Threats to Biodiversity: An Overview Guided Viewing Name: _____________________________________________________ 1: Natural Capital: Forests Ecological Services

Support Energy flow and chemical cycling. Less soil. Absorbs and release water. Pure water and air. Influence climate, and local. Store Co2 in atmosphere. More wild habits.

Economic Services
Fuelwood. Lumber. Mining. Recreation, Jobs. Livestock grazing. Pulp to make paper.

Old-growth forest, Has not been seriously disturbed. Second-growth forest: tress from secondary selection.

2: What are the 3 main types of forests?

3: What are some of the problems associated with deforestation?

Tree plantation: particular trees.

More Co2 into the atmosphere, less soil from erosion. Loss habitat and species.

4: What are the methods for harvesting trees? Selective, harvesting, e.g strip cutting. 5: Clear-Cutting Forests Advantages
Higher Timber Yields. Maximum profits in short time. Reforest with fast growing trees. Short time stand trees. Less kill and planning, Good for moderate sunlight trees. Most efficient Considerable damage

Disadvantages

Reduces biodiversity. Disrupts ecosystem processes. Destroys wildlife habit. Leaves large opening. Increases water pollution. Eliminates recreational value.

6: What are some solutions for sustainable forestry? Stop clear cut slopes. Rely on the selective or strip cutting. 7: What is the Healthy Forest Restoration Act? What are the PROS and CONS? Text
Solution for controversy fire. Allows timer to cut medium or lager trees in 71% of national forests. It must clean away smaller.

Know and protect the high diversity.

8: Logging in National Forests Advantages
Timber for the country needs. Cut areas grows back.

Disadvantages
4% of timber. that’s need . Ample tiber needs.

Lumber and paper in less price. Low prices on products. Text More jobs in communities. Damage rives and fisheries. Economic growth. Decreases recreational opportunies.

9: What are some causes of tropical deforestation?
Ecological and importance: Poverty, roads, fires, subsidies.

10: Why should we care about the loss of tropical forests? 11: Sustaining Tropical Forests Prevention
Is being cleared in fast rate. Growing plants are use for medicines, used for experiments.

Restoration

Protect biodiver. and endanger area. Reforestation. Educate settler about sustainable forestry. Slow population rate. Reproduce poverty. Less illegal cutting. Certify timbers. Phase out subsidies that ENCOURAGE FOREST USE. Add subsidies. Protect debt nature swaps. conserved easements. Rehabilitation of degraded areas. Concentrate farming. clear ares.

12: Why are rangelands/grasslands so important?
Soil changes, eruption control, nutrient cycling.

13: How can we sustain rangeland productivity? What are some solutions to overgrazing?
By controlling rate of livestock.

14: What is the 4 point strategy to restoring biodiversity worldwide?
Map ecosystem.

15: What is a biodiversity hotspot? How many are there worldwide?
34.

Locate and protect endangered ecosystem and species. Restored ecosystem that are degraded. Make biodiversity friendly.

16: What are the top 6 hotspots in the United States?
Hawaii, San Francisco Bay. South appalachians. Death valley. South California. Florida Panhandle.

17: What are the five basic science-based principles for ecological restoration?
Identify, stop abuse of elimination, reintroduces of species, protect area. Use adaptive management.

18: Define: Preservation Remediation
Setting aside, protected form harm: activities or humans. Repairing what has been destroyed.

Sustainability System can survived for a period of time.
Take action on hotspot. Keep intact old growth. Map inventory. Determine marine hot spots. Ensure range. Make conservations. INITATE ecological restoration. Reconciliation ecology.

18: What are the eight priorities for protecting biodiversity? 19: Define: Reconciliation/Applied Ecology

Habitats with balance, conserve species base on comnunity.

20: Define: Background Extinction: Continuous, low the level of species. Extinction Rate: The percentage of species go extinct in a period of time. Mass Extinction:
Extinction of species in short amount of time.

21: What are characteristics of vulnerable species?
Species that live in their natural habit but can become extinct because of the decline of population.

22: What is HIPPCO?
The most important causes of extinction.

23: What can you do about invasive species?
Not allow animals to scape, or plants to spread in other areas.

24: What are some characteristics of successful invader species?
Pioneers species, long lived, high dispersal rate.

25: How is pollution affecting species?
Kill animals, and threaten them.

26: What is overexploitation?
Protected species killed for their value, illegal trade in wildlife.

27: What is the U.S. Endangered Species Act? 28: What is the CITIES Treaty?

Most controversial, far-reaching law. To protect species. Convention on international trade in endangered species. Banned from buying illegal species.

29: What can you do to help terrestrial biodiversity? What can you do to help protect species worldwide?
Plant a tree and take care of them. Recycle. Restore grassland. Don’t buy furs. Wood from forest in tropics. Plants that are taken form the wild.