IRENA COLI] BARI] et al.: Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Adolescents, Food technol. biotechnol.

38 (3) 217–224 (2000)

217

UDC 614.31:613.2 ISSN 1330–9862 (FTB–1028)

original scientific paper

Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Adolescents
Irena Coli} Bari}1*, Romana Kajfe`1 and Selma Cvijeti}2
1

Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Nutrition, Pierottijeva 6, HR-10001 Zagreb, Croatia
2

Institute of Medical Research and Occupational Health, Centre of Osteoporosis, Ki{pati}eva 12, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia Received: March 3, 2000 Accepted: May 17, 2000

Summary A person selects foods for a variety of reasons. Whatever those reasons may be, food choice influences human health. The most vulnerable populations are teenagers and adolescents who make many food choices for themselves. The aim of the study was to assess the quality of adolescents daily diet and some nutritional habits (number of meals, frequency of consuming foods) using Food Frequency Questionnaire designed for this purpose as well as additional questions on habits (smoking and alcohol consumption). The sample included 233 adolescents aged from 15 to 17 years. Few different tables, as well as one containing chemical contents of local dishes, were used to determine the quantity of energy, proteins, total fats, carbohydrates, fatty acids, cholesterol and alcohol intake. Body mass index (BMI), centiles of weight vs. height, and body fat composition, were taken into consideration. The differences between sexes were analysed using statistical F-test and a correlation between the anthropometric and dietetic data (correlation coefficients) were calculated. With respect to the average daily food intake, the results showed that adolescents consume higher levels of total and saturated fats and cholesterol, and lower levels of carbohydrates. They were also deficient in their consumption of vegetables and fruits, while an excessive amount of sweets and soft bevarages was also consumed. According to BMI 82 % of adolescents were nourished well, while body fat was higher in comparison to referent values. The differences between the sexes were found with regard to the mean quantity of food intakes (meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, vegetables, fruits), energy distribution, consumed alcohol, smoking habit, body fat, as well as in the number of over- and undernourished adolescents. Nutrition education and continuous studing of adolescent daily diet should be continued in order to improve the nutritional habits of adolescents. Key words: nutrition, nutrition habits, nutritional status, adolescent

Introduction
The quality of nutritive intake influences the growth and development of the organism, as well as the nutritive and health status. Therefore, it is important that nutrition is adequately adjusted to the needs of the organism. Children and adolescent populations are very sensitive to inadequate nutrition (1). Teenagers make many more choices for themselves than they did as children. At the same time, social pressure thrusts choice at them (2). The consequences of these choices will influence their nutritional health both today and throughout life (3).

* Corresponding author; Tel.: ++ 385 (0)1 4605 093; Fax: ++ 385 (0)1 4836 083; E-mail: icolic@mapbf.pbf.hr

monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. except during pregnancy and lactation. The principals of the high schools approved the study protocol. Fig. Calibrated calliper is used to measure skin fold thickness on the back of the arm (over the triceps muscle) and below the shoulder blade (subscapular). glasses) and food models in natural size. Observed intakes were compared to recommended daily allowance (RDA) according to age and sex (7. Low energy intake among the girls is common and is connected to the extreme ideas of slimness (14.20 MJ was observed in 76 % of girls (Table 2). or about 15 % of total food energy (13). Body mass index (BMI) as a standard was calculated from height and weight (1).g. The energy need of adolescents varies greatly. The weight-for-height ratio is in 37 % of girls at lower centiles than the 50th (Table 8). It is useful only if the energy intake is within reasonable limits. Weight was determined using a weighing scale (range: 5–150 kg). When a typical or natural portion size was uncertain.30 g/cm and girls 0. The influence of sex was also taken into account. etc. piece. 1. hydrates and alcohol content (Table 1). cholesterol. as percentage of energy. Average energy intake for the boys according to body weight was not in accordance with recommendation (188 kJ/kg). portion size was declared as small. Measurements were made in the morning with subjects wearing only underwear and without shoes. the male and female adolescents take more energy than they need with respect to age and sex (Tables 1 and 2. Height was measured using a manual stadiometar (range: 60–200 cm). Statistical significance of the difference in the protein intakes as percentage of energy between sexes was observed (Table 1).). Methods The studied subject was a group of 233 high school adolescents (34 % males. The proteins are the major nutrient needed for healthy growth and development of adolescents. total carbo- . as well as their energetic and nutritional values. cups. Judging the protein intake.01) according to mean protein intake was observed with respect to sex.11). without a specific number of grams is always risky.28 g/cm of proteins.218 IRENA COLI] BARI] et al. Significantly lower (p<0. 1). which is contrary to recommendation of health authorities (Tables 4 and 5) who recommend that more fish should be consumed because of omega-3-fatty acids presence (16).: Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Adolescents. biotechnol. Daily energy intake of less than 9.7). while the girls complied with this recommendation (167 kJ/kg) (Table 1) (1. The portion sizes used in the FFQ were based on typical or natural portion consumed (e. The table containing chemical contents of typical local dishes. was also used to make as precise determination of consumed food quality as possible (6). cup.01) intakes of energy were observed in females than males (Table 1). Dietetic study The monitoring of food consumed was performed using specially designed semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to assess usual intake over the previous year. proteins. Energy intake per kilogram of body weight was also statistically different with respect to sex.1). The nutritive and energy values of each food eaten were calculated using the composition tables of raw and cooked food (4. The Diet and Health Report advice people to maintain moderate protein intakes which are between the values of RDA and its doubled values (1). The adolescent daily diets maintained 14. body size and physical activity. which was confirmed by this study (Table 1). total fats. Results and Discussion The obtained data were qualitatively evaluated for energy. Mean energy and protein values of adolescent daily meal according to sex Anthropometric study Weight and height were taken following the standards of the World Health Organisation (WHO) (9). but at the same time fish was very poorly represented and red meat was too high in adolescent daily diet. Linear correlation coefficients were calculated for different dietetic data (12). Statistically significant difference (p<0. depending on the current rate of growth. To determine the weight of consumed food predefined measures for all foods were provided. The survey is performed in the form of personal interviews. The statistical analysis Where the results were distributed homogeneously. Boys need 0.5). Energy and nutrient needs are greater during adulthood than at any other time of life. although in both groups intake was almost twice as much as RDA (Tables 1 and 2. Adolescent females generally take less energy than males (13). slice.15). 38 (3) 217–224 (2000) The aim of this study was to establish the nutrient intake and food habits of adolescents (15–17 years) for both sexes. medium or large with help of qualified personnel demonstrating typical dishes (plates. The obtained ratio between animal and vegetable proteins was in accordance to the health advice. Food technol. 8). High protein intake is not correlated to sex.2 % of daily energy from proteins (Table 1). differences between means were established using the F-test (10. adolescent girls boys 0 50 100 % of RDA 150 proteins MJ 200 Fig. According to the semiquantitative food frequency method. 64 % females) between 15 and 17 years of age. but not less than once a month. saturated. Fig.

