation.

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1.4.b Describe and/or document specific learner characteristics which influence the selection of instructional strategies. 1.4.c Describe and/or document specific learner characteristics which influence the implementation of instructional strategies.

2.0 Development

2.0.1 Select appropriate media to produce effective learning environments using technology resources. 2.0.2 Use appropriate analog and digital productivity tools to develop instructional and professional products. 2.0.3 Apply instructional design principles to select appropriate technological tools for the development of instructional and professional products. 2.0.4 Apply appropriate learning and psychological theories to the selection of appropriate technological tools and to the development of instructional and professional products. 2.0.5 Apply appropriate evaluation strategies and techniques for assessing effectiveness of instructional and professional products. 2.0.6 Use the results of evaluation methods and techniques to revise and update instructional and professional products. 2.0.7 Contribute to a professional portfolio by developing and selecting a variety of productions for inclusion in the portfolio. 2.1 Print Technologies 2.1.3 Use presentation application software to produce presentations and supplementary materials for instructional and professional purposes. 2.1.4 Produce instructional and professional products using various aspects of integrated application programs. 2.3 Computer-Based Technologies 2.3.2 Design, produce, and use digital information with computer-based technologies.

3.0 Utilization

3.1 Media Utilization 3.1.1 Identify key factors in selecting and using technologies appropriate for learning situations specified in the instructional design process. 3.1.2 Use educational communications and instructional technology (SMETS) resources in a variety of learning contexts. 3.3 Implementation and Institutionalization 3.3.1 Use appropriate instructional materials and strategies in various learning contexts. 3.3.2 Identify and apply techniques for integrating SMETS innovations in various learning contexts. 3.3.3 Identify strategies to maintain use after initial adoption.

4.0 Management

(none specifically addressed in 503)

26

5.0 Evaluation

5.1 Problem Analysis 5.1.1 Identify and apply problem analysis skills in appropriate school media and educational technology (SMET) contexts (e.g., conduct needs assessments, identify and define problems, identify constraints, identify resources, define learner characteristics, define goals and objectives in instructional systems design, media development and utilization, program management, and evaluation). 5.2 Criterion-referenced Measurement 5.2.1 Develop and apply criterion-referenced measures in a variety of SMET contexts. 5.3 Formative and Summative Evaluation 5.3.1 Develop and apply formative and summative evaluation strategies in a variety of SMET contexts.

SMET = School Media & Educational Technologies

27

Appendix

28

Appendix A

Needs Survey

The survey below is anonymous. Please answer the questions below truthfully and to the best of your ability. The results of the survey will be used to determine the need for instruction on math anxiety in the developmental mathematics student.

**Composite Math Anxiety Questions*
**

For each statement below, mark a number 1-5 which indicates you strongly agree (1) or strongly disagree (5) I am usually at ease in math class. Mathematics is a subject I will rarely use. I’m no good at math. I need mathematics for my future career I am happy when I get good grades in math I don’t think I could do advanced mathematics My mind goes blank and I am unable to think clearly when working on math. Knowing math will help me earn a living. Math has always been my worst subject. Math doesn’t scare me at all. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

Additional Questions*

Finish the following sentences below. You may use the back of this form if you need additional space. The last math class I took was …

My favorite math teacher was _______________ because he/she …

To improve my math performance I could …

29

When I make a mistake on a math problem I …

One thing I like about math is …

Doing math makes me feel …

*Composite Math Anxiety Questions adapted from the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scale. Additional Questions were adapted from "The Math Autobiography" - Tobias, Sheila. (1993.). Overcoming math anxiety. New York : W.W. Norton. You may use the space below for any additional comments

