The History of the Sixteen Karmapas of Tibet

KARMA THINLEY

The History of the Sixteen Karmapas of Tibet

The History of the Sixteen Karmapas of Tibet
K A R M A T H I NL E Y
The Fourth Karma Thinleypa Edited with an essay by David Stott Illustrated by Namkha Tashi Foreword by Chogyam Trungpa Introduction by Reginald ! Ray

1980 Prajna Press BOULD ! .

Box !"# Boul$er% Colora$o &'(') *#+&' .orbu Publi-ations . . B:")&!. The history of the sixteen Karmapas of Tibet. Stott% 8a9i$ ##.1!K!&. Kar/ma/pa lamas5Tibet5Bio4raphy.Prajfta Press Great Eastern Book Company P. '/&"""(/"#)/+ Printe$ in the 0nite$ States of 1meri-a Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Karma Thinley% 2ama 3an4-hhim.SB. . Kar/ma/pa 6Se-t75History..+.(*)#*'+!! &'/#"+ . Title. '/ &"""(/"#)/+ "O#T #TS . #.SB. !+<. !.

Foreword "re#ace .Karmapa Thon4?a 8on$en ".Karmapa 8e>hin She4pa ).Karmapa Cho$ra4 Gyatsho &...ntro$u-tion The Histori-al an$ Theoreti-al Ba-k4roun$ #.Karmapa =olpe 8orje .Karmapa 8usum Khyenpa !.Karmapa @ikyo 8orje vii viii # !# <# <" .Karmapa =an4jun4 8orje <. )# "# "+ &( &+ .Karmapa Karma Pakshi (.

Karmapa 3an4-huk 8orje #'.+. .Karmapa 8u$ul 8orje #<.Karmapa Chan4-hub 8orje #(.Karmapa Choyin4 8orje ##.Karmapa Aeshe 8orje #!.Karmapa The4-ho4 8orje #.Karmapa Khakhyab 8orje +" #'( #'+ ##( ##" #!# #!..

The Karmapas are parti-ularly the 4reat pillars of the Ka4yu tra$ition% ?ho ha9e enable$ the pra-ti-in4 linea4e to -ontinue in spite of politi-al% so-ial an$ e-onomi. The examples an$ life styles of 4reat tea-hers of this tra$ition ha9e inspire$ -ountless pra-titioners% su-h that their li9es -oul$ be further $e9ote$ to me$itati9e $is-iplines. .G 2.o $oubt this book ?ill benefit its . appre-iate his insi4ht an$ ?is$om in re9ealin4 to us the true stories of the linea4e of the Karmapas..obsta-les.E1GE of the Ka4yu tra$ition remains the -ro?n je?el of the -ontemplati9e Bu$$hist ?orl$.$O! %O!D THE P=1CT. Karma Thinley% =inpo-he% is a 9ery -lose frien$ an$ stu$ent of mine. ..C.

rea$ersB they shoul$ rea$ it ?ith inspiration an$ $e9otion. remain a ser9ant an$ propa4ator of the Ka4yu tra$ition% Cho4yam Trun4pa P! $&" $$ Cajra-arya the Cenerable Cho4yam Trun4pa% =inpo-he Boul$er% Colora$o !# February #+&' The teachings o# the %armapas will last as long as the teachings o# a thousand &uddhas. . ” 5Karma Pakshi .

yin4mapa% foun$e$ by Cajra-arya Pa$masambha9a% Kin4 Trison4 8etsun an$ 1bbot SantarakDitaB Ka$ampa% foun$e$ by 1tlsa an$ Gyal?a 8romtonpaB Sakyapa% foun$e$ by 8ro4mi 2otsa?a an$ Kon-ho4 GyalpoB Ka4yupa% foun$e$ by .aropa an$ @arpa 2otsa?aB Cho$ 6ECuttin4 Throu4h E4oF7% foun$e$ by the la$y siddha( @a-hi4 2abkyi 8ronmaB Shijay 6GPa-ifyin4 Sufferin4**7% foun$e$ by 8ampa San4yeB Shan4pa Ka4yu% foun$e$ by Khyun4po . .n fa-t% Gyal?a Karmapa has no? tra9ele$ t?i-e aroun$ the ?orl$ an$ 4i9en tea-hin4s an$ initiations to many follo?ers an$ establishe$ numerous Ka4yu -enters.n Tibet there ?ere nine Bu$$hist se-ts that follo?e$ the tea-hin4s of the hmayana% mahayana an$ va)rayana* Gelu4pa% foun$e$ by the @anjusri emanation% Tson4khapaB . . True to his pre$i-tion the tea-hin4s of the sixteenth Karmapa ha9e sprea$ to rea-h the 3estern -ontinent.THE G=E1T TERT'N( Cho4yur 2in4pa% pre$i-te$ that the sixteenth or se9enteenth Karmapa ?oul$ one $ay -ross the o-ean.

tea-hin4s of Bu$$hism brou4ht from . 1ll follo? the same basi.n$ia to Tibet at the pri-e of 4reat material an$ human resour-es o9er the -enturies. 1t present sur9i9in4 in stren4th are the Gelu4pa% Sakyapa% Ka4yupa an$ . That is ?hy in the past Tibetan Bu$$hism has been referre$ to by some as ElamaismThe term refers to this aspe-t of Tibetan Bu$$hism. . 1 Tibetan pro9erb says that ?hen you -ast a flo?er into the mant#ala( the $eity it lan$s on is yours.f you stu$y one se-t then you ?ill un$erstan$ all se-ts.yin4mapa.aljorB an$ the 0r4yen .. There are no important $ifferen-es in their tea-hin4s.yen$rup% foun$e$ by the mahasiddha an$ pandita( 0r4yenpa =in-hen Pal. Similarly . The lama is in fa-t a manifestation of Cajra$hara an$% therefore% of 9ery 4reat importan-e. Basi-ally all of these se-ts are hol$ers of va)rayana transmissions from Cajra$hara an$ passe$ $o?n to the 4uru.

. Aou must learn its tea-hin4s -orre-tly an$ re-ei9e the transmission of the linea4e.t is also important to kno? the history of the linea4e.?hi-he9er linea4e you first meet an$ take tea-hin4s from be-omes most important to you. The manus-ript ?as then e$ite$ by Hampa Thaye 68a9i$ Stott7% ?ho is en4a4e$ in Ph. -olle-te$ stories from ea-h life an$ translate$ them into En4lish ?ith the help of Stanley Fefferman an$ Hohn @-Cann.8. :uite often people ha9e aske$ me to retell the life stories of the Karmapas.amkha Tashi 6Christopher Bani4an7 $i$ the illustrations% after the most famous paintin4s of the Ka4yu linea4e% the ?ork of Karshu Gonpo 8oije% brou4ht by San4ye . . . There are many books on the li9es of the Karmapas ?ritten in Tibetan. am not able to $o somethin4 ne? that ?oul$ be better than existin4 histories but some of these ?ere ?ritten -enturies a4o an$ are not -omplete.yenpa =inpo-he from Kham as a 4ift to the sixteenth . resear-h at the 0ni9ersity of @an-hester. ut of se9eral books .

Karmapa. Ea-h Karmapa has ha$ a sli4htly $ifferent effe-t as a bodhisattva in or$er to help sentient bein4s. 1s a 4ift to those intereste$ in the Karma Ka4yu linea4e an$ $e9ote$ to Gyal?a Karmapa ?e ha9e -olle-te$ an$ translate$ stories of the first sixteen Karmapa in-arnations. . 3hate9er merit 4aine$ from ha9in4 $one this is $e$i-ate$ to our ?orl$ family5that it mi4ht ha9e pea-e% happiness% free$om from si-kness% ?ar an$ star9ation an$ the -omplete a-hie9ement of enli4htenment an$ the bodhisattva state. . hope this book helps to intro$u-e an un$erstan$in4 of the stu$y an$ trainin4 of the bodhisattva an$ of ho? the linea4e has been transmitte$ from the be4innin4 up to no?.n the 3est there are many Ka4yu lamas an$ stu$ents. .

n mo$ern times% Tibet has -ome to represent the mirror opposite of the experien-e ?e as 3esterners ha9e of our ?orl$. .Introduction THE B. G=1PH. They are -ast in the psy-holo4i-al an$ literary i$iom of a -ountry an$ -ulture ?hi-h% more than any other% ha9e symboli>e$ for the 3estern ?orl$ e9erythin4 that is in-omprehensible% bi>arre an$ fantasti-. .ES -ontaine$ in this 9olume may strike the rea$er as stran4e% to say the least.n approa-hin4 these stories then% one may ?ell ask% ?hy botherI 3hat possible 9alue -an su-h tales ha9e for us 3esternersI The ans?er ?oul$ seem to $epen$ a 4reat $eal on the rea$er. They -ome from the alien an$ seemin4ly impenetrable ?orl$ of me$ie9al Tibet. .

f ?e ?ant to 4o further% ?e may fin$ somethin4 more in these stories. 1s ?e ha9e ?ith the reli4ious literature of other non/ 3estern peoples% ?e -an rea$ these bio4raphies for the play of ima4ination they allo?. 1s -ultural anthropolo4ists in this -entury ha9e sho?n% stories su-h as these from non/3estern spiritual tra$itions are more than expressions of fantasy.Certainly% on the most superfi-ial le9el% ?e -an rea$ these stories as fan-iful tales.an$ mystery that or$inarily elu$e us in our $ay to $ay li9es. . . Far from bein4 pure entertainment% stories of this kin$ -an pro9i$e nee$e$ relief from the -laustrophobia of the -ompletely familiar an$ unextraor$inary ?orl$ ?e too often experien-e. They embo$y forms of experien-e an$ expression of the -ulture from ?hi-h they -ome. 1s psy-holo4ists an$ stu$ents of -ulture ha9e su44este$% this is no insi4nifi-ant fun-tion.n this 9olume ?e are -onfronte$5 . 3e -an look to them for intimations of another ?orl$ an$ for the entry they pro9i$e into realms of ma4i.

3e may fin$ the atmosphere% e9ents an$ people $epi-te$ in these bio4raphies rather sin4ular an$ unlikely% but in fa-t they represent the natural state of affairs in me$ie9al Tibet.t is a fun$amental .in some 9ery real sense5?ith ?hat the ?orl$ of the tra$itional Tibetan ?as like. But in this $ay an$ a4e% su-h a suspension of ju$4ment is not as har$ as it use$ to be. f -ourse% to 4ain some intuition into this ?orl$ an$ to be4in to appre-iate it% ?e nee$ to put asi$e for a moment our 3estern -anons of ?hat is real an$ ?hat is not. Cultural anthropolo4y stops at this point of appre-iation% but one -an 4o further% an$ this lea9es us ?ith the most $iffi-ult of issues. The oft Juote$ line from =u$yar$ Kiplin4% EEast is East an$ 3est is 3est an$ ne9er the t?ain shall meet%F# is more than an aphorism. These stories pro9i$e a ?in$o? into this me$ie9al ?orl$ ?ith its pe-uliarly Tibetan i$ioms% 9alues an$ interests. . 1n$% the re?ar$ of seein4 ho? $ifferently the ?orl$ -an be experien-e$ in other -ultural -ontexts ?oul$ seem to be ?ell ?orth the effort.

Ho?e9er% these t?o approa-hes5that of the s-epti-al s-holar ?ho reje-ts su-h intima-y out of han$ or that of the -ultist ?ho thinks he -an be-ome a Hin$u or a Tibetan5both fail to explore the really interestin4 . . 1nyone ?ho ?orks in the fiel$ of non/3estern reli4ion as anthropolo4ist or orientalist is a-utely a?are of the 4eneral paranoia existin4 in our -ulture of non/3estern peoples an$ tra$itions. G. The ex-esses an$ ina--ura-ies of pseu$o/ 1sian -ultists in this -ulture ?oul$ seem to justify this 3estern paranoia of 1sian spirituality.assumption an$ presupposition that is $eeply roote$ in 3estern -ons-iousness.n lookin4 at non/3estern tra$itions this is best exemplifie$ by the s-holarly attempt to maintain obje-ti9ity by unot 4ettin4 too -loseF or -ompromisin4 oneKs i$entity as a 3esterner. Hun4% for all of his appre-iation of non/3estern spirituality% freJuently expresse$ his fear that too intimate a -onta-t ?ith non/3estern tra$itions ?oul$ lea$ to an unhealthy reje-tion of our i$entity as 3esterners. E9en C.

To be4in . The Visions of the Karmapas The bio4raphies that follo? are not easy to rea$% an$ a fe? 4ui$elines are ne-essary to orient the rea$er to their style an$ -ontents.an$ fun$amental of Juestions% an$ ho? ?e ans?er it ?ill $etermine the ?ay in ?hi-h ?e rea$ these stories% an$ ?hat ?e fin$ in them.n other ?or$s% $o the psy-holo4i-al an$ spiritual limits of our 3estern reality inhere ne-essarily in the 9ery make/up of oursel9es an$ our -ulture or are they to some extent self impose$I This is the most basi.an$ si4nifi-ant Juestion. 8oes the kin$ of spiritual ?orl$ $es-ribe$ in% for example% the Tibetan reli4ion of these bio4raphies exist solely an$ ex-lusi9ely ?ithin the Tibetan frame of referen-eI r $oes it ha9e some impli-ation beyon$ that% ?hi-h tests the boun$aries of our 3estern experien-eI .

.n fa-t% it is those 9isions that form the main subje-t matter of these bio4raphies. 1n$ the -entral moments in this intera-tion ?ere their 9isions. For these in$i9i$uals% the main threa$ runnin4 throu4h their li9es% ?as their intera-tion ?ith the spiritual ?orl$. ne -oul$ ?ell say that to tell the story of the si4nifi-ant e9ents in the life of a Karmapa is to re-ount those 9isions% ?ith the un$erstan$in4 they embo$y an$ the a-ti9ity they pro$u-e. 1ll bio4raphies are sele-ti9e% base$ on a parti-ular 9ie? of ?hat is si4nifi-ant. 0nlike most mo$ern 3estern bio4raphies ?hi-h $epi-t primarily se-ular e9ents% the bio4raphies of the Karmapas -on-ern a -ertain fun$amental $imension of Tibetan life% namely the -onne-tion bet?een man an$ the $i9ine5their relationship% their tensions an$ their -ommuni-ation. .?ith% these are not bio4raphies in our mo$em 3estern sense of the ?or$. To say this is not to say mu-h% unless ?e reali>e that these stories a-tually re-ount the ?ay in ?hi-h the life ?as experien-e$ in tra$itional Tibet% parti-ularly by fi4ures su-h as the Karmapas.

The first point that nee$s to be ma$e is that the E9isionsF that play so -entral a role in these bio4raphies are in a ?ay Juite or$inary an$ $o?n to earth.This bein4 so% somethin4 shoul$ be sai$ about these spiritual experien-es an$ the ?ay in ?hi-h they pro9i$e the foun$ation of the Karmapa bio4raphies.n or$er to properly un$erstan$ the 9isions of the Karmapas ?e nee$ to look briefly at this preparation an$ Ethree+yana.?ho is s?ept into . 1--or$in4 to the va)rayana tra$ition5the form of Bu$$hism ?hi-h the Karmapas represent5the subje-t has t?o aspe-ts to itL first% the preparation that must take pla-e in or$er for an in$i9i$ual to be re-epti9e to su-h experien-esB se-on$% the pro4ressi9e trainin4 in Bu$$hist me$itation throu4h ?hi-h oneKs insi4ht an$ intuition are a-tually $e9elope$. me$itation trainin4. 0nlike the experien-e of the 3estern mysti. . This pro4ressi9e trainin4 o--urs in three sta4es% -on9entionally labele$ in Bu$$hist terminolo4y hmayana 6the lesser 9ehi-le7% mahayana 6the 4reater 9ehi-le7 an$ va)rayana 6the $iamon$ 9ehi-le7.

F This refers to the fa-t that ?hile people outsi$e of the tra$ition may rea$ its texts% 4enerally their literal import .unearthly realms% the spiritual insi4hts of the Karmapas -on-ern the mun$ane realities of human life. E9en $es-riptions of $eities or $is-ussions of bu$$ha/realms are nothin4 other than ?ays of talkin4 about the subleties of a-tual% literal experien-e as it is al?ays at han$. .n fa-t% they represent the o9ertones of or$inary experien-e that are usually hi$$en from the eye. This point is important% be-ause it is -onsistent ?ith the 4eneral Bu$$hist 9ie? that there is no other reality than that ?hi-h presents itself imme$iately to experien-e. 1t the same time% mu-h of the tea-hin4 of the Karmapas* va)rayana Bu$$hist tra$ition is $es-ribe$ as Eself/se-ret.

n the Bu$$hist tra$ition% it is sai$ that simply re-o4ni>in4 the problem is not enou4h to a-hie9e the 4oal. Gro?in4 re-o4nition of the in-essant self/seekin4 ma-hinations of e4o lea$s to in-reasin4 $is4ust ?ith the ?hole pro-ess% an$ a lon4in4 to let it 4o. 0ntil that path is entere$% the ?orl$ Eas it isF remains se-ret. But% a-tually% the reason lies in Juite another $ire-tion. remains ?ell/hi$$en. The K rNnapasK tra$ition exists to pro9i$e a--ess to a $ire-t insi4ht into reality% into Etilin4s as they areF -yalhabhutam.( as it is te-hni-ally phrase$.n fa-t% it is the habitual ten$en-y of the human min$ to be taken up ?ith plans% 9ie?s an$ proje-ts.ST =A F THE S. The first le9el of 9ision or insi4ht is -alle$ vipasyana or E-lear seein4%F $e9elope$ throu4h the me$itati9e pra-ti-es of the #mayana! The pra-ti-e of 0inayana is to sit -ross/le44e$% an$ to rest oneKs attention li4htly on oneKs breath% ?ith a?areness of oneKs en9ironment.t is rather seen only by a min$ that is -lear% open an$ ?ithout preo--upation. Throu4h . =enun-iation is the initial inspiration for ?orkin4 on oneself to eliminate self/$e-eption. The first step in the $e9elopment of insi4ht5an$ a theme that runs throu4hout the Karmapa bio4raphies5is renun-iation. =enun-iation is base$ on the a?areness that human bein4s -onstantly a9oi$ seein4 thin4s as they are% preferrin4 instea$ to strike for -omfort% se-urity an$ -onfirmation. 1n$ it is this pra-ti-e that forms the heart of the KarmapasK o?n journey an$ of ?hat they ha9e to tea-h others. ne mi4ht think that this self/se-re-y exists be-ause of a te-hni-al reason su-h as% for example% a la-k of familiarity ?ith tra$itional i$ioms or 9o-abulary. 3hy% one may ask% shoul$ somethin4 seemin4ly so natural an$ so or$inary be se-retI The ans?er is simple.t is this pra-ti-e that $e9elops the in-reasin4 -larity of 9ision that is $es-ribe$ in the trainin4 of the three OyoPias.THE H. 8ri9en on by the hope of 4amin4 an$ the fear of losin4% the min$ is ne9er still% but al?ays on the mo9e.MTEE. But ?here is su-h a min$ foun$I . .F The raison d/etre of the KarmapasK tra$ition is to pro9i$e people ?ith a path to trans-en$in4 the self/absorption of pre-on-eptions an$ preo--upations% so that intuition may unfol$ an$ the ?orl$ as it is may sho? itself ?ithout stain. . ne must ?ork on oneself throu4h pra-ti-es that train the min$. 1n$% as ?e ha9e note$% this ErealityF is not the abstra-t reality of another sphere% but rather the -on-rete reality that -ontinually presents itself as experien-e. . For Bu$$hism% this ?ork is -arrie$ out throu4h the pra-ti-e of me$itation. =eality% a--or$in4 to Bu$$hism% is not 4raspe$ by thou4ht. This -easeless a-ti9ity ne9er 4i9es intuition room to $e9elop% an$ intuition is itself the 4ate?ay to the ?orl$ Eas it is.

ST =A F THE S. 1fter a 4reat $eal of pra-ti-e% 4aps in oneKs thou4ht .MTEE. this simple pra-ti-e% oneKs thou4ht pro-esses5?hi-h in the be4innin4 are in-essant an$ ?ithout breaks5 be4in to slo? $o?n.THE H.

. . . The next le9el of trainin4% that of the mahayana( seeks to ?ork throu4h the subtle spiritual -lin4in4 of the hmayana! Ho? -an su-h an aim be a--omplishe$I The ans?er is throu4h further renun-iation.KK 3hen hmayana trainin4 is firmly roote$ an$ vipasyana has be4un to -hallen4e or$inary% e4oisti. The mahayana pra-ti-e is -alle$ lo)ong 6Tib. Soun$s% si4hts% sensations% thou4hts% the nature of situations% oneKs o?n an$ othersK moti9ations% all sho? themsel9es% free from oneKs hopes an$ fears.F 3hereas in vipasyana the ?orl$ is seen in its $etail an$ -omplexity% in the mahayana 9ision of simyata 6emptiness7% the 4roun$lessness of experien-e be4ins to stan$ out. 3hen the follo?in4 bio4raphies mention the hmayana trainin4 of 8usum Khyenpa% =an4jun4 8oije an$ the other Karmapas% they are referrin4 to this first sta4e in the $e9elopment of the KarmapasK E9ision.L blo!sbyong.n short% hmayana -arries ?ith it a subtle 9ersion of e4o. . . 1n$ it has its o?n kin$ of hope an$ fear5hope of further vipasyana experien-e an$ fear of fallin4 ba-k into the i4noran-e of samsaric neurosis.. . The pra-ti-es lea$in4 to it are -arrie$ out for oneKs o?n sake% oneKs in$i9i$ual sal9ation.( Emin$ . 3hat is it that appears in the vipasyana experien-eI Simply the or$inary ?orl$% in its infinite $etail% its multitu$inous -omplexity an$ its unen$in4 interrelation. 1n$% a4ain% su-h an aim -annot be a--omplishe$ simply throu4h re-o4nition of the problem% but must be a-hie9e$ bit by bit throu4h me$itation pra-ti-e.t is also sai$ to be the first taste of enli4htenment% be-ause ?hat is seen has nothin4 to $o ?ith e4o. For all of its sharpness an$ -larity% hmayana vipasyana has its limitations. pro-esses be4in to o--ur.. The ?orl$ in its many fa-ets be4ins to stan$ out starkly in oneKs experien-e. .patterns% the next le9el of trainin4 be4ins% that of the mahayana or E4reat 9ehi-le.T= 80CT.t also -on9eys impli-itly the impression that somethin4 $efinite has been a-hie9e$% an$ it pro9i$es a restin4 pla-e5albeit refine$ an$ subtle5for one to -lin4 to.n Bu$$hist tra$ition% it is sai$ that this experien-e -uts throu4h e4o be-ause it re9eals the ?orl$ as it a-tually is% not as one thinks or ?ants it to be.t repla-es 4ross e4otism ?ith a more spiritual 9ersion of e4oKs territory.n li4ht of this experien-e% oneKs o?n personal 9ersion of thin4s is sho?n up for ?hat it isL not reality% but oneKs o?n erroneous% insubstantial% an$ un-on9in-in4 thou4ht. . Here% the 4oal of freein4 oneself from samsara( of attainin4 -ertain experien-es% an$ of fin$in4 a referen-e point in vipasyana must all be aban$one$. These 4aps brin4 a -larity of insi4ht% vipasyana( that is not -ontaminate$ by pre-on-eptions or expe-tations.

. 3hen the follo?in4 bio4raphies speak of the mahayana trainin4 of the Karmapas% they are referrin4 to this trainin4. The relati9e pra-ti-e is 4roun$e$ in the trust an$ insi4ht that is $e9elope$ in the absolute pra-ti-e an$% mo9in4 into the sphere of a-ti9ity% is aime$ at tryin4 to help others. . Ha9in4 aban$one$ the referen-e point e9en of oneKs o?n spiritual sur9i9al an$ a$9an-ement by ?orkin4 for the sal9ation of others% one attains the same 4roun$lessness in a-tion that one attaine$ in sittin4 pra-ti-e% ?ith no referen-e points ?hate9er. . . The pra-ti-e in9ol9es -ontinually 4i9in4 up personal territory an$ assistin4 others in ?hate9er ?ay one -an. The stren4th of the mahayana is its $is-o9ery of 4roun$lessness an$ absolute nonreferen-e point. The absolute pra-ti-e in9ol9es -ontinuin4 ?ith the sittin4 pra-ti-e of me$itation.n the Bu$$hist tra$ition of the Karmapas% the hinayana an$ mahayana trainin4 pro9i$e foun$ation an$ preparation for the va)rayana or tantric 9ehi-le itself.ST =A F THE S.n a tremen$ously subtle ?ay% a pro-ess of $is-rimination% sele-tion an$ $istortion is still takin4 pla-e.MTEE. This un$er-uts the apparent $uality bet?een samsara an$ nirvana( an$ 4i9es rise to the experien-e of 4roun$lessness% ?ithout any referen-e points at all.) THE H. .nstea$ of blamin4 others% one takes the blame of situations on oneself.nseparable from the absolute pra-ti-e is the relati9e pra-ti-e% -alle$ relati9e bodhicitta( in ?hi-h5throu4h Eme$itation in a-tionF5 the pra-titioner ?orks ?ith other people. But% a--or$in4 to the va)rayana( this $is-o9ery in itself be-omes a preo--upation. trainin4%F an$ it has t?o aspe-ts% one absolute an$ the other relati9e. Throu4h this pra-ti-e% one be4ins to 4ain more familiarity ?ith the un-on$itione$% non/e4o $imension of the min$% terme$ absolute bodhicitta 6enli4htene$ min$7.nstea$ of a9oi$in4 their problems% one takes on their pain. This lea$s to less fear of a4itate$ an$ anxious states of min$% an$ one be4ins to sense the un-on$itione$ Juality present throu4hout oneQs experien-e% ?hether samsaric or other?ise. From the 9ie?point of this hi4hest Bu$$hist tea-hin4% just as the hinayana ha$ its limitations an$ reJuire$ further renun-iation% so the same thin4 -an be sai$ of the mahayana. . Experien-e is e9aluate$ a--or$in4 to ?hether or not it is ?ithout 4roun$.f it is not% then a--or$in4 to the mahayana( it is la-kin4 in spirituality% an$ must be .nstea$ of seekin4 4oo$ for oneself% one seeks the 4ain of others% in parti-ular% an$ most espe-ially% their liberation from samsara! Throu4h this $eman$in4 pra-ti-e% one be4ins to reali>e that the instin-t for self/ sur9i9al -an be trans-en$e$ in fa9or of somethin4 mu-h broa$er an$ more expansi9e. .

s like a bir$ that flies up from a ship 1n$ then ?heels roun$ an$ lan$s ba-k there a4ain.reJuires explanation. " -orre-te$ by the 9ie?point of sunyata. The form aspe-t has t?o relate$ types of pra-ti-e% one a kin$ of sittin4 me$itation% the other me$itation in a-tion. 1s in the pre9ious yanas( the full reali>ation of the va)rayana is not a--omplishe$ ?ithout thorou4h an$ ar$uous trainin4. 1s in the mahayana% va)rayana pra-ti-e has both an absolute or EformlessF an$ a relati9e or EformF aspe-t. . .form.n the va)rayana% oneKs o?n un-on$itione$ intelli4en-e5$is-o9ere$ in the mahayana5is 4i9en a 9isual an$ i-ono4raphi. The luminosity an$ resplen$en-y refers spe-ifi-ally to the va)rayana! The ?orl$ is luminous be-ause% ?hen one no lon4er has thou4hts about thin4s% they appear ?ith 4reat 9i9i$ness.. E9en the referen-e point of no referen-e point must be 4i9en up. . Experien-e simply sho?s itself for ?hat it is% ?ith its parti-ular shape an$ -ontours% textures an$ o9ertones. Ha9in4 seen the $istin-tion bet?een experien-e an$ thou4hts% one kno?s ho? to brin4 oneself ba-k to the present% an$ no lon4er li9es in past memory or future expe-tation.T= 80CT. The no?ness -omes from hmayana trainin4% still in full for-e.! Further renun-iation must take pla-e as one enters the va)rayana. 1s the va)rayana tra$ition says% the ?orl$ of experien-e ri4htly seen possesses the Jualities of no?ness% emptiness% luminosity an$ resplen$en-y. Both of these ha9e to $o ?ith the va)rayana devatas or $eities% an$ this topi. The ?orl$ is resplen$ent be-ause it is sa-re$% an$ is fille$ ?ith a?esomeness an$ po?er.f this is $one% ?hat is leftI Simply experien-e as it is in itself% ?ith no pre-on-eptions% no expe-tations% no e9aluations. Here% a--or$in4 to the va)rayana( is the same $ualism that ?as foun$ in the 0inayana( albeit on a mu-h more subtle le9elL this va)rayana -riti-ism is frame$ in an analo4y by the 4reat tantric poet SarahaL He ?ho $oes not enjoy the senses purifie$ 1n$ pra-ti-es only the Coi$% . The formless pra-ti-e in9ol9es -ontinue$ EformlessF me$itation of just sittin4% an$ explorin4 emptiness more -ompletely.. This is $one to enable one to relate $ire-tly ?ith this intelli4en-e% beyon$ the trammels of . The emptiness -omes from mahayana trainin4% ?here one has learne$ ho? to o9er-ome lon4in4 for soli$ 4roun$. ne must see the sti-kin4 point of the mahayana a$heren-e to simyata an$ be ?illin4 to aban$on atta-hment to the $uality of spiritual an$ unspiritual.

The path of the va)rayana in9ol9es $e9elopin4 more an$ more -omplete trust in experien-e5form an$ formless5as the reality of the devata5in other ?or$s as -omplete% perfe-t an$ ?ithout stain. . 1n$ ?e see them ?orkin4 ?ith situations of so-ial an$ politi-al -haos an$ sufferin4% to restore harmony% mutual respe-t an$ happiness. . This is kno?n as 9isuali>in4 oneself as the devata! Se-on$ly% the external ?orl$ is fi4ure$ also in the form of a devata( to un$erline an$ embo$y its sa-re$ness.n the form pra-ti-e of the va)rayana( both sittin4 me$itation an$ me$itation in a-tion% oneself an$ the external ?orl$ are seen as the devata Formless an$ form pra-ti-e are boun$ to4ether in the un$erstan$in4 that the devata has t?o aspe-tsL one of form% the other formless. The bio4raphies that follo? are% as note$ abo9e% fille$ ?ith a--ounts of RCisionsF of $eities.MTEE.ST =A F THE S. They are embo$iments of the in$i9i$ualKs o?n $eepest% un-on$itione$ intelli4en-e an$ of the sa-re$ness of the ?orl$ itself. To see the devatas is to en-ounter these elemental aspe-ts of existen-e. 3hen self/$oubt arises% the devatas pro9i$e some more profoun$ un$erstan$in4. The fore4oin4 shoul$ su44est ?hat kin$ of 9isions these are.& THE H. 3hen -onfusion about the ?orl$ hol$s s?ay% the devatas speak for the simpli-ity an$ $i4nity of thin4s as they are. e4o. The devata that is oneself an$ the devata as the external ?orl$ are% moreo9er% the same $eity% an$ this brin4s up a point ?e shall explore further belo?L that oneKs innermost ?orl$ an$ that of external phenomena are not t?o% but rather t?o expressions of one reality. The reason that ea-h Karmapa has so mu-h to $o ?ith the va)rayana $eities is that he speaks for the basian$ unimpea-hable $i4nity of human bein4s an$ for the 4oo$ness of the ?orl$.n the stories that follo?% ?e see the Karmapas en4a4e$ in tea-hin4 their stu$ents the path to the reali>ation of these fa-ts. 1s one rea$s throu4h these stories ?ith their play ba-k an$ forth bet?een RCisionsF an$ a-ti9ity% it is essential to keep in min$ the intimate relation existin4 bet?een the t?oL be-ause the Karmapas see the 4oo$ of people an$ of the ?orl$% they ha9e a 9ision to be a-tuali>e$ in so-ial an$ politi-al realms. Cision% then% in the sense use$ in these stories% has Juite a $ifferent meanin4 from the -ommon usa4e in the history of reli4ions. Be-ause of their relation to the devatas( as expressions of un-on$itione$% e4oless intelli4en-e an$ the EisnessF of the ?orl$% they ha9e the personal resour-es to a-tuali>e that 9ision. The 9ision of the Karmapas% base$ on their 0inayana( mahayana an$ va)rayana trainin4% .

