Referencing: The Harvard System of Citation

Produced by SHMS library 28.SEP.02

How to Reference: Within the Text
• Add the reference at the end of a sentence to avoid breaking up the flow of text and making it unreadable. Initial letters are only used when two or more authors have the same surname and have published in the same year. In the case of three or fewer Authors to a source, list all the names. In the case of four or more Authors to a source, use the name of the first author (from the title page) followed by ‘et al’. (Johnson & Scholes, 1998) or (Lennon et al, 1964) If the author's name occurs naturally in the text, the year follows in parentheses. Rowley (1996) Use lower case letters after the date if you reference more than one item published in the same year by the same author. (Rowley, 1996a) then (Rowley, 1996b) the numbers should also be used in the bibliography. If the book is a collection of chapters by different authors it can be better to cite the author of the chapter rather than the editor. (See Chapters for how to reference this in the bibliography) If you are using a general textbook that itself mostly cites the work of others avoid citing the textbook editor’s name every time you quote from it in the text; this makes your work clumsy and hard to follow. Within the text cite the original author. (See Secondary Referencing for how to reference this in the bibliography)

What is Referencing?
Referencing shows which texts have been consulted in the writing of a particular document, be it a book, an essay, a report or a dissertation. Every document or source of information used should be referenced Only documents or sources that have been used should be referenced. There are a number of ways to reference. The Harvard system is just one of these ways. Even within the Harvard system different institutions vary slightly in how they like the information presented. Any work produced at SHMS should adhere to the following format. At each point in the text that refers to a particular document, the author’s surname and the publication year is inserted in brackets. The full description of the item cited is in the alphabetical list of references (or bibliography) provided at the end of the report. Different types of documents need to be presented in a different way. The aim is always the same. To allow a reader to see where the information is coming from and to give them enough detail to find the original source of information

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Why Cite References
Referencing: • Shows that you have consulted widely, recognising and acknowledging the relevant debate, arguments and practice in a given field Substantiates any statement that you make. Enables others to check the evidence and accuracy of your information, and to consult texts which you have found relevant and useful. Gives proper credit to other people’s work and ideas, showing that you are not plagiarizing. Enables you to go back to review the sources of your information. • •

How to Reference: Direct Quotes
Any time you use somebody else’s words these should be written in quotation marks. • When quoting you should identify the page numbers, these appear after the date within the brackets. (Rowley , 1996 p.121) or (Gordon, 1998, pp.121-3) If you start or finish the quote mid-sentence use…to indicate this. If you miss out some words to make it clearer use…to indicate this e.g. “…quality is…not a variable.” If you add some words to make it clearer use [ ] to indicate this e.g. “The writing [is] on the wall.” Long quotes should start on a new line and be indented on both margins.

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uk> [Accessed June 6th. Smith. even when you have more information. Year of the publication (in brackets).39-46 Electronic Journal Articles: If only published Books • Author (s). Journal of Teacher Development. if not the first (if ascertainable). is a suitable abbreviation for editor. In: Burgess. Edition. underlined Date of publication. Date of publication. (1996) Time to go home. Gunter. [Accessed date]. p. Edinburgh. H. Available from: <http://lmu. (1997) A Textbook of Sociology. Title of the journal. Journal of Hyperactivity. i. Underlined Series and individual volume number (if any). Title. underlined. R. S. ed. Newspapers • • • • • • Author of the article. Porter. P. Baty. use the following format. Holland. underlined Volume and part number.ac. Thus the reader can move between the text and the bibliography and trace a correct reference. author and date. Cited in: Haralambos M. In order to maintain consistency in your bibliography you should only use the initial letters of the writer's forename(s).uk/servicedepts/lis/LIS_Pub/harvardsys. Volume number (issue number).bournemouth. 16th January. Independent Publishers. says report. The Research Process in Educational Settings: Ten Case Studies. Underlined [Internet]. Year of the publication (in brackets). Bournemouth University: Available from: <http://www. Publisher. Title of Chapter. (1995) Structuration and social action. 5 (3) October. Year (in brackets).) Date of publication (in brackets). [Internet] 12th October. 1997] . Bennett. Gunter.. pp. Available from: <URL>. Follow this format: Bennett. pagination or online equivalent. Place of publication (if ascertainable) Publisher (if ascertainable) Available from: <URL>. • • • • • • • • • Author(s)/ Editor(s). (Note: ed. H. (1996) Through a glass darkly: images of appraisal.ac. (1993) The modification of method in researching postgraduate education. Year (in brackets). World Wide Web Documents • • • • • • • • • Author/Editor. Falmer Press.A. 1997] Chapters • • • • • • • • Author of Chapter Date of publication (in brackets). & Reid. London. constitute the link you made in the text. 6 (4).html> [Accessed 22 August. Title of Article. B. Capitals.. The first two elements of your reference. underlined Place of publication. editor(s) or the institution responsible for writing the document. Page numbers of article. [Accessed date]. Place of publication. Title of the article. Title. Page numbers of article. (1993) Secondary School Management in the 1990's: Challenge and Change. M. London: Sage. only first word capitalised “In” followed by a colon: Author/Editor of collected work Title of collected work. electronically. Title of the article. pp. Edition if not the first. Title of Journal. M. Capitals. [type of medium]. (1998) Learners are born. J. S. H. • • • • • • Spence. month or season of the year. (1996) Harvard System [Internet] Poole. London. & Reid. Title of the Newspaper. H.How to Reference: The Bibliography The bibliography appears at the end of your work and is organised alphabetically by surname and chronologically if referencing two or more articles by the same author.e. Secondary referencing • • • Original Reference Cited in: Reference of Collection Giddens A.5. Publisher. Journals • • • • • • Author of the article.122-3.G. Churchill Livingstone. Times Higher Education Supplement.