30

Appendix B

Needs Assessment Data These questions and responses are from the “Composite Math Anxiety Questions”. These questions were answered using a liker scale with 1 representing strongly agree and 5 representing strongly disagree. 1. I am usually at ease in math class. Of the survey recipients 10% Agreed, 50% responded Neutral, 20% Disagreed, and 20% Strongly Disagreed. Statistics of responses Mean: 3.5: Median: 3; Mode 3 2. Mathematics is a subject I will rarely use. Of the survey recipients 20% responded Neutral, 30% Disagreed, and 50% Strongly Disagreed. Statistics of responses Mean: 4.3; Median: 4.5; Mode: 5 3. I’m no good at math. Of the survey recipients 10% Strongly Agreed, 10% Agreed, 40% responded Neutral, 20% Disagreed, and 20% Strongly Disagreed. Statistics of responses Mean: 3.3; Median: 3; Mode 3 4. I need mathematics for my future career. Of the survey recipients 70% Strongly Agreed, and 30% responded Neutral. Statistics of responses Mean: 1.6; Median: 1; Mode 1 5. I am happy when I get good grades in math. Of the survey recipients 100% Strongly Agreed. Statistics of responses Mean: 1; Median: 1; Mode 1 6. I don’t think I could do advanced mathematics. Of the survey recipients 30% Strongly Agreed, 10% Agreed, 30% responded Neutral, and 30% Disagreed. Statistics of responses Mean: 2.6; Median: 3; Mode 1, 3, 4

31

I don't think I could do advanced mathematics.

Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

7. My mind goes blank and I am unable to think clearly when working on math. Of the survey recipients 10% Strongly Agreed, 30% Agreed, 20% responded Neutral, 30% Disagreed, and 10% Strongly Disagreed. Statistics of responses Mean: 3; Median: 3; Mode: 2, 4 8. Knowing math will help me earn a living. Of the survey recipients 70% Strongly Agreed, 20% responded Neutral, and 10% Disagreed. Statistics of responses Mean: 1.7; Median: 1; Mode: 1 9. Math has always been my worst subject. Of the survey recipients 70% Strongly Agreed, 10% responded Neutral, and 20% Strongly Disagreed. Statistics of responses Mean: 2; Median: 1; Mode 1

32

Math has always been my worst subject.

Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

10. Math doesn’t scare me at all. Of the survey recipients 10% Agreed, 40% responded Neutral, 20% Disagreed, and 30% Strongly Disagreed. Statistics of responses Mean: 3.7; Median: 3.5; Mode: 3 The following questions were open response. Not all of the questions were answered by every participant. The responses are the words of the respondents. 11. The last math class I took was … College Algebra Pre-Algebra College Algebra Pre-Algebra Intermediate Algebra Probability and Statistics College Algebra Geometry 12. My favorite teacher … Was Very Structured Was very patient with all students and took the time to answer questions Used examples and explained things well Was fun to listen to Helps me understand better 33

Explains things very well and is always willing to help Listened to my problems 13. To improve my math performance I could … Practice, Practice, Practice Spend more time with a tutor Get a teacher that would explain it better Take more math classes Study more Continue to come to the math tutoring lab Get a tutor Review flash cards Practice more Study more 14. When I make a mistake on a math problem I … Panic and get myself confused Blank Try again and/or ask for help Get disappointed because I want to know how to solve the problem Redo it and study from it Erase it and do a different problem, then come back to it Don’t want to do it anymore Like to go back and see where I went wrong I correct it and practice the correct way to do the math problem 15. One thing I like about math is … It is great for brain health, especially for older people Learning something new all the time Doing the calculations Numbers Nothing Solving Knowing the answer How it makes me use my mind. I feel very accomplished after solving a difficult problem. 16. Doing math makes me feel … Good Stupid 34

Smart (when I get it) Uneducated (because I can’t figure it out) Very good Anxious! Stupid Very good! Focused and calm, like doing meditation

35

Appendix C

Student Worksheet Name:__________________________________

Use this worksheet to record your answers during the group discussion and to take notes during the workshop,

When did I start disliking (or feeling anxious about) math?

What caused me to start disliking (or feeling anxious about) math?

What do “good students” do in math class that I don’t do?

36

Anxiety Coping Techniques

What strategies fit with my situation? What questions do I have?

37

Appendix D

Math Anxiety Plan Math Anxiety Plan – Name:________________________________________ Create your plan using at least 3 statements in the following format. You will need to sign your name at the bottom of the page to show your commitment to following your plan. When I feel …. I will … (Example: When I feel panic when taking a math test, I will give myself 5 minutes of panic time before I clear my head and begin the test.)

38

Appendix E

References Arem, C. (1993). Conquering Math Anxiety: A Self-Help Workbook. Belmont: Wadsworth. Kogelman, S., & Warren, J. (1978). Mind Over Math. New York: McGraw-Hill. Smith, P., & Ragan, T. (2005). Instructional Design. Hoboken: Wiley. Tobias, S. (1993). Overcoming Math Anxiety. New York: W. W. Norton.

39

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