He also 4aine$ mastery of the fiel$ of astrolo4y an$ ?rote a -lassi. . 1s ?ell% he is remembere$ for ha9in4 the ability to -han4e $eleterious -limati-on$itions. @ikyo 8oije left footprints in the ro-k floors of 9arious me$itation -a9es at Kampo Gan4ra% as ?ell as -ar9in4 a . Karma Pakshi ?as able to mo9e a hu4e statue merely throu4h the po?er of his me$itation.on the subje-t after seein4 the entire uni9erse -ontaine$ ?ithin his bo$y..4oo$ness an$ to tea-h respe-t for the sa-re$ness of ?hat is. He ?as also able to heal himself of si-kness merely by me$itatin4 on Bhaisajya4uru% the me$i-ine bu$$ha.f the reali>ation an$ tea-hin4 of the Karmapas is really so or$inary an$ so in tune ?ith Ethin4s as they areF then ?hat possible explanation -an there be for the prominent role playe$ by ma4i. That point ha9in4 been ma$e% a Juestion imme$iately presents itself. Cho$ra4 Gyatsho throu4h his 9ision ?as able to lo-ate -ertain hi$$en 9alleys as a refu4ee $urin4 politi-al -onfli-t.. 1agic The pre-e$in4 elu-i$ation of the earthy an$ realisti.in these storiesI For e9en -ursory rea$in4 of these a--ounts sho?s them to be fille$ ?ith all kin$s of ma4i-al $isplays. .t is this 9ision% alon4 ?ith the pra-ti-e to reali>e it% that make the Karmapas su-h sin4ular an$ ex-eptional people% an$ make their bio4raphies ?orthy of stu$y. Thon4?a 8on$en kne? the $ate of his $eath ?ell before its o--urren-e. + is a-tually profoun$ insi4ht into ?hat is% rather than into ?hat -oul$ or shoul$ be.T= 80CT. He ?as also kno?n for his extraor$inary healin4 po?ers. .t is this Eisness%F of the e4oless intelli4en-e of people an$ the sa-re$ness of the ?orl$% that 4i9es the KarmapasK 9ision so mu-h si4nifi-an-e an$ so mu-h po?er. =an4jun4 8oije ?as able to speak on the $ay of his birth. Their mission is to brin4 out in the ?orl$ ?hat is alrea$y there5to tea-h people their basi. 8e>hin She4pa exhibite$ the po?er of rea$in4 othersK thou4hts.nature of the 9isions of the Karmapas $oes not Juite resol9e all of our major $iffi-ulties in attemptin4 to un$erstan$ these bio4raphies. =olpe 8orje manifeste$ $ear% $etaile$% an$ a--urate memories of his life in his pre9ious in-arnation. 1--or$in4 to the bio4raphies% 8usum Khyenpa mira-ulously tra9ele$ to Ceylon ?here he re-ei9e$ tea-hin4 from the @aha/ si$$ha Cajra4hanta. . 3hen he 9isite$ the @in4 emperor% Aun4 2o% material obje-ts appeare$ in spa-e% apparitions of arhats ?ere seen ?alkin4 throu4h the streets% a monk ?as obser9e$ flyin4 throu4h the sky% a rain of flo?ers fell on the emperorKs pala-e% an$ the -lou$s took on the form of va)rayana $eities.

in the Karmapa bio4raphiesI 8o they represent ex-eptions of the reality/orientation of the storiesI 1re they lapses in the inte4rity of the a--ounts an$ must they be ex-ise$ for the stories to be properly un$erstoo$I . 3hat sense -an be ma$e of all of these examples of ma4i.MTEE. 1s he performe$ a Pa$masambha9a -eremony% the tormas on the shrine appeare$ to burst into flame. The 4roun$ for su-h a 9ie?point ob9iously lies $eeply roote$ in 3estern Christen$om ?here .n$ia.in these bio4raphies. 1t Ben-hen monastery% he -ause$ the statue of a horse to nei4h. n the $ay of his birth% all kin$s of unusual natural phenomena o--urre$. The pre-e$in4 examples are only a fe? of the many that mi4ht be -ite$ to illustrate the prominent role playe$ by ma4i. He brou4ht an en$ to a se9ere $rou4ht affli-tin4 a monastery in .ST =A F THE S. 1t Pan4phu4 monastery% he left footprints in stone. 1re these o--urren-es of ma4iinte4ral to the bio4raphies% or are they notI 1re they or are they not essential to an un$erstan$in4 of ?ho the Karmapas are an$ ?hat they $oI For a lon4 time% 3estern s-holars ha9e ju$4e$ that o--urren-es of this kin$ in the history of reli4ions are marks of a pre/lo4i-al% pre/ s-ientifi-% or other?ise inferior mentality.of leprosy in southern Tibet. Aeshe 8oije on-e emanate$ se9eral forms of himself% ea-h of ?hi-h 4a9e tea-hin4s to the in$i9i$uals present. The a--ounts of ma4i-al e9ents an$ a-ti9ities in the Karmapa bio4raphies rea-hes a -ulmination in the story of the present Karmapa% =an4jun4 =i4pe 8oije% bom in #+!( an$ -urrently resi$in4 at =umtek monastery near Gan4tok% Sikkim% . 1t 8ron4 Tup he left footprints in the ?ater ?hi-h% it is sai$% -an still be seen% ?inter or summer.#' THE H. stone statue that ?as able to speak.$ue% for example% to the entry of EpopularF elements into the li9esI r is it a literary $e9i-e% perhaps a$$e$ later% to enhan-e the presti4e of the -entral fi4ureI These Juestions resol9e themsel9es into a sin4le% -entral issue. 3hile stu$yin4 ?ith his guru% he re-ounte$ to him the stories of his pre9ious in-arnations. These an$ the other similar o--urren-es lea9e the 3estern rea$er ?ith a -ru-ial Juestion.an4-hen.s the in-i$en-e of ma4i. Before his birth% it is sai$ that he $isappeare$ for a time from his motherQs ?omb. Throu4h his 9ision% ?hen es-apin4 from Tibet% he enable$ his party to es-ape from -losely pursuin4 Chinese for-es. His $o4 an$ horse also left footprints in the ro-k. Throu4h his ma4i-al po?er% he brou4ht an en$ to an epi$emi. 8u$ul 8oije ?as able to -reate at lon4 $istan-e a rain of barley from the sky o9er a monastery at Po?o Gyal$>on4 in nee$ of blessin4.

. 3e kno? all of this to be the -ase% not only from tra$itional literature% but also from -ontemporaries% both 3estern an$ Tibetan. n the one han$% he may $e-i$e that the in-i$en-e of ma4i.in the .in tantric bio4raphies of the Karmapa type ren$er them lar4ely un?orthy of histori-al -re$en-e. ## ma4i. So far% then% the 3estern rea$er seems to be left ?ith t?o -hoi-es.t seems 4enerally a4ree$ that the in-i$en-e of ma4i. . The ?orl$ pi-ture$ in these bio4raphies is an a--urate representation of ho? life ?as experien-e$ in Tibet% up to the Chinese in9asion of the #+.. Fra>er sa? ma4i..has often tra$itionally been -lassifie$ as a E?ork of $arkness. Ho? -an both points be trueI The startin4 point of our un$erstan$in4 must be4in ?ith simple fa-t.?ay from the 9ery nature of reality as experien-e$ by the Tibetans. 1s more is learne$ about Tibetan Bu$$hism% it is be-omin4 in-reasin4ly -lear that neither of these t?o 9ie?points is a$eJuate. Furthermore% the ability to pro$u-e ma4i-al phenomena ?as $epen$ent on an in$i9i$ualKs psy-holo4i-al an$ spiritual $e9elopment.F 1 more se-ular manifestation of the same approa-h is the enli4htenment 9ie? that ma4i.is essential to the bio4raphies. n the other% these stories also seem to be histori-al in the most basi. They are -hroni-les of peopleKs experien-e of their li9es an$ their ?orl$. .in the bio4raphies is not essential.ineteenth an$ early t?entieth/-entury s-holars follo?e$ in the same tra-k.f this be so% then the nature of the a--ounts as real stories of real people is thro?n into $oubt. .in reli4ion is proof of its infantile or $emente$ -hara-ter.n$ian an$ Tibetan va)rayana.seems to be Juite inte4ral to the Karmapa bio4raphies.sense of the ?or$.an$ then take the bio4raphies seriously as a--ounts of the Karmapas. They pro-ee$e$ in an or4ani. @a4i-al o--urren-es of the type $es-ribe$ in these bio4raphies ?ere re4ular if extraor$inary experien-es of the people of Tibetan -ulture% from the lo?liest% most une$u-ate$ peasant% to the most sophisti-ate$% most hi4hly e$u-ate$ lamas! 1n$ these ?ere not hapha>ar$ o--urren-es. n the one han$% ma4i.T= 80CT. 3estern obser9ers ha9e -hroni-le$ the extent to ?hi-h ma4i-al o--urren-es of the kin$ -ite$ abo9e ?ere re4ular parts of life for the . 1n$ @alino?ski foun$ it a--ompanie$ by a lo?er le9el of intelli4en-e.'s. . Closer to home% -ontem/ porary s-holars of Tibetan reli4ion ha9e ren$ere$ similar ju$4ments on the o--urren-e of ma4i.as an early sta4e of reli4ion that ?as base$ on an ina$eJuate un$erstan$in4 of reality. n the other han$% he may $e-i$e the in-i$en-e of ma4i.n this -ase% he may remo9e the examples of ma4i.

The phenomena that ?e ha9e been labelin4 Ema4i-KK in the pre-e$in4 pa4es fall into t?o lar4e $i9isions% ea-h ?ith sub/-ate4ories.as a basi. .n$ian mahasiddhas% the va)rayanist ante-e$ents an$ prototypes of the Karmapas% an$ in many -ases ba-k to Bu$$ha Sakyamuni himself.of Ema4i-FI The one -ommon feature of these phenomena seems to be that the 3estern s-ientifi.#! THE H.n the past% 3estern s-holars ha9e ran$omly lumpe$ to4ether examples su-h as those -ite$ abo9e un$er the 4eneral -ate4oiy of Ema4i-. This ha9in4 been sai$% -an ?e say moreI .n or$er to 4ain further insi4ht into the role of ma4i. .po?ers% ability to mo9e matter% $i9ination% some phenomena of syn-hroni-ity% an$ the ability to affe-t -limate. remembran-e of former li9es. This 4roupin4 in-lu$es psy-hosomati.MTEE. @oreo9er% these -ate4ories are not pe-uliar to the li9es presente$ in this 9olume% but are entirely tra$itional% 4oin4 all the ?ay ba-k to the bio4raphies of the . The se-on$ lar4e -ate4ory -ontains phenomena that express an inherent -onne-tion bet?een min$ an$ external ?orl$. 1s it turns out in fa-t% the phenomena that ?e ha9e 4roupe$ un$er the term Ema4i-F are 9ery $i9erse.po?ers% ability to experien-e othersK thou4hts% an$ the tulku/s 6Tib. n the one han$% there are extraor$inary phenomena that are mainly psy-holo4i-al in nature.L spru2sku.?orl$ 9ie? has ha$ no explanation for these o--urren-es.t is important to note that these t?o broa$ -lassifi-ations of extraor$inary abilities are not Tibetan or e9en va)rayana in ori4in% but 4o ba-k throu4h mahayana times to the earliest $ays of Bu$$hism.F 3e must remember that Ema4i-F is a 3estern term an$ a 3estern -on-ept an$% in fa-t% is use$ to -o9er a ?i$e ran4e of hetero4eneous phenomena o--urrin4 in ?orl$ reli4ions. This -ate4ory in-lu$es ability to see $eities% pres-ien-e% 9arious types of yo4i. Tibetans an$% in some -ases% for themsel9es% in Tibet. . 1n$ one kno?s -ontemporary lamas of s-rupulous an$ profoun$ inte4rity ?ho talk Juite simply about su-h o--urren-es as a natural part of their li9es in Tibet an$ after. From all of this it ?oul$ appear that the Karmapa bio4raphies are Juite faithful an$ a--urate ?hen they represent ma4i.ST =A F THE S.part of the KarmapasK li9es. 1s ?e shall see% a -loser look at these phenomena sho?s that they fall into a fe? fairly -lear an$ $is-rete -ate4ories.in the KarmapaKs li9es% it ?ill be useful to briefly elu-i$ate this $i9ersity. 3hat is it% then% that has le$ s-holars to 4roup su-h phenomena un$er the sin4le rubri.

. Thon4?a 8on$enKs bio4raphy tells us that he foresa? his o?n $eath. This po?er% like the .n Tibetan Bu$$hism% it ?as a lon4stan$in4 tra$ition that lamas ?oul$ often pre$i-t the time of their $eath% sometimes months or e9en years in a$9an-e. "rescience. 1s that sta4e rea-hes a hi4h $e4ree of $e9elopment% some of the phenomena that ?e ha9e labele$ as Ema4i-F be4in to -ome into play. This po?er is one mentione$ throu4hout the history of Bu$$hism from earliest times. This po?er exten$s not only to Bu$$hist $eities% but also to those ?hi-h are not.t is sai$ in the bio4raphies that 8e>hin She4pa ha$ the ability to see othersK thou4hts. .n that sense% they refer ba-k to the pre-e$in4 se-tion of this intro$u-tion on RCisions. . @oreo9er% the parti-ular ?ay that these see$s ?ill unfol$ is $epen$ent on the surroun$in4 -ausal -ontext% as that also $e9elops out of the present. They are all boun$ to4ether by the fa-t that they all ha9e to $o ?ith ?ays of experien-in4 reality. This ability is one example of the po?er of pres-ien-e that is $es-ribe$ throu4hout Bu$$hist tra$ition. . .F This 4roup of phenomena all pro-ee$ from an extraor$inary openness an$ subtlety of experien-e% $e9elope$ throu4h the pro-ess of me$itation. #( E3traordinary "henomena 1ainly "sychological in Nature The first lar4e 4roup of extraor$inary phenomena are mainly psy-holo4i-al in nature. Experien-e% a--or$in4 to Bu$$hism% is not purely in$i9i$ual% but en9ironmental in -hara-ter.. The Karmapas in 4eneral are -re$ite$ ?ith the ability to see $eities. . The bility to See Deities. 1--or$in4 to Bu$$hism% the ?orl$ is fille$ ?ith 9arious kin$s of nonphysi-al bein4s% ?hi-h intera-t ?ith humans an$ human situations. By ha9in4 4i9en up normal mental preo--upations% experien-e be4ins to appear ?ith in-reasin4 -larity an$ subtlety. n-e a4ain% the ability to see the subtle presen-e that $eities represent $epen$s on extraor$inary psy-holo4i-al openness an$ -larity. Reading minds! .t is sai$ that enli4htene$ people ha9e su-h an immense brea$th of 9ision that they -an see future $e9elopments in a flash. They are 4enerally not seen o?in4 to the hea9iness of peopleKs selfpreo--upation an$ the narro? limits of their per-eption.T= 80CT. E9ents an$ tren$s that ?ill arise in the future are alrea$y -ontaine$ in the present as karmic see$s.t is one of the -lassi-al siddhis or mental abilities that arises from attainin4 a hi4h le9el of e4olessness. 14ain% this motif is first foun$ in the bio4raphy of Sakyamuni Bu$$ha an$ reappears o9er an$ o9er throu4hout the history of Bu$$hism. From the Bu$$hist 9ie?point% the po?er of pres-ien-e is explaine$ as base$ on the inter-onne-tion of present an$ future. 3hen a hi4h $e4ree of openness an$ re-epti9ity is attaine$% one -an pi-k up the experien-e of others.

4ogic "owers. 14ain% they be-ome possible ?hen self/preo--upation% ri4i$ assumption an$ firm mental fixation be-ome $iminishe$ throu4h me$itation. The Tulku "henomenon The last primarily psy-holo4i-al ability is the 4roup of po?ers -onne-te$ ?ith the tulku phenomenon. .MTEE. Thus% throu4hout the Karmapa bio4raphies% tulkus speak on the $ay of their birth% o?in4 to the memory of trainin4 in their pre9ious lifeB they re4ularly sho? at an early a4e sophisti-ate$ kno?le$4e of Bu$$hist theory an$ pra-ti-eB they -an i$entify possessions an$ frien$s of their pre9ious in-arnationB an$ they possess $etaile$ an$ a--urate memories of their former li9es. Su-h abilities are un$erstoo$ to arise Juite naturally out of t?o -ausesL first% the i$entity of the pre9ious an$ present in-arnationB se-on$% the tulkuKs extraor$inary mental -larity ?hi-h allo?s pre9ious experien-e to arise ?ithout -onfusion. pre9ious% is foun$ re-ounte$ throu4hout Bu$$hist history% be4innin4 ?ith Sakyamuni Bu$$ha ?ho is sai$ to ha9e ha$ an untrammele$ 9ie? of nonmaterial bein4s in the 9arious nonhuman realms.bein4. Conne-te$ ?ith this phenomenon of the tulku or rein-arnate$ lama( are a ?hole series of extraor$inary abilities.n the Karmapa bio4raphies% a number of a$$itional abilities are mentione$ that are -onne-te$ intimately ?ith a$9an-e$ pra-ti-es of me$itation.#< THE H. 14ain% this po?er like the others is . 3hen 8usum Khyenpa tra9els to Ceylon to re-ei9e tea-hin4 from the @ahasi$$ha Cajra4hanta% he is pra-ti-in4 the fli4ht of the subtle bo$y% a te-hniJue atteste$ to throu4hout the .ST =A F THE S. 1s is ?ell/kno?n% in Tibetan Bu$$hism there exist linea4es of fi4ures su-h as the Karmapas ?ho are linke$ to4ether in one unbroken series of in-arnationsL ?hen one Karmapa $ies% he is reborn shortly thereafter% is $is-o9ere$ throu4h 9arious pro-e$ures% an$ -ontinues the line until he% in turn% $ies an$ is subseJuently reborn. They are -onne-te$ ?ith seein4 throu4h an$ aban$onin4 the assume$ i$entifi-ation of psy-holo4i-al limit ?ith physi-al limit. 3hen Aeshe 8oije emanates many bo$ies to tea-h% he is exemplifyin4 the $upli-ation of forms enumerate$ in the mahayana as one of the po?ers of a bodhisattva! 1ll of these pra-ti-es are $es-riptions of experien-es that arise as fruits of lon4 terme$ an$ hi4hly $e9elope$ me$itation pra-ti-e. Be-ause $eities are often -riti-al elements in human situations% the ability to see an$ -ommuni-ate ?ith them 4i9es lamas su-h as the Karmapas ability to a-t -reati9ely in situations of $istress. 3hen =an4jun4 8oije sees the uni9erse in his bo$y% this refle-ts pra-ti-es of pram( nad3 an$ bindu( ?herein the pra-titioner explores subtle aspe-ts of his psy-hosomati.n$ian an$ Tibetan va)rayana.

.,T= 80CT. ,

#;

not somethin4 pe-uliar to these bio4raphies% but has a lon4 history exten$in4 ba-k into .n$ian Bu$$hism% to the time of the Bu$$ha himself. E3traordinary "henomena &ased on the Connection o# 1ind and E3ternal 5orld 1lthou4h the pre-e$in4 Ema4i-alF abilities are -ertainly not familiar parts of our 3estern experien-e% be-ause they are all psy-holo4i-al in nature% perhaps the 3estern rea$er ?ill be ?illin4 to allo? for their possibility. ur notions of reality $o not ipso #acto ex-lu$e su-h experien-es an$% the rea$er may say% perhaps they are le4itimately in-lu$e$ in the bio4raphies of the Karmapas. But no? ?e -ome to a se-on$% mu-h more resistent type of Ema4i-alF po?ers. These are apparently mu-h further remo9e$ from our notions of ?hat is possible. These po?ers ha9e to $o ?ith the inherent -onne-tion bet?een oneself an$ the external ?orl$% bet?een the ?ay one is an$ a-ts an$ that ?hi-h o--urs in the external ?orl$. The 4roun$ of this se-on$ type of ability is the Tibetan Bu$$hist notion that reality% both internal an$ external% is fun$amentally spiritual in nature. This means that the ?orl$ -onstantly speaks. The lar4e an$ small e9ents of oneKs life% e9en apparently ran$om a--i$ents an$ blessin4s% all ha9e inherent sense an$ si4nifi-an-e. neKs si-kness an$ health% the state of oneKs family an$ business% the pro4ress of un$ertakin4s% e9en the apparent insi4nifi-an-e of mun$ane% $ay to $ay routines% all ha9e their meanin4. 3hat happens in oneKs life is 9ery mu-h in tune ?ith ?ho one is an$ ?hat one is $oin4% from a spiritual 9ie?point. n a 4eneral le9el% the more one resists insi4ht% -larity an$ the inse-urity of openness% the more one fin$s in oneKs ?orl$ hellish -laustrophobia. Con9ersely% a--eptin4 oneKs per-eptions an$ intuitions lea$s to spa-iousness an$ harmony. From the Tibetan 9ie?point% reality presents itself as an a--urate% apt an$ timely mirror% an$ as a -hallen4e% en-oura4ement an$ -riti-. ne has the opportunity to learn about oneKs blin$ness an$ ri4i$ity from e9erythin4 that happens. There are -orollaries to this 9ie?point. First% the ri4i$ separation that ?e make in the 3est bet?een inner an$ outer% bet?een self an$ external ?orl$% $oes not hol$ in the Tibetan 9ie?. .n fa-t% self an$ external reality are t?o poles of a -onstant an$ on4oin4 $ialo4ue. Se-on$% ?e are entirely responsible for our ?orl$. E9erythin4 that arises in our ?orl$ has to $o ?ith us% an$ ?e must assume responsibility for it. This hol$s ?hether from

#)

THE H.ST =A F THE S.MTEE,

the -on9entional moral 9ie?point ?e are hel$ responsible or not. 3hate9er enters our Elife stream%F as the Bu$$hists put it% be-omes a manifestation of our life% an$ ?e are boun$ to -ommuni-ate ?ith it. 3e -annot reje-t it as someone elseKs fault or as an a--i$ental or irrele9ant o--urren-e. Thir$% ?e a-tually affe-t an$ brin4 about our ?orl$ by ?ho ?e are an$ ?hat ?e $o. The more ?e sink into $arkness% i4noran-e an$ neurosis% the more ?e pro9oke -onfusion an$ sufferin4 in our li9es. EJually% ?e -an take the opposite ta-k% an$ pro9oke -larity% ease an$ sanity. The Tibetans% then% experien-e$ reality as spiritual an$ this meant that for them% the external ?orl$ ?as ali9e ?ith meanin4. Times of spiritual $istress an$ sufferin4 ha$ their physi-al portents. The birth of a 4reat lama or the moment of a spiritual $is-o9ery ?oul$ be a--ompanie$ by extraor$inary -limati- an$ atmospheri- phenomena. .n 4eneral% the en9ironment ?as experien-e$ as extraor$inarily responsi9e to the human presen-e ?ithin it. 3hen a hi4h lama ?oul$ appear in a re4ion% his 9isit mi4ht ?ell be heral$e$ by unusual phenomena. His mere presen-e mi4ht affe-t $eleterious situations for the 4oo$. 1n$% in times of pla4ue% famine or ?ar% his a-ti9ity mi4ht ?ell -han4e the -ourse of e9ents. Si4nifi-antly% this a-ti9ity ?as -arrie$ out not throu4h te-hnolo4y in the 3estern sense% but throu4h the po?er of his spirituality. .t ?as experien-e$ that aroun$ people of 4reat sanity% the ?orl$ ?oul$ literally listen an$ respon$. .t is this kin$ of 4eneral lo4i-% further elaborate$ in 9arious tra$itional te-hniJues an$ pro-e$ures% that un$erlies the se-on$ type of ma4i-al phenomena. 0ealing "owers. The Karmapas ?ere ?ell kno?n for their ability to heal si-kness an$ pla4ue% both of in$i9i$uals an$ of ?hole re4ions. 8usum Khyenpa is remembere$ for -urin4 $isease% blin$ness an$ paralysis. =olpe 8oije an$ @ikyo 8oije ?ere both able to brin4 to an en$% respe-ti9ely% smallpox an$ leprosy epi$emi-s in their times. This healin4 ability a4ain 4oes ba-k to the early times of Bu$$hism% an$ is re-ounte$ in the Bu$$hist tra$ition as a -onstant a-ti9ity of buddhas an$ bodhisattvas! Tra$itional theory has it that the healer affe-ts the karmic stream of stri-ken in$i9i$uals by takin4 their karma on himself. This is literally e9i$en-e$ in their bio4raphies by @ikyo 8oije ?ho himself $ie$ of leprosy after -urin4 the leprosy epi$emi-. 1oving or ##ecting 1aterial 'b)ects. Karma Pakshi mo9e$ a hu4e statue throu4h the po?er of his me$itation an$ @ikyo 8oije left

.,T= 80CT. ,

#"

footprints in stone as ?ell as -ausin4 a stone -ar9in4 to speak. This kin$ of ability to affe-t material obje-ts is foun$ in Bu$$hism sin-e the earliest times% an$ is $es-ribe$ in the Pali Canon most prominently in the siddhis or ma4i-al po?ers resultin4 from me$itation. 2ater $urin4 mahayana times% the &odhisattvabhiani -re$its the bodhisattva ?ith the po?er to shake a monastery or e9en a to?n% to in-rease or $e-rease the si>e of material obje-ts an$ to transform the four elements into one another. .n the va)rayana tra$ition of the Karmapas it is sai$ that th tyogin has po?er o9er the four elements. The possibility of su-h po?ers is pro9i$e$ by the fa-t that ?hat people re4ar$ as natural limits is base$ on unJuestione$ psy-holo4i-al assumptions an$ fixations rather than on the nature of reality itself. Divination. 8i9ination is another ability -ommonly attribute$ to the Karmapas in this bio4raphy. Both Cho$ra4 Gyatsho an$ =i4pe 8oije make use of it in times of politi-al $an4er. 1n$ =an4jun4 8oije $is-o9ere$ the $eath of the Chinese emperor lon4 before the ne?s rea-he$ him. 8i9ination ?as -ommon throu4hout Tibetan history% $ra?in4 on va)rayana Bu$$hism% -entral 1sian shamani- pra-ti-es% an$ purely in$i4enous Tibetan tra$itions% an$ ?as -arrie$ out throu4h a 9ariety of tra$itional te-hniJues an$ metho$s. 8i9ination is base$ on the in$i9isibility of min$ an$ the external ?orl$ in that the pra-titioner% throu4h Erea$in4F experien-es an$ ritual obje-ts% -an 4ain kno?le$4e of the lar4er situation. Synchronicity. ne of the most interestin4 an$ also ?ell/$o-umente$ type of Ema4i-alF or mira-ulous phenomena in Tibetan Bu$$hism is one ?e -all syn-hroni-ity% for ?ant of a better term. .t in9ol9es all of those en9ironmental an$ atmospheri- phenomena that are so freJuently sai$ to a--ompany lamas of hi4h attainment. The best example of this in our bio4raphies o--urs $urin4 8e>hin Sh-4paKs 9isit to Aun4 2o% the emperor of China $urin4 the @in4 8ynasty. n that o--asion% a ma4i-al temple appeare$ in the sky% the -lou$s took on the shape of arhats( the rain ?as perfume$% li4hts emanate$ from 8e>hin She4paKs shrine% an$ many other similar ?on$ers o--urre$. The emperor ?as so impresse$ that he -ommissione$ a painter to $epi-t them in a mural. 14ain% this kin$ of phenomena 4oes ba-k to the time of Sakyamuni Bu$$ha ?hose life% it is sai$% ?as -ontinually a--ompanie$ by su-h portents an$ si4ns. .t reappears o9er an$ o9er in the Bu$$hism of .n$ia an$ Tibet ?here ?on$ers are sai$ to a--ompany the births% li9es an$ a-ti9ities of a--omplishe$ people. The lo4i- for this type of e9ent is

3hile there% he ?as reJueste$ to brin4 an en$ to the $rou4ht. E4olessness% in the Bu$$hist sense% is thus a pre-on$ition of ma4i. ther similar in-i$ents are re-ounte$ else?here in the Karmapa bio4raphies an$% in 4eneral% su-h abilities are ?ell/kno?n an$ $o-umente$ throu4hout Tibetan Bu$$hist history. This is so be-ause% as ?e ha9e note$% ma4i. The uni9erse is fun$amentally spiritual in nature an$ any o--urren-e of spiritual si4nifi-an-e is heral$e$ an$ -elebrate$ by reality% both animate an$ inanimate. .n fa-t% from ?hat ?e ha9e sai$% it shoul$ appear Juestionable ?hether ma4i.an4-hen area that ?as affli-te$ ?ith a $rou4ht. They startle unbelie9ers ?ith . . They help sentient bein4s to the health% pea-e% an$ ?elfare they nee$ to $e9elop spiritually. 1n$ this is the ?orl$ ?here all sorts of extraor$inary possibilities -an -ome into 9ie?% ?hi-h ?e in the 3est -all ma4i-. The extraor$inary phenomena $es-ribe$ in these bio4raphies -annot o--ur as lon4 as e4o% self/ preo--upation an$ -on-eptual min$ hol$ s?ay.n$ian Bu$$hismL the mahayana bodhisattva -oul$ -han4e earth into ?ater an$ the tantric mahasiddha ha$ po?er o9er the elements. 3hen% throu4h me$itation% oneKs min$ -eases to be fille$ ?ith thou4hts of se-urity% personal territory an$ self/a44ran$i>ement% then a lar4er ?orl$ be4ins to sho? itself.-an e9er be Eexplaine$F in the same ?ay one mi4ht explain the operation of% for example% a ?rist ?at-h.n a--or$an-e ?ith tra$itional pra-ti-e% he aske$ for ?ater an$ be4an to bathe himself% ?hereupon it be4an to rain an$ a sprin4 arose un$er the ?ashtub he ?as usin4. 14ain% su-h po?ers ?ere kno?n in . bility to Trans#orm 5eather! =an4jun4 =i4pe 8orjeKs bio4raphy tells us that the present Karmapa 9isite$ a monastery in the . 1--or$in4 to Tibetan tra$ition% rain -an be pro$u-e$ by establishin4 -ommuni-ation ?ith the spiritual presen-e -alle$ nagas( ?hi-h are -onne-te$ ?ith the phenomenon of rain. simple.MTEE. 3hat they $o su44est is the presuppositions an$ -on$itions un$er ?hi-h ma4i-omes into Juestion ?ithin the Tibetan -ontext.as it is $es-ribe$ in these bio4raphies.ST =A F THE S.#& THE H. The abo9e examples an$ -ommentary -ertainly $o not EexplainF the ma4i-al phenomena o--urrin4 in the bio4raphies of the Karmapas.in Tibet5in the Bu$$hist -ontext5?as not merely pro$u-e$ by -ertain a-ti9ities but ?as in some sense $epen$ent on psy-holo4i-al an$ spiritual $e9elopment. This is the ?orl$ of insi4ht% self/aban$onment to otherKs ?elfare% an$ the sa-re$ness of the ?orl$% $es-ribe$ in the pre9ious se-tion of this intro$u-tion. The -on$itions un$er ?hi-h the ma4i-al an$ mira-ulous -ome into play are% to summari>e% fe? an$ simple. This bein4 so% su-h phenomena may perform se9eral fun-tions.

T= 80CT. . 3hen ?e% as 3esterners% look at the ?orl$ of the tra$itional Tibetan% ?e are usually first stru-k by its la-k of te-hnolo4i-al sophisti-ation an$ its material simpli-ity.is then% in Tibetan Bu$$hist tra$ition% the han$mai$en of enli4htenment. @a4i.theory% stories su-h as these ha9e freJuently been un$erstoo$ to be base$ on intelle-tual beliefs ?ith no experiential foun$ation in a-tual life.n this ?ay% the profoun$ heart of the tra$ition an$ that ?hi-h ?as of no/a--ount -oul$ be $ifferentiate$. 1n$ they set apart% pun-tuate% an$ 4lorify the lamas ?ho -arry the tra$ition of Bu$$hism for their 4eneration. The 9ariety of te-hniJues% tra$itions an$ experien-es of the Tibetan Bu$$hist ?ere -ontinually subje-te$ to the -riti-al an$ $is-ernin4 eye of me$itation. Conclusion For a lon4 time in the stu$y of non/3estern reli4ions% it ?as thou4ht that material su-h as the present bio4raphies ?ere little more than tales base$ on mistaken notions about reality. Generally% ?e ten$ to $ismiss su-h a tra$itional . .n 3estern a-a$emi.n fa-t% as the rea$er approa-hes these stories% it is -riti-al that he keeps one fa-t in min$L the ?orl$ that opens up in these bio4raphies is a tra$itional ?orl$ an$ a real ?orl$. 3e say this be-ause of the prominent role playe$ by me$itation in Tibetan Bu$$hism. 3e shoul$ also keep in min$ that the tra$itional ?orl$ of the Tibetans% ?ith its 9isions% its ma4i.an$ its 9ie? of life% ?as not unteste$% nor ?as it fixe$ an$ ri4i$. . 1s ?e ha9e su44este$ in this intro$u-tion% nothin4 -oul$ be further from the -ase. Probably% in some ?ays less than our Emo$ern ?orl$%F it ?as base$ on superstition% illusion an$ mental fixation. . #+ the reality an$ po?er of enli4htenment.. Base$ on the intelli4en-e an$ experien-e of the me$itati9e tra$ition% ?hat ?as 9aluable -oul$ be retaine$% ?hat ?as unne-essary -oul$ be $is-ar$e$% an$ the tra$ition -oul$ 4ro?% e9ol9e an$ $e9elop ?ithout losin4 its essential i$entity. @ore than ?e% the tra$itional Tibetan masters $e9elope$ profoun$ self kno?le$4e an$ aime$ to empty themsel9es of presup/ positions an$ illusion% so that they mi4ht see the ?orl$ freshly an$ -learly.. 1n$ this -ontinual e9aluation ?as $one by intelli4ent% e$u-ate$ an$ sophisti-ate$ people. The 9arious $imensions of Bu$$hist tra$ition ?ere explore$% teste$% -onfirme$% refine$% impro9e$.