5 ± 6.5 55.5 ± 1.4 55.5 1.5 ± 1.2 63.6 1.3 16.9 2.2 87. There were differences between sexes in the amount of fats and carbohydrates intake in daily diet.0 ± 107.58 ± 6.3 5.5 Energy fraction of carbohydrates in daily diet/% of RDA < 54.5 ± 2.6 3.2 ± 2.7 2.6 ± 2.9 ± 6.7 18.4 ± 52.7 0.6 35. rice and pasta followed by sweets.1 6.9 348.4 5. Major sources of carbohydrates in adolescent diets are bread.5 30.0 ± 0.80 53.5 > 30.7 12.9 ± 17.60 37.3 2000.2 12.0 ± 0.7 71.1 ± 4.1 1.6 ± 0.9 20. 38 (3) 217–224 (2000) 219 Table 1.5 ± 0.7 ± 19.4 ± 2.5 16.1 57.70 ± 35.1 20.5 ± 5.5 4.7 25. Both sexes consume more fat and less carbohydrates than it is recommended by the Committee on the Diet and Health (Tables 1 and 2) (1).4 ± 45.9 14.6 ± 1. biotechnol.3 70.: Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Adolescents.8 14.9 52.8 ± 0.2 32.9 ± 3.3 36. as percentage of energy.9 59.6 6.8 ± 12.7 182.6 34. With regard to ener- Table 2.8 6.7 ± 145.34 ± 76.6 51.3 32.IRENA COLI] BARI] et al.2 201.2 ± 112.8 ± 2.6 ± 0.5 ± 2.18 MJ)–1 Consumed fats per body weight/g kg–1 Daily consumed saturated fatty acids/g day–1* Energy fraction of saturated fatty acids/%** Daily consumed monosaturated fatty acids/g day–1* Energy fraction of monosaturated fatty acids/%** Daily consumed polyunsaturated fatty acids/g day–1* Energy fraction of polyunsaturated fatty acids/% Daily consumed cholesterol/mg day–1* Daily consumed carbohydrates/g day–1* Energy fraction of carbohydrates/% Consumed carbohydrates in daily diet/g (4.18 MJ)–1 Consumed carbohydrates per body weight/g kg–1 Energy fraction of alcohol in daily diet/%* Significance assessed with F-test: * p < 0.7 ± 6.5 ± 7.4 ± 6.3 22.9 14.5 ± 6.5 15.3 33.7 ± 34.6 11.7 14. Food technol. 2).5 36. cereal.6 Girls 9.05 –1 Boys 13.9 ± 5.2 ± 82.4 27.8 113.8 81.9 5.5 Energy fraction of fats in daily diet/% of RDA < 29.7 61.2 9.8 129.9 52.8 ± 1.2 ± 9.6 34.4 11.8 51.6 5.8 133.2 83.2 120. Contribution of complex carbohydrates was two to three times higher than simple carbohydrates (Table 5).2 ± 9.8 0.0 14.04 ± 2.3 7.5 25.6 4.2 11.9 ± 10. Contribution of energy and macronutrients in daily diet according to recommended dietary allowances (RDA) and dietary standars (% participants) Boys/% Daily consumed energy/MJ day–1 Less than RDA According to RDA More than RDA Consumed proteins as fraction of RDA/% of RDA Less than RDA According to RDA More than RDA Energy fraction of proteins in daily diet/% of RDA <14.4 1079.6 ± 43.7 14.1 25.6 ± 0. have not been assessed between sexes (Table 1).2 Adolescent daily diet was also reach in fat but poor in carbohydrates. Still.9 ± 2.5 31.8 ± 5.2 14.4 ± 2.3 313.3 ± 3.6 39.4 1.5 > 15.5 3. Energy and nutritional values of adolescents daily diet (mean ± SD) Parameters Daily consumed energy value/MJ day * Daily consumed energy per body weight/kJ kg–1day–1 Daily consumed proteins/g day –1 ** Energy fraction of proteins in daily diet/%* Consumed proteins in daily diet/g (4.5 ± 41.7 Adolescents 11.4 Girls/% 76.6 14.6 35.6 ± 1.2 34.2 85.1 Adolescents/% 63.1 ± 2.3 .4 0 93.9 47.2 98.5 > 55.3 ± 6.0 ± 0.18 MJ)–1 Consumed proteins per body height/g cm–1 Daily consumed fats/g day–1* Energy fraction of fats in daily diet/% Consumed fats in daily diet/g (4.9 ± 18.9 1539.3 ± 1.5 6.7 123.2 0.9 33.6 94.1 ± 7. Differences in daily consumption of fat and carbohydrates.8 31. which was not expected according to food frequency list (Table 4).3 5.4 ± 4. Fig.5 169.7 ± 133.0 ± 89.5 38.0 12.6 1.2 0.0 ± 128.4 401.4 ± 8.7 ± 1. sweets as rich source of simple carbohydrates and energy were the greatest source of energy (24 % kJ) in daily diet (Tables 3 and 4.2 ± 6.1 ± 5.8 ± 3.9 23.6 35.7 45.4 ± 6.7 ± 69.6 78.9 6.8 ± 1.01 ** p < 0.