Perhaps it is this that lies at the basis of the Tibetans* -ontentment ?ith their ?ay of life.aropa . 3hy else ?oul$ people like the Tibetans ha9e remaine$ satisfie$ ?ith their -ulture% their reli4ion an$ their ?ay of lifeI Su-h thou4hts -ome rea$ily to our min$s% but perhaps in them ?e are self/$e-ei9e$. 1n$ this su44ests that beyon$ material -omfort an$ se-urity% beyon$ ease% re-o4nition an$ fortune% there may be somethin4 else more fun$amentally nee$e$ to make life ?orth li9in4.nstitute Boul$er% Colora$o 8e-ember% #+"+ . =ay . . Perhaps it ?as this a$$itional fa-tor that ?as pro9i$e$ by Tibetan Bu$$hism5some experien-e an$ a--eptan-e of ?ho one a-tually is% a feelin4 of -onta-t ?ith reality beyon$ neurosis an$ self/absorption% an$ some experien-e an$ appre-iation of life in its elemental aspe-ts.MTEE.n this $ay an$ a4e% ?e shoul$ -arefully -onsi$er ?hether there may not be another reason ?hy tra$itional Tibet remaine$ un-han4e$ for so lon4. Perhaps the Bu$$hist me$itati9e tra$ition enable$ the Tibetans to li9e their li9es fully% to experien-e ?hat human life fun$amentally is% an$ to kno? ?hat it means to be human. =e4inal$ 1.ST =A F THE S.!' THE H. ?orl$ be-ause ?e see in it a la-k of intelli4en-e% open/min$e$ness or in$ustry. Before ?e $ismiss these bio4raphies too Jui-kly% ?e shoul$ stop our min$s an$ take su-h a possibility seriously. Perhaps ?ithin that -ulture% the Tibetans foun$ a ?ay of life ?orth keepin4 an$ preser9in4% a ?ay of life ?hi-h enable$ them to some more basisatisfa-tion.

.

n a$$ition% their a-ti9ity ?as also prophesie$ by the ei4hth/-entury . The tea-hin4s of Bu$$ha ha9e been preser9e$ for t?o thousan$ fi9e hun$re$ years in a multipli-ity of linea4es. The Notion o# 2ineage The notion of linea4e is of the utmost importan-e for an un$erstan$in4 of the history of the Gyal?a Karmapas. ut of these early 4roupin4s of dharma follo?ers emer4e$ the ei4hteen 0inayana se-ts..n$ian mahaguru( Pa$masambha9a.L karma% Tib.S the bio4raphies of the sixteen su--essi9e in-arnations of the Gyal?a Karmapa 2ama of Tibet% hea$ of the Karma Ka4yu linea4e of Bu$$hism.T1. The Gyal?a Karmapa 2amas ha9e -ontinually embo$ie$ an$ 4ui$e$ the Karma Ka4yu transmission of the messa4e of Sakyamuni Bu$$ha.6 of bu$$hahoo$% an$ as su-h ?ere prophesie$ by Sakyamuni Bu$$ha in the Samadhira)asutra! . The present Karmapa% =an4jun4 =i4pe 8orje 6#+!(57% is the sixteenth of the line ?hi-h be4an ?ith the first Karmapa% 8usum Khyenpa 6###'/##+(7. 2or$ Bu$$ha himself 4a9e many 9arie$ an$ sometimes -ontrastin4 instru-tions to his stu$ents% ?ho subseJuently spe-iali>e$ in parti-ular -y-les of pre-epts. From the point of 9ie? of spirituality% the Karmapa 2amas embo$y the a-ti9ity 6Skt.L phrin!las.The Historical and Theoretical Background TH. 2ater the mahayana tra$itions of the @a$hyamaka an$ Ao4a/ !! . The a-ti9ity an$ tea-hin4 of this 4reat in-arnation line has been of the utmost importan-e in the history of va)rayana Bu$$hism to this $ay.S B K C . They ha9e $isplaye$ their mastery of dharma 9ariously as s-holar% yogin( artist an$ poet an$ their li9es are fla?less examples of renun-iation% -ompassion an$ the 9ie? of ?is$om.

E. 3ithin the Tibetan linea4es% the in-arnate tea-hers ha9e been re4ar$e$ as the je?els of the tra$ition an$ ha9e 4enerally been the senior tea-hers% yogins an$ s-holars.L brgyud. The major linea4es of dharma in Tibet possesse$ a relati9ely sophisti-ate$ $e4ree of or4ani>ation% ?ith many monasteries% -on9ents% -olle4es an$ me$itation -enters in ?hi-h stu$ents ?ere traine$ in a ran4e of stu$ies in-lu$in4 philosophy% me$itation% ritual% art an$ astrolo4y. or Etra$ition of dharmaT 6Tib. The se-on$ Karmapa% Karma Pakshi ?as in fa-t the first re-o4ni>e$ Tibetan tulku. on?ar$% the 9arious lines of the va)rayana or Ese-ret mantraF emer4e$.yin4ma% Sakya% Gelu4 an$ Ka4yu ha9e $e9elope$. 1lthou4h in-arnate tea-hers ha$ been re-o4ni>e$ in . su-h as the Ka4yu mahamudri This 9ie? is itself asso-iate$ ?ith spe-ifi. .n the thousan$ year history of buddhadharma in Tibet four major tra$itions% . 1 Elinea4eF 6Tib.n a$$ition to the line of transmission from tea-her to stu$ent ?ithin the linea4e% there are also the lines of tulkus 6Tib.n$ia% the existen-e in Tibet of $e9elope$ tra$itions ?ith 4reat -ultural an$ so-ial influen-e enable$ tulkus to be re-o4ni>e$ an$ traine$ in a ?ay ?hi-h ha$ not been possible in .!( 1 he History of the Sixteen Karmapas -ara flourishe$ as a result of the inspiration of the t?o supreme masters% . The %agyu Tradition The Karma Ka4yu linea4e has been the most extensi9e of the ori4inal four 4reat bran-hes of the 8akpo Ka4yu tra$ition% ?hi-h is the name 4i9en .L lta!ba.L spruisku.L chos!lugs. @oreo9er% the parti-ular tea-hin4s are preser9e$ by an$ passe$ on throu4h a line of a--omplishe$ spiritual masters% ?ho themsel9es embo$y the a-tual Jualities of the tea-hin4.F . or Ein-arnate tea-hers. .pra-ti-es an$ symboli.$eities. Therefore% ?hen the buddhadharma ?as transmitte$ to Tibet% the Tibetan linea4es $e9elope$ to a lar4e extent on the basis of this pre/existin4 pattern.a4aijuna an$ 1san4a.umerous small lines an$ sub/se-ts ha9e also arisen% most of ?hi-h ha9e sin-e $isappeare$ as in$epen$ent s-hools. . SubseJuently from the fifth -entury C.n-arnate tea-hers are spiritually a$9an-e$ pra-titioners% ?ho% ha9in4 trans-en$e$ the net?ork of e4o% ne9ertheless return in su--essi9e li9es to -arry out their 9o? to ?ork for sentient bein4s.n$ia. possesses -ertain re-o4ni>able -hara-teristi-s% in-lu$in4 a -entral spiritual theme or E9ie?pointF 6Tib.

The term Ka4yu is often translate$ simply as Eoral transmissionF but this is only an attempt at literal translation an$ o9erlooks the ori4in of the term an$ its ori4inal meanin4.L dwags!po!lha!r)e. tea-hin4s of 1tlsa an$ the tea-hin4s of 8romtonpa.! Gampopa or4ani>e$ these linea4es into an or4ani.L bka:brgyud. -omprisin4 the 8akpo Ka4yu tra$ition% emer4e$. -otton robe by the yogins of the tra$ition. is a late 8rukpa Ka4yu -ustom referrin4 to the ?earin4 of a E?hiteF 6Tib.?hole% 4i9in4 his name% 8akpo 2harje 6Tib.MTEE.aropaF from @ilarepa.! The linea4es referre$ to bein4L 6#7 that of Guhyasamaja% Catuhpltha an$ the yogas of the Eillusory bo$yF an$ Etransferen-eF han$e$ $o?n throu4h 8harmakaya Bu$$ha Cajra$hara% . The term Ka4yu 6Tib.!< THE H. Gampopa% a skille$ physi-ian% ?as first a Ka$ampa bhiksu ?ho re-ei9e$ tea-hin4s from Hayon$a4% Hayul?a% Geshe .L bka:babs!b9hilbrgyud!pa or sometimes bka8!b9hi8i!brgyud!pa. 1fter GampopaKs $eath the Efour 4reat an$ ei4ht minor 6se-ts7F 6Tib. The alternate ren$erin4 of the term as Kar4yu 6Tib.a4aijuna an$ TilopaB 6!7 that of @ahamaya an$ the E$reamF yoga han$e$ $o?n throu4h 8harmakaya Bu$$ha Cajra$hara% Hnana 8akinT% Kukuripa% Caryapa an$ TilopaB 6(7 that of Cakrasam9ara an$ the other mother tantras( an$ the EluminosityF yoga han$e$ $o?n by 8harmakaya Bu$$ha Cajra$hara% Cajrapani% 8ombipa% Cinasa9ajra% 2a9apa an$ TilopaB an$ finally 6<7 that of He9ajra an$ the EheatF yoga han$e$ $o?n throu4h 8harmakaya Bu$$ha Cajra$hara% Cajrapani% Kama$e9a9ajra% Pa$/ ma9ajra% 8akinT Kalpa Bha$re an$ Tilopa. $eri9es from a lon4er phrase meanin4 Elinea4es of the four -ommissione$ onesF 6Tib.(7% the profoun$ s-holar an$ spiritual master ?hose life ?as pre$i-te$ by 2or$ Sakyamuni.L sgam!po!pa7 6#'"+/##. He be-ame a hol$er of the Ka$ampa linea4e an$ ?rote the 7ewel 'rnament o# 2iberation an$ other -ommentaries on Ka$ampa tea-hin4.n$rabhuti% Ao4inl% Cisukalpa% Saraha% . to the systemati>ation of the linea4es of tea-hin4 transmitte$ throu4h Gampopa 6Tib.L dkar. The Bu$$ha tol$ one of his follo?ers% a physi-ian bhiksu name$ Kumara% that in the future he ?oul$ a4ain be a physi-ian bhiksu( only this time in a northern -ountry by the si$e of the ri9er 2ohita an$ ?oul$ establish a me$itation s-hool. 2ater he re-ei9e$ the Ka4yupa tea-hin4 on mahamudra an$ the Esix yogas of . 1fter that he ?as -alle$ Et?o streams be-ome oneF 6Tib.ST =A F THE S.L che!9hi!chung!brgvad.L dkar!brgyud.yu4rumpa% Sha?o Gan4pa an$ Geshe Chakre4on4khapa.L bka8!phyag!chu!bo!gnyis!8dres.L lam!rim. Ethe $o-tor from 8akpoF to the s-hool he forme$% ?hi-h thus be-ame kno?n as the 8akpo Ka4yu. . He stu$ie$ the E4ra$e$ pathF 6Tib.

8 THE =ET. 6(7 The Baram 6Tib.7 The Kamtshan4 or Karma Ka4yu ?as foun$e$ by Karmapa 8usum Khyenpa 6###'/##+(7% ?ho stu$ie$ un$er Gampopa.L Kba8!ram. 6<7 The Pha4mo 8rupa 6Tib.L phag!mo!g)ru!pa7 Ka4yu ?as foun$e$ by GampopaKs stu$ent% Pha4mo 8ru 8oije Gyalpo 6###'/##"'7.L tshalpa. GampopaKs prin-ipal tea-her% the fame$ yogin an$ poet% @ilarepa% ha$ himself re-ei9e$ the EtransmissionF of the linea4e from @arpa the translator% stu$ent of . The E$ire-t linea4eF 6Tib.C12 B1CKG= 0.aropa @arpa 2otsa?a @ilarepa Gampopa The Ein$ire-t linea4eF 6Tib.L ring!brgyud7% ?hi-h is expressly -on-erne$ ?ith the transmission of mahamudra( is $es-ribe$ asL 8harmakaya Bu$$ha Cajra$hara =atnamati Saraha . Ka4yu ?as foun$e$ by Baram 8arina 3an4-huk% a $is-iple of Gampopa.L chung!brgyad7 subse-tsL .n$ian siddhas Sa9arip a @aitrip a @arpa 2otsa? a @ilarep a Gampo pa The Efour 4reatF 6Tib.a4aijuna . Ka4yu ?as foun$e$ by Shan4 Au$rakpa Tson$ru 8rakpa 6##!(/##+(7% a $is-iple of 8akpo Gomtsul. of the 8akpo Ka4yu is $es-ribe$ asL 8harmakaya Bu$$ha Cajra$hara Tilopa . 6!7 The Tsalpa 6Tib. The Pha4mo 8rupa Ka4yu subseJuently spa?ne$ Eei4ht minor* 6Tib.8 !. linea4es of the 8akpo Ka4yu ori4inate$ ?ith pupils of Gampopa or his nephe?% 8akpo Gomtsul 6###)/ ##)+7L 6.L nye!brgyud. He thus be-ame the hol$er of the Ka4yu linea4e.aropa an$ @aitripa.THE H .ST =.L che!b9hi.C12 1.

The Sakya an$ Ka4yu .pra-titioners ?ho follo?e$ the sutra an$ mantra tea-hin4s of the perio$ of early translations. The key .yin4ma tra$ition is the .L /brug!pa. Aelpa 6Tib. The tea-hin4 of maha ati points $ire-tly to the natural perfe-tion of a?areness% an$ it may be re4ar$e$ as the supreme tea-hin4 of the Bu$$haKs ?ay.yin4ma 6Tib.ST =A F THE S.L *bri!gung7 Ta4lun4 6Tib.&/#'.L gsang!ba!snying!po7 or Secret Essence.L ring( brgyud. of the Eoral transmissionF 6Tib.L smar!tshang. or E1n-ient nes%F ?hi-h emer4e$ out of the missionary ?ork of the ei4hth/ -entury masters% Guru Pa$masambha9a% Kin4 Trison4 8etsun an$ the bodhisattva Santarakshita.!) THE H.L khro!phu. The later s-hools in Tibet -olle-ti9ely belon4 to the perio$ of the Ene? translationsF 6Tib. The 'ther 2ineages The Karma Ka4yu tra$ition -annot be -onsi$ere$ in isolation from the other tra$itions of Bu$$hism in Tibet upon ?hi-h it exerte$ -onsi$erable influen-e an$ from ?hi-h% in return% it re-ei9e$ many tea-hin4s.uhya/ garbha 6Tib.L gyel!pa. The early . an$ the linea4e of Eprofoun$ 9isionsF 6Tib.L gya/!9ang.MTEE.n$ian s-holar an$ yogin( Cimalamitra. of Ethe treasuresF or E-on-eale$ textsF 6Tib.L% rci9ogs!pa!chen!po. The 8rukpa% 8ri4un4 an$ Ta4lun4 ha9e sur9i9e$ to the present $ay% ?ith the 8rukpa bein4 the lar4est% follo?e$ by the 8ri4un4. Aam>an4 6Tib.yin4ma s-hoolL the Ein$ire-t linea4eF 6Tib. The first tra$ition to appear in Tibet ?as the .yin4mapas ?ere both lay an$ monasti.L bka8!ma7% the E$ire-t linea4eF 6Tib.yin4ma tra$ition in-lu$e$ the omnis-ient 2on4-hen =abjampa 6#('&/#()(7% Hi4me 2in4pa 6#"!+/#"+"7 an$ Hu @ipham 6#&<&/#+#<7. 8ri4un4 6Tib.! The 4reatest masters of the .L gter!ma. The present hea$s of the .L rnying!ma. @artshan4 6Tib.L shug!seb. 8rukpa 6Tib.L stag!lung7 Trophu 6Tib.yin4ma pre-ept is maha ati 6Tib. or EGreat Perfe-tion%F ?hi-h ?as intro$u-e$ into Tibet in the ei4hth -entury by the .#7 an$ other s-holars $e9ise$ ne? -anons of translation te-hniJue% emphasi>in4 etymolo4i-al pre-ision rather than the freer style of the Eol$ translationF s-hool.L nye!brgyud.L nga! :gyur!gsar!ma7% ?hi-h be4an in the tenth -entury ?hen =in-hen San4po 6+. Three $istin-t lines -an be $istin4uishe$ ?ithin the .L 9ab!mo!dag!snang.yin4ma s-hool are @intin4 Tri-hen an$ 8u$jom Hi4$ral Aeshe 8oije. Shu4seb CTib. The main tantra of the .

ST =.L tsong!kha!pa!blo!b9ang!/grags!pa. This influential family ha$ pre9iously been . 6#()"/ #<#+7. tra$ition also be4an in the ele9enth -entury but it has not sur9i9e$ as an in$epen$ent s-hool% its tea-hin4 ha9in4 been absorbe$ into the other s-hools.C12 B1CKG= 0. The Ka$ampas 4enerally uphel$ the philosophy of the Prasan4ika @a$hyamaka tea-hin4 of EemptinessF 6Skt.L bka8!gdams!pa./#!&'7.n early life Tson4khapa stu$ie$ ?ith masters of all the major linea4es an$ $isplaye$ superb Jualities of s-holarship. ?ho a-tually or4ani>e$ the Ka$am as a s-hool.&7 an$ the other four of the Efi9e 4reat masters%F Sonam Tsemo 6##<!/##&!7% Hetsun 8rakpa Gyaltsen 6##<"/#!#)7% Sakya Pan$ita 6##&!/ #!.n$ian master 1tlsa 8lpankara Srijnana 6+"+/#'.! . He 4athere$ many $is-iples an$ out of them 4re? the Gelu4 tra$ition.L sunyata( Tib. Three sub/se-ts ha9e appeare$L Sakyapa% . or Epath an$ fruitF -y-le% $e9elope$ by the .4orpa an$ Tsharpa% ?hi-h% ho?e9er% ha9e $iffere$ only in ritual. . To a fe? 4ifte$ $is-iples he transmitte$ the espe-ially profoun$ pre-epts of Ethou4ht transformationF 6Tib.8 THE =ET. The Gelu4 tra$ition ?as foun$e$ by the 4reat Tibetan pandita Tson4/ khapa 2o>an4 8ra4pa 6Tib. The -entral -on-erns of the Gelu4 tra$ition are its insisten-e on the vinaya monasti. Sakya Tri$>in 6#+<.n$ian siddha( Cirupa.L lam!8bras.L /brom!ston!rgyal!ba/i!byung!nas.8 !" tra$itions% both of ?hi-h arose in the ele9enth -entury% ?ere base$ on the Ene?F tantric -y-les ?hi-h ?ere intro$u-e$ at this time. s-hool% ?as foun$e$ in #'"( by Kon-ho4 Gyalpo of the Khon family.THE H .yin4mapa but Kon-ho4 Gyalpo stu$ie$ the ne? tantras ?ith 8ro4mi 2otsa?a an$ the ./7% an emanation of @anjusrl% the bodhisattva of ?is$om.yin4po 6#'+!/##. The present hea$ of the Sakya tra$ition is H.n$ian pandita( Gaya$hara. The monastery of Sakya% ?hi-h later be-ame the -entral seat of the Sakyapa 6Tib. The Sakya s-hool has spe-iali>e$ in the -ombine$ sutra an$ mantra tea-hin4 of the lam dre 6Tib. The Ka$ampa 6Tib. The Ka$am s-hool $e9elope$ from the a-ti9ity an$ tea-hin4s of the . 1tlsa lai$ 4reat emphasis on the E4ra$e$ pathF of both sutra an$ tantra as an essential prereJuisite for authenti.L stong!pa!nyid. Their prin-ipal Sakya tantra has been 0eva)ra an$ their main $eities are He9ajra an$ Cajrayo4inl. H.(7% ?ho spent the last t?el9e years of his life in Tibet.L sa!skya!pa.t ?as his stu$ent 8romton 6Tib. The Sakya tra$ition ?as 4i9en $efinite shape by Kon-ho4 GyalpoKs son% Sa-hen Kun4a .L blo!sbyong.rules an$ the .C12 1.#7 an$ Cho4yal Phakpa 6#!(. as a ne4ation of all pre$i-ates.spirituality.

n tantra( they ha9e pla-e$ their main emphasis on the tantras of Guhyasamaja% Cajrabhaira9a an$ Cakrasam9ara.L khyung! po!rnal!8byor. an$ Cho$ Aul 6Tib.L gcodyul.L u!rgyan!pa!rin!chen! dpal.L bka8!gdams!sar. 6#'.L mkhas!grub!r)e. H.! This 9ie?% ?hi-h is $eri9e$ from the <ttaratantra 6Tib. The Honan4pas subseJuently ?ere atta-ke$ by many Prasan4ika s-holars% espe-ially the Gelu4pas at the time of the fifth 8alai 2ama 6#)#.MTEE. . 6++'/##<'7% ?ho inherite$ the mahamudra transmission of the dakinls( .yen$rup 6Tib.7B the 0r4yen . of @aitreya% states that ultimate reality% ?hile bein4 empty of any relati9e blemishes% is intrinsi-ally positi9e. an$ his stu$ent% the fame$ yogirii( @a-hi4 2ab$ronma 6Tib. foun$e$ by the learne$ philosopher% 8olpopa Sherab Gyaltshan 6Tib.L dol!po!pa!shes!rab!rgyal!mtshari.mportant ones in-lu$e the Shijay 6Tib.! Their parti-ular philosophi-al 9ie?point is that of the Prasan4ika @a$hyamaka as elaborate$ by Tson4khapa.L dams!pa!sangs!rgyas. 6#(&.L ma!gcig!labs! sgron!ma. 6#!+!/#()#7..# #<(&7 an$ Kon-ho4 Hi4me 3an4po 6Tib. . This emphasis on the tea-hin4s of 1tlsa has le$ to the Gelu4 sometimes bein4 referre$ to as the ne? Ka$am 6Tib. E4ra$e$ pathF to enli4htenment inherite$ from 1tisaKs tea-hin4s.L dkon!chog!8)igs!med!dbang!po. 2in4 =inpo-he% tutor to the fourteenth 8alai 2ama% Ten>in Gyatsho 6#+(. Ho?e9er% their tea-hin4s ha9e been maintaine$ an$ propa4ate$ by -ertain fi4ures ?ithin the Ka4yu% . linea4es of the .i4uma 6-onsort of . ne of the most -ontro9ersial se-ts in Tibet ?as the Honan4 s-hool 6Tib. ./#)&'7 an$ sin-e this time ha9e not existe$ as an in$epen$ent se-t.57% embo$iment of the -ompassion of 19alokites9ara. The present hea$ of the s-hool is H. The Gelu4pa tra$ition has been ornamente$ by the ?ork of many brilliant s-holars su-h as Khe$rupje 6Tib.!& THE H.L rgyud!bla!ma./##<.aljor 6Tib. .n$ian siddha( 8ampa San4ye 6Tib.L g9han!stong.ST =A F THE S.n a$$ition to these major tra$itions a 4reat -ontribution to buddha/ dharma in Tibet has been ma$e by the 9arious smaller linea4es.L o!rgyan!snyen!sgrub.yin4ma an$ Sakya tra$itions% su-h as Karmapa =an4jun4 8oije% 2on4/ -henpa an$ Sakya Chok$en.L )o!nang!pa.L shi!byas. linea4e of the siddha( 0r4yenpa =in-hen Pal 6Tib. 6#!('/#('+7% ?hi-h ?as 9ery influential for the 8ru4pa an$ Kam/ tshan4 Ka4yu linea4es into ?hi-h it ?as e9entually absorbe$B an$ the Shan4pa 6Tib.aropa7 an$ Sukhasi$$hi. The Ho/ nan4 tra$ition hel$ the influential $o-trine of Eempty of somethin4 elseF 6Tib.L shangs!pa7% foun$e$ by Khyun4po . 6#"!&/ #"&#7.

tulkus! The Kamtshan4 Ka4yu tra$ition ?as establishe$ by the first Karma/ pa% 8usum Khyenpa% ?ho inherite$ the Ka4yu transmission from Gampo/ pa. .L 9hwa!dmar7% Situ 6Tib.per-eption% su-h enli4htene$ a-ti9ity takes on the 4arb of mira-ulous po?er. tulkus.n a$$ition% numerous other s-holars% yogins an$ 9isionaries ha9e -ontribute$ to the splen$or of the tra$ition.C12 B1CKG= 0. 8usum Khyenpa later foun$e$ the three main -enters of Karma Ka4yu tra$ition at To$lun4 Tsurphu 6Tib.t ?as $urin4 the lifetime of the se-on$ Karmapa% Karma Pakshi 6#!'</#!&(7 that the expansion of the Kaiptshan4 be4an.L karma!dgon. in Kham pro9in-e an$ Kampo .L )am!mgon!kong!sprul7% an$ Pa?o 6Tib. Bein4 beyon$ the limita/ tions of $ualisti.ST =.L kam!po!gnas!nang7 also in Kham% an$ thus or4ani>e$ the Karma Ka4yu as a $istin-t s-hool.C12 1.8 !+ The 2ineage o# the %armapas The Karma Ka4yu s-hool has ha$ a lon4 an$ 4lorious history in ?hi-h it has establishe$ itself as the supreme Ka4yu se-t un$er the lea$ership of the Gyal?a Karmapas. .L 9hwa!nag.L situ. 3hile in China% Karma Pakshi on se9eral o--asions $isplaye$ mira-ulous po?ers in or$er to assist his ?ork of sprea$in4 buddhadharma! The $isplay of mira-ulous a-ti9ity by Karma Pakshi an$ the other Karmapas has fun-tione$ as a means of manifestin4 the utter free$om of enli4htenment.8 THE =ET. The thir$ Karmapa% =an4jun4 8oije 6#!&</#((+7% ?ho ?as a -on/ summate master of theory an$ pra-ti-e is parti-ularly important for his brin4in4 to4ether of the hitherto separate streams of Ka4yu mahamudra . an$ Gyaltshab 6Tib.THE H . line of the Karmapas has been ai$e$ an$ supporte$ by the three -hief in-arnation lines of the se-tL the =e$ Hat Shamar 6Tib. The Bla-k Hat 6Tib.L rgyal tshab. . .L karmapa7 prophesie$ by the Bu$$ha in the Samadhira)asutra( an$ also to be an em/ bo$iment of 19alokites9ara% the -ompassionate form of bu$$hahoo$. near 2hasa% Karma Gon 6Tib.enan4 6Tib.t has sprea$ from 2a$akh to China% an$ no? to the 3est.ts apparently mira-ulous nature $eri9es from its abso/ lutely spontaneous response to the nee$s of bein4s an$ the parti-ular situation ?hi-h it -onfronts. . 1fter he attaine$ enli4htenment he ?as re-o4ni>e$ by eminent -ontemporaries to be the @an of Bu$$ha 1-ti9ityF 6Tib.L stod!hmg!mtshur!phu.otable amon4 these ha9e been the Ham4on Kon4trul 6Tib. Fame$ as a siddha( Karma Pakshi ?as in9ite$ to @on4olia by Prin-e Kublai ?here he be-ame 4uru to @on4ka Khan an$ subseJuently% thou4h not ?ithout initial problems% to his su--essor% Kublai Khan.L dpa:bo.

8urin4 the lifetime of the tenth Karmapa% Choyin4 8oije 6#)'</ #)"<7% the Karma Ka4yu linea4e ?as $ra?n ine9itably into politi-s ! be-ause of the antipathy to the Gelu4pa se-t felt by influential lay supporters su-h as 8esi Karma Tenkyon4 6Tib.<7% ?as a brilliant s-hol/ ar an$ prolifi.L de!srid!karma!bstan!skong. pro9in-e at the time of Choyin4 8oije. n his re-eipt of Aun4 2oKs repli-a% 8e>hin She4pa $e9elope$ the -eremony ?herein he ?ore the va)ra -ro?n ?hile embo$yin4 the -ompassion of 19alokites9ara.ST =A F THE S.( the kin4 of Tsan4 6Tib. 1ll su--ee$in4 Karmapas ha9e follo?e$ this -ustom an$ the -eremony% ?hi-h has the po?er of -ommuni-atin4 the unen$in4 inspiration of the Karmapa linea4e% has be-ome one of the most sa-re$ an$ -hara-teristi.L gtsang.L ris!med.L 9ab!mo!snang!don.yin4ma maha ati! He re-ei9e$ the tea-hin4s of the Einnermost es/ sen-eF 6Tib. The ei4hth Karmapa% @ikyo 8oije 6#.n a$$ition =an4jun4 8oije -ompose$ the extremely important an$ influential texts =abmo Nangdon 6Tib.(' THE H. The va)ra -ro?n% ?hi-h is the symbol of 19alo/ kites9araKs -ompassion% is present abo9e the hea$s of all Karmapa in-arnations.'"/#. The spiritual form of the -ro?n ?as sai$ to be ?o9en from the hair of one hun$re$ thousan$ t#akiriis! 3hen% throu4h his $e9otion to 8e>hin She4pa% Aun4 2o per-ei9e$ the va)ra -ro?n% he $etermine$ to ha9e a repli-a ma$e% ornamente$ ?ith pre-ious je?els an$ 4ol$% so that all mi4ht be inspire$ to see the true nature of KarmapaKs spirituality..L snying!gi!thig!le. of maha ati from =i4$>in Kumararaja 6#!))/ #(<(7% ?ho ?as also the 4uru of 2on4-henpa. The fourteenth Karmapa% The4-ho4 8oije 6#"+&/#&)&7% playe$ a major role in the nineteenth/-entury reli4ious an$ -ultural renaissan-e asso-iate$ ?ith the =ime 6Tib.author. .( ?hi-h $ealt ?ith the subtle tea-hin4s of the anuttarayoga tantra! 2ike his t?o pre$e-essors an$ his su--essors up to the tenth Karmapa% the fifth Karmapa 8e>hin She4pa 6#(&</#<#.7 ?as the 4uru of the emperor* of China. The first Karmapa% 8usum Khyenpa% ha$ been presente$ ?ith the -ro?n by dakiriis at the moment of his attainment of enli4htenment.MTEE.features of the a-ti9ity of the Karmapas. 8urin4 one parti-ular -eremony performe$ by 8e>hin She4pa% the Emperor Aun4 2o per-ei9e$ the spiritual form of the bla-k va)ra -ro?n abo9e KarmapaKs hea$. an$ . His stu$ents in-lu$e$ the three prin-ipal =ime fi4uresL Cho4yur 8e-hen 2in4/ . He -ompose$ o9er thirty texts% in-lu$in4 ?orks on abhidharma psy-holo4y% @a$hyamaka philosophy% the "ra)naparamita( the vinaya( lo4i-% mahamudra( tantras( Sanskrit 4rammar% art an$ poetry. 6Eboun$arylessG7 mo9ement.

perfe-tion.seat at =umtek. 6#&!+5#&"'7% Hamyan4 Khyentse 3an4po 6Tib. The Teaching of the Karma Kagyu Tradition The essential theme of Ka4yu tea-hin4 is mahamudra( the reali>ation of the true nature of min$ an$ its ra$iation in ?is$om an$ -ompassion.L de! gsheg!snying!po7 is the un$erlyin4 reality of all phenomena% ?hate9er arises is Eseale$F 6Skt.8 (# pa 6Tib. ?ith E-oemer4entF 6Skt. 3ithin samsara( as sentient bein4s are alienate$ from the true nature of reality% Ebu$$ha/natureF exists only as an in$?ellin4 potential obs-ure$ .ST =.C12 B1CKG= 0. The present Karmapa% =an4jun4 =i4pe 8oije 6#+!(57 is the sixteenth of the line. 6#&!'/ #&+!7 an$ Ham4on Kon4trul 2o$ro Thaye 6Tib.t is the foun$ation% path an$ 4oal of spirituality. His Holiness has presi$e$ o9er the Karma Ka4yu s-hool $urin4 this perio$ of 4reat -han4e both for the s-hool itself an$ also for Tibet as a ?hole. The mahamudra theme embra-es all the apparent multipli-ity of these pre-epts an$ pra-ti-es. Similarly% the mahamudra 6E4reat sealF7 yogin reali>es that as Ebu$$ha/natureF 6Skt.C12 1.L mchog!/gyur!bde!chen!gling!pa. 1fter the abolition of Bu$$hist -ulture in Tibet in #+.THE H .L /)am!dbyangs!mkhyen!brtse!dbang!po. Traine$ by the lea$in4 masters of the Ka4yu an$ other tra$itions% His Holiness has manifeste$ the tremen$ous Jualities of -ompassion an$ natural ?is$om of the Gyal?a Karmapas.L lhan!gcig! skyes!pa. .L saha)a( Tib.L /)am!mgon!kong!sprul!blo!gros! mtha/!yas. His Holiness has stri9en un-easin4ly to maintain the lamp of Ka4yu dharma an$ in re-ent years has t?i-e 9isite$ the 3est at the in9itation of his o?n emissary $is-iples. 8in4o Khyentse =inpo-he -ompare$ mahamudra to a kin4 ?ho affixes his seal to $o-uments an$ so forth to si4nify his -onfirmation.8 THE =ET. 0n$er the enli4htene$ inspiration of this% the sixteenth Gyal?a Karmapa% the Karma Ka4yu tra$ition is no? establishin4 itself throu4hout the ?orl$. The a-tual instru-tions an$ metho$s of the Ka4yu spiritual path $eri9e from GampopaKs unifi-ation of the Ka$am E4ra$e$ pathF dharma an$ the tantric pre-epts of the mahasiddhas! .L tathagatagarbha( Tib.L mudra. 6#&##/#&++7.ts -hief philosophi-al base is the <ttaratantra of @aitreya an$ its -ommentary by 1san4a.+% His Holiness brou4ht his follo?ers into exile in Sikkim ?here he establishe$ a ne? monasti.