0 ± 10. In terms of energy.4 ± 11. As it was expected.6 ± 12.3 2.6 ± 12.7 0. pasta** Meat.3 ± 24.8 4.9 ± 0. eggs Dairy products Food high on fat Others Carbohydrate sources Bread.6 ± 8.1 3.3 ± 10.6 ± 10.3 6.2 ± 2.9 2.5 ± 10.7 7.3 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 6. rice.7 22. Still.8 4. Food technol. although it would be interesting to assess their contribution in the terms of micro- Table 4.1 34.3 ± 13.5 12.8 ± 18.9 8.9 38.3 ± 3.3 16.220 IRENA COLI] BARI] et al.6 ± 9.9 17. eggs bread. Food frequency lists showed that red meat and poultry were mostly consumed 3–6 times/week.6 0.2 33. rice 0 50 100 150 200 250 girls boys Table 3.4 ± 7.6 ± 12.9 ± 11.3 ± 15.9 Girls 17. polutry.7 ± 9. Sources of macronutrients in adolescent daily diet (%) (mean ±SD) Food Protein sources Red meat Poultry Fish Eggs Milk Others Fat sources Meat.1 ± 16. mostly because of very high intake of the food of animal origin (Tables 1.9 ± 5. pasta Sweets Vegetable and fruit Others Boys 20. fish. Health authorities recommend limiting cholesterol to less than 300 mg/day.9 5.4 Table 5. Ratios of macronutrients and fatty acids with regard to sources and saturation. eggs* Dairy products Vegetable Fruit ** Fats ** Sweets Boys 16.4 ± 0. Contribution of different food groups in adolescent daily diet Significance assessed with F-test: *p<0. respectively.3 33.6 18.9 Adolescents 17.9 14.2 ± 0.7 25.8 20. Contribution of different food groups in adolescent daily diet as daily energy fraction (%) (mean ± SD) Food groups Bread. cereal.8 ± ± ± ± ± ± 9.9 ± 0.9:0. fish.3 7. in adolescent daily diet Sex Proteins Animal Boys Girls 1 1 Vegetable 0.8 ± 11.2 ± 17.3 ± 23.9 15.1 ± 0.8 39.5 0.8 ± 11.6 ± 11.1 6.4 21.1 ± 8.6 3.9 ± 10.7 2.5 26. The ratio of fatty acids should be 1:1:1 (1). the portion of fruits and vegetables consumed is not satisfactory in adolescent daily diet.9 4.4 ± 10.6 2.5 10. Among the adolescents’ studied intake of cholesterol it was found out that cholesterol was three to five times higher than recommended.8 ± 10.7 9.2 16. cereal.1 ± 10.3 24.6 6. rice.7 17.2 2. 38 (3) 217–224 (2000) sweets fruit vegetable fat milk and dairy products meat.3 ± 17.9 12.5 Fraction of recommendation / % Fig.6 5. FDA has authorised two health claims concerning dietary saturated fat and cholesterol (i) risk of coronary heart disease and (ii) dietary fat and cancer development (17).0 4. Significant differences between sexes existed in cholesterol intake (Table 1).9 21.3 19.4 29.7 2.2 Girls 15.7 0.05 getic shares of sweets in the diets statistically significant differences were not observed between boys and girls (Table 3).6 ± 0.4 35.4 Fats Animal 1 1 Vegetable 0.90 10.3 ± 11.6 36.9 ± 11.4 26.9 ± 11. Boys had statistically significant higher SFA and MUFA and lower PUFA content expressed as percentage of energy intake in daily diet than girls (Tables 1).9 PUFA 0.9 ± 11.9 32. Saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids in adolescent daily diet were present in more and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in less than 10 % of daily energy (Table 1).7 ± 1.9 ± 8.9 SFA 1 1 Fatty acids MUFA 0.7 ± 5.219 .2 ± 17.: Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Adolescents. fish.4) in adolescent diet was not satisfying because of animal fats intake was higher than proposed (Tables 4 and 5).9 ± 10.6 ± 2.3 Ratios Carbohydrates Simple 1 1 Complex 2.4 ± 13. eggs 1–2 times/week and milk once a day.7 ± 3.1 7.9 27.0 6.1 3.4 3.7 34.4 ± 11.4 ± 0.9 ± 9. the fatty acids ratio (1:0.8 Adolescents 17.9 8.2 10.4 24.8 ± 2. fruits and vegetables were well present.7 ± 0.0 ± 1.0 ± 8. 4 and 5).1 29.5 2.8 ± 10.2 6.9 36.01 **p<0.3 6. biotechnol.2 ± 17. poultry.3 31. pasta.8 7. 2.9 ± 2. According to FFQ adolescents consumed more often fruits and fruit juice than vegetable.5 3. poultry.9 33.9 10.

About half of the fat in the body lies directly beneath the skin. except the sex. body fat and carbohydrates intake (mostly bread.1 4.5 24.7 % for boys and 50.4 ± 10.9 ± 177.IRENA COLI] BARI] et al.7 11.8 31.9 ± 69. The studied subjects.6 ± 9.2 ± 6. the age of subjects was also very important.7 19. 80 boys and 153 girls.9 for girls (22). Majority of studied boys and girls had appropriate weight (Table Table 7.3 ± 12.8 ± 1.6 ± 0.8 ± 1.0 % for girls) (Table 8). Snacks are rich in energy and are common intake for adolescents regardless of sex and living area (18). Fig.1 28.8 ± 1.7 3.1 30.01) with respect to sex and weight.1 ± 1.8 26.7 ± 8.8 3.9 ± 10. while supper is poorly balanced with snacks dominating (Table 6).6 1.6 ± 7.6 ± 21. while during the adolescent spurt. Difference between sexes existed in the number of under.97 % of daily energy intake (Table 1).2 ± 8.4 ± 11. due to slight difference in body composition.4 ± 21. rice. Alcohol alters nutrient absorption and metabolism.2 6.3 ± 5.9 3. the BMI was in correlation to weight.9 ± 1.0 5.6 25.1 27. differences between sexes become apparent.01 7). biotechnol.9 ± 1.6 6.9 Girls 153 15. Correlation of established dietetic and anthropometric data were also observed (Table 9).2 Girls 2.8 29.7 ± 8.5 ± 6. Arrangement of daily energy intake through the meals is well balanced for breakfast and lunch.9 31. showed significant differences (p<0.9 ± 10. Energy distribution through the adolescent daily meals (mean ± SD) Daily meals Breakfast Consumed energy/MJ Energy fraction in daily diet/% Consumed energy as fraction of recommended dietary allowances/% of RDA Lunch Consumed energy/MJ Energy fraction in daily diet/% Consumed energy as fraction of recommended dietary allowances/% of RDA Supper Consumed energy/MJ Energy fraction in daily diet/% Consumed energy as fraction of recommended dietary allowances/% of RDA Snacks Consumed energy/MJ Energy fraction in daily diet/% ** Consumed energy as fraction of recommended dietary allowances/% of RDA Significance assessed with F-test: **p<0. as body composition varies during life circle.3 28.9 ± 12.7 30.1 13.9 18.and overweight participants (Table 8).2 31.8 ± 8.1 15. body fat and body mass index (BMI) (Table 7).8 ± 6.9 1. With physical maturity and growing independence adolescents are faced with new choices to make.05 Boys 3. so imbalance develops and cigarettes influence hunger.5 ± 0.9 3.5 Significance assessed with F-test: *p < 0.0 ± 12. Fast food and soft drinks are widespread between adolescents (19.3 ± 5.5 16.2 26.1 ± 1.4 25. This study confirmed that the percentage of the body fat also depends on the sex (Table 7). In this study the fat fold measures were made to estimate total body fat and a fair assessment of the fat location.3 ± 1. This study showed that the adolescents consume fast food less than once a week and soft drinks more than once a day. Personal and anthropometric data (mean ± SD) (n=233) Parameters Number Age/years Weight/kg * Height/cm * Body mass indeks/kg m–2 * Body fat/% * Boys 80 15. 38 (3) 217–224 (2000) 221 Table 6.2 1. For adequate validation of the body fat. Because of that. was established between sexes (Table 6).8 for boys and ³ 24.3 ± 27.9 23. 2).5 23. so the thickness of this subcutaneous fat reflects total body fat (23). This study also showed that adolescents use alcohol approximately once a week. Among the adolescents studied. The ideal amount of body fat is 12–20 % for men and 20–30 % for women (24). Both groups had slightly higher body fat composition (47. .20). which makes 1. thus some teenagers begin to use alcohol and tobacco (21).4 Adolescents 2.9 2.6 34.3 nutrient presence (Table 3). Food technol. Girls consumed more fruit and vegetable (Table 3.1 ± 11.8 ± 58.5 ± 1. pasta and sweets) (Table 9).8 ± 14.5 ± 1. the referent amount of body fat for boys aged 15 is 13 % and for girls of the same age 26 % (13).9 27.1 ± 9. Mean BMI for boys and girls is between 21 and 22 (Table 8).2 ± 1. As it was expected the boys consume more alcohol than girls (Table 1).4 ± 8.71 4.7 19.2 3.2 ± 6.8 ± 5.9 ± 10.3 2.5 ± 165.4 ± 1. Among young and prepubescent children those parameters are usually not significantly different with regard to sex. Significant difference. body weight and nutrient status. For adolescents the obesity is defined when BMI is ³ 25. Mean body fat for boys and girls was not inside the ideal amount (Table 7).0 2. in relation to quantity of energy intake through snacks. Fruit consumption was different between males and females (Table 3). To observe nourishment only on the bases of BMI is not valid enough as it does not reflect body composition.: Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Adolescents. height.