3ithin the 9arie$ forms of embo$ie$ life% human birth% ?hi-h is free from situations of entrapment an$ limitations% is extremely rare. .! The spiritual path is the liberation of Ebu$$ha/natureF an$ its fulfillment as dharmakaya! 1s Gampopa says in The 7ewel 'rnament o# 2iberation( EThe moti9e is bu$$ha/nature. This tea-hin4 pro9i$es a $ia4nosis of our illness an$ its -ause an$ the pres-ription of the metho$ of attainin4 health. -onstitute pre-ious human life% the sole basis of spiritual en$ea9or.MTEE. From this un$erstan$in4 -omes a natural% unfei4ne$ renun-iation. .L da<byor.L *khor!balnyes!pa7. By applyin4 the simple pre-ision an$ $i4nity of the %inayana in me$itation an$ e9ery/ $ay life the pra-titioner $e9elops an un$erstan$in4 that -on$itione$ reality is impermanent% sorro?ful an$ e4oless. They ha9e been inherite$ from the tra$ition of 1tlsa an$ elaborate$ by Gampopa an$ su--essi9e Ka4yu masters.L las!/bras7% 6<7 $efe-ts of samsara 6Tib.L Kchi!ba!mi!rtags!pa. are utili>e$ as a parti-ularly effe-ti9e means of reali>in4 the Efour truths.(! THE H.L yana( Tib. This re-o4nition $eri9es from Bu$$haKs enun-iation of the Efour truthsFL 6#7 sufferin4% 6!7 its -ause% self/-lin4in4% 6(7 liberation% 6<7 its -ause% the ei4htfol$ path of ri4ht 9ie?% intention% a-tion% spee-h% li9elihoo$% effort% min$fulness an$ me$itati9e -on-entration. 0inayana The startin4 point of the spiritual path is the 0inayana 6Enarro? 9ehi-leF7 ?ay. The first thou4ht is the refle-tion on the uniJuely positi9e situation of pre-ious human life ?ith its free$om an$ ability.? 6(7 a-tion an$ result 6Tib.ST =A F THE S. 1s Bu$$ha has sai$% Ethe en$ of e9ery meetin4 is partin4.F .F This transformin4 path has three main sta4es or E9ehi-lesF 6Skt. of $e9elopmentL hinayana( mahayana an$ va)rayana 1ahamudra is itself the -ro?n or -limax of the path. Su-h uniJue EopportunityF an$ Ejun-tureF 6Tib.L klesa.> 6Tib.L bio!Idog!nam!b9hi. This is the key -on-ept of the %mayana path. The se-on$ thou4ht is the refle-tion on the impermanen-e of all phenomena.n its ex-lusi9e approa-h the 0inayana fo-uses on the frus/ tration that permeates all aspe-ts of our experien-e% $ue to -lin4in4 to the illusoiy notion of a permanent% in$epen$ent self.n a$$ition% human life be-omes pre/ -ious throu4h -onta-t ?ith the buddhadharma.L m<us!rin!po!che: 6!7 $eath an$ impermanen-e 6Tib. by una?areness an$ 9arious $efilements 6Skt. 3ithin the Ka4yu tra$ition a series of pre-epts kno?n as Ethe four thou4hts that turn the min$ 6to dharma.F The four thou4hts areL 6#7 pre-ious human life 6Tib.L theg!pa.

F .THE H .n parti-ular ?e ha9e inherite$ pre-epts of relati9e bodhi+ citta from the Ka$am s-hool% su-h as the famous Ese9en sta4es of thou4ht t/ TformationF 6Tib.8 (( E4o $eri9es its sense of se-urity from the notion of its o?n permanen-e an$ that of its relationships an$ possessions. 3ithin our tra$ition many pre-epts exist for both relati9e an$ ulti/ mate bodhicitta! .L blo!sbyong!don!bdun!ma. Past a-tions by bo$y% spee-h an$ min$ ha9e brou4ht about the parti-ular -hara-teristi-s of the present. .ts key -on-ept is bodhicitta( the union of pra)#ia an$ -ompassion ?hi-h arises out of the all/en-ompassin4 spa-e of Ebu$$ha/nature. Thir$ly -omes the refle-tion on a-tions an$ results. The fourth an$ final thou4ht is the refle-tion on the $efe-ts of sarpsara! 1ll sentient bein4s are trappe$ ?ithin the sufferin4s of -on$itione$ existen-e. =eali>ation of impermanen-e in me$itation an$ e9ery$ay life -uts throu4h the la>iness an$ self/ satisfa-tion of neuroti. 0ltimate bodhicitta pra-ti-e is me$itation on Eemptiness%F in ?hi-h the pra-titioner sees the spa-e/like EemptinessF of reality% free from the extremes of existen-e an$ nonexisten-e. Samsara is 9ariously hostile% fas-inatin4 an$ be?il$erin4 but in it there is no ultimate satisfa-tion or se-urity for e4o.C12 1.8 THE =ET.min$ an$ prepares the pra-titioner for e9olution on the path.C12 B1CKG= 0. The present situation itself pro9i$es a 9ariety of -hoi-es for a-tion out of ?hi-h the future situation ?ill $e9elop. 0n$erstan$in4 of this pro$u-es a true turnin4 a?ay from sarpsara an$ a lon4in4 for the path of liberation% symboli>e$ by the three je?els of buddha( dharma an$ sangha! 1ahayana 1s the pra-ti-e of hinayana brin4s about a $eta-hment from the fixa/ tion on e4o% a natural spa-iousness an$ openness $e9elops.ts pra)#ia -onsists in its $ire-t penetration of the Eempti/ nessF of e4o an$ phenomena. . From the @a$hyamaka tea-h/ . Generally a-tion is $i9i$e$ into the three -ate4ories of 9irtuous% non9irtuous an$ neutral% ?hi-h ha9e their -orrespon$in4 results in positi9e% ne4ati9e or neutral situations an$ en9ironments.ST =. This is the $a?n of the mahayana path. This thir$ thou4ht thus enables the pra-ti/ tioner to a-kno?le$4e responsibility for all aspe-ts of his life an$ $e9elop a spa-iousness of min$ suitable for spiritual 4ro?th.ts -ompassion -onsists in its responsi9eness to the nee$s of others. throu4h ?hi-h one $e9elops the fearlessness of bodhicitta in ex-han4in4 oneself for another.

L pha!rol!tu!phyin!pa.L adhiBthana( Tib.( ?hi-h are% in effe-t% the tantric aspe-t of the three je?els. Ho?e9er% in the va)rayana the pra-titioner a$opts the 4oal itself as the path. The guru is the root of EinspirationF 6Skt.L dngos!grub.! The all/po?erful inspiration of bodhicitta exten$s out?ar$ into all aspe-ts of life as the a-ti9ity of the six Eperfe-tionsF 6Skt. as he is the one ?ho re9eals the presen-e of the Bu$$ha ?ithin our min$. an$ dharmapala 6Tib.L sbyin!brlabs.L karma( Tib. He terme$ titts approa-h @sutra tra$ition mahamudraF 6Tib. .(< THE H.L siddhi( Tib.L rdo! r)e!phag!mo: mother of all Bu$$has% an$ the prin-ipal dharmapalas are the . an$ dakirii 6Tib.L paramita( Tib. So the yogin performs the spiritual pra-ti-e of the $eity or $eities ?hi-h embo$y the a?akene$ transformation of his o?n parti-ular $isposition.L rtsa!ba!gsum7 of guru 6Tib.ST =A F THE S. The spa-iousness of mahayana 4i9es birth to the va)rayana per-eption of the uni9erse as the play of inter?o9en Bu$$ha/ ener4ies% so at the le9el of tantra( bo$y% spee-h an$ min$ are transforme$ into the bo$y% spee-h an$ min$ of bu$$ha.+! 4i9in4% morality% patien-e% ener4y% me$itation an$ pra)#ia! Aa)rayana The va)rayana or tantrayana is the hi4hest le9el of Bu$$haKs ?ay.( as bu$$hahoo$ manifests in a multipli-ity of forms to benefit $ifferent aptitu$es an$ $ispositions. in4s% of pandita .L mdo!lugs!phyag! rgya!chen!po.n va)rayana( bu$$ahoo$ is $ire-tly manifeste$ in the Ethree rootsF 6Tib.n the lo?er ymas the pra-titioner follo?s a path ?hi-h ?ill lea$ to enli4htenment in the future.L yi!dam.! The dakiriis embo$y the feminine ener4y of enli4htenment as it ap/ pears in situations to 4ui$e an$ restore the yogin to a sense of balan-e.L phrin! las.MTEE.L mkha/!gro. The dakiriis 6Esky/4oersF7 an$ dharmapalas 6E$harma/pro/ te-torsF7 to4ether -omprise the root of Ea-ti9ityF 6Skt.L bla!ma7% devata 6Tib. The dharmapalas( both male an$ female aspe-ts% fun-tion in an analo4ous manner to 4uar$ the yogin8s spiritual $e9elopment an$ the a--umulate$ blessin4s of the 9arious linea4es of buddhadharma! . .n our tra$ition the prin-ipal 4uru is Gyal?a Karmapa% ?ho is insep/ arable from Cajra$hara.L chos!skyong. The key -on-ept of va)rayana is samaya( ?hi-h is the yogiris -ommitment to the perfe-t purity of the va)rayana 9ision. The prin-ipal devata is Cajra9arahT 6Tib.a4aijuna an$ the tea-hin4s of the siddhas( Gampopa brou4ht to4ether many pre-epts for ultimate bodhicitta me$itation. The devata 6E$eityF7 is the root of EattainmentF 6Skt.

an$ @ahakaH% the Self/1risen :ueen 6Tib.C12 1.per-eption of subje-t an$ obje-t is purifie$ b9 the -reation of the devata an$ his en9ironment.L rnying!ma.L gon!po!rdo!r)e!ber!nag!cari.8 (. The former . The se-on$ or$er of tantra is upa or carya. . Bo$ily pra-ti-es in-lu$e prostrations% offer/ in4s% ?alkin4 me$itations an$ yo4i. 1n example of an upa tantra $eity is Cairo-ana.L rang!/byung!rgyalmo.L kun!rig.THE H . =itual a-ti9ity is only little emphasi>e$.L bskye!rim. Here the yogin per-ei9es the bu$$ha/ener4y as both external an$ internal. is an example of a yoga tantra! The hi4hest or$er of tantra is the anuttarayoga( ?hi-h is ra$i-ally $istin-t from the three lo?er or$ers in its emphasis on the unsurpassable% all/per9a$in4 nature of bu$$ha/ener4y. 4oga tantra is the -ulmination of the kriya an$ upa tantras! Here the yogin is -onsubstantiate$ ?ith the bu$$ha/ener4y% so he me$itates on himself as i$enti-al ?ith the $eity. Spee-h pra-ti-e re9ol9es aroun$ mantra an$ litur4y. there are six. Cajra Bla-k/Cloake$ @ahakala 6Tib.n the Ka4yu% Gelu4 an$ Sakya s-hools% ?hi-h -olle-ti9ely belon4 to the @ne? tantraC tra$ition% there are four or$ers of tantra( ?hereas in the Eol$ tra$itionF 6Tib.ts other aspe-t is formless me$itation% ?hi-h is mahamudra me$itation. The kriya tantra is the initial sta4e of va)rayana ?herein the emphasis lies on the external% a?e/inspirin4 purity of bu$$ha/ener4y. 2ess stress is pla-e$ upon ritual a-ti9ity at this le9el. .ST =. This is -omparable to the relation bet?een frien$s. nuttarayoga is $i9i$e$ into a E$e9elopmentF 6Tib.8 THE =ET.C12 B1CKG= 0. The -y-le of Sarvavid 6Tib. @in$ pra-ti-e in9ol9es 9isuali>ation in ?hi-h the $ualisti. .postures.! 1s the pra-ti-e of tantra re9ol9es aroun$ the transformation of bo$y% spee-h an$ min$ into the three kayas of bu$$hahoo$% dharmakaya( sambhogakaya an$ nirmanakaya( the tantras in-lu$e pra-ti-es relatin4 to ea-h of these three aspe-ts.n the first sta4e the yogin i$entifies himself an$ his en9ironment ?ith the $i9ine appearan-e of the devata an$ his pala-e.( yoga an$ anuttarayoga! The 9arious -y-les of tantras( -ommentaries an$ sadhanas are assi4ne$ to the appropriate one of these four or$ers% in respe-t of their le9el of spiritual po?er. The yogin relates to the $eity as a ser9ant to a master an$ pays 4reat attention to ritual a-ti9ity an$ purity. an$ EfulfillmentF sta4e 6Tib. 19alokites9ara is an example of a kriya tantra $eity. The fulfillment sta4e -ompletes the transformation an$ itself possesses a t?ofol$ aspe-t% one base$ on form an$ one on formlessness.L rd9ogs!rim7. The four or$ers are respe-/ ti9ely kriya( upa -carya.

an$ Esee$F 6Skt. The dharmata of min$ is the mi$$le ?ay bet?een the extremes of assertion an$ ne4ation.F 1ll phenomena arise an$ fa$e in the spa-e of min$% ?hi-h itself is naturally empty.n the 9ast open nature of this 9ie? ?hate9er arises is self/liberate$ sin-e ?hate9er arises is seale$ ?ith E-oemer4en-e. . Aiew! The true nature of min$ is the primor$ial union of EluminosityK* an$ Eemptiness. Karmapa =an4jun4 8oije says% The 4roun$ of purifi-ation is the -oin-i$ent luminosity an$ emptiness. aspe-t is the yo4a of the E-hannelsF 6Skt.L bindu( Tib. of natural a?areness.! The latter aspe-t is me$itation on the E-oin-i$ent luminosity an$ emptinessF 6Tib. Ho?e9er% throu4h the spontaneous arisin4 of una?areness% natural purity be-omes obs-ure$ an$ the pattern of samsara ?ith its fi9e $efilements% fi9e skandhas an$ so on% emer4es.L prana( Tib.L nadi( Tib. The purifier is the va)ra yoga of mahamudra! .L spyod!pa. From it the ?orl$ of be-omin4 an$ nirvana arise. These fi9e -on/ stitute the fi9efol$ heruka mandala o# anuttarayoga! Cajra9arahU is herself both the mother an$ -onsort of all the herukas! 1ahamudra 1ahamudra is simultaneously the -limax of va)rayana an$ the threa$ runnin4 throu4h the entire Ka4yu spiritual path. .L rlung. an$ a-tion 6Tib.MTEE.F 1s su-h it is unborn an$ un$yin4.! Ho?e9er% e9en these three -ate4ories are only apparent $istin-tions as in fa-t they sprin4 from the unity of the mahamudra reali>ation.ST =A F THE S.() THE H.L thig!le.e9ertheless the un$erlyin4 reality of both samsara an$ nirvana is the threa$ of min$Ks primor$ial purity% ?hi-h is terme$ Ebu$$ha/nature.L rtsa: EbreathF 6Skt.F .F The apparent $uality of subje-t an$ obje-t is re-on-ile$ in the unborn an$ un$yin4 nature of a?areness. 1s Tilopa $e-lares% E mahamudra min$ $?ells no?here.L bsgom!pa.F 1s the 4reat siddha Saraha says in his "eople Dohas( E@in$ itself is the one see$ of e9erythin4.L gsal!stong!9ung!)ug.L lta!ba: me$itation 6Tib. 3hen the -lou$/like obs-urations are $isperse$% the unborn an$ un$yin4 dharmakaya is re9eale$. 1lthou4h essentially it elu$es formulation% one may -onsi$er that it possesses three aspe-tsL 9ie? 6Tib.L Iha7nga7L Cakrasam9ara% Cajrabhaira9a% He9ajra% @ahamaya an$ Guhyasamaja. 1editation! The heart of mahamudra is the effortless% un-ontri9e$ experien-e of min$.n the Ka4yu tra$ition the prin-ipal anuttarayoga $eities are Caj/ ra9arahU an$ the 4roup of Efi9e $eitiesF 6Tib.

This is the ultimate reali>ation of mahamudra! The extraor$inary pra-ti-e of mahamudra is -omprise$ of the 9arious E$e9elopment/sta4eF me$itations su-h as Cajrayo4ini an$ Cakrasam9ara an$ the ensuin4 Efulflllment/sta4eF yogas su-h as the Esix $o-trines of .aropaF 6Tib.nsi4ht arises ?herein the nature of a?areness is re9eale$ as non$ual Eluminosity an$ emptiness.L /odgsal.ST =.L dbang7% textual transmissions 6Tib. the pra-titioner rests in effortless one/pointe$ness of min$.L naro!chos!drug7L inner heat 6Tib.8 (" The purifie$ ar. ction! The -hara-teristi.L 9hi!gnas.8 THE =ET. . .L lung. The preparation for both the or$inary an$ extraor$inary mahamudra is the pra-ti-e of the four preliminaries 6Tib.L bde!stong!9ung!7ug.THE H .n the first sta4e of tranJuillity 6Tib.feature of mahamudra a-tion is effortless/ ness.( illusory bo$y 6Tib.L ngo!bo! sprod!pa. 1s it results from the -omplete emptiness an$ -ompassion of the .L gtum!mo.L sgyu!ma!lus7% $ream 6Tib.L bar!do7.( transferen-e 6Tib.C12 1.! .L sngonDgro.C12 B1CKG= 0.n the Karma Ka4yu% guru yogas( parti-ularly of the ei4hth Karmapa% @ikyo 8oije% an$ the se-on$ Karmapa% Karma Pakshi% are performe$ to re-ei9e the parti-ular inspiration of the Karmapa linea4e. an$ instru-tions 6Tib. b.! The four se-tions of the preliminaries areL 6#7 refu4e an$ bodhicitta -ombine$ ?ith prostrations% 6!7 Cajrasatt9a me$itations an$ re-itation% 6(7 mandala offerin4s% 6<7 guru yoga! By the a--omplishment of ea-h se-tion one hun$re$ thousan$ times% the pra-titioner is ripene$ for the main pra-ti-e. This ultimate reali>ation is 4enerally attaine$% unless one is espe-ially 4ifte$% as the out-ome of the trainin4 in both or$inary 6Tib. The or$inary pra-ti-e of mahamud#a is a-tually formless me$itation itself.the momentary $elusions an$ impurities.L khrid.L thun!mong. mahamudra! 1s ?ith all -y-les of tea-hin4% to be4in mahamudra pra-ti-e the yogin must re-ei9e the appropriate empo?erments 6Tib. from the guru! .F Thou4ht is the bo$y of dharmakaya itself. an$ extraor$inary 6Tib.( luminosity 6Tib.L thun!mong!ma!yin!pa. 3hen this tranJuillity is a-hie9e$ the guru intro$u-es the stu$ent to the nature of his o?n min$ 6Tib. @ay the purifie$ fruit of the imma-ulate dharmakaya be reali>e$. Their a--omplishment lea$s to the pro$u-tion of the union of Ebliss an$ empti/ nessG .L mi7am.L Qpho!ba7 an$ interme$iate state 6Tib.n parti-ular the pra-titioner must re-ei9e the fourth empo?erment kno?n as the Ea?areness empo?ermentF in ?hi-h the meetin4 of the t?o min$s of the guru an$ stu$ent takes pla-e an$ the nature of min$ is -learly pointe$ out.( from ?hi-h the mahamudra reali>ation spontaneously $e9elops.

. The pra-ti-e of chod 6Tib. 1ll the Gyal?a Karmapas ha9e $isplaye$ 4reat assi$uity in me$itation pra-ti-e an$ s-holarly stu$y.f .ST =A F THE S. Chod entere$ the Ka4yu tra$ition from the linea4e of the ele9enth -entury yogirii( @a-hi4 2ab$ronma% an$ has been propa4ate$ by the Karmapa linea4e% espe-ially the thir$% =an4jun4 8oije% an$ Surman4 Trun4pa Kun4a .(& THE H. This kin$ of a-tion is referre$ to as the beha9ior of the E-ra>y yogin> 6Tib.MTEE.L smyorupa.! Saraha says% . 1s the bio4raphies sho?% ea-h of the Gyal?a Karmapas has ?orke$ un-easin4ly for sentient bein4s by tea-hin4% healin4 an$ establishin4 the Karma Ka4yu linea4e itself. Hen-e the mahamudra yogin may sometimes beha9e in a ?ay ?hi-h is apparently sho-kin4. .truths of dharma( thus buil$in4 a foun$ation for spiritual $e9elopment. This -ompassionate a-ti9ity has not been -onfine$ merely to .L rnam!pa!thar!pa. The aspe-ts of the bio4raphies ?hi-h relate the a-tual history of the Karmapa linea4e to4ether ?ith their example as a--omplishe$ stu$ents an$ pra-titioners may be -hara-teri>e$ as their hlnayana aspe-t. The parti-ular features of the bio4raphies ?hi-h $eal ?ith the -ompassionate a-ti9ity of the Karmapas may be -onsi$ere$ as their mahayana aspe-t.n the hlnayana the stu$ent 4roun$s himself in the basi. . They are not merely histori-al a--ounts but also spiritual $o-trines. Essentially they are the re-or$s of the liberation 6Tib. 1s one stu$ies these bio4raphies of the Gyal?a Karmapas it is 9ital to reali>e their true si4nifi-an-e.n the mahayana the stu$ent ra$iates a ?armth an$ openness emanatin4 from the absen-e of emphasis on self. am like a pi4 That -o9ets ?orl$ly mire Tell me ?hat fault lies in a stainless min$.t is sai$ of the first Karmapa% 8usum Khyenpa% that ?hile in me$itation retreat% he ne9er unfol$e$ his han$s lon4 enou4h for the s?eat on them to $ry.am4yal. Their multifa-ete$ Juality refle-ts the eJually many/si$e$ nature of buddhadharma itself% -omprise$ of the three yanas ?ith their multipli-ity of spiritual instru-tions. 9ie? an$ me$itation% it 4oes beyon$ the notion of an impose$ $is-ipline.t emphasi>es $ire-t openness to both internal an$ external hin$ran-es.L gchod!( E-uttin4 off e4oF7 is asso-iate$ ?ith the a-tion of the Ka4yu yogin! . of the Karmapa linea4e.

n this history the un$erlyin4 -larity an$ intelli4en-e of the bio4ra/ phies ha9e been stresse$. ne famous exam/ ple of this pro-ess is the 9ision of the thir$ Karmapa% =an4jun4 8oije% in ?hi-h he en9isa4e$ that the ei4hth/-entury ati yoga master Cimalamitra ?as absorbe$ into his forehea$. 2ike the other Gyal?a Karmapas% @ikyo 8oije $i$ not remain -onstantly at the monastery of Tsurphu% but journeye$ throu4hout Tibet ?ith his monasti.C12 B1CKG= 0.ST =.8 (+ pra-titioners but also exten$e$ to the or$inary people of Tibet% China% @on4olia an$ so on. 1t that time he re-ei9e$ all the symbols an$ titles of his rank an$ authority. 1s a result of this% =an4jun4 8oije unifie$ the t?o streams ol ati yoga an$ mahamudra! . The va)rayana aspe-ts of the bio4raphies may be seen as the 9arie$ a--ounts of 9isions an$ mira-les. or$ of .of leprosy% ?hi-h he subseJuently -ontra-te$ himself. He ?as subseJuently re-o4ni>e$ by His Holiness the sixteenth Gyal?a Karmapa as the fourth Karma Thinleypa.$eities throu4h ?hi-h a4en-y they ha9e re-ei9e$ 9isionary inspiration.n #+"<% His Holiness the Gyal?a Karmapa appointe$ him a E.an4-hen in Kham in #+(# an$ ?as re-o4ni>e$% at the a4e of t?o an$ a half years% by Sakya Tri$>in% 8akshul Thinle =in-hen as tulku of Beru Shaiyak 2ama Kunrik% thou4ht to be a Cairo-ana in-arnation.n the va)rayana the pra-titioner expe/ rien-es an$ a-ts from the stan$point of primor$ially pure ener4y of en/ li4htenment itself.n -ontrast here is a -lear an$ profoun$ a--ount of the li9es of the Gyal?a Karmapas% from a representati9e of the Karma Ka4yu tra$ition% the fourth Karma Thinley tulku! 8 Karma Thinley% =inpo-he ?as born in .-amp an$ 4a9e tea-hin4s an$ ai$ to all ?ho reJueste$ it. Fur/ thermore% ea-h has ha$ affinities ?ith parti-ular symboli.n a$$ition to his position as a master of the Ka4yu an$ Sakya s-hools% =inpo-he is also ?i$ely learne$ in the . . 1s ?e see from the bio4raphies% the su--essi9e Gyal?a Karmapas ha9e re$is-o9ere$ their o?n natural spirituality lar4ely throu4h 9isionary experien-e.C12 1. 1s the net?ork of -on-eptuali>ation is totally trans-en$e$% it is the le9el of 9isions an$ mira-ulous a-ti9ity.8 THE =ET. 3hile tra9elin4% @ikyo 8orje -ompose$ many texts in ?hi-h he set forth his profoun$ un$erstan$in4 of dharma! His $eath -ame as a result of -learin4 an epi$emi.THE H . . .n the presentation of Bu$$hism in the 3est the t?o extremes of arro4ant $ismissal or o9er/sentimental nai9ete ha9e too often obs-ure$ the a-tual nature of the material. .yin4ma an$ Gelu4 tra$itions. . =inpo-he stu$ie$ ?ith many lea$in4 -ontemporary tea-hers in-lu$in4 Se-hen Kon4trul an$ 8in4o Khyentse% =inpo-he% an$ 2in4 =inpo-he.

@an-hester% 0.<' THE H. 1s a lea$in4 s-holar an$ -lose $is-iple of His Holiness% =inpo-he is thus uniJuely fitte$ to -ompose this history of the linea4e of the Karmapas. Sub/ seJuently their si4nifi-an-e has been illuminate$ by =inpo-heKs un$er/ stan$in4 of su-h sa-re$ history. 8a9i$ Stott Spiritual =epresentati9e of Karma Thinley% =inpo-he at $harma -entres in the 0.K. Throu4hout% the intention has been to refle-t the pattern of spirituality re9eale$ by the li9es of the Karmapa% ?hile also ren$erin4 an a--urate histori-al outline of the linea4e. -tober% #+"& . 8harmaF of the Karma Ka4yu linea4e. The bio4raphies themsel9es ha9e been -ompile$ in the tra$itional manner from 9arious Tibetan histori-al texts an$ the oral tra$ition.K.MTEE.ST =A F THE S.

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-ommunity as a no9i-e% an$ subseJuently stu$ie$ the Ao4a-ara mahayana texts of the 4reat philosopher 1sari4a from Geshe Hamar?a Chapa Cho Kyi Sen4e.trainin4 in the sutra approa-h% Gampopa empo?ere$ 8usum Khyenpa to perform the spiritual pra-ti-e of He9ajra.a4arjuna an$ Can$raklrtiKs @a$hyamaka texts from 2otsa?a Patsap .o? thirty years ol$% 8usum Khyenpa tra9ele$ to 8ak 2ha Gampo to meet his tea-her Gampopa% the hol$er of the Ka4yupa linea4e. 3hen they met% Gampopa instru-te$ him in the E4ra$uate$ pathF 6Tib. He remaine$ ?ith the abbot to stu$y the vinaya6 texts. From his parents% ?ho ?ere themsel9es a--omplishe$ pra-titioners% 8usum Khyenpa re-ei9e$ instru-tion in dharma! 1t the a4e of ele9en he ha$ a 9ision of @ahakall% the feminine ener4y aspe-t of the dharmapala( thus manil-stin4 his natural spirituality.! .# Karmapa Dusum Kh enpa '1110(119)* 80S0@ KHAE.L lam!rim. of the Ka$ampa tra$ition as preliminary pra-ti-e. ( Follo?in4 this basi.yima 8rak.ron Ti4er 6###' C. . tea-hin4s of the . 8urin4 this empo?erment 8usum Khyenpa sa? that Gampopa be-ame <# .n$ian tantric saint% Cirupa.7.n a$$ition he re-ei9e$ the tantric tea-hin4s of the Ka$ampa linea4e from Geshe Sha?arapa. 8urin4 this perio$ 8usum Khyenpa also stu$ie$ .P1 ?as born in the sno? ran4e of Tray Shu in 8o Kham in the year of the .L lam!8bras. He tol$ 8usum Khyenpa that he shoul$ pra-ti-e it as he himself ha$ $one. E. Fi9e years later 8usum Khyenpa entere$ the monasti. From the 4reat Ga 2otsa?a% 8usum Khyenpa re-ei9e$ Kala-akra tea-hin4s an$ the Epath an$ fruitF 6Tib. 1t the a4e of t?enty 8usum Khyenpa ?as or$aine$ as a monk by the abbot% @ai 8ul$>in.

Throu4hout this perio$ he ne9er unfol$e$ his han$s lon4 enou4h for the perspiration on them to $ry. the bo$y of li4ht of He9ajra. shall li9e until . am ei4hty/four.L bsgom!med. He attaine$ the reali>ation that samsara an$ nirvana are inseparably non$ual 6Tib.o? you ?ill not return to samsaraHe 4aV. This ?ill shorten your life.F 1t the a4e of fifty% he journeye$ to Kampo .ST =A F THE S.!$ Spiritually% the moment of his enli4htenment ?as symboli>e$ in the . Pha4/ mo 8rupa% another stu$ent of Gampopa% from ?hom -ame the ei4ht minor linea4es of the 8akpo Ka4yu% entreate$ him not to 4o% sayin4% E.L *khor!/das!yer!med7.8usum Khyenpa the oral instru-tions of mahamudra an$ tea-hin4s on the symboli. The mountain $eity% Kampo 8orje Paltse4% symboliembo$iment of the areaKs elemental ener4y% in9ite$ him in a 9ision. 8usum Khyenpa re-alle$ his tea-herKs instru-tions for pra-ti-e in the Kampo Gan4ra area. .$eity% Cajrayo4inl. Gampopa tol$ him to pra-ti-e this at Kampo Gan4ra in Kham% an$ prophesie$ he ?oul$ attain enli4htenment at that pla-e.MTEE.<! THE H.f you 4o to Kham you ?ill ha9e to 4i9e many empo?erments.enan4 ?here he imme/ $iately attaine$ enli4htenment throu4h the pra-ti-e of $ream yoga! 8usum Khyenpa reali>e$ the essential sameness of $ay an$ ni4ht% $reams an$ the ?akin4 state% me$itation an$ e9ery$ay life.F 8usum Khyenpa sai$ in reply% EThank you for your kin$ a$9i-e% but re4ar$less of ?hat . 1 little later% 8usum Khyenpa ?ent into a samatha 6EtranJuillityF7 me$itation retreat for nine months on the a$9i-e of his tea-her. Gampopa re-o4ni>e$ him as his most 4ifte$ stu$ent an$ instru-te$ him in vipasyana 6Einsi4htF7 me$itation. 8usum Khyenpa tra9ele$ first to Shau Ta4o% ?here he -onstru-te$ a small retreat hut -alle$ 8rub Shi 8ensa 6EsJuare seatF7% in ?hi-h he pra-ti-e$ mahamudra. 1t this time Gampopa tol$ him% EAou ha9e se9ere$ your bon$ ?ith phenomenal existen-e. He pra-/ ti-e$ this for three years until his $e9elopment of insi4ht ?as -omparable to the sun $ispellin4 -lou$s. $o% . His reali>ation -orrespon$e$ to the fourth le9el of mahamudra% ?hi-h is kno?n as Ebeyon$ me$itationF 6Tib. 3or$ rea-he$ him that his tea-her ha$ $ie$% so he returne$ to 8ak 2ha Gampo monastery% ?here in a 9isionary experien-e he sa? his tea-her in the sky.

1t this time% the nine $eity mandala of He9ajra an$ the fifteen $eity mandala of his ?is$om -onsort% . @oreo9er% he ?orke$ extensi9ely for the si-k% -urin4 many $iseases in-lu$in4 blin$ness an$ paralysis. 8usum Khyenpa remaine$ in Kampo . The healin4 po?er of his -ompassion ?as extremely potent.$eity% Cakrasaip9ara% an$ to TuDita% the spiritual en9ironment of the future Bu$$ha% @aitreya% ?ho instru-te$ him in bodhisattva 9o?s. Throu4h his a--omplishment of E$ream yoga>E he Etra9ele$F to Ceylon% ?here the tantric saint% Cajra/ 4hanta%) empo?ere$ him in the spiritual pra-ti-e of the symboli. 1t the a4e of se9enty/four Karmapa 8usum Khyenpa journeye$ to the 8relon4 area of Kham% ?hi-h ?as trouble$ by $isputes. an$ that follo?in4 the a4e of Bu$$ha @aitreya% the Karmapa 2ama ?oul$ be reborn as the Bu$$ha Siipha. The t?o tea-hers further sai$ that 8usum Khyenpa embo$ie$ the prin-iple of a?akene$ -ompassion 6Skt.P1 <( 9isionary offerin4 by dakiriis of a bla-k va)ra -ro?n ?o9en out of their hair.L dus!gsum!mkhyen!pa7% in/ $i-atin4 his trans-en$in4 of time throu4h his un$erstan$in4 of the unborn nature of min$. This -ro?n is sai$ to be symboli-ally present abo9e the hea$s of all the Karmapa in-arnations si4nifyin4 their reali>ation of the true nature of reality. He ma$e offerin4s . 2ama Shan4% foun$er of the Tsalpa Ka4yu linea4e -onfirme$ this.%" ?ho ha$ been in9ite$ to Tibet to establish a ne? or$ination linea4e for the monasti. He also establishe$ monasteries at @ar Kham an$ Karma Gon% ?here he met 8ro4on =e-hen% his prin-ipal stu$ent an$ hol$er of the linea4e. He pa-ifie$ fa-tional feu$in4 an$ brou4ht a time of pea-e. The Kashmiri pandita( Sakyasr.-ommunity% $e-lare$ 8usum Khyenpa ?as the Eone of bu$$ha/a-ti9ityF or Karmapa% proph/ esie$ by Sakyamuni Bu$$ha in the Samadhira)asutra. To?ar$ the en$ of his life% 8usum Khyenpa returne$ to 8ak 2ha Gampo as he ha$ been instru-te$ to $o by Gampopa.airatmya% as ?ell as many other yidams appeare$ in a 9ision to 8usum Khyenpa.K1=@1P1 80S0@ KHAE. The fame of his spiritual reali>ation sprea$ an$ he be-ame kno?n as Ethe kno?er of the three times5past% present an$ futureF 6Tib.enan4 for ei4hteen years% $urin4 ?hi-h time he built a monastery an$ a retreat -enter.L avalokitesvara.

MTEE. 3hile he ?as at Tsurphu% 8usum Khyenpa brou4ht to an en$ the $isputes ?hi-h 2ama Shan4 of the Tsala Ka4yu linea4e ?as en4a4e$ in. SubseJuently Karmapa establishe$ his prin-ipal monasti. to the monastery% repaire$ some of the buil$in4s% an$ 4a9e many tea-hin4s to the -ommunity there. .n$ia sent a -on-h/shell horn to Tsurphu as a 4ift an$ as an a-kno?le$4ement of 8usum KhyenpaKs po?erful expression of dharma.seat at Tsurphu% ?hi-h remaine$ the seat of the Karmapas until #+S+. 2ama Shan4 ?as a 4reat siddha an$ the ruler of the kin4$om of Tsalpa% but ha$ a rather a44ressi9e nature ?hi-h Karmapa alone ?as able to pa-ify.ST =A F THE S. The abbot of Bo$h4aya monastery in .<< THE H.

.<. Then% sittin4 up% he 4a>e$ into the sky an$ entere$ into me$itation. ne ni4ht ?hile he ?as pra-ti-in4 $ream yoga! 8usum Khyenpa re-ei9e$ the spiritual pra-ti-e of the four/fa-e$ t?el9e/arme$ Cajrayo4inl from the tantric saint . + 8o not 4i9e se-ret va)rayana tea-hin4s to e9erybo$y ?ho asks for them.F . 1t noon he passe$ a?Wy.n$rabhuti.reli-s. 1t the a4e of ei4hty/four% on the first $ay of the year of the 3ater x 6##+< C. 8urin4 his $eath rites a ?eek later many people ha$ 9isionary expe/ rien-esB some seein4 his bo$y in the smoke that rose from the funeral pyre% others seein4 many suns in the sky an$ dakas an$ -)akinls $an-in4 amon4 them.n the mornin4 of the thir$ $ay of the ne? year% 8usum Khyenpa instru-te$ his stu$ents in dharma for the last time.7 8usum Khyenpa pla-e$ Tsurphu monastery% to4ether ?ith his books an$ reli-s% in the -are of his prin-ipal stu$ent% 8ro4on =e-hen. He $istribute$ all his other possessions amon4 the Ka4yu -ommunities. His stu$ents also re-o9ere$ some of his bones% ?hi-h appeare$ to ha9e see$/syllables 6Skt.E.ST =A F THE S. 3hen the flames of the pyre $ie$ a?ay% 8usum KhyenpaKs heart% si4nifyin4 his lo9e% an$ his ton4ue% symboli>in4 his tea-hin4% ?ere foun$ inta-t amon4 the ashes. Karmapa instru-te$ his o?n stu$ents in these tea-hin4s% but a little ?hile later he $reamt that fi9e 4irls $resse$ in re$ an$ a$orne$ ?ith je?els appeare$ to him an$ sai$% E8o not 4i9e se-ret va)rayana tea-hin4s to e9erybo$y ?ho asks for them. He also entruste$ him ?ith the letter in ?hi-h he ha$ pre$i-te$ the -ir-umstan-es into ?hi-h the next Karmapa ?oul$ be born.& SubseJuently% $urin4 another 9isionary experien-e he re-ei9e$ tea-hin4s from Cajrayo4inl.n the three months before Karmapa 8usum KhyenpaKs $eath there ?ere an unusually lar4e number of rainbo?s% sli4ht earth tremors an$ rumblin4 noises ?hi-h people sai$ ?ere the $rums of the dakinls! The play of the elements seeme$ to be heral$in4 some momentous e9ent.F 1 fe? $ays later 8usum Khyenpa a4ain 4a9e the tea-hin4s an$ that 9ery ni4ht the fi9e 4irls appeare$ to him a4ain in his $reams sayin4% E3e are messen4ers of Prin-ess 2aksmlnkara.MTEE. . THE H.L bi)a. marke$ on them an$ other symboli.F Three $ays later Karmapa 4a9e the tea-hin4s to 2ama Khampa Kun4ba% an$ that ni4ht in his $reams the 4irls appeare$ in the sky ri$in4 ?hite -lou$s sayin4% E3e tol$ you not to 4i9e this se-ret va)rayana tea-hin4 to e9eryone ?ho aske$ for it% but you $i$ not listen.

8usum Khyenpa ha$ many a--omplishe$ stu$ents throu4h ?hom his influen-e penetrate$ into other tra$itions as ?ell as his o?n Kaiptshan4 Ka4yu. .ability% 8a4$en Batsa in the area of performin4 mira-les% Ta?a Ka$ampa in the area of spe-ial bodhisattva po?ers% 8ro4on =e-hen in the area of blessin4 an$ Ge Chutsun in the area of profoun$ reali>ation.yin4ma linea4e.n$ia% ?here Sakyamuni Bu$$ha ha$ 4i9en the tea-hin4s of Kala-akra. They ?ere 8e-hun4 San4jay in the area of telepathi. Four important foun$ers of other linea4es ?ho re-ei9e$ some tea-hin4 from 8usum Khyenpa ?ere Ta4lun4 Than4pa% foun$er of the Ta4lun4 Ka4yuB 2in4je =epa% the 4reat mahamudra pra-titioner an$ spiritual an-estor of the 8rukpa Ka4yuB Tsan4pa Gyare% the a-tual foun$er of the 8rukpa Ka4yuB an$ 2ama Ka$ampa 8eshe4% ?ho foun$e$ the Katok .KarmapaKs ashes ?ere enshrine$ in a stupa mo$ele$ after the one a 8hanyakataka in southern .n a$$ition% there ?ere fi9e stu$ents ?ho ha$ $e9elope$ spe-ial po?ers. . This stupa ?as $esposite$ at Tsurphu monastery. The hol$er of his linea4e ?as 8ro4on =e-hen% ?ho subseJuently passe$ it to Pom$rakpa% ?ho in turn 4a9e it to the se-on$ Karmapa 2ama.

K1=@1P1 80S0@ KHAE.P1 <" .

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3hen he first besto?e$ an empo?erment on Cho$>in% he explaine$ that in a 9ision he ha$ seen 8usum Khyenpa an$ other tea-hers of the linea4e surroun$in4 his youn4 stu$entKs resi$en-e% illustratin4 the latterKs importan-e.+ Karmapa Karma !akshi '1+0.! . By the time he ?as ten years ol$ he ha$ alrea$y 4raspe$ the essen-e of Bu$$hist $o-trine.E. From this time on% Pom$rakpa re-o4ni>e$ Cho$>in as the se-on$ Karmapa 2ama an$ entitle$ him dharma master 6Tib. . For ele9en years Karma Pakshi stu$ie$ ?ith Pom$rakpa% spe-iali>in4 in the mahamudra tea-hin4s of Saraha an$ Gampopa. 1s a result of this natural fa-ility% ?hen his me$itation tea-her% Pom$rakpa% intro$u-e$ him to the nature of his o?n min$% he ?as able to $e9elop spontaneous insi4ht.8 K1=@1P1% Karma Pakshi% ?as born in #!') C. Cho$>in ?as a pre-o-ious -hil$ an$ by the a4e of six he -oul$ rea$ an$ ?rite perfe-tly.(1+8)* THE SEC .n a$$ition he or$aine$ Karma Pakshi as a no9i-e. .n a further 9ision% 8usum Khyenpa re9eale$ to Pom$rakpa that Cho$>in ?as in fa-t his in-arnation. His parents% ?ho ?ere $e9out reli4ious pra-titioners% name$ their son Cho$>in. Pom$rakpa ha$ himself re-ei9e$ the tea-hin4s of the Karma Ka4yu linea4e from 8ro4on =e-hen% the heir to 8usum KhyenpaKs transmission.L chos!kyi!bla!ma. into a family $es-en$e$ from the ei4hth/-entury dharma+kin4% Trison4 8etsun. 3ith his natural ability he ?as able to a--omplish the tea-hin4s as Jui-kly as he re-ei9e$ them. 1t the -on-lusion of this perio$ of stu$y Pom$rakpa tol$ him that he ha$ $e9elope$ his o?n un$erstan$in4 suffi-iently but that he also nee$e$ to ha9e a linea4e of empo?erments% textual <+ .n a$$ition to his intelle-tual ability% Cho$>in also possesse$ an intuiti9e aptitu$e to rest the min$ in stillness.

?hi-h -ontaine$ the potential for the sprea$ of dharma. He 4a9e Karma Pakshi the -omplete series of Ka4yu tea-hin4s% an$ thus be-ame his spirit/ ual father..ST =A F THE S. SubseJuently% Karma Pakshi 9isite$ Karma Gon monastery% ?hi-h .n another 9ision% Karma Pakshi ?as instru-te$ by a dakirii to $e9elop -ommunal sin4in4 of the six/syllable mantra of 19alokites9ara% embo$iment of enli4htene$ -ompassion.-ommitment of the mountain $eity% 8orje Paltse4% to prote-t the Karma Ka4yu linea4e. The fame of his spiritual po?er rea-he$ as far as Han4 an$ China. This ?as symboli>e$ in his 9ision of @ahasukha Cakrasam9ara surroun$e$ by the $an-e of dakas an$ dakinls.L bde. From this time on?ar$ -ommunal sin4in4 of the six/syllable mantra be-ame an important part of popular reli4ious pra-ti-e in Tibet. This ?as a perio$ of -i9il $isturban-es in Kham an$ Karma Pakshi respon$e$ to the nee$s of the people by tourin4 the area in an attempt to brin4 about pea-e. This ?as -onfirme$ by the symboli. mchog. 3hen Karma Pakshi re-ei9e$ the empo?erment of @ahakala he experien-e$ the a-tual presen-e of the dharmapala.n his o?n spiritual pra-ti-e at this time% Karma Pakshi -on-entrate$ upon Einner heat yogaF -ombine$ ?ith mahamudra itself. .' THE H.MTEE.L rdo!r)e!ber!nag!can7% ?ho subseJuently be-ame the main dharma prote-tor of the Karma Ka4yu linea4e% Karma Pakshi built a ne? monastery in the area of Shar-hok Pun4ri in Kham. The ?hole area ?ith its fiel$s% mountains an$ 9alleys appeare$ to him as an en9ironment of -omplete happiness 6Tib. Throu4h his mastery of the ener4y of the four elements% Karma Pakshi pa-ifie$ his en9ironment. Karma Pakshi staye$ at his ne? monastery for ele9en years% en4a4e$ in intensi9e me$itation pra-ti-e.# Karma Pakshi an$ his monks -hante$ the mantra as they tra9ele$. transmissions an$ instru-tions from Sakyamuni or Cajra$hara in or$er to tea-h others.yin4mapa monastery% establishe$ by Ka$ampa 8eshe4% the stu$ent of the first Karmapa. 1t the a4e of t?enty/t?o Karma Pakshi ?as or$aine$ a monk by 2ama Hampa Bum% abbot of the Katok . 2ater% inspire$ by the Cajra Bla-k/Cloake$ @ahakala 6Tib. .n this ?ay he $e9elope$ both the form an$ formless aspe-ts of tantric pra-ti-e. .

nspire$ by 19alokites9ara an$ @ahakala% Karma Pakshi $e-i$e$ to tra9el to northern Tibet.n #!. 1t this time% the rest of China ?as un$er the -ontrol of @on4ka Khan% a 4ran$son of Gen4his Khan% ?ho ha$ $epose$ his o?n -ousin% Go$in. Then% inspire$ by @ahakall% Karma Pakshi journeye$ to Tsurphu an$ a4ain -arrie$ out restoration ?ork. He also ha$ a 9ision of Caisra9ana% prote-tor of ?ealth% ?ho reJueste$ him to remain in @inyak in or$er to -onstru-t a ne? temple there. .K1=@1P1 K1=@1 P1KSH. . Six years later% he ?ent to the Tsan4 area of ?estern Tibet 9ia 2ake . 8urin4 this perio$ the Sakyapa s-hool ha$ sprea$ its tea-hin4s throu4hout China% $ue lar4ely to the ?ork of Sakya Pan$ita 6##&!/#!. He ?as honore$ by Kublai Khan% ?ho reJueste$ him to $isplay his spiritual po?er to the other reli4ious tea-hers. Karma Pakshi -omplie$ ?ith this reJuest an$ also -on$u-te$ himself ?ith su-h -ourtesy that all a-kno?le$4e$ his 4reatness.#7 an$ his nephe?% Phakpa 6#!(. . He restore$ it to its former -on$ition.n response% Karma Pakshi tra9ele$ to the 3u/tok pala-e% rea-hin4 there in the year #!. @on4ka Khan exer-ise$ a rather tenuous -ontrol of his youn4er brother Kublai.) Karma Pakshi ha$ rea-he$ 1m$o in northeastern Tibet% ?here he learne$ that @on4ka Khan ha$ suppresse$ the po?er of his . . Karma Pakshi ?as a?are of the importan-e of his 9isit for the future of Ka4yupa tea-hin4s an$ ha$ many 9isionary experien-es in$i-atin4 this after his arri9al at the -ourt. &y #!. 8espite Kublai KhanKs an4er at his refusal to stay% he journeye$ to the Sino/Tibetan bor$er re4ion of @inyak.amtsho% ?here he obtaine$ treasure ?hi-h ?as use$ for the $ebts in-urre$ $urin4 the restoration of the monastery. 3hen he arri9e$ the -ountry ?as ro-ke$ by a torna$o% ?hi-h Karma Pakshi en9isa4e$ as the manifestation of the Cajra Bla-k/Cloake$ @ahakala. The khan aske$ him to remain at his -ourt permanently% but Karma Pakshi $e-line$% forseein4 the potential for trouble in the fa-tional interests at the -ourt.# ha$ fallen into a state of $isrepair.<% after bein4 ?el-ome$ by a lar4e army at Serta on the ?ay.# Kama Pakshi re-ei9e$ an in9itation from Prin-e Kublai ?ho at that time rule$ the Sino/Tibetan bor$er re4ions./#!&<7.

. The khan be-ame his $e9ote$ stu$ent an$ Karma Pakshi re9eale$ that he ha$ in fa-e stu$ie$ ?ith the first Karmapa% 8usum Khyenpa% in his pre9ious life% anNtj in$ee$ ha$ a-hie9e$ the same mahamudra reali>ation as Karma PakshiU himself. 1t the 1laka pala-e% Karma Pakshi empo?ere$ the khan an$ his other stu$ents in the spiritual pra-ti-e of Cakrasam9ara.! THE H.MTEE.n a 9isionary experien-e% he ?as inspire$ by the re$ Tara to 4o to @on4ka KhanKs pala-e in 2ian4 Chou. n the journey to @on4ka KhanKs -ourt he remo9e$ both en9ironmental an$ so-ial imbalan-es by his -ompassionate a-ti9ity. 2ater% throu4h the po?er of Karma PakshiKs me$itation% a 9ision of Saraha an$ the other ei4hty/four tantric saints appeare$ in the sky% ?here they remaine$ for three $ays. . Ho?e9er% none ?ere eJual to it an$ they all a--epte$ his tea-hin4. The po?er of his tea-hin4 -ut throu4h the khanKs in9ol9ement ?ith politi-s% enablin4 him to $e9elop an intuiti9e reali>ation of mahamudra! Karma PakshiKs influen-e exten$e$ far beyon$ the royal -ourt an$ in$ee$ ha$ a profoun$ effe-t on Sino/@on4ol -ulture. 1t this point% @on4ka Khan in9ite$ him to return to China to tea-h dharma! The in9itation ?as a--epte$ an$ Karma Pakshi tra9ele$ slo?ly ba-k to China% passin4 throu4h the @inyak re4ion on-e a4ain. By this time the far/ ran4in4 importan-e of Karma PakshiKs dharma a-ti9ity ha$ be-ome 9ery -lear. Karma Pakshi arri9e$ at the -ourt at the be4innin4 of the ?inter. 1s an example of this% Karma Pakshi a$/ 9ise$ that all @on4ol Bu$$hists shoul$ a9oi$ meat/eatin4 on the $ays of . He -ontinue$ the pro-ess be4un by Sakya Pan$ita.ST =A F THE S. @on4ka Khan pra-ti-e$ his instru-tion so pre-isely that he ?as able to 9isuali>e th eyidam in perfe-t $etail. . youn4er brother% Kublai% an$ ?as no? the supreme ruler of @on4olia an$ a lar4e part of China. The khan marke$ his arri9al by freein4 prisoners in his honor an$ Karma Pakshi manifeste$ the enli4htene$ -ompassion of 19alokites9ara by 4i9in4 many empo?erments% textual transmissions an$ instru-tions.n or$er to $isplay the superb skillful means of the dharma! Karma Pakshi in9ite$ many jealous Taoist masters from Shen Shin4% Tao Shi% an$ Er Kao to join him in $ebate.

Ho?e9er% he ?as a-utely a?are of the $iffi-ulties in the ?ay of su-h a proje-t. The party tra9ele$ on to the Sino/@on4olian bor$er re4ions an$ then journeye$ to @inyak. SubseJuently the khan in9ite$ his 4uru to a--ompany him on a tour of his empire.( the moonKs phases. #% myself% am the . The khan $i$ not attempt to $etain him but 4rante$ him a safe -on$u-t pass throu4h all @on4ol territories. @on4ka Khan ha$ ?ante$ his 4uru to a--ompany him to @an-huria% but Karma Pakshi $e-line$% pointin4 to the impermanent nature of all situations. . 1t this time Karma Pakshi% ?hose journey ha$ been $elaye$ by lo-al ?arfare% ?as inspire$ by a 9ision to -onstru-t a lar4e statue of the Bu$$ha% on his return to Tibet. He -ompose$ a son4 to -elebrate this in ?hi-h he $e-lare$% EThis supreme horse is like a 4ol$en bir$. The ?ay throu4h these obstru-tions ?as re9eale$ to him in a $ream of a ?hite horse ?hi-h res-ue$ him from $an4er. 8espite his o?n personal presti4e% Karma Pakshi $i$ not seek to a$9an-e the Karma Ka4yu s-hool at the expense of the other Bu$$hist tra$itions% but ur4e$ the khan to support them as ?ell. Similarly% non/Bu$$hists ?ere a$9ise$ to keep their o?n reli4ious pre-epts on these $ays.K1=@1P1 K1=@1 P1KSH.ron Ti4er% as Karma Pakshi returne$ to Tibet% trouble broke out in China upon the $eath of @on4ka Khan. 1t first 1lapa4a% the late khanKs son% establishe$ his rule in spite of the fa-t that some @on4ol -hiefs supporte$ the ri9al -laim of his un-le% Kublai Khan. Here% inspire$ by the memory of 8usum Khyenpa% Karma Pakshi $e-i$e$ to return to Tibet. The ten 9irtues ! enun-iate$ by Sakyamuni Bu$$ha ?ere emphasi>e$ as the basis of in$i9i$ual an$ so-ial morality. Ho?e9er% in the year of the . 1t Karakorum% the @on4olKs -apital -ity% Karma Pakshi entere$ into a frien$ly $ialo4ue ?ith the representati9es of other reli4ious tra$itions. Soon% ho?e9er% Kublai Khan ?as able to sei>e -ontrol an$ 1lapa4a ?as kille$% repute$ly by the ma4i-al po?er of a stu$ent of 2ama Shan4 of the Tsalpa Ka4yu linea4e. Karma PakshiKs ?ork for the ?elfare of the people ?as 9ery extensi9e. For example% on thirteen separate o--asions 4roups of prisoners ?ere free$ from -onfinement on his ur4in4.

E9entually Kublai Khan relente$ an$ apolo4i>e$% askin4 Karma Pakshi to stay ?ith him. The khan felt that he ha$ been sli4hte$ by Karma Pakshi an$ that the latter ha$ en-oura4e$ his ri9al an$ brother% @on4ka Khan% so he $e-i$e$ to or$er his assassination. n -ompletion the statue appeare$ to tilt to one si$e. He informe$ 0r4yenpa that his next in-arnation ?oul$ -ome from ?estern Tibet. The .F 3or$ rea-he$ Karma Pakshi that Kublai Khan% en-oura4e$ by -ourt intri4ue% ha$ $e9elope$ a 4ru$4e a4ainst him. The ne? khanQs sol$iers $etaine$ Karma Pakshi an$ subje-te$ him to 9arious in$i4nities an$ tortures su-h as burnin4% poisonin4 an$ bein4 thro?n off a -liff% but in the fa-e of this brutal treatment he manifeste$ the -ompassion of 19alokites9ara an$ the natural free$om of a mahasiddha.MTEE.< THE H. Karma PakshiKs reali>ation of the unborn an$ un$yin4 nature of min$ meant that his -aptors ?ere unable to harm him.ST =A F THE S. supreme man% as ?as Si$$hartha Guatama.. Seein4 this% Karma Pakshi entere$ into me$itation% tiltin4 his bo$y in the same ?ay.( stoo$ fifty/fi9e feet tall an$ -ontaine$ reli-s of the Bu$$ha an$ his $is-iples.L thub!chen d9am!gling!rgyan.nstea$ of assassination% exile seeme$ appropriate. 3hen Karma Pakshi replie$ that he ha$ to return to Tibet% the khan allo?e$ him to $epart sayin4% EPlease remember me an$ pray for me an$ bless me. The -ast brass statue% name$ EGreat Sa4e% rnament of the 3orl$F 6Tib. Aou are free to 4o an$ tea-h dharma ?here9er you ?ish. These e9ents for-e$ Kublai Khan to re-onsi$er his attitu$e to Karma Pakshi. 1s he strai4thene$ up% the statue ri4hte$ itself. Before his $eath in #!&(% Karma Pakshi transmitte$ his linea4e to his 4reat stu$ent% 0r4yenpa. Karma Pakshi ?as both a profoun$ tantric saint an$ s-holar. .F Karma Pakshi arri9e$ ba-k at Tsurphu after a lon4 journey an$ set to ?ork -onstru-tin4 the statue of Bu$$ha. E9entually he expresse$ 4reat pity for their -onfusion. Therefore ?e ?ill -ross o9er these $an4erous times. The khan attempte$ to $ama4e Karma PakshiKs health by sen$in4 him to a $eserte$ area near the o-ean ?here there ?ere fe? people to re-ei9e the dharma! Ho?e9er% ?ithin the next fe? years Karma Pakshi spent his time -ompos/ in4 texts an$ slo?ly re-o9ere$.

ener4y of his tea-hin4s inspire$ many people to tra9el the spiritual path.K1=@1P1 K1=@1 P1KSH.. .n a$$ition to 0r4yenpa% his other famous stu$ents in-lu$e$ @aja Chan4/ -hub Tson$ru% . . .yenre Gen$un Bum an$ @on4ka Khan.

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) Karmapa Rang"ung Dor"e '1+8-(1))9* .F The youn4 =an4jun4 8oije $isplaye$ extraor$inary pre-o-ity.amtsho?a. . His trainin4 -ontinue$ at Tsurphu% ?here for ele9en years he stu$ie$ the -omplete tea-hin4s of the Ka4yu an$ .yenre Gen$un Bum an$ 2ama .7 the thir$ Karmapa in-arnation% =an4jun4 8orje% ?as born in the Tin4ri area of ?estern Tibet.. Follo?in4 this he ?as formally enthrone$ as the Karmapa 2ama at Tsurphu.E. . He -omplete$ this intensi9e perio$ of stu$y ?ith a me$itation retreat in the 9i-inity of the 4reat E2a$y of the 3hite . This 8rukpa Ka4yupa lama reJueste$ that the no? fi9e year ol$ =an4jun4 8orje be brou4ht to see him. 3hen the imitation throne ?as -onstru-te$% he sat upon it% put on a bla-k hat an$ announ-e$ that he ?as the Karmapa 2ama.GHTH 81A of the first month of the year of the 3oo$ @onkey 6#!&< C. To rene? the relationship bet?een them% 2ama 0r4yenpa then besto?e$ the empo?erments of Cakrasam9ara an$ He9ajra upon =an4jun4 8orje. The former sa? =an4jun4 8oije as an embo$iment of Saraha% the 4reat .t is sai$ that as his mother 4a9e birth to him% the moon ?as risin4 an$ the baby imme$iately sat up sayin4% EThe moon has risen. The spiritual Jualities of the youn4 -hil$ le$ 0r4yenpa to reali>e that this ?as in$ee$ the in-arnation of the Karmapa. ne $ay% at the a4e of three% ?hile playin4 ?ith frien$s% he su$$enly aske$ them to make him a throne.yin4ma tra$itions from 2ama .n$ian tantric saint. The e$u-ation an$ trainin4 of the ne? Karmapa be4an at the a4e of se9en% ?hen he re-ei9e$ the no9i-e or$ination from 2ama Kun$en Sherab. THE E. Soon ne?s of this remarkable -hil$ tra9ele$ far an$ ?i$e% rea-hin4 the attention of 2ama 0r4yenpa.

. .MTEE. .L Kbyams!chos!lde!lnga7Q @a$hyamaka philosophy% abhidharma(F an$ the "ra)naparamita sutra an$ sastra -ommentaries.an$ reli4ious la?. 1s an example of this% some of the tea-hin4s he re-ei9e$ from 2ama Kun4a 8on$rup are parti-ularly note/ ?orthy% vi9L %alacakra Tantra* root te3t and commentary . Sno?s%F Homo Gan4kar% kno?n else?here as @ount E9erest.nspire$ by this% he -ompose$ a 9ery influential text on astrolo4y.( The Five Te3ts o# 1aitreya 6Tib.L blo!sbyong. The thir$ Karmapa ?as an omni9orous stu$ent. Shi Haypa tea-hin4s of 8ampa San4jay @a-hi4 2ab$ronKs chod tea-hin4 Sakyapa path an$ fruit tea-hin4s The sadahga yoga of Kala-akra) %an)ur an$ Tan)ur textual transmission" 1 -omparati9e stu$y of Hin$u philosophy 3hen =an4jun4 8oije re-ei9e$ the empo?erment of Kala-akra% he ha$ a 9isionary experien-e of the entire uni9erse as -ontaine$ ?ithin the bo$y itself. He remaine$ for some time at the monastery% en4a4e$ in a ?i$e stu$y of philosophy% lo4i.uhyasama)a Tantra Cakrasamvara Tantra* root text an$ -ommentary Aamantaka tea-hin4s. His stu$ies in-lu$e$ the vinaya( thou4ht transformation 6Tib. He re-ei9e$ tea-hin4s from the most profoun$ s-holars of his $ay.) THE H. 1t the a4e of ei4hteen% =an4jun4 8orje tra9ele$ to the 4reat Ka$ampa monastery of San4phu% ?here he re-ei9e$ the full or$ination from the abbot% Sakya Shonnu.# Cajramala tea-hin4s 0eva)ra Tantra an$ -ommentaries SamputikaG Guhya4arbha tea-hin4s EThe pea-eful an$ ?rathful $eitiesK* tea-hin4.ST =A F THE S. 1lthou4h he retaine$ un$erstan$in4 from his pre9ious li9es% he resear-he$ all aspe-ts of both -ontemporary an$ tra$itional learnin4.

=an4jun4 8orjeKs stu$ies exten$e$ into the me$i-al fiel$. The effe-t of this tea-hin4 on =an4jun4 8orje le$ to his brin4in4 to4ether the t?o tea-hin4s of Ka4yupa E4reat sealF an$ . From 2ama Bare he re-ei9e$ the Sowa Rikpa me$i-al e$u-ation.a4arjuna ?ere -on9eye$ to him by his late 4uru% 0r4yenpa.n me$itation he ha$ a 9ision in ?hi-h Cimalamitra ?as a-tually absorbe$ into his forehea$.yin4mapa E4reat perfe-tionF into one stream.uhyasama)a Tantra 1adhyamaka philosophy 1ahamaya Tantra He9ajra tea-hin4s% from the linea4e of ." 3hen this perio$ of stu$y ?ith 2ama Kun4a 8on$rup ?as -omplete$% =an4jun4 8orje entere$ into intensi9e me$itation at the Garu$a Castle retreat -enter near Tsurphu. f the ones sur9i9in4% the foremost for the Ka4yu se-t is the Deep Inner 1eaning 6Tib. . =an4jun4 8orjeKs $epth an$ brea$th of s-holarship ?as of a $e4ree usually asso-iate$ ?ith the European Erenaissan-e man%F an$ in Tibet ?ith the later =ime 6Eboun$arylessF7 mo9ement. . Ha9in4 assimilate$ most of the Bu$$hist tea-hin4s% empo?erments an$ textual transmissions% ?hi-h ha$ been brou4ht to Tibet% he -ommuni-ate$ his 9ision in many important texts.GH0.K1=@1P1 =1.yin4mapa tra$ition.L 9ab!mo!snang!don7% an in9aluable -ommentary on the nature of tantra. They ha$ a lastin4 influen-e on =an4jun4 8orje.G 8 =HE . SubseJuently% the Karmapa staye$ for a ?hile ?ith the learne$ 1bbot Tsultim =in-hen% from ?hom he re-ei9e$ tea-hin4s% amon4 ?hi-h are the follo?in4L .4ok Cho$or an$ @eton Tsonpo & 4amantaka Tantras Cakrasamvara Tantras# 2ater% =an4jun4 8orje stu$ie$ ?ith =i4$>in Kumararaja% the most important -ontemporary exponent of the innermost essen-e 6Tib. tea-hin4s of the .L snying! thig. These tea-hin4s% ?hi-h ha$ been intro$u-e$ into Tibet in the ei4hth -entury by the pandita% Cimalami/ tra% re9eal the $ire-t experien-e of bu$$hahoo$ throu4h the nake$ness of a?areness. 8urin4 this retreat he ha$ a $ream in ?hi-h the tea-hin4s of the philosopher .

He a--epte$ the in9itation an$ set out for China% but on the ?ay his party ?as hel$ up by unseasonable ?eather.n time% =an4jun4 8orjeKs fame sprea$ as far as the @on4ol Emperor To4h Temur% ?ho in9ite$ him to 9isit. n his return to Tibet% =an4jun4 8oije ?as in9ol9e$ in tea-hin4 an$ resol9in4 politi-al problems. There it ?as learne$ that the Emperor To4h Temur ha$ in$ee$ $ie$ on the $ay of the omens. The party finally arri9e$ at the pala-e of Tai/ya Tu on the ei4hteenth $ay of the tenth month of the year of the 3ater @onkey 6#((! C. n the -ompletion of his stu$ies% =an4jun4 8orje be4an to tra9el throu4h southern Tibet% 4i9in4 tea-hin4s an$ besto?in4 empo?erments. n the fifteenth $ay of the first month of the 3ater Bir$ year the ne? emperor ?as enthrone$ by =an4jun4 8oije in a 4ran$ -eremony. SubseJuently% Karmapa re-ei9e$ an in9ita/ tion from To4hon Temur to re9isit China. Karmapa a$9ise$ the late emperorKs youn4er brother% To4hon Temur% to ?ait for six months before as-en$in4 the throne an$ he pre$i-te$ that To4hon Temur ?oul$ pro9e to be a 4reat monar-h. Before -ontinuin4 Karmapa performe$ the $eath rites for the emperor.n the year of the 3oo$ 8o4% Karmapa set out on the return journey to Tibet to pro-ure% as a 4ift for the emperor% some lon4 life ne-tar% tse chu 6Tib. Ho?e9er% the royal family an$ -ourt ?ere still able to ?el-ome =an4jun4 8oije. So in the year of the Fire =at% Karmapa set out on-e a4ain for China.& THE H. n the ?ay -ertain omens o--urre$ ?hi-h in$i-ate$ to =an4jun4 8orje that the emperor ha$ $ie$. He staye$ in the Kon4po area for a perio$ of three years. @any people ?ere inspire$ to stu$y dharma by the po?er of his presen-e an$ reputation as a dharma master. . . n the ?ay he establishe$ many monasteries $e$i-ate$ to Ka4yu dharma! f espe-ial importan-e is the temple that he establishe$ at 3u/tai Shan% the Fi9e Peaks of @aiijusrU mountain in China.L tse!chu7% left near Samye by Pa$masambha9a.E.MTEE. The follo?in4 sprin4 the party a4ain set out for China.7.. Throu4hout the lon4 journey =an4jun4 8orje -ontinually tau4ht dharma! 0pon his arri9al% the emperor ?el-ome$ him joyfully an$ re-ei9e$ the 4ift of the tse chu from Karmapa .ST =A F THE S.