230** 0.652* –0.2 1.247** –0.159 –0.9.032 0.05 The correlation between body fat and BMI is not obligate as BMI is usually correlated with lean body mass (25).386* –0.069 –0.924* 0. In the case of boys the weight is not correlated with body fat.9 51.478* 0.0 ** boys: I <12.5.418* –0.2 8.6 37.060 0.0–26.072 –0.480* 0.5. fruit. III >13.01 .5 III* 6.29). II 18.038 –0. pasta and rice) as well as fruit and veg- . cholesterol and carbohydrates intake as well as with regard to the low energy food rich on micronutrients and dietary fiber (vegetable. BMI and body fat for adolescents (fraction of participants/%) Weight for height/centile Sex Boys Girls Adolescent <50th 24. In this study it is established that more girls (37 %) are smokers than boys (13 %).3 I* 9.0 11.2 7.088 0.460* –0. Some correlations of dietetic and anthropometric data Correation coefficient (r) Body mass index/kg m–2 Weight/kg High/cm Body fat/% Daily consumed energy/MJ day–1 Daily consumed proteins/g day–1 Daily consumed fats/g day–1 Daily consumed carbohydrates/g day–1 Weight/kg High/cm Body fat/% Daily consumed Daily consumed Daily consumed Daily consumed Body fat/% Daily consumed Daily consumed Daily consumed Daily consumed Boys 0.198** –0.861* –0.224** –0.236* 0. II = 26.8 IV* 6. was in correlation only with macronutrients but not with alcohol.943* 0.091 Girls 0.183 0. grain products (bread.5–24.3 39.5. **p < 0. Conclusions Adolescents daily diet is mostly inadequate in terms of energy.5 81. as it was expected.123** 0.125 –0.5 83.455* –0.1 =50th 56. eggs.874* 0. but among the adolescents that conclusion could not be made (26.0 3.5.474* –0. 38 (3) 217–224 (2000) Table 8.132 0.0 Body fat/% II** 20.0. Food technol.2 6.3 8.221** 0.215 0.7 49. Boys intake more red meat. The lunch and supper for boys are rich in energy while girls get most of the energy through snacks during the day.836* 0.201 0.110 0.135 0. rice and pasta). Average BMI is appropirate for the adolescents while body fat compositions were higer than referent values. what is opposite to the similar reports (28. Adolescents’ weight is only correlated with height and fat intake.9 * I <18.302* –0.749* –0.895* 0. fat.889* 0.804* –0.896* 0.6 BMI/kg m–2 II* 78.888* 0.27).350* 0.0 ± 0. while energy intake. cereals. Fast food contribution in daily diet is not of great concern but soft drinks are.222 IRENA COLI] BARI] et al. bread. and for the girls it is also correlated with body fat and macronutrients intake.0 ± 0.801* 0.5 Table 9.077 energy/MJ day–1 proteins/g day–1 fats/g day–1 carbohydrates / g day–1 energy/MJ day–1 proteins/g day–1 fats/g day–1 carbohydrates/g day–1 Daily consumed energy/MJ day–1 Daily consumed proteins/g day–1 Daily consumed fats/g day–1 Daily consumed carbohydrates/g day–1 Daily consumed alcohol/g day–1 *p < 0.288* –0.5.181 0. IV >27.467* –0. II 13.630* 0. Some differences between the sexes and the nutritive habits have been established. milk and dairy products and added fats than girls.943* 0.421* –0.001 –0.043 Adolescents 0.599* 0.1 I** 32. Some studies showed that mostly women have better nourishment than men do.861* –0. III 25.734* –0. but not enough.414* –0.5 >50th 18.5 11. Body fat is correlated with energy and macronutrients intake.068 0. The girls’ BMI was in correlation with energy intake as well. biotechnol. III = >26.: Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Adolescents.478* –0.438* 0. Weight-for-height.299* –0. Girls consume more.5 ** girls: I <25.0 III** 47.097 –0.939* 0.