E. n the fourteenth $ay of the sixth month of the year of the Earth =abbit 6#((+ C.yin4mapa 4uru% 2on4-hen =abjampa. He ?ith$re? into the Cakrasam9ara shrine% ?here he me$itate$ on the heruka an$ passe$ a?ay in me$itation. He ?as also able to en$ the -limati.GH0.n a$$ition% =an4jun4 8orjeKs other stu$ents in-lu$e$ Shamar =inpo-he% 8rakpa Sen4e an$ To4hon Temur.K1=@1P1 =1. =an4jun4 8orje tau4ht the famous Sakya s-holar% Aa4$e Pan$ita%+ an$ also the most profoun$ .+ ?hi-h enable$ him to li9e the lon4est of the @on4ol emperors. =an4jun4 8oijeKs influen-e on va)rayana Bu$$hism ?as in-al-ulable.G 8 =HE . 1s ?ell as his in9aluable texts% his tea-hin4 ?as sprea$ throu4h his many a--omplishe$ stu$ents. The next $ay% as his final tea-hin4 to the emperor an$ empress% Karmapa appeare$ to manifest his fa-e in the full moon. . 8urin4 his stay =an4jun4 8orje establishe$ a ne? Ka4yupa monastery.7% =an4jun4 8orje tol$ the emperor of his presentiments of his o?n imminent $eath. .$iffi-ulties ?hi-h ?ere harmin4 the -rops in China at that time.

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Karmapa Rolpe Dor"e
'1)-0(1)8)*

80=.,G THE P=EG,1,CA of =olpe 8orjeKs mother many auspi-ious symbols o--urre$ in her $reams% in$i-atin4 the birth of an in-arnate 4uru. n the ei4hth $ay of the thir$ month of the year of the .ron 8ra4on 6#(<' C.E.7 Karmapa =olpe 8orje ?as born. The soun$s of the six/syllable mantra ?ere hear$ on the lips of the baby an$ a beautiful fra4ran-e issue$ from the bo$y. 1s a youn4 -hil$ =olpe 8orje freJuently $isplaye$ his remarkable abilities. 1t the a4e of three he $e-lare$ E. am Karma Pakshi. @any of my stu$ents are here an$ so . ha9e -ome.F He spontaneously sat in the position of 1mitabha an$ tol$ his mother that the position ?as one in ?hi-h he ha$ been seate$ in her ?omb. 1t the a4e of six the youn4 pro$i4y% on bein4 Juestione$ about his pre9ious li9es% replie$% E. am 8usum Khyenpa an$ Karma Pakshi. . ?ent to China an$ be4an to pa-ify the @on4ol armies. . am the one ?ho ?at-he$ from the -lou$s. @y 4uru is emptiness an$ . myself am your 4uru. ,o? . possess three emanations. ne is ?ith the bo$hisatt9a =atnamati. ne $?ells in the spiritual en9ironment of Bu$$ha 1ksobhya an$ . am the thir$. 1t the moment you may $oubt me but soon this ?ill pass. Aou yourself are my stu$ent.F SubseJuently Gon Gyal?a% ?ho a-te$ as one of =olpe 8orjeKs tutors% Juestione$ the boy about his in-arnation as =an4jun4 8orje% sayin4% EKarmapa sai$ he ?oul$ li9e to be the a4e of ei4hty/four but he $ie$ at fifty/fi9e. 3hat happene$IF =olpe 8orje replie$% EFe?er people ?ere reli4ious an$ their ?ay of life ?as 9ery ne4ati9e. This upset =an4jun4 8orje an$ -ause$ him to lose his ?ish to remain here.F Gon Gyal?a further Juestione$ the youn4 in-arnation about ?hy people ha$ seen his fa-e in the full moon on the ni4ht follo?in4 his $eath. The

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THE H.ST =A F THE S.MTEE,

youn4 boy ans?ere$ by sayin4% E=an4jun4 8oije ha$ limitless -ompassion an$ his stu$ents ha$ stron4 $e9otion. These t?o -auses -oin-i$e$ an$ pro$u-e$ the 9ision of his appearan-e in the moon.F The youn4 =olpe 8oije ha$ many spontaneous 9isionary experien-es% ?hi-h symboli>e$ the natural unfol$ment of his o?n spirituality. 1t one time ?hen he fell ill ?ith influen>a% he entere$ into me$itation upon BhaiWajya4uru the bu$$ha/embo$iment of me$i-ine. .n this me$itation he $rank from the -rystal ?ater bo?l ?hi-h Bhaijajya4uru exten$e$ to him. .mme$iately his si-kness passe$. =olpe 8orje experien-e$ the omnipres/ en-e of the bu$$ha/nature throu4hout bein4. .t is sai$ that he ?as able to see the $ifferent bu$$ha EfamiliesG# in his o?n 9eins an$ to see the spiritual en9ironments of bu$$has in one atom. n one o--asion he manifeste$ ten $ifferent forms in ?hi-h he listene$ to ten $ifferent tea-hin4s in ten $iffer/ ent spiritual en9ironments. These experien-es refle-te$ =olpe 8oijeKs real/ i>ation of the interpretation of bu$$ha/nature in all experien-e an$ phenomena. The a?akenin4 of the youn4 KarmapaKs innate -ompassion ?as sym/ boli>e$ by his 9isionary $es-ent to hell in the form of 19alokites9ara. There he -ontrolle$ the sufferin4s brou4ht about by intense a44ression. 3ith the rain of his -ompassion he ?as able to extin4uish the fires of hatre$ an$ restore all the bein4s trappe$ in their en9ironment to basi- sanity. The Karmapa -hil$ ?as like a garuda( the mythi-al bir$ ?hi-h hat-hes from the e44 -omplete full/4ro?n. .n his $reams he 9isite$ 0NXNYiyana% lan$ of the dakiriis( ?here Cajrayo4inT 4a9e him profoun$ tea-hin4s in ?hi-h she tol$ him% EAours is a naturally unborn min$. 2et me$itation% 9isuali>ation an$ re-itation arise. @ake offerin4 prayers an$ tormas! By performin4 this pra-ti-e for ei4ht $ays% you ?ill obtain the spiritual po?er of Cajrayo4inT.F .n other $reams =olpe 8orje journeye$ to the Potala spiritual en9ironment. Here he per-ei9e$ the mandala of 19alokites9ara in its pure imme$ia-y% ?hi-h pro$u-e$ in him the reali>ation of mahamudra! To express his un$erstan$in4% =olpe 8orje -ompose$ son4s relatin4 his 9isionary experien-es. 1t the a4e of nine he be4an to stu$y the tea-hin4s of

K1=@1P1 = 2PE 8 =HE

)(

the Ka4yu an$ ,yin4ma tra$itions. 8urin4 this perio$ it is sai$ that =olpe 8orje a--omplishe$ his stu$ies ?ith 4reat ease% apparently ha9in4 to exert 9ery little effort% $ue to his inherent ability. 3hen =olpe 8orje rea-he$ the a4e of thirteen he ?ent to -entral Tibet. n the ?ay he passe$ 8ak 2ha Gampo% the monastery of Gampopa% ?hi-h he sa? as a stupa ma$e of je?els% surroun$e$ by bu$$has% bod+ hisattvas an$ saints. He -ompose$ a son4 in praise of the pla-e to express his $eli4ht. 1t Pha4mo 8ru monastery =olpe 8oije ?as ?el-ome$ by Taisitu Chan4-hub Gyaltsen% ?ho be-ame ruler of Tibet. From there he -ontinue$ to Tsurphu% the prin-ipal monastery of the Karmapa 2amas. n his arri9al he ?as inspire$ by a 9ision of Cajrayo4inl. .n preparation for his monastior$ination =olpe 8oije stu$ie$ the vinaya texts% -on-ernin4 reli4ious $is-ipline. Then% at the a4e of fourteen he re-ei9e$ or$ination as a no9i-e from 8on$rup Pal =inpo-he. He ?as name$ 8harmakTrti to -onfirm his entran-e into the monasti- life. 8on$rup Pal =inpo-he e9oke$ in Karmapa a sense of the ri-hness of 8usum KhyenpaKs transmission. .n me$itation he sa? as many 8usum Khyenpas as stars in the sky. Follo?in4 this% =olpe 8orjeKs spiritual pra-ti-e -on-erne$ 1mitabha% the embo$iment of $eathlessness. He entere$ into a retreat in ?hi-h the si4nifi-an-e of 1mitabha tea-hin4s be-ame -ompletely -lear to him% both throu4h his me$itation an$ his $reams. SubseJuently =olpe 8oije in9ite$ the ,yin4mapa s-holar Gyal?a Aon4tonpa to 9isit him. This tea-her ?as the li9in4 linea4e/hol$er of the Karma Ka4yu Etransmission%F ?hi-h he himself ha$ re-ei9e$ from =an4/ jun4 8oije. n meetin4 Aon4tonpa% a spontaneous un$erstan$in4 of the mandala of pea-eful an$ ?rathful $eities arose in =olpe 8orje. The ol$ s-holar sai$% 0. am 9ery ol$ but =an4jun4 8oije sho?e$ su-h kin$ness in tea-hin4 me that . ha9e -ome from afar. ,o? please tell me ?hat you remember of your pre9ious li9es.F Karmapa =olpe 8oije replie$ that he ?as not able to re-all his life as 8usum Khyenpa 9ery -learly an$ that he -oul$ only remember a little of his life as =an4jun4 8orje. Ho?e9er% he emphasi>e$ that he re-alle$ his life as Karma Pakshi perfe-tly. 3hen he hear$ this% Aon4tonpa ?as o9er-ome ?ith emotion an$ prostrate$ at his youn4 stu$entKs feet.

3hen you arri9e ?e must both en-oura4e the pro4ress of buddhadharma an$ the ?elfare of the people. ask you to remember your pre9ious a-tions. # ha9e hear$ that you% Karmapa =olpe 8orje ha9e been reborn for us an$ you no? $?ell in Tsurphu. am sen$in4 you shrine implements% one in4ot of 4ol$% three in4ots of sil9er an$ ei4hteen rolls of silk bro-a$e. shall sen$ an$ pro9i$e for all.MTEE. 1s an offerin4 . Bu$$ha himself $i$ not think of his o?n sufferin4s ?hen he ?ishe$ to benefit sentient bein4s. 8o not -onsi$er the $iffi-ulties of the journey nor your health but please -ome Jui-kly. These are $e4enerate times% full of many sufferin4s. . 3hen he returne$ to Tsurphu a se-on$ in9itation arri9e$ from To4hon Temur in ?hi-h the emperor sai$% . 1t the a4e of ei4hteen he ?as or$aine$ a monk by the 1bbot 8on$rup Pal =inpo-he. Please -ome imme$iately. The follo?in4 year the @on4ol Emperor To4hon Temur% ?ho ?as anxious to restore his links ?ith the Karmapa in-arnations% in9ite$ =olpe 8orje to his -ourt. Ho?e9er% =olpe 8orje sai$% EPlease $o not ask the people for anythin4. Therefore% ?ith $eep respe-t . . =olpe 8orje re-ei9e$ an exhausti9e ran4e of tea-hin4s% espe-ially Ka4yu an$ . Karmapa be4an the lon4 an$ $iffi-ult journey to Pekin4 in the ninth month of the Earth 8o4 year% at the a4e of nineteen.o? many bein4s are a-tin4 in the ?ron4 ?ay% so please point to the ri4ht $ire-tion for them.ST =A F THE S. 3hen the party arri9e$ in Sha?o% the @on4ol en9oys su44este$ that fresh horses% yaks an$ bearers be reJuisi/ tione$ from the lo-al popula-e. Please set forth from home. am the emperor% the kin4 of hea9en. ne shoul$ .yin4ma instru-tions from 2ama Aon4tonpa. Ho?e9er% at that time Karmapa ?as en4a4e$ in a tea-hin4 tour of Tibet an$ ?as unable to 4o. Sent from Tai/ya Tu% the resi$en-e of the emperor% on the tenth $ay of the tenth month in the year of the Earth @onkey. Consi$er these sufferin4s an$ also the innate 4oo$ness of the people. 8urin4 the same year =olpe 8orje met the famous Sakya lama( Sonam Gyaltsen% from ?hom he re-ei9e$ the empo?erment of the re$ 19alo/ kites9ara.)< THE H. Please besto? on us the ne-tar of the dharma to make us joyful. He use$ mu-h of his time on the journey in -omposin4 texts. Please listen% 4reat 2ama =olpe 8orje. Ea-h lama re-o4ni>e$ the otherKs spiritual authority on their meetin4.

n$ian yogins ?ho presente$ him ?ith a buddharupa -ar9e$ by .K1=@1P1 = 2PE 8 =HE ).yin4ma tea-hin4s.F 8espite this% people respon$e$ to KarmapaKs -ompassionate -on-ern an$ many offerin4s ?ere ma$e to him. 1t this time =olpe 8orje himself attaine$ the reali>ation of ati yoga% the most sublime of .a4arjuna. =olpe 8orje instru-te$ the people in non9iolen-e an$ the $e9elopment of a lo9in4 attitu$e. There he met fi9e . ne9er bur$en the people. 8urin4 this perio$ =olpe 8orje -ompose$ a series of son4s $e$i-ate$ to @anjusrT. =olpe 8orjeKs journey lay throu4h the area of 3u/tKai Shan ?here he ma$e a pil4rima4e to the peaks of @anjusrT. To those ?ho ?ere alrea$y en4a4e$ in me$itation pra-ti-e =olpe 8orje 4a9e the explanations of mahamudra an$ the six $o-trines. He hel$ a short seminary there $urin4 ?hi-h he in . Continuin4 ?ith the journey% Karmapa ?as in9ite$ to 9isit the $omain of Prin-e San4ha Sri.

1ll the fa-tions ?ho oppose$ the emperor are no? pea-eful. .n @inyak Karmapa sprea$ the dharma an$ also arran4e$ a par$on for a ruler ?ho ha$ rebelle$ a4ainst the khan. . Aamantaka remo9e$ the obstru-tin4 hin$ran-es to KarmapaKs -ompassionate ?ork. myself $o not possess enou4h kno?le$4e.F =olpe 8orje replie$% E. He $onate$ a 4reat $eal of his ?ealth to restore pea-e an$ -onstru-t monasteries. This ma$e him $e-i$e to return to Tibet. Finally on the ei4hteenth $ay of the t?elfth month of the year of the . Aou are a fortunate tea-her. SubseJuently% =olpe 8orje sub$ue$ the embo$iments of the areaKs ener4y an$ in this ?ay turne$ the area to Ka4yu dharma! 1nother notable e9ent from the journey ?as =olpe 8orjeKs 9isit to the famous Ema4i-alF temple of Sakya Pan$ita. Please think -arefully. The -ommitment of the emperor to Ka4yu dharma ?as e9i$ent an$ sin-ere an$ so Karmapa ?as able to instru-t him in the 9ital tria$ of Ka4yu tea-hin4s% namely Cajrayo4inl% the six $o-trines of . 1s he passe$ throu4h 9arious tiny kin4$oms he pa-ifie$ fa-tional feu$in4 an$ ?itnesse$ the si4nin4 of many treaties. Please remain here so that ?e may sprea$ dharma in the manner of Kublai Khan an$ Sakya Phakpa. Happily enou4h the empress 4a9e birth to a baby% a son @aitrlpala% later the same month. .n his dharma a-ti9ity at this time =olpe 8orje ?as inspire$ by Aamantaka% ?ho embo$ies the in$estru-tibility of bu$$hahoo$. 1fter three years ?ork in China% it ?as re9eale$ in a $ream to =olpe 8orje that the emperorKs life ?oul$ be short. ha9e a ne? son.t is better to -ease XVreten$in4.o? thin4s are easily obtaine$. . =olpe 8orje also 4a9e the royal -hiki ren a 4roun$in4 in the basi.pre-epts of Bu$$ha an$ 4enerally instru-te$ the Chi iese an$ @on4ol peoples an$ the other ethni. 1s a present to his 4uru the emperor free$ all prisoners an$ ex-use$ his monks from -ourt etiJuette. 8urin4 his stay in China the -ompassionate a-ti9ity of =olpe 8orje exten$e$ to -urin4 the si-k an$ -ombatin4 harsh -limati-on$itions. .aropa% an$ the mahamudra of Tilopa. His presen-e instille$ in the people a re9eren-e for the non9iolent ?ay of life. 3hat . To4hon Temur ?as upset by this ne?s an$ plea$e$ ?ith his 4uru to stay% sayin4% EBefore you -ame e9erythin4 ?as -ostly.ron @ouse% the party arri9e$ at the pala-e of Tai/ya Tu% ?here =olpe 8orje ?as fete$ by the emperor an$ empress. =olpe 8orje ?as also able to help the lo-al people by en$in4 an in9asion of lo-usts% ?hi-h threatene$ to $estroy the -rops. -an $o is to bless emperors by in9okin4 .K1=@1P1 = 2PE 8 =HE )) stru-te$ both -ourtiers an$ members of the publi-.minorities of the empire in the reli4ion an$ non9iolen-e.

1ll the 4ifts that he himself re-ei9e$ he 4a9e to nee$y in$i9i$uals or institutions.ener4y% appeare$ to him. Karmapa expresse$ his surprise at peopleKs -laims to ha9e hear$ the noises of the garuda( be-ause he sai$ in a-tuality it ?as simply the a-ti9ity of formless min$. . Then he tra9ele$ throu4h @inyak ?here he built a ne? monastery at Kora an$ sprea$ the dharma! =olpe 8orjeKs timetable on the journey re9ol9e$ aroun$ me$itation% tea-hin4 an$ ?elfare ?ork.F So% relu-tantly the emperor let =olpe 8orje 4o. n hearin4 of this Karmapa $e9ise$ a metho$ to reali>e her $ream. . Therefore% he is like a se-on$ Bu$$ha -ome to Tibet. =olpe 8orje 4a9e tea-hin4s an$ $istribut/ e$ ai$ to the lo-al inhabitants. n the ni4ht follo?in4 KarmapaKs arri9al% people sai$ that they -oul$ hear noises on the roof of his house. @onks must 4o ?here9er they -an benefit sentient bein4s. Karmapa pre$i-te$ about the -hil$ that% EThis is a holy -hil$ ?ho ?ill be of 4reat benefit to people. Saras9atl 4a9e him a pot of yo4hurt an$ tol$ him to $rink it.n$ian poeti-s.n Kon4jo he ha$ a $ream in ?hi-h Saras9atl% symboli. 1ll my ?or$s ha9e been ?ritten $o?n.o? # must return to Tibet. To4ether ?ith the Sakya lama( 2ha-hen Sonam Solo% he sa9e$ the li9es of -on$emne$ prisoners. 3hen the party rea-he$ the Kon4jo area in northeastern Tibet% it -ame a-ross a smallpox epi$emi-. 14ain his journey ?as spent ?orkin4 for the ?elfare of the inhabitants of the 9arious areas throu4h ?hi-h he passe$. He ro$e o9er a -ertain area of 4roun$ on horseba-k tra-in4 the pattern of this ima4e ?ith his horseKs hoofprints.K1=@1P1 = 2PE 8 =HE )" the prin-iple of the three je?els an$ by tea-hin4 them. =olpe 8orje ha$ lon4 been intereste$ in .L lta!ba!nying!bsal.n the mornin4 =olpe 8orje sai$ that he ha$ brou4ht the epi$emi.! .t ?as in this area that =olpe 8oije met a youn4 boy ?ho ?as $estine$ to ha9e a profoun$ effe-t on Bu$$hism% Tson4khapa. . 1t 2ake Kokonor he -ompose$ his text% Removing Erroneous Aiews 6Tib.-onsort of @anjusri an$ em/ bo$iment of artisti. He 4a9e the boy lay or$ination an$ the name Kun4a . The measurements of Bu$$haKs fi4ure tra-e$ in this manner ?ere foun$ .to an en$ by manifestin4 as a garuda to $estroy the imbalan-es pro$u-in4 the smallpox. 1rri9in4 in the Tson4kha area near 2ake Kokonor% KarmapaKs party ?as honore$ by the lo-al rulers.F 1t this time Prin-ess Punya$hari of @inyak% one of =olpe 8oijeKs stu$ents% $reamt of a hu4e thangka of Sakyamuni Bu$$ha% measurin4 ele9en arm/spans from ear to ear. Karmapa $eparte$ in the first month of the 3oo$ Ti4er year.yin4po. The mornin4 follo?in4 this $ream =olpe 8orje $is-o9ere$ he ha$ a ne?/foun$ ability to un$erstan$ poeti-s. .t is best not to be atta-he$ to any -ountry.

L gar!chen. 1lthou4h surroun$e$ by intri4ue an$ 4ossip he remaine$ unaffe-te$ an$ impartial.n all it took fi9e hun$re$ people thirteen months to -omplete the thangka( ?hi-h also represente$ @anjusrT an$ @aitreya on either si$e of Sakyamuni. His -areer exemplifie$ the Jualities of a true bodhisattva an$ master of all fa-ets of Bu$$haKs tea-hin4.)& THE H. E. He further sai$ that he ?oul$ $ie in a 9ery open lan$ ?ith many $eer an$ ?il$ horses. . 3here9er he ?ent he ?orke$ assi$uously for the ?elfare of others in any ?ay possible% from buil$in4 bri$4es to instru-tion in metaphysi-s.F Then the party tra9ele$ to Karma Gon monastery% ?here he 4a9e tea-hin4 to the monks. as in a settle$ monastery.n -ontrast to many reli4ious luminaries% =olpe 8orje $i$ not $isplay 4reat pleasure to finan-ial sponsors% reser9in4 this instea$ for 4oo$ me$itators. His ni4hts ?ere passe$ in the pra-ti-e of $ream yoga! =olpe 8orje ?as% in fa-t% a 9e4etarian an$ estab/ lishe$ this as the basi. Ho?e9er% he informe$ people that it ?as not yet time for him to $ie. From the time he a?oke until nine in the mornin4% he per/ forme$ his spiritual pra-ti-es.ST =A F THE S. The people ?ere o9erjoye$. n -ompletion the thangka ?as blesse$ by =olpe 8orje. Karmapa himself follo?e$ as stri-t a re4imen in the -amp 6Tib. ESo% $o not lose any of my books. 8urin4 the -eremony auspi-ious e9ents o--urre$. Conspira-ies ?ere plotte$ to harm =olpe 8orje% but nothin4 si4nifi-ant e9er -ame of them.f . . 2ater the prin-ess reJueste$ KarmapaKs -ounsel ?hen her re4ion ?as about to be in9a$e$ by a @on4ol army. 3hen KarmapaKs party arri9e$ in the . KarmapaKs extensi9e a-ti9ity in both dharma an$ so-ial ?elfare at/ tra-te$ jealousy from -ertain Juarters. From then until noon he 4a9e instru-tions in dharma! 1t noon he performe$ prostrations an$ ?alkin4 me$itation.an4-hen prin-ipality% his in$isposition -ause$ mu-h -on-ern.MTEE.$iet of his -amp. Karmapa aske$ his stu$ents to brin4 some juniper ?oo$ on the next sta4es of the journey. =olpe 8orje staye$ for three months $urin4 ?hi-h time the atmosphere ?as per9a$e$ by lo9e an$ kin$ness amon4 mankin$ an$ all other -reatures. He tol$ them that it ?as the -ustom in China to use san$al?oo$ or a4aru on a funeral pyre for a respe-te$ person% but sin-e . =olpe 8orje% ?ho ha$ the perfe-t -oura4e of non9iolen-e% in9oke$ the prin-iple of ?is$om an$ -ompassion an$ the in9a$in4 army mo9e$ a?ay from the re4ion. be-ome ill in su-h a -ountry . ?ill $ie%F =olpe 8orje $e-lare$. 1fter?ar$s Prin-ess Punya$hari 4a9e the thangka to her 4uru. Then the ima4e ?as transferre$ to a hu4e pie-e of silk. to be perfe-t. Throu4hout the afternoon he pra-ti-e$ 19alokites9ara me$itation% an$ in the e9enin4 he stu$ie$ or -ompose$ texts.

ak-hu% one of the monks broke his han$.o--urren-es% ?hi-h symboli>e$ to people the dakas an$ dakiriis 4reetin4 =olpe 8orje. SubseJuently the KarmapaKs party set up -amp in the barren northern plains of Tibet.E. The moments of his passin4 ?ere marke$ by stran4e atmospheri. 1mon4 Karmapa =olpe 8orjeKs prin-ipal stu$ents ?ere Shamar Ka-ho$ 3an4po% 8ri4un4 Chokyi 8rakpa an$ 2ob>an4 8rakpa Tson4/ khapa. Ho?e9er% e9erybo$y else in the -amp lau4he$ at =ekar?a. He 4a>e$ into spa-e an$ re-ite$ the EPrayer of Samantabha$ra. 8urin4 this perio$ =olpe 8orje spoke to his stu$ents an$ atten$ants about the 9i-iousness of satpsara an$ the ?i$esprea$ inability of people to follo? dharma! He sai$% EPerhaps it is better to $emonstrate the real nature of satrisara( ?hi-h is that e9erythin4 is impermanent. . @any people throu4hout Tibet% ?ho ha$ personal -onne-tions ?ith him% en9isa4e$ him in 9arious personal manifestations at this time.F ! Then he me$itate$ until just before sunrise% ?hen he passe$ a?ay.7% =olpe 8orje be-ame si-k. . n the ni4ht of the full moon in the se9enth month of the year of the Female 3ater Pi4 6#(&( C.K1=@1P1 = 2PE 8 =HE )+ Tibet $i$ not ha9e this kin$ of ?oo$% they ?oul$ ha9e to use juniper ?oo$. =olpe 8orjeKs ashes ?ere brou4ht to Tsurphu monastery an$ en/ shrine$ as reli-s.F ne of his stu$ents% =ekar?a% reali>e$ that Karmapa ?as referrin4 to his o?n imminent $emise an$ plea$e$ ?ith him not to pass a?ay.nauspi-ious si4ns ?ere obser9e$ in the -amp an$ Karmapa himself ma$e obliJue -omments upon them. 3hen the party rea-he$ . This ?as -onsi$ere$ 9ery inauspi-ious.

.

E.7 to the yogin Guru =in-hen an$ his ?ife% 2hamo Kyi.4akphu Sonam San4po% ?ith ?hom he ?ent on to stu$y the full ran4e of hlnayana an$ mahayana tea-hin4s..G 3hen he rea-he$ the a4e of fi9e% 8e>hin She4pa ?as in9ite$ to Kon4po . Then he ?as formally enthrone$ at Tsurphu monastery.* . The terton presente$ him ?ith a s-arf an$ some 4ol$% an$ Karmapa remin$e$ him that he still possesse$ the pre9ious KarmapaKs ?alkin4 sti-k.aropa an$ the mahamudra of Tilopa% the prin-ipal Ka4yu instru-tions. The youn4 in-arnation massa4e$ his ribs an$ ShaoKs injuries heale$% -ausin4 him no further pain. These in-lu$e$ the six $o-/ trines of . 8urin4 this perio$ 8e>hin She4pa re-ei9e$ se9eral empo?erments an$ textual transmissions for later pra-ti-e.Karmapa De$hin %hegpa '1)8-(1-1. . bo? $o?n to all the bu$$has. San4ye "# . He -ontinue$ his e$u-ation there ?ith his tutor% until bein4 or$aine$ a monk at the a4e of nineteen in the lar4est or$ination -eremony 6ei4hty monks7 e9er hel$ in Tibet. 'm mani padme hum.yin4ma terton 6Efin$er of hi$$en textsF7% San4ye 2in4pa% ?hom he ha$ kno?n in his pre9ious in-arnation. am Karma Pakshi. 1t the a4e of se9en he re-ei9e$ no9i-e or$ination from the 4reat abbot% . His motherKs pre4nan-y ha$ been ri-h in auspi-ious e9ents an$ imme$iately after his birth% 8e>hin She4pa ?as hear$ to ex-laim% E. 8ESH. SHEGP1 ?as born at sunrise on the ei4hteenth $ay of the sixth month of the year of the 3oo$ @ouse 6#(&< C.4akphu% ?here a 4reat me$itator -alle$ Shao ha$ slippe$ on the i-e an$ broken three of his ribs. n his tra9els he met the .e$u-ation ?as -omplete$% 8e>hin She4pa be4an to tour. n-e his basi.

Please -ome Jui-kly.po?ers as people -laime$% he ?oul$ kno? his o?n ?ish that he shoul$ be 4i9en the same 4ifts in return. The emperor thou4ht that if Karmapa really $i$ ha9e telepathi. Aou are my only hope% essen-e of bu$$hahoo$. 1t the pala-e the emperor 4reete$ him ?ith a s-arf an$ a pre-ious shell% the spiral of ?hi-h turne$ to the ri4ht. 8urin4 this tour he ?as en4a4e$ in 4i9in4 many tea-hin4s to both reli4ious an$ lay people. The latter% inspire$ by a $ream of 19alokites9ara an$ also at the promptin4 of his ?ife% in9ite$ Karmapa to 9isit China in #<') C. . # he Huh Karmapa -on-erne$ himself 4reatly ?ith the re-on-iliation of $i9i$e$ -ommunities an$ attempte$ to establish non9iolen-e as the norm of so-ial an$ politi-al beha9ior.ankin4 three years later% he ?as ?el-ome$ by ten thousan$ monks. Thus% his -ompassion expresse$ itself in both the so-ial an$ reli4ious spheres.E. 1s the emperor ?as thinkin4 this% 8e>hin She4pa pulle$ a s-arf an$ a -on-h shell% spirallin4 to the ri4ht% out of his po-ket . am sen$in4 as offerin4 a lar4e in4ot of sil9er% one hun$re$ fifty sil9er -oins% t?enty rolls of silk% a blo-k of san$al?oo$% one hun$re$ fifty bri-ks of tea an$ ten poun$s of in-ense. SubseJuently% 8e>hin She4pa ?as in9ite$ to 9isit Kham.mahayana pre-epts to the tantricyoga of the six $o-trines. 1n important aspe-t of 8e>hin She4paKs -areer ?as his relationship ?ith the @in4 Emperor Aun4 2o. Tra9elin4 on% Karmapa re-ei9e$ the empo?/ erment of Cajramala an$ other tea-hin4s from the saintly me$itator% Aeshe Pal. He -reate$ prote-te$ reser9es for ?il$ animals% an$ also put an en$ to toll roa$s.F n 8e>hin She4paKs arri9al in .2in4pa ?as astonishe$ by the po?er of 8e>hin She4paKs a?areness an$ be-ame 9ery $e9ote$ to him. The instru-tions he 4a9e 9arie$ to suit his au$ien-e% -o9erin4 all aspe-ts of dharma( from basi. The letter of in9itation rea$% E@y father an$ both parents of the Jueen are no? $ea$. 1t the -on-lusion of the 9isit% 8e>hin She4pa returne$ to Tsurphu.

. n the fourth $ay a bri4htly -olore$ rainbo? appeare$ o9er 8e>hin She4paKs house. Finally% on the fifth $ay of the se-on$ month of the year of the Earth @ouse% 8e>hin She4pa be4an to tea-h. n the first $ay as the emperor ma$e offerin4s of robes to his 4uru an$ the monks% a ma4i-al temple seeme$ to be present in spa-e. . For the next t?o ?eeks he be/ sto?e$ on the emperor an$ empress the empo?erments of the re$ 19alokites9ara% Cajrakllaya% Guhyasamaja% @aitreya% Cajra$hatu% He/ 9ajra% Tara% Cairo-ana% Bhaisajya4uru an$ the thousan$/arme$ 19alo/ kites9ara. 1s an in$i-ation of his $e9otion he 4a9e 8e>hin She4pa a hi4her throne than his o?n. n the ei4hth $ay t?o li4hts appeare$ in spa-eL one ho9ere$ o9er the royal burial 4roun$ an$ one hun4 o9er the emperorKs pala-e.n this manner an atmosphere of surren$er an$ $e9otion to the tea-hin4s ?as $e9elope$. n the fifth $ay spa-e appeare$ to be full of auspi-ious symbols an$ people ?ere -on9in-e$ that they -oul$ see arhats in the -ity streets. n the se9enth $ay an unearthly re$ 4lo? -ame from the buddharupa on the main temple an$ illuminate$ the 4roun$s. The re-eption room ?as full of offerin4s an$ foo$ an$ entertainment ?ere presente$ in abun$an-e. The emperor fete$ his ne?/foun$ guru( 4i9in4 him the pla-e of honor on his left. "( . 8urin4 these ?eeks 8e>hin She4pa re9eale$ the mira-ulous nature of enli4htene$ ener4y% a?akene$ by the a--omplishment of these va)rayana tea-hin4s. n the sixth $ay many li4hts seeme$ to issue from 8e>hin She4paKs shrine. Throu4hout the next month% ?hile Karmapa reste$ after his lon4 journey% the emperor an$ his -ourt -ontinue$ to sho?er him ?ith presents. n the se-on$ $ay a rainbo? reminis-ent of a be44in4 bo?l appeare$% follo?e$ by -lou$ formations resemblin4 4roups of arhatsH n the thir$ $ay the atmosphere ?as fille$ ?ith fra4ran-e an$ a s?eet an$ 4entle rain fell.an$ 4a9e them to Aun4 2o.

Chinese name. 1fter the -on-lusion of the -eremonies an$ tea-hin4s% 8e>hin She4pa set out on a pil4rima4e to 3u/tai Shan% the Fi9e Peaks of @anjusr. n the thirteenth $ay people s?ore that they ha$ seen se9eral monks in the sky% ?ho ?ere sayin4 prayers an$ makin4 prostrations in the $ire-/ tion of KarmapaKs resi$en-e. n the fourteenth $ay the -eremonies ?ere -omplete$. n the next $ay the Karmapa ?as honore$ by the emperor% ?ho 4a9e him an honorifi. n the t?elfth $ay there ?as a rain of flo?ers o tto the emperorKs pala-e.. 1 flo-k of -ranes $an-e$ in the sky an$ -lou$s appeare$ in the shape of symboli$eities% garudas(F lions% elephants% stupas( an$ $ra4ons. Emperor Aun4 2o $e-i$e$ that the apparently mira-ulous e9ents ?hi-h he ha$ ?itnesse$ $ue to his $e9otion% shoul$ be re-or$e$ for posterity. n the tenth $ay a -rane an$ a bir$ like a blue garuda fle? to4ether in the sky. He -ommissione$ talente$ artists to represent them in paintin4 on lar4e rolls of silk% one of ?hi-h ?as kept at Tsurphu. To -omplete the honor a final feast ?as hel$ in KarmapaKs resi$en-e. n the follo?in4 $ay a re-eption ?as 4i9en for 8e>hin She4pa in the royal pala-e. The emperor himself -ompose$ a literary a--ount of the mira-les% ?hi-h ?as trans-ribe$ onto the paintin4s in fi9e lan4ua4esL Tibetan% Chinese% @on4ol% Au4or an$ Turki-.n the ninth $ay a -ro?$ of people -laime$ that they ha$ obser9e$ an ol$ monk ?ho fle? throu4h the air an$ then $isappeare$ at the $oor of the temple. Ho?e9er% $espite this separation from his 4uru% the emperor -ontinue$ to experien-e the $ire-t inspiration of his tea-hin4 as a result of his unshake/ able $e9otion. . 8urin4 these -elebrations the $isplay of va)rayana ener4y in9oke$ by 8e>hin She4pa -ontinue$. n the ele9enth $ay luminous rays seeme$ to stream to the east from KarmapaKs temple an$ the house in ?hi-h he ?as stayin4.

t ?oul$ be better if they ?ere all part of your se-t. Aun4 2o attempte$ to rationali>e his plans to his guru% sayin4% E. ## is not be nefi-ial to think of -on9ertin4 all se-ts into one. . Then e9ery year there -oul$ be a Tibetan reli4ious -oun-il meetin4 in a $ifferent part of Tibet. . So he $e-i$e$ to ha9e a repli-a ma$e% ornamente$ ?ith pre-ious je?els an$ 4ol$% ?hi-h he 4a9e to his guru.n this ?ay he ". . The emperor reali>e$ that it ?as $ue to his o?n $e9otion to the guru that he ha$ been able to see the bla-k va)ra -ro?n% ?hi-h is symboli-ally present abo9e the hea$s of all the Karmapa in-arnations.F Karmapa ?as not se$u-e$ by the emperorKs ambitious proje-t an$ $is-oura4e$ him by sayin4% E ne se-t -annot brin4 or$er to the li9es of all types of people. 1s a result of his $e9otion one $ay $urin4 a -eremony% Aun4 2o per-ei9e$ the boun$less nature of KarmapaKs spirituality% symbol* i>e$ by the bla-k va)ra -ro?n.n this manner Karmapa $e9ote$ himself to sprea$in4 the ?ay of non9iolen-e an$ toleran-e. only ?ant to sen$ a small -a9alry army to Tibet% be-ause there ar. This o--urre$ ?hen a Chinese ambassa$orial mission in Tibet ?as atta-ke$ an$ $estroye$ by ban$its near the 8ri4un4 monastery.n fa-t 8e>hin She4pa ha$ subseJuently to $issua$e the emperor a se-on$ time from an in9asion. The emperorKs relationship ?ith Karmapa ?as one of $eep sin-erity an$ -onfi$en-e. Ea-h in$i9i$ual se-t is espe-ially -onstitute$ so as to a--omplish a parti-ular aspe-t of 4oo$ a-ti9ity. . 3hen the emperor ?as informe$ of this% he prepare$ a puniti9e expe$ition but Karmapa ?as a4ain able to -on9in-e him not to respon$ ?ith -ounter/terror.3hen 8e>hin She4pa returne$ from his pil4rima4e he $is-o9ere$ that the emperor ?as busy ?ith plans for an in9asion of Tibet. . .F Aun4 2o ?as -on9in-e$ by these ?or$s an$ a-Juies-e$ to his guru8s ?ishes. So please $o not sen$ your army. 8e>hin She4pa $e9elope$ the -eremony in ?hi-h he $isplaye$ this repli-a to people% ?hile embo$yin4 the -ompassion of 19alokites9ara.many $ifferent se-ts ?ho mi4ht fi4ht amon4 themsel9es in the future.

-ommuni-ate$ the inspiration of his o?n spirituality. . ?oul$ like to see you but . am sen$in4 you a statue of @aitreya ?hi-h belon4e$ to 1tlsa. . .n my ?hole life .n #<'& C. Ho?e9er% $urin4 his sleep the smilin4 -ountenan-e an$ sometimes the ?hole upper bo$y of 8e>hin She4pa ?oul$ appear to him. He $is-o9ere$ that the monastery ha$ been $ama4e$ by an earthJuake an$ so he -arrie$ out repair ?ork. Aun4 2o% ?ho ?as upset by the ne?s% sai$% EAou are 9ery kin$ to ha9e -ome here but your stay has not been lon4.n #<#.E. ha9e ne9er been an4ry.F 8espite the enormous responsibility of 4ui$in4 the Karma Ka4yu s-hool% 8e>hin She4pa ne9er ?a9ere$ from his attitu$e of 4entleness an$ lo9e. -oul$ ne9er be an4ry. Trun4 @ase To4$en% the foun$er of the Surman4 -omplex of monasteries% on-e aske$ Karmapa to repro9e his Karma Gar-hen people ?ho ha$ broken their -ommitments. . am in a three year retreat. He then $istribute$ ?ealth an$ foo$ amon4 the monks an$ people of -entral Tibet. So . am. -annot pre9ent you from lea9in4 no? that you ?ish to 4o% but you must return ?hen .n a$$ition he $ire-te$ the trans-ription of the Tripitaka in sil9er an$ 4ol$.F 1fter a lon4 journey% 8e>hin She4pa finally rea-he$ Tsurphu. . . Sho-ks like this instille$ a ne? sense of ur4en-y in the la>y stu$ent an$ he be-ame an assi$uous me$itator.% 8e>hin She4pa informe$ the emperor of his $e-ision to return to Tibet.n former times an emperor ?as more po?erful than his guru% but you% my guru% are more po?erful than .F ne story about 8e>hin She4pa tells of a la>y stu$ent ?ho preferre$ sleep to me$itation. From this time on% the -eremony of the bla-k va)ra -ro?n has be-ome an inte4ral feature of the dharma a-ti9ity of the Karmapas. . 8e>hin She4pa tol$ him% E. He Tson4khapa sent a letter to 8e>hin She4pa in ?hi-h he ?rote% EAou are like a se-on$ Bu$$ha. reJuest. 8e>hin She4pa ?as in9ite$ to 9isit Kham% but he $e-line$ . Karmapa ?as hi4hly 9enerate$ by his -ontemporaries.

. 2ater that year Karmapa -ontra-te$ small pox% ?hi-h pro9e$ fatal. 1fter his bo$y ?as -remate$% many $ifferent ima4es of $eities su-h as Guhyasamaja an$ He9ajra appeare$ on his bones. Ha9in4 instru-te$ his monks to 4uar$ his books an$ his reli4ious artifa-ts% he passe$ a?ay on the $ay of the full moon% in his thirty/first year. The prin-ipal stu$ents of the fifth Karmapa ?ere Trun4 @ase To4$en% Emperor Aun4 2o an$ Shamar Chophel Aeshe% as ?ell as the 8ri4un4 Ka4yu% Chen/.4a 8on$rup Gyalpo an$ @inyak Tok$en. "" .sayin4 that he ?oul$ meet the Khampa people soon in any -ase.

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am the unborn% free from all names% pla-es% an$ .n reply Thon4?a 8on$en sai$% E. The youn4 Thon4?a 8on$en re$is-o9ere$ his o?n natural spirituality throu4h 9isionary experien-es of many symboli. am the 4lory of all that li9es..(1-. 8urin4 the motherQs pre4nan-y they ha$ ha$ si4nifi-ant $reams an$ at birth re-o4ni>e$ their baby to be a 9ery ex-eptional -hil$.)* . #<#) C. shall lea$ many to liberation.$eities.4ompa Ha$ral% a stu$ent of the fifth Karmapa.4ompa Ha$ral then aske$ the infant his true i$entity. The youn4 -hil$ ?as 9ery affe-te$ by this meetin4 an$ be4an to re-ite the alphabet. . Thus the pre$i-tibn of the pre9ious Karmapa to the Khampa people ?as fulfille$.4om near Karma Gon monastery in Kham. . He be4an "+ . 8urin4 his infan-y Karmapa Thon4?a 8on$en ?as taken on a tour of Ka4yupa monasteries% ?here his pre-o-ious Jualities ma$e a 9i9i$ impression on people. .E. .Karmapa Thong&a Donden '1-1. the sixth Karmapa in-arnation% Thon4?a 8on$en% ?as born in .n #<!<% at the a4e of ei4ht% Thon4?a 8on$en ?as or$aine$ as a no9i-e by the abbot Sonam San4po% an$ re-ei9e$ the bodhisattva 9o?s. He met ?ith the first Trun4pa tulku( Kun4a Gyaltsen% at Surman4 monastery an$ astoun$e$ him by askin4% E3here is the prote-tion -or$ . .F SubseJuently% the thir$ Shamar =inpo-he% Chopel Aeshe% offi-ially re-o4ni>e$ him as the sixth Karmapa 2ama an$ -eremonially enthrone$ him. 3hen he ?as only a fe? months ol$% Thon4?a 8on$en ?as taken by his parents to 2ama . His parents ?ere both faithfully reli4ious. 4a9e you in my last in-arnationIK 2ama Trun4pa ?as o9er-ome ?ith emotion as he pro$u-e$ the -or$ an$ bo?e$ $o?n to his guru.

aropa an$ the mahamudra of Tilopa.to re-ei9e instru-tion in the a-tual texts an$ pra-ti-es of dharma from the 4reat saint =atnabha$ra% ?ho ?as an in-arnation of =e-hun4pa. Sin-e the primary emphasis of the Karma Ka4yu ha$ been on me$itation itself% hen-e its alternate stylin4 as the E@e$itati9e Tra$itionF 6Tib. From this lama the youn4 Karmapa re-ei9e$ the empo?erments an$ textual transmissions of Cajrayo4inl% He9ajra an$ the mahamudra.( litur4y an$ ritual ha$ ten$e$ to be ne4le-te$. 1t the -ompletion of this perio$ of literary a-ti9ity% Karmapa re-ei9e$ the full or$ination an$ then set out on a tour of -entral Tibetan monasteries. n this journey Thon4?a 8on$en ?as inspire$ by many 9isionary experien-es.n$ian pre-eptor Pha$ampa San4ye.i4uma%# both $eri9in4 from the Shan4pa Ka4yu% an$ also the Duk Ngal Shi)ayF $o-trine of the . 3hat litur4y ?as employe$ by Karma Ka4yupas ?as lar4ely borro?e$ from other tra$itions.L sngonDgro. 1t another pla-e he en9isa4e$ Tilopa% @ilarepa an$ Cimalamitra in a 9ision ?hi-h thus . Thon4?a 8on$enKs reli4ious e$u-ation ?as not -onfine$ to the Kam/ tshan4 tra$ition% but also in-lu$e$ the fi9e tantras an$ six $o-trines of . .n one 9ision he sa? @ahakala to4ether ?ith his ?is$om -onsort an$ re-ei9e$ from them spe-ial tea-hin4s on the si 3 yogas of .L sgrub!brgyud. Thon4?a 8on$en sou4ht to establish a firm basis for a spe-ifi-ally Kaiptshan4 litur4y% an$ ?rote many Kamtshan4 sa$hana rituals. The sixth KarmapaKs 9isionary Jualities a$$e$ a spe-ial po?er an$ $epth to his en$ea9ors in this fiel$. 8urin4 his teena4e years the sixth Karmapa -on-entrate$ hea9ily on $e9elopin4 a -onsistent Kamtshan4 litur4i-al system. He -ompose$ spiritual pra-ti-es of the t?o hi4hly important Ka4yu yidams( Cajrayo4inl an$ Cakrasam9ara% an$ also ?rote a lon4 9ersion of the "reliminary "ractices 6Tib. Shamar =inpo-he -ommuni/ -ate$ the $o-trines of Tilopa to him in a$$ition to other Karma Ka4yu tea-hin4s.n a$$ition he -ompose$ a lar4e treatise on @ahakala $an-e an$ litur4y. .! Thon4?a 8on$en e9ol9e$ a ne? style of re-itation an$ -hantin4.

.n$ian tantric saint 8ombhi Heruka. .n 2hasa the sixth Karmapa met the famous Sakya abbot% Kun-hen =on4tonpa%< ?ho besto?e$ upon him a 4reat number of $o-trines.F 1roun$ this time Karmapa repaire$ the $ama4e . &# .( an$ his -onsort% ri$in4 on a ti4er. =on4/ tonpa ?as $eli4hte$ by Thon4?a 8on$enKs brillian-e an$ $e-lare$% E. ha9e Bu$$ha as my stu$ent. 8ombhi Heruka re9eale$ to him that he ?as perfe-tly pure an$ free of all obs-urations.unite$ the streams of mahamudra an$ maha ati 2ater Cajra$hara% a--ompanie$ by the first Karmapa% 8usum Khyenpa% appeare$ to him% symboli>in4 the po?er of the Ka4yu tra$ition.n another 9ision% Thon4?a 8on$en sa? the .

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People may think there is substantiality% but they are in error. . THE F.-amp mo9e$ throu4h southern Tibet% Cho$ra4 Gyatsho use$ his influen-e to stop fi4htin4 amon4 . He also arran4e$ for the freein4 of hosta4es an$ politi-al prisoners.. His father ?as name$ 8rakpa Pal$rup an$ his mother 2hamo Kyi.< the se9enth Karmapa in-arnation% Cho$ra4 Gyatsho% ?as born in northern Tibet.0. For me there is neither birth nor $eath. ne $ay he spontaneously uttere$ the see$ syllables ah( hum( an$ $e-lare$% EThere is nothin4 in the ?orl$ but emptiness. 1s the monasti. . The youn4 Karmapa ?as a 9e4etarian an$ persua$e$ many people to 4i9e up fishin4 an$ huntin4.=ST @ .a4a an$ Bhutanese tribes.-(1. 1nother aspe-t of Cho$ra4 GyatshoKs ?elfare poli-y ?as his ?ork to eliminate toll bri$4es an$ his &.F The -hil$ ?as taken to the -amp of Gyaltshap Paljor 8on$rup% the hol$er of the linea4e.& at the a4e of four% ma$e a tour of southern Tibet.TH of #<. 1s a youn4 infant he ?as re-o4ni>e$ to be an in-arnation of a spiritual tea-her./ Karmapa 'hodrag ( atsho '1-. The youn4 -hil$Ks innate $i4nity an$ presen-e -ommuni-ate$ itself to e9eryone ?ith ?hom he -ame into -onta-t. He prote-te$ $omesti.n his first year he $isplaye$ an extraor$inary pre-o-ity% ?hi-h -onfirme$ people in this 9ie?.animals% yaks an$ sheep% an$ institute$ the markin4 ?ith ribbons to sho? they ?ere exempt from slau4hter. Gyaltshap =inpo-he re-o4ni>e$ the infant as the ne? Karmapa in-arnation an$ -eremonially enthrone$ him. 1s is the -ase ?ith the Karmapa 2amas% his natural spirituality unfol$e$ throu4h 9isionary experien-es.F The youn4 Karmapa remaine$ ?ith Gyaltshap =inpo-he an$ in #<.* . am Cajra$hara.t is sai$ that on this o--asion he $e-lare$% E. .

-amp to Ka?a Karpo% the pla-e of pil4rima4e sa-re$ to Cak* rasaJi9ara. 1t Karma monastery% Gyaltshap =inpo-he 4a9e the lay or$ination an$ bod+ hisattva 9o?s to the ei4ht year ol$ Karmapa. 1nother of the youn4 KarmapaKs tutors at this time ?as Situ =inpo-he% Tashi . 3hate9er offerin4s ?ere ma$e to him on his journey he $istribute$ to the poor an$ to the monasteries. 3hile en4a4e$ in this me$itation the youn4 Karmapa a-tually sa? his o?n skeleton. Cho$ra4 Gyatsho $eparte$ from Karma monastery an$ tra/ 9ele$ to the bor$erlan$s of northeastern Tibet. . He entere$ into intensi9e me$itation for se9en years there in or$er to -omplete his trainin4. 1t the Surman4 monas/ tery of the Trun4pa tulkus( Cho$ra4 Gyatsho -ompose$ se9eral books $ealin4 ?ith 9arious aspe-ts of dharma! . There he brou4ht to an en$ the feu$in4 of the lo-al Bu$$hists an$ Bonpos. His e$u-ation $urin4 this perio$ fo-use$ on the vinaya texts% $ealin4 ?ith both the 4eneral prin-iples an$ the minutiae of monasti.n a$$ition to this ?ork in the politi-al sphere% the youn4 Karmapa enun-iate$ the basi. The youn4 in-arnationQs stu$ies -ontinue$ there an$ he ?as subseJuently or$aine$ as a no9i-e by 2ama Hampal San4po% a hol$er of the linea4e an$ stu$ent of the pre9ious Karmapa.n #<"# at the a4e of se9enteen% the se9enth Karmapa tra9ele$ ?ith his monasti. Cho$ra4 Gyatsho ?as a -onsummate s-holar $espite his youn4 a4e.MTEE. 8urin4 these seminars Karmapa -orre-te$ any in-onsisten-ies in their philosophi-al 9ie?points. ne of the most si4nifi-ant spiritual pra-ti-es in his -areer ?as the chod pra-ti-e from the linea4e of the fame$ yogirii( @a-hi4 2ab 8ronma.ST =A F THE S. . Simultaneous ?ith a-ti9ity for the benefit of others% Cho$ra4 Gyatsho -ontinue$ his o?n trainin4. 1t =a?a Gan4 monastery he entere$ into symposiums an$ seminars ?ith the fi9e senior s-holars.am4yal% from ?hom he re-ei9e$ many oral instru-tions of the Kaiptshan4 linea4e.messa4e of Bu$$hism to the lo-al inhabitants. From southern Tibet the -amp journeye$ slo?ly into Kham.n -ommon ?ith all other Karmapa in-arnations% Cho$ra4 Gyatsho . -onstru-tion of iron bri$4es.&) THE H.n #<).life. .

K1=@1P1 CH 8=1G GA1TSH &" ha$ a natural affinity ?ith Guru Pa$masambha9a. Then he journeye$ to Tsurphu% his prin-ipal monastery% ?here he restore$ the lar4e statue of Sakyamuni% fashione$ by Karma Pakshi. ?ill 4i9e my tea-hin4s to you. Cho$ra4 Gyatsho then installe$ his stu$ent as abbot of Chokhor 2hunpo monastery% ?here he ha$ establishe$ a seminary.f you promise to hol$ my linea4e . . at Tsurphu% ?hi-h be-ame 9ery famous. The seminary offere$ a -omplete -ourse of stu$ies in philosophy% psy-holo4y% ritual an$ reli4ious la?. SubseJuently Cho$ra4 Gyatsho re9isite$ southern Tibet% ?here he repaire$ se9eral Ka4yupa monasteries% an$ impro9e$ their a$ministration. Cho$ra4 Gyatsho 4a9e a ?i$e ran4e of Ka4yu tea-hin4s there an$ in return Tashi Thar4ye -ompletely offere$ his pro9in-e% fortunes% buil$in4s an$ monasteries% in/ -lu$in4 his o?n monastery of Chokhor 2hunpo% to Karmapa. 1t the hi4hest le9el of profi-ien-y the khenpo . Ha9in4 returne$ after his lon4 retreat to Karma Gon monastery% Cho$ra4 Gyatsho ha$ a 9isionary experien-e of Guru Pa$ma surroun$e$ by . Cho$ra4 Gyatsho ha$ ma$e s-holarship an important priority. .F For the next fi9e months Karma Thinleypa stu$ie$ an$ pra-ti-e$ the six yogas of .n a -ertain respe-t the Karmapa 2ama may be -onsi$ere$ as an emanation of Pa$masambha9a.$eities% Sakyamuni Bu$$ha an$ lamas of the Ka4yu linea4e. There ?ere three le9els of $e4rees a?ar$e$ to 4ra$uates.aropa an$ the mahamudra until the inner meanin4 of these tea-hin4s ?as bom in him. Karmapa ?as in9ite$ to the -ourt of Tashi Thar4ye% the Hapa Tripon 6reli4io/politi-al ruler7 of a pro9in-e in southern Tibet.yin4ma symboli. 1t the -ourt of Tashi Thar4ye% Cho$ra4 Gyatsho met the first Karma Thinleypa% Cho/ lay .n keepin4 ?ith this obje-ti9e% he establishe$ a lar4e seminary 6Tib.am4yal. Karmapa ?as prompte$ by this 9ision to fin$ -ertain hi$$en 9alleys ?hi-h ?oul$ affor$ safety $urin4 the -omin4 -onfli-t he foresa? as ine9itable. Cho$ra4 Gyatsho replie$% E.# Karma Thinleypa reJueste$ Karmapa% ?hom he re4ar$e$ as an em/ bo$iment of Sakyamuni Bu$$ha% for the se-ret tea-hin4s of the Ka4yu linea4e.L shes!/gra.

He re-ei9e$ offerin4s from the abbot of Bo$h4aya. From the emperor of China -ame an in9itation to 9isit. .n #<+& Cho$ra4 Gyatsho toure$ the Kon4po area% ?here he foun$e$ a hermita4e an$ re-o4ni>e$ the thir$ Situ tulku% Tashi Paljor. The fame of Cho$ra4 Gyatsho sprea$ as far as .n$ia an$ China. He ?as 4reete$ by . Ho?e9er% Karmapa ?as unable to 4o at that time.&& THE H.ST =A F THE S. Se9eral note$ . The seminary% un$er the $ire-tion of 2ama Karma Thinleypa playe$ a 9ital role in the full transmission of Bu$$hist tea-hin4.MTEE. Follo?in4 this he returne$ to 2hasa to hol$ a reli4ious -onferen-e.n$ian s-holars% in-lu$in4 =ahula KTlaya an$ Sfla Sa4ara% -ame to see Karmapa. $e4ree ?as a?ar$e$% follo?e$ by that of lopon an$ a pass $e4ree.

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THE H.ST =A F THE S.MTEE,

monks from the Gelu4pa monastery of 8repun4 an$ Ga$en. 1t =inpun4% Karmapa tau4ht many monks in-lu$in4 the 4reat pandita Sakya Chok$en. His tea-hin4s in-lu$e$ the siitras an$ the ?orks of 1san4a an$ ,a4arjuna. Cho$ra4 GyatshoKs brea$th of s-holarship ?as re-o4ni>e$ by members of all the 9arious spiritual tra$itions. The se9enth Karmapa ?as a prolifi- author ?ho -ompose$ many texts on vinaya( @a$hyamaka philosophy% an$ tantra! His assistant% 8akpo =abjampa Cho4yal Tenpa% re-or$e$ that ?hen Cho$ra4 Gyatsho ?orke$ on a text -on-ernin4 lo4i-% Rig)ung 7atso( a -ommentary of se9en books on lo4i- by 8i4na4a an$ 8harmaklrti% he $i-tate$ it ?ithout pre9ious resear-h. He relie$ on his memory for the seJuen-e of his ar4uments an$ for referen-es to the s-riptures an$ -ommentaries. His stream of thou4ht ?as unbroken. .f his $i-tation ?as interrupte$ he ?as able to resume it later at the exa-t point ?here he ha$ left off. Sometimes his assistant ?oul$ ask for explanation of an abstruse point% but Karmapa ?oul$ brush asi$e the Juestion an$ it ?oul$ soon arise naturally in the -ourse of $i-tation. --asionally% Cho$ra4 Gyatsho mi4ht a$$% EAou shoul$ ha9e -onfi$en-e in ?hat your guru says. Explanations ?ill arise later on their o?n.F Karmapa ?as 9ery austere an$ simple in his life/style. E9en ?hile tra9elin4 he remaine$ silent an$ min$ful. --asonally he emer4e$ from his se-lusion to re-ei9e 9isitors% but ?hen he $i$ so% he ne9er in$ul4e$ in ?orl$ly -on9ersation. .n -ontrast to his o?n personal austerity KarmapaKs monasti- -amp ?as ri-hly en$o?e$ an$ beautifully $e-orate$. The shrine tent ha$ a 4ol$en roof an$ ?as $e-orate$ ?ith his most pre-ious reli-s% abo9e ?hi-h hun4 thirteen ornate umbrellas. Cho$ra4 GyatshoKs throne ?as -o9ere$ in pearls an$ behin$ it ?as an immense han4in4 en-ruste$ ?ith pearls. 1t the a4e of fifty/t?o Karmapa ha$ presentiments of his o?n immi/ nent $eath. He a$9ise$ the Kon4po people to pra-ti-e dharma an$ then he ?ith$re? into retreat. So many people -ame to seek an au$ien-e ?ith him that Cho$ra4 Gyatsho emer4e$ from retreat an$ as-en$e$ his throne in the shrine tent. He appeare$ to the people to be 4arbe$ in the spiritual apparel of the sambhogakaya form. 1t this time Karmapa transmitte$ the linea4e to Situ =inpo-he an$ in$i-ate$ that his next in-arnation ?oul$ be born in Kham an$ 4a9e the names of his future parents. The next mornin4 Cho* $ra4 Gyatsho passe$ a?ay in me$itation. KarmapaKs ?ealth ?as $i9i$e$ amon4 Ka4yu monasteries. His bo$y ?as taken to Tsurphu% ?here it ?as -remate$. =eli-s% in-lu$in4 -ertain of

his bones% ?ere re-o9ere$ from the pyre an$ pla-e$ in a stupa! The stu$ents of the se9enth Karmapa ?ere numerous an$ in-lu$e$ Gyaltshap Tulku% 2ama Tashi ,am4yal% the fourth Shamar =inpo-he% 2ama San4ye ,yenpa% Sakya Cho$en% Karma Thinleypa% Karma Ka-ho$pa% the lo4i-ian 3an4-huk Gyaltsen% Sakya 3an4-huk an$ the ,yin4ma terton( Samten 2in4pa.

K1=@1P1 CH 8=1G GA1TSH

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0/(1..S 8E1TH the se9enth Karmapa% Cho$ra4 Gyatsho ha$ a 9isionary experien-e of @aitreya% the next Bu$$ha% ?ho sai$% E3e are approa-hin4 the en$ of the a4e of Bu$$ha Sakyamuni an$ many people are 4oin4 to lo?er realms.'"% the ei4hth Karmapa% @ikyo 8orje ?as born in 8am-hu in eastern Tibet. Situ =inpo-he $e-i$e$ to in9esti4ate the -hil$ an$ inter9ie?e$ the parents.n a$$ition% all the other $etails mat-he$. Situ =inpo-he -onfirme$ that the -hil$ ?as in$ee$ the ne? in-arnation of Karmapa% but aske$ the parents to maintain absolute se-re-y for three months in or$er to prote-t the -hil$ from un?holesome intriJue. . n the fourth $ay of the ele9enth month of #. Tell me ?hat he says. The ne? born -hil$ opene$ his eyes an$ sai$% EKarmapa. He ?as satisfie$ by the similarity bet?een the a-tual names of KarmapaKs parents an$ those names left in the letter of pre$i-tion. So you mint emanate many in-arnations of yourself.e?s of the remarkable -hil$ sprea$ Jui-kly an$ rea-he$ the ears of the thir$ Situ =inpo-he% Tashi Paljor% ?ho reali>e$ that the -hil$Qs pla-e of birth a4ree$ ?ith the $etails left in Cho$ra4 GyatshoKs pre$i-tion letter. n ?akin4 the next mornin4 he ?rote $o?n the $etails% ?hi-h he e9entually entruste$ to his re4ent. .n a$$ition% Cho$ra4 Gyatsho foresa? the -ir/ -umstan-es of his next birth.F .-* SH =T2A BEF =E H. Then 4i9e him the blessin4 pills.F The father follo?e$ these instru-tions an$ the infant Karmapa uttere$ the syllables% e( ma( ho( an$ $e-lare$% E8o not $oubt me% . am Karmapa.8 Karmapa Mik o Dor"e '1.F .f he really is the Karmapa in-arnation% he ?ill utter a fe? ?or$s. He 4a9e the parents some blessin4 pills% some tea% some butter% an$ some frankin-ense an$ sai$ to them% EGi9e butter tea to the boy an$ burn this in-ense before him% sayin4 that it ?as sent by Situ =inpo-he.F This ?as reporte$ to Situ =inpo-he% an$ at the a4e of three +( .