C. Basil. Washington (1990) pp. W. W. J. 94 (1994) 902–907. Clinics in Office Practice. 8. ugljikohidrata. H. Svrha je ovoga rada bila procijeniti kakvo}u dnevne prehrane i prehrambene navike adolescenata (broj razli~itih vrsta hrane i u~estalost njihove potro{nje) koriste}i posebno sastavljen upitnik o u~estalosti potro{nje hrane i pi}a (Food Frequency Questionnaire) te dodatna pitanja o njihovim navikama (pu{enje i potro{nja alkohola). Am. 63 (1996) 448S–451S. Assoc. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. United States. dok je udjel masnog tkiva bio ve}i od referentnih vrijednosti za dob i spol. 181– 522. Uzimaju}i u obzir prosje~nu dnevnu prehranu. R. 59. 94 (1994) 855–858. I. Najosjetljivija su skupina adolescenti koji uglavnom sami odabiru svoju vrstu hrane. Maropsin. I. Agricutural and Medical Research. Statsoft. Istra`ivanje je obuhvatilo 233 ispitanika u dobi od 15 do 17 godina. 9. 20. A. 22. ukupnih masti.IRENA COLI] BARI] et al. 25 (1998) 193 ff. van Lenthe. Black. Med. Crawley. Girls are characterised with more body fat than boys. Kannando. C. Kulier: Prehrambene tablice. J. 12. D.1. J. Hafner Publishing. D. F. Maibach. C. 2. Inc. Summerbell. Pravilnik o zdravstvenoj ispravnosti dijetetskih namirnica. J. J. 4. C. J. Diet.and underappropirate BMI appeard to be greater among boys than girls. Diet. Nutr. Prosje~ni indeks mase tijela bio je u skladu s preporukama za adolescente. H. J. Am. proteina. 72 (1977). white dairy products are not present as recommended. Am. H. Kemper. 98 (1998) 112–120. Am. In terms of anthropometric data. Zagreb (1990). M. Geneva (1976). M. Revista de Salude Publica. Wardele. 11. J. International Life Sciences Institute-Nutrition Foundation. School Health. M. Story. J. Position of the American Dietetic Association. 46 (1994). Rolfes: Undestanding Nutrition. New York (1957) p. Doyle. D. Assoc. te udjel masnog tkiva. Assoc. Fisher. Biotechnol. Yates: Statistical Tables for Biological. Tulsa OK (1995). J. Int. Weekly Report. Assoc. 7–415. Whitney. C. 15. R. Nutr. Diet. Home and Garden Bulletin. masnih kiselina. R. Twisk. kori{tene su za odre|ivanje udjela energije. L. a manje ugljikohidrata. odabir hrane utje~e na ljudsko zdravlje. 18 (1996) 59–65. Obes. Hum. J. Albert. E. 30 (1998) 165–179. Adolescent Health. New York (1975) pp. Am. Goldberg. Uo~ene su statisti~ki zna~ajne razlike (p<0. J. Y. 28. Osaki. J. Diet. W. Version 5. Food technol. M. WHO: The World Health Report. D. 38 (3) 217–224 (2000) 223 etable. The National Academy of Science: Recommended Dietary Allowance. biotechnol. F. University of Zagreb (1987). Narodne novine br. Rel. L. Am. 22 (1988) 915–922. J. 19. Clin. 7. R. K. References 1. a prekomjerno unose slatki{e i gazirane napitke. E. rezultati pokazuju da adolescenti unose vi{e ukupnih i zasi}enih masti te kolesterola. 23–33. V. Assoc. Snyder. WHO: Technical Report Series 53. No. 3. F. Master’s Thesis. 1997. Abernathy. Biosoc. Minowa. R. Miller. Orphanidou. 23. 11 (1998) 33–40. 98 (1998) 1118–1126. G. D. Tobacco Use Among High School Students-United States. Prehrambene navike i prehrambeni status adolescenata Sa`etak Razli~iti su razlozi zbog kojih pojedinac odabire na~in prehrane.01) izme|u spolova s obzirom na prosje~ni unos hrane . B. 24. Position of The American Dietetic Association. F. 37 (1999) 181– 186. L. 43 (1994) 819–821. 31 (1997) 342–350. National Academy Press. M. McGraw and Hill Book. kao i jedna koja sadr`ava kemijski sastav tipi~nih jela s na{ega podru~ja. 47 (1998) 229– 233.: Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Adolescents. 26. J. USDA. a izra~unata je i korelacija izme|u antropometrijskih i dijeteti~kih parametara (korelacijski koeficijenti). M. Dixon. Metabolic Disorders. Diet. An International Thomson Publishing Co. Pokorn. J. 27. 18. P. 14. (1989). Glanz. Diet. Brown: Present Knowledge in Nutrition. Washington. Nutritive Value of Foods. Assoc. Pollard. both over. Neumark-Sztainer.C. J. 10. Am. Prevelance of Overweight Among Adolescents. J. 13. 279 (1998) 23–28. 25. omjer tjelesne mase i visine (izra`en u centilima). N. G. 5. Assoc. 1988–1991. Sci. 21. Razlike me|u spolovima utvr|ene su F-testom. Koch. 90 (1990) 583–585. 65 (1995) 163–171. Nedovoljno tro{e povr}e i vo}e.. E. 98 (1998) 446–450. C. 6. Nekoliko razli~itih tablica. 17. van Mechelen. I. Food Technol. Diet. Alcohol consumption is more present among boys and smoking is more spread among girls. Diana. Massey: Introduction to Statistical Analysis. J. CA (1999) pp. S. Belmont. 29. E. Am. Coli}: Nutritional Value of Meals in Social Nourishment for Students and Establishing the Normatives. U obzir su uzeti indeks mase tijela (BMI). T. D. kolesterola i konzumiranog alkohola u dnevnom obroku adolescenata. Post. Feldman. Neovisno o razlozima. 16.

mlijeka i mlije~nih proizvoda. Food technol. povr}a i vo}a).224 IRENA COLI] BARI] et al. raspodjelu energije. .: Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Adolescents. biotechnol. 38 (3) 217–224 (2000) (mesa i mesnih proizvoda. Stoga je prijeko potrebno educirati adolescente o pravilnoj prehrani i redovito pratiti kakvo}u njihovih obroka. naviku pu{enja i udjel masnog tkiva. konzumirani alkohol. Utvr|ena je i statisti~ki zna~ajna razlika me|u spolovima s obzirom na broj ispitanika koji ne pripadaju pravilno uhranjenoj skupini.