MTEE. 3hen an offerin4 pu)a ?as performe$% the tiny Karmapa playe$ the han$/$rum an$ bell perfe-tly.ST =A F THE S.f you are Karmapa% $o you remember ?hat you tau4ht me in Tse 2hakhan4TQ The boy replie$% E. SubseJuently the -hil$ ?as 9isite$ by the 4reat me$itation master% Ser Pho?a% ?ho ha$ been a -lose stu$ent of the se9enth Karmapa.F . 4a9e you mahamudra an$ the six $o-trines of . The boy lau4he$ an$ $e-lare$% ESometimes . . Gyaltshap =inpo-he set out to in9esti4ate the ri9alKs -laims but ?hen he met @ikyo 8orje% he spontaneously felt -ompelle$ to bo? $o?n to him.F . =eali>in4 this boy ?as the Karmapa in-arnation% Gyaltshap =inpo-he sent letters of authority to all Karma Ka4yu monasteries in ?hi-h he $e-lare$ that% a--or$in4 to a pre$i-tion by Pa$masambha9a% the name of the ei4hth Karmapa ?as @ikyo 8orje.n the follo?in4 year% Gyaltshap =inpo-he -eremonially enthrone$ the youn4 boy as the ei4hth Karmapa at Tse 2hakhan4. . am Pa$masambha9a% sometimes Saraha an$ at other times . The e$u-ation of the ei4hth Karmapa -ommen-e$ ?hen he rea-he$ the a4e of se9en.+< THE H. 1t Surman4 monastery a 9ision of the Ka4yu linea4e e9oke$ in him a reali>ation of the ri-hness of his inheritan-e.n Tsan4 pro9in-e there are sixteen% an$ ?est of Tibet there is a -hieftain ?ho is my emanation. ha9e many emanations. Ser Pho?a aske$ him% E.n the same year a youn4 boy from the re4ion of 1m$o ?as put/ for?ar$ as a ri9al -laimant to be the ne? Karmapa in-arnation. Follo?in4 this initial meetin4% @ikyo 8orje an$ his -amp tra9ele$ . His first tutor ?as Situ =inpo-he% from ?hom he re-ei9e$ the ei4ht moral pre-eptsQ an$ some elementary Ka4yu tea-hin4s.n #. There he ?as aske$ by 2ama Sonam =in-hen to say ?ho he really ?as.aropa.#!% at the a4e of fi9e% @ikyo 8orje journeye$ to =i?o-he. Then @ikyo 8orje set out on a tour of monasteries. am Karmapa. . months the youn4 in-arnation a--ompanie$ him to Karma monastery. 1 little later the youn4 Karmapa met ?ith the me$itation master San4ye .yenpa% ?hom Cho$ra4 Gyatsho ha$ appointe$ as the transmitter of the linea4e to his next in-arnation.

n #. .F @ikyo 8orje an$ his party returne$ briefly to =i?o-he% ?here he -arrie$ out both reli4ious an$ ?elfare ?ork.#) the nine year ol$ Karmapa re-ei9e$ an in9itation from the kin4 of Han4 Sa/tham. The unfol$ment of his inner potential ?as -ontinue$ by a 9isionary experien-e in ?hi-h he re-ei9e$ tea-hin4s from Sakyamuni Bu$$ha a--ompanie$ by his t?o -hief stu$ents% Sariputra an$ @ahamau$Q 4alyayana. 3hile in this area% the youn4 Karmapa in-arnation ha$ a 9ery si4nifi-ant $ream in ?hi-h a dakirii tol$ him% EAou are the a-ti9ity aspe-t of the bu$$has of the three times. 8espite his ?ealth% San4ye . . The in9itation ?as a--epte$% an$ @ikyo 8orje% a--ompanie$ by his -amp% set out. 8urin4 the funeral -eremonies% Karmapa .F 1 short time after this% @ikyo 8orje% inspire$ by the memory of 8usum Khyenpa% ma$e a pil4rima4e to Kampo Gan4ra. The un-ontri9e$ $i4nity of @ikyo 8orje ma$e a $eep impa-t on the kin4% ?ho ha$ pre9iously not been ?ell $ispose$ to Bu$* $hism.K1=@1P1 @.#" the youn4 Karmapa entere$ into the most important phase of his e$u-ation. There he ha$ a profoun$ 9isionary experien-e in ?hi-h Guru Pa$masambha9a re9eale$ to him his true nature% sayin4% E.yenpa ?as a perfe-t example of Ka4yu as-eti-ism. 1t the -on-lusion of this three year perio$ of tea-hin4 he $ie$% ?ithout re4ret% in the kno?le$4e that @ikyo 8orje ha$ absorbe$ his instru-tions.n #.t is sai$ that he left footprints in the 9arious me$itation -a9es there.KA 8 =HE +. Before lea9in4% @ikyo 8orje promise$ to return in se9en years. 1fter?ar$ Karmapa re9isite$ the area of his birth in 8am-hu pro9in-e.yenpa% a thorou4h 4roun$in4 in a -omprehensi9e ran4e of Bu$$hist tea-hin4s% in a$$ition to the -omplete transmission of the Karma Ka4yu linea4e. into far Kham. . The party ?as ?el-ome$ ?ith 4reat -eremony on its arri9al an$ the kin4 la9ishe$ honor an$ offerin4s on the youn4 Karmapa.! The unity of our t?o natures is Cajra$hara. 8urin4 the next three years he re-ei9e$% from 2ama San4ye . He ma$e pro9ision for the support of the dharma in his territories an$ also un$ertook to a$opt a poli-y of nona44ression in politi-al matters. am Pa$masambha9a an$ you are my prin-ipal stu$ent% Gyal?a Choyan4.

n one of his 9isions% a monk appeare$ to @ikyo 8orje announ-in4 that he ha$ been Pa$masambha9a $urin4 the a4e of the pre9ious Bu$$ha% 8ipamkara. 1t @ar Kham% @ikyo 8orje -ar9e$ a statue of himself out of stone. 1s a monk @ikyo 8orje ?as an example of austerity an$ simpli-ity. Both the statue an$ the stone ha9e been preser9e$ an$ are no? at the resi$en-e of the present Karmapa at =umtek monastery in Sikkim. Ho?e9er% Karmapa foresa? the emperorKs imminent $eath an$ $e-line$ the in9ita/ . am. He ?as a 9ery talente$ lin4uist an$ mastere$ Sanskrit 4rammar un$er the $ire-tion of 2otsa?a =i-hen Tashi.ST =A F THE S. n his arri9al at Karma monastery% @ikyo 8oije met emissaries of the Chinese Emperor 3u Tsun4% ?ho presente$ him ?ith many in9itation offerin4s an$ on behalf of the emperor% in9ite$ him to China. The ei4hth Karmapa also 9enture$ into the fiel$s of poetry% paintin4 an$ s-ulpture% ?here he met ?ith -onsi$erable su--ess. experien-e$ the presen-e of his $e-ease$ 4uru an$ re-ei9e$ absolute -larifi-ation of his tea-hin4s.F Then Karmapa sJuee>e$ a -hunk of left/o9er stone like a pie-e of butter% lea9in4 the imprint of his palm an$ fin4ers in it. @ikyo 8orje ?as similar to the thir$ Karmapa in his appetite for learnin4 an$ s-holarship. 1s a master of mahamudra he li9e$ in the reali>ation that ?hate9er arises is self/ liberate$. 8urin4 this tour he re-o4ni>e$ the thir$ Gyaltshap tulku( 8rakpa Paljor% an$ the fifth Shamar =inpo-he% Kon-ho4 Aenla4.f this is so% ?here ?as your Rlotus birthK an$ ?here $i$ you stayIF The monk replie$% E3here $i$ spa-e -ome fromIF He then $isappeare$. @ikyo 8orje respon$e$ ?ith a Juestion% E. SubseJuently @ikyo 8orje an$ his 4reat -amp tra9ele$ slo?ly throu4h Kham% ?here he 4a9e tea-hin4s to more than ten thousan$ people.+) THE H.MTEE. =efle-tin4 on this% Karmapa reali>e$ that ea-h of the thousan$ bu$$has is a--ompanie$ by a Pa$masambha9a as a natural expression of the tea-hin4 of enli4htenment.t is re-or$e$ that he pla-e$ the statue in front of him an$ aske$ it% E1re you a 4oo$ likeness of meIF The statue replie$% EAes% . . .

n rea-hin4 Tsurphu% he foun$ it ?as in a state of $isrepair an$ arran4e$ for restoration ?ork to be -arrie$ out. From there @ikyo 8orje journeye$ to ?here the a4e$ 2ama Karma Thinley ?as in retreat. He 9isite$ the Ka$ampa monastery of =a$en4.L rang!stong!lta!ba.KA 8 =HE +" tion. He aske$ @ikyo 8orje to promul4ate this 9itally important philosophi-al -on-ept% ?hi-h ha$ 4aine$ ?i$e -urren-y in the Honan4pa an$ . 1t Sam$in4% the 8orje Pha4mo tulku ma$e the offerin4 of a monastery to him. at 2ekshay 2in4% ?here @ikyo 8orje 4a9e many tea-hin4s. Fiom Kham% @ikyo 8orje tra9ele$ to -entral Tibet. Karmapa ?as 9isite$ by Surman4 Trun4pa Tulku% ?ho sa? him as the embo$iment of Cakrasaip9ara. 2ater in the follo?in4 year Karmapa met 2ama Karma Thinley a4ain* This time the 9enerable s-holar instru-te$ @ikyo 8orje in the six $o-trines of .yin4ma saint% 2on4/ -henpa% ?here he left his footprints an$ the hoofprints of his horse in the ro-k. The abbot ?as assiste$ at the -eremony by 2an a Karma Thinley. Kon4trul =inpo-he ma$e this . Karma Thinleypa 4a9e Karmapa the empo?er/ ments of Kurukulla% @ahakala an$ Caisra9ana. 1fter a perio$ of a$ministrati9e ?ork @ikyo 8orje set out a4ain ?ith his retinue.aropa.L shes!/gra.yin4ma tra$itions% 6t ha$ been atta-ke$ by a$herents of the Gelu4pa tra$ition% ?ho hel$ the opposin4 9ie?% Eempty of selfness 9ie?F 6Tib.L g9han!stong7ta!ba7. 1t this time Cho$rup Sen4e 4a9e @ikyo 8orje 9ery $etaile$ tea-hin4s on the Eempty of somethin4 else 9ie?F 6Tib. The Chinese en9oys took offen-e at this an$ repa-kin4 the emperorKs offerin4s to Karmapa% returne$ to China% ?here they $is-o9ere$ that the empress an$ emperor ha$ just $ie$.! The Eempty of somethin4 else 9ie?F ?as passe$ $o?n throu4h the linea4e an$ rea-he$ the fifteenth Karmapa throu4h Ham4on Kon4trul 2o$ro Thaye. From there he ?ent on to Gan4ri Thokar% the retreat of the 4reat . Then to4ether they ?ent to Karma ThinleypaKs $o-trinal s-hool 6Tib. 1t the a4e of t?enty/one% Karmapa ?as or$aine$ a monk by the abbot% Cho$rup Sen4e% ?ho ?as an in-arnation of the Kashmiri s-holar% Dakyasri.K1=@1P1 @.

1s far as samsara is -on-erne$% you are a nonreturner an$ you ha9e the po?er of in-arnation. Thus% @ikyo 8orje may be seen as an important pre-ursor of this nineteenth -entury Bu$$hist renaissan-e. of Casuban$hu% the vinaya texts% the six prin-ipal texts of . .( the 0eva)ra Tantra% astrolo4y an$ many other .ST =A F THE S. Thinleypa praise$ Karmapa as a 4reat s-holar.MTEE. He -onstantly refle-te$ on the meanin4 of the texts an$ ?hate9er points arose from them. @ikyo 8orje ?as an exemplary stu$ent% maintainin4 -omplete min$/ fulness throu4hout this lon4 an$ intense perio$ of stu$y.n a$$ition to the ?i$e ran4in4 stu$y of . He Juestione$ an$ $ebate$ all abstruse points an$ in this manner $e9elope$ a perfe-t reali>ation. 8urin4 this perio$ he stu$ie$ the Five &ooks o# 1aitreya% 8i4na4a an$ 8harmaklrtiKs texts on lo4i-% the abhidharma 6Skt.L 1adhyamakavatara.a4arjuna% Can$raklrtiKs Entering into the 1iddle 5ay 6Skt. . 9ie? the -ornerstone of his =ime 6Eboun$/ arylessF7 approa-h. .4ok 2otsa?a< an$ Sakya Pan$ita.L bhidharmasamuc/ caya. Karmapa stu$ie$ so mu-h he ha$ little time to eat% an$ as a result his physi-al stren4th ?eakene$. @ikyo 8orjeKs relationship ?ith He Karma Thinleypa ?as of 4reat importan-e in his trainin4.n$ian Bu$$hism% Karma Thinleypa intro$u-e$ @ikyo 8orje to the -olle-te$ ?orks of .n$ian ?orks on the ma+ hayana an$ va)rayana approa-hes to Bu$$hism.n a 9isionary experien-e% dakiriis -arrie$ him into the presen-e of the mahasiddha( DaZaripa% ?ho ha$ transmitte$ . of 1san4a an$ the abhidharma 6Skt.+& THE H. He staye$ ?ith him% in all% for three years.F 1t the -on-lusion of his intelle-tual stu$ies @ikyo 8orje $e9ote$ more of his time to me$itation.L bhidharmakosa.n return @ikyo 8orje praise$ his tutor% sayin4% EAou are on the first bodhisattva le9el% the bor$er of samsara an$ nirvana.

These in-lu$e$ texts on lin4uisti-s% reli4ious la?% abhi+ dharma( tantra( @a$hyamaka philosophy% art an$ poetry.author ?hose ?orks ?ere both -ontro9ersial an$ influential. ma/i! rnal!?by or. This has be-ome one of the most important pra-ti-es of the Kaiptshan4 linea4e. .a--ounts of his 9isionary experien-es. He set out ?ith his monasti. Sa9aripa then intro$u-e$ @ikyo 8oije to the nature of his o?n min$% sayin4% EBoth sarpsara an$ nirvana -ome from min$. .ST =A F THE S. So there are no $ifferent le9els. the mahamudra to @aitripa.n a$$ition he -ompose$ the spiritual pra-ti-e kno?n as The .t ?as his ?ish that it be as easy as possible for people to ha9e an au$ien-e ?ith him. ne of the most si4nifi-ant ?as one in ?hi-h he en9isa4e$ Cakrasarn9ara seate$ abo9e the hea$ of Cajrayo4inT. =espon$in4 to their reJuest Karmapa a4ree$ to exten$ his life span for se9eral years.F . 1t the a4e of t?enty/three he ?rote a -ommentary on the bhisamayalankara entitle$% uthentic Rela3ation o# the Noble 'ne 6Tib. Then in the same 9ision he sa? samsara burne$ a?ay in a -ookin4 pot% ?hi-h reste$ on a va)ra tri9et.yenpa.F Then the mahdsiddha $isappeare$. This talente$ s-holar respon$e$ by -omposin4 a -ommentary of his o?n in ?hi-h he ?rote% EKarmapa is a hi4h in-arnation an$ s-holar.uru 4oga o# the Four Sessions 6Tib.n another 9isionary experien-e @ikyo 8orje sa? ei4ht Pa$/ . @ikyo 8oije authore$ o9er thirty 9olumes in all% fourteen more than Karma Pakshi. He then in9ite$ the Gelu4pa s-holar% Sera Hetsun% to a -riti-al $ebate on the text. 1 va)ra hook ma$e the ?is$om unshakeable.n this ?ay a famous literary $ebate took pla-e bet?een the brilliant Karmapa an$ the famous Gelu4pa s-holar. .L thun!b9hi! bla.n #S<) @ikyo 8oije ha$ a premonition of his imminent $eath. am follo?in4 his -ommentary ?ith my o?n book entitle$% Reply to %armapa. Ho?e9er% Shamar =inpo-he an$ Pa?o =inpo-he entreate$ their guru to remain an$ -ontinue his ?ork. Therefore% . Ho?e9er% at his in9itation . E9erythin4 -omes from min$.++ THE H. Aour o?n min$ is itself ?is$om.-amp on a lon4 final tour of Karma Ka4yupa monasteries an$ dharma -enters. . From the guru( in the form of Cakrasaip9ara% -ame the ne-tar of ?is$om% ?hi-h transforme$ the -on-epts of sarnsara an$ nirvana into ?is$om of enli4ht/ enment. am unable to -riti-i>e him. in honor of his guru San4ye .MTEE. n this tour @ikyo 8oije tol$ his offi-ials to relax the normally stri-t proto-ol that surroun$e$ him.L r)e!btsun!ngal!so7. 3hile tra9elin4% @ikyo 8oije ?rote many poeti. @ikyo 8oije himself be-ame a 9ery prolifi. He -ompose$ important texts on mahamudra an$ inspire$ the Karma Ga$ri mo9ement in art throu4h his ?ork in this fiel$.

He ha$ a bla-k stupa surroun$e$ by four smaller stupas -onstru-te$ in the -enter of the area.to an en$. SubseJuently @ikyo 8orje entrust/ e$ Shamar =inpo-he ?ith the letters -ontainin4 the pre$i-tions of his next rebirth% an$ passe$ a?ay at the a4e of forty/se9en. The epi$emi. The -entral stupa ?as a sym/ boli. He reali>e$ the imminen-e of his o?n $eath an$ so he arraye$ himself in the $ress an$ ornaments of the sambhogakaya% the -ommuni-ati9e form of bu$$hahoo$% an$ sho?e$ himself in this manner to his stu$ents. He also numbere$ artists% $o-tors an$ poets amon4 his $is-iples% on ?hom he exerte$ a profoun$ influen-e.rtiasambha9as an$ ei4ht Karmapas -ombine to pro$u-e a se-ret tea-hin4.< there ?as an outbreak of leprosy in southern Tibet. His -orpse ?as -remate$ at Tsurphu..n his final years @ikyo 8orjeKs health $e-line$% but $espite this he -ontinue$ his ar$uous ?ork unabate$. . Ho?e9er% a little ?hile later% Karmapa himself be4an to exhibit si4ns of leprosy an$ ?as soon unable to ?alk.n #.representation of a naga 6Esnake spiritF7% ?hi-h in myth ?as sai$ to -ause leprosy. . The four surroun$in4 stupas symboli>e$ its arms an$ le4s. . 1mon4 the most outstan$in4 ?ere Shamar Kon-ho4 Aenla4% Pa?o Tsu/ 4lak Ten4?a% Gyaltshap 8rakpa Paljor% Situ Chokyi Go-ha an$ Karma Thinley 2e4$rup. Then @ikyo 8orje ?ent into the -enter of the area an$ ?ith the po?er of his -ompassion absorbe$ the imbalan-e that ?as -ausin4 the $isease into himself. Karmapa tra9ele$ there in an effort to brin4 the epi$emi.Jui-kly -leare$ an$ @ikyo 8orje returne$ to the 8akpo She$rup 2in4 monastery of Shamar =inpo-he. Shamar =inpo-he enshrine$ his reli-s in a sil9er stupa! The ei4hth Karmapa ha$ many a--omplishe$ an$ s-holarly stu$ents.

K1=@1P1 @.KA 8 =HE #'# .

.

.0)* THE .TH K1=@1P1% 3an4-huk 8orje% ?as born in the se9enth month of #.F The infant Jui-kly be-ame famous an$ reports of him rea-he$ Situ =inpo-he at Karma monastery.t is re-or$e$ that imme$iately after his birth he ?ipe$ his fa-e three times an$ $e-lare$% E. Sin-e the -ir-umstan-es of the birth -oin-i$e$ ?ith the $etails -ontaine$ in a pre$i-tion ?ritten $o?n by @ikyo 8orje in his t?enty/ ei4hth year% Situ =inpo-he $ispat-he$ t?o assistants to in9esti4ate the infant..(1. am Karmapa. 1t the a4e of six% 3an4-huk 8orje ?as -eremonially enthrone$ by Shamar =inpo-he.+ Karmapa )angchuk Dor"e '1.n-reasin4ly the 9arious s-hools ?ere bein4 brou4ht ?illin4ly or un?illin4ly into the politi-al arena. . This last mo9e refle-te$ the se-ular po?erKs a?areness of the politi-al importan-e of the Karmapa at this time. 1t about the same time% the politi-al authorities in -entral Tibet sent letters of authority re-o4ni>in4 the ne? Karmapa in-arnation... The small bla-k hat% the seal% the robes an$ some ritual implements of the Karmapas ?ere sent from Tsurphu to Karma monastery.. Situ =inpo-he then informe$ the offi-ials of Tsurphu monastery that the ne? Karmapa in-arnation ha$ been $is-o9ere$. The assistants reporte$ that they ?ere satisfie$ that the -hil$ ?as in$ee$ Karmapa. The follo?in4 year% Shamar Kon-ho4 Aenla4 -on9eye$ the ritual obje-ts entruste$ to him by @ikyo 8orje. This ?as an important tren$ $urin4 the trouble$ life/times of the next three Karmapas. He also re-ei9e$ refu4e an$ bodhisattva 9o?s an$ the empo?erment of 1mitayus as ?ell as many other textual transmissions% empo?erments an$ tea-hin4s.... Shamarpa -ontinue$ to tea-h the youn4 Karmapa% 4i9in4 him the textual transmission of texts from the Tripitaka #' . The boy -orre-tly i$entifie$ a bell% ?hi-h ha$ belon4e$ to Cho$ra4 Gyatsho% the se9enth Karmapa.

% 19alo/ kites9ara an$ Haya4rl9a. Then% a--ompanie$ by Shamarpa an$ Pa?o =inpo-he% the youn4 Karmapa un$ertook a pil4rima4e to southern Tibet.tea-hin4% 3an4-huk 8oije tau4ht the four dharmas of Gampopa# to ei4hteen hun$re$ monks an$ many politi-al representati9es of -entral Tibet. The a$9an-e$ tantric pra-titioners of the monasti.monastery ?as 9ery stri-t in its $is-ipline an$ the intensity of pra-ti-e. The 4reater part of 3an4-huk 8orjeKs -hil$hoo$ ?as spent tra9elin4 ?ith his -amp. 8urin4 this time KarmapaKs monasti.aropa% mahamudra an$ chod! The -ampKs or$inary pra-titioners an$ monks me$itate$ upon Cajrayo4in.n or$er to be fully a--epte$ into KarmapaKs entoura4e at this time% a follo?er ha$ to ha9e a--omplishe$ a 4reat amount of spiritual pra-ti-e. . He spent three months at the -ourt of the lo-al prin-e in =inpun4% .)#.-amp pra-ti-e$ the six yogas of . From there they tra9ele$ into 2ho$rak% the home of @arpa% the father of the Ka4yu linea4e. The journey -ontinue$ throu4h Surman4 an$ .MTEE. His t?o tutors also be4an to instru-t him in the tea-hin4s of mahamudra an$ the six $o-trines of . The s-holars amon4 KarmapaKs entoura4e -on-entrate$ upon the stu$y of the 0eva)ra Tantra an$ the Cakrasamvara Tantra( the <ttaratantra Sastra of @aitreya% an$ the =abmo Nangdon of =an4jun4 8orje. n the ?ay 3an4-huk 8oije a--ompanie$ Shamar =inpo-he in pil4rima4e to Kampo . . 1t Shamar =inpo-heKs monastery of Aan4ba-hen% 3an4-huk 8oije instru-te$ the monks in 9arious tea-hin4s. The -amp stoppe$ at 2ekshay 2in4 monastery% ?here 3an4-huk 8oije honore$ the enshrine$ remains of the first Karma Thinleypa. This noma$i.4a?an4 Hi4ten 3an4-huk. He re-ei9e$ a 9isit there from 2ama Sonam Gyatsho% the then hea$ of the Gelu4pa se-t.#'< THE H. Pa?o =inpo-he assiste$ Shamar =inpo-he in performin4 the no9i-e or$ination for the youn4 Karmapa.n his first publi. an$ -ertain Ka4yupa texts.aropa. .an4-hen% arri9in4 at Tsurphu in the ne? year perio$ of #. Sonam Gyatsho later re-ei9e$ the title of 8alai 2ama 6E -ean GuruF7 from the @on4ol% 1arten Khan.ST =A F THE S.-amp journeye$ slo?ly to Tsurphu.enan4% ?here 8usum Khyen/ pa ha$ me$itate$.

Karmapa ?as sa$$ene$ by the politi-al troubles of his time. He un$ertook to $i9i$e ShamarpaKs property amon4 the monasteries at 0 an$ Tsan4% 4i9in4 4ifts an$ tea to poor people an$ a 4ol$ mandala to the 4reat temple at 2hasa. Then he set out on a tour of northern Tibet% ?here it ?as sai$ that the kin4 of the .&' 3an4-huk 8orje re-ei9e$ the final or$ination from Shamar =inpo-he.t ?as then ne-essary for 3an4-huk 8orje to tra9el to =inpun4% ?here he settle$ some politi-al $iffi-ulties. 1fter or$ainin4 the thir$ Pa?o tulku( Tsu4lak Gyatsho% Karmapa entere$ into retreat for a year at Tsurphu. To4ether% the t?o lamas brou4ht about a three year treaty an$ then parte$ after an ex-han4e of 4ifts. He felt that the memory of the early perio$ of Bu$$hism in Tibet ?oul$ inspire a rene?e$ $e$i-ation to the -i9ili>in4 messa4es of dharma.K1=@1P1 31. . 3an4-huk 8oije next journeye$ throu4h the Kon4po pro9in-e in southern Tibet% ?hi-h ha$ al?ays been a stron4hol$ of the Kamtshan4 an$ 8rukpa Ka4yu.n pursuit of this aim he arran4e$ for the repair of temples built by the earlier Bu$$hist kin4s% Sron4tsen Gampo an$ Trison4 8etsun.&( Shamar =inpo-he passe$ a?ay. He also or$aine$ many monks at this time an$ or$ere$ the -ompletion of an enormous silk appliJue thangka of Bu$$ha Sakyamuni. . SubseJuently% he stu$ie$ the vinaya an$ then the tea-hin4 of the fifth% sixth an$ se9enth Karmapas. Ha9in4 mo9e$ the -amp south to Tsari% Karmapa re-ei9e$ a se-on$ 9isit from Sonam Gyatsho% ?ho reJueste$ him to me$iate a politi-al $ispute in the Aarlun4 prin-ipality. 1s ?ell as these Kamtshan4 Ka4yu tea-hin4s% Karmapa also re-ei9e$ textual transmissions of texts from the 8ri4un4 Ka4yu an$ Ka$ampa linea4es from Shamar =inpo-he.n #.n #.GCH0K 8 =HE #'. . 3an4-huk 8orje enshrine$ his guru8s remains in a stupa at Aan4ba-hen monastery.a4as ma$e an .n a$$ition to his stu$ies% 3an4-huk 8orje ?as -alle$ upon to me/ $iate an$ arbitrate lo-al $isputes. 1fter a pil4rima4e to sa-re$ pla-es in northern Tibet% 3an4-huk 8orje returne$ to Tsurphu% ?here he transmitte$ the texts of @ikyo 8orje an$ the 8ri4un4 Ka4yu tra$ition to Pa?o tulku. . Shamarpa instru-te$ him in the tea-hin4s of =an4jun4 8orje an$ @ikyo 8orje as they tra9ele$. .

L ma!rigs!dmun!bsal. . 1lthou4h not as prolifi.MTEE.an author as the pre9ious Karmapa% 3an4/ -huk 8orje -ompose$ some important texts% in-lu$in4 a -ommentary on the 8ri4un4 Eone thou4htF 9ie?point.#') THE H. His most important book ?as The 'cean o# Certainty 6Tib. an$ this ?as also -on-erne$ ?ith niahamudra! Both are in -urrent use to$ay.ST =A F THE S. offerin4 to him% symboli>in4 the $e$i-ation of the area of Karmapa. People attribute$ that yearKs 4oo$ ?eather an$ har9ests to this offerin4.L nges!don!rgya!mtsho7% from ?hi-h has -ome the litur4y of the preliminary pra-ti-es of mahamudra. 1nother important ?ork of the ninth Karmapa ?as entitle$% Eliminating the Darkness o# Ignorance 6Tib.

aropa an$ the mahamudra! SubseJuently% to transmit the inspiration of his linea4e% Karmapa performe$ the bla-k -ro?n -ere . 1 little later% ?or$ rea-he$ 3an4-huk 8oije that the ne? Shamar hV . . He be4an by tea-hin4 GampopaKs 7ewel 'rnament o# 2iberation( in ?hi-h is set out the 4ra$uate$ path by ?hi-h the stu$ent enters into dharma an$ pro4resses throu4h the hinayana an$ mahayana le9els to enli4htenment Then 3an4-huk 8orje 4a9e tea-hin4s on the va)rayana le9el% emphasi>in4 the six $o-trines of . 3hile he ?as there% 3an4-huk 8orje -ompose$ -ommentaries on the %alacakra Tantra an$ the four 4ra$es of tantra! He also ?rote a sadhana of Cairo-ana. 3an4-huk 8oije next journeye$ ?ith his monasti.##! THE H. . He -omplete$ the textual transmission of the texts of the ei4ht Karmapas% ?hi-h he ha$ be4un earlier% an$ then le$ a E?ish/prayer festi9al.4akphu he or$aine$ many monks amon4 the lo-al people. 3an4-huk 8orje en4a4e$ extensi9ely in ?ork in both the reli4ious an$ so-ial spheres.imation ha$ been born in a 8ri4un4 family. He also 4a9e the textual transmission of GampopaKs -olle-te$ ?orks an$ or$aine$ many monks. KarmapaQs -amp tra9ele$ to Kon4po% passin4 throu4h GampopaKs ol$ monastery of 8ak 2ha Gampo. 3an4-huk 8orje establishe$ a ne? retreat -enter at Tashi Gun4tan4% ?here the thir$ Karmapa% =an4jun4 8orje% ha$ me$itate$. .MTEE.-amp to Tsari.n a$$ition% Karma* pa arran4e$ for the -onstru-tion of bri$4es in the area. 1t the -on-lusion of this perio$ of intensi9e pra-ti-e% 3an4-huk 8orje instru-te$ his stu$ents in the Juintessential Ka4yupa tea-hin4s. 1n espe-ially important aspe-t of Karma* paKs pra-ti-e in retreat ?as me$itation on @ahakala.n Kon4po% 3an4-huk 8orje $istribute$ ai$ to the lo-al people an$ -ontribute$ fun$s for the upkeep of the temples. He also stoppe$ huntin4 an$ 1shin4 an$ trie$ to in-ul-ate in the lo-al people an attitu$e of re9eren-e to?ar$ animals.F Finally% after besto?in4 the empo?erment of Kala-akra on his -amp% Karmapa ?ent ba-k into retreat.in-arnation an$% at about this time% also or$aine$ a lar4e number of 8ri4un4pa monks.n tea-hin4% 3an4* -huk 8orje emphasi>e$ the texts of the ei4ht Karmapas.ST =A F THE S. . There he tau4ht Cajrayo4inT me$itation to those pra-titioners% ?ho ?ere on retreat.n #S+< Karmapa took the infant Shamarpa ba-k to Tsurphu ?here he be4an to instru-t him in the Kaiptshan4 tra$ition. His stay in the Kon4po area laste$ for ei4ht years% alternatin4 bet?een perio$s of a-ti9ity an$ retreat. 1t . . He re-o4ni>e$ the -hil$ as ih.

to you. Karmapa tra9ele$ to uter @on4olia at the reJuest of the Kin4 Hortu. 8urin4 his tea-hin4% Karmapa took a bo?l of barley% stirre$ it ?ith a ?hip% an$ pla-e$ it on TaranathaKs hea$% sayin4% E1s Karma Pakshi $i$ to 0r4yenpa% so $o .K1=@1P1 31. He $ie$ the follo?in4 mornin4.GCH0K 8 =HE #'# mony f[r ten thousan$ people. Before returnin4 to Tsurphu% Karmapa 9isite$ many pla-es in Tsan4 an$ the =inpun4 area. Karma Thinley ?as able to fulfill 3an4-huk 8orjeKs ?ishes. ne of the ninth KarmapaKs most influential stu$ents ?as the prolifi. 4i9e you the ?hole transmission of the Ka4yu linea4e.F Hust after the ne? yearKs festi9al of #)'(% Karmapa be4an to feel un?ell. Karmapa performe$ the -eremony of the va)ra -ro?n an$ instru-te$ the -ourt an$ the people in the $e9elopment of a?akene$ -ompassion throu4h the me$itation of 19alokites9ara. His remains ?ere enshrine$ at Tsurphu. He reali>e$ $eath ?as imminent an$ 4a9e letters pre$i-tin4 his ne? rebirth in Kham.4a4 Cholin4% ?here he 4a9e tea-hin4s. . He then or$aine$ the fifth Situ =inpo-he% Chokyi Gyaltsen% an$ instru-te$ him in Ka4yupa $o-trine. Ho?e9er% he $i$ -onsent to 9isit 0 an$ Tsan4. . Chokyi 3an4-huk% at that time.Honan4pa s-holar an$ translator% Taranatha% ?ho ?rote the 0istory o# Dharma in India. 3an4-huk 8orje tra9ele$ to the hea$ 8rukpa Ka4yu monastery% San4 . . He reJueste$ the se-on$ 2ama Karma Thinleypa to repair the She$rup 2in4 monastery. 3an4-huk 8orje 4a9e him all the empo?erments% textual transmissions an$ instru-tions of the Karma Ka4yu linea4e. The prin-ipal stu$ents of 3an4-huk 8orje ?ere% Shamar Chokyi 3an4-huk% 2otsa?a Taranatha% Situ Chokyi Gyaltsen% Pa?o Tsu4lak Gyatsho% 8ri4un4 Ka4yupa Chokyi =in-hen .am4yal an$ Ta4lun4 Ka/ 4yupa Chokyi Kun4a Tashi. Karmapa took a lar4e interest in the restoration an$ impro9ement of Ka4yupa monasteries.n honor of 3an4-huk 8orjeKs -ompassionate messa4e% the kin4 free$ all -on$emne$ prisoners an$ 9o?e$ to obser9e non9iolen-e. 3an4-huk 8orje -elebrate$ the ne? year E?ish/prayerF festi9al ?ith his -amp an$ or$aine$ the sixth Shamar tulku. The ninth Karmapa re-ei9e$ in9itations from the @on4ol authorities in China but $e-line$ them.

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10 #'( .

E. He aske$ his father to 4i9e him the reins so that he -oul$ $ire-t the horse. n one o--asion he ?as seate$ on a horse in front of his father hel$ bet?een his fatherKs arms. The youn4 boy spontaneously ma$e up a little son4 sayin4 that people shoul$ not tra9el la>ily but that e9eryone shoul$ lea$ themsel9es to enli4htenment.7 in the Golok area of eastern Tibet.0-(1. . He then sat $o?n -rosse$/le44e$ an$ ?as hear$ to re-ite the mantra of 19alokites9ara an$ that of the Eperfe-tion of ?is$om. The si4ht% one $ay% of sheep bein4 shorn -ause$ the youn4 -hil$ to burst into tears an$ be4 the shearers not to harm them./-* THE TE. The youn4 Karmapa ha$ a li9ely an$ playful sense of humor.t is re-or$e$ that at birth the infant stoo$ up an$ took one step in ea-h $ire-tion as Sakyamuni Bu$$ha ha$ $one at his birth.TH K1=@1P1% Choyin4 8orje% ?as born on the ei4hth $ay of the thir$ month of 3oo$ 8ra4on year 6#)'< C. n another o--asion he 4a9e prote-tion to a hunte$ $eer an$ then tame$ the huntin4 $o4 that ?as pursuin4 it. He sho?e$ an ex-eptional ability in art% an ability ?hi-h -ame to fruition in later life. . 3hen the hunter arri9e$% Karmapa pro9i$e$ him ?ith fun$s to start a ne? li9elihoo$ an$ as a result the hunter renoun-e$ killin4.FQ Choyin4 8orje spent his early -hil$hoo$ in the pala-e of the lo-al prin-e% Chan4 @o?a% at @a-hu% ?here he ?as fete$ as a remarkable pro$i4y.Karmapa 'ho ing Dor"e '1. The youn4 Karmapa $emonstrate$ a 4reat natural ten$erness to?ar$ animals. His mother ha$ ha$ auspi-ious $reams of Guru Pa$ma/ sambha9a $urin4 her pre4nan-y an$ so she name$ her baby 0r4yen Khyab 6Eprote-te$ by the one from 0r4yenF7.

yin4-he 2in4 monas/ tery. SubseJuently Sha/ marpa -eremonially enthrone$ Choyin4 8orje at . 3hen the ro-k ?as finally broken in half% it ?as foun$ to -ontain many 4reen ?orms ?ri44lin4 in a4ony.1t the a4e of ei4ht Choyin4 8orje ?as offi-ially re-o4ni>e$ as the Karmapa in-arnation by the sixth Shamar =inpo-he. Karmapa en9isa4e$ the 4lorious dharmapala( @ahakala% at this -erTQnony% ?hi-h ?as a 9ery joyous an$ auspi-ious e9ent. 1fter his arri9al in Tsurphu% Karmapa met Pa?o Tsu4lak Gyatsho% from ?hom he re-ei9e$ lay or$ination an$ the empo?erments% textual transmissions an$ instru-tions of Karma Pakshi% =an4jun4 8orje an$ Cho$ra4 Gyatsho. The ro-k ?as 9ery $iffi-ult to mo9e but Karmapa sai$ that it must be $one for the benefit of sentient bein4s. 3ith 4reat ten$erness for their hellish sufferin4% Choyin4 8orje re-ite$ 19alokites9araKs mantra! They 4ra$ually be-ame still an$ passe$ a?ay pea-efully. 2ater% tra9elin4 ?ith Shamar =inpo-he% Situ =inpo-he% an$ Pa?o #'. Choyin4 8orjeKs e$u-ation resume$ at Tsurphu% ?here Pa?o =in/ po-he 4a9e him the -omplete transmission of Ka4yu dharma! 1t the a4e of t?enty/one he ?as or$aine$ a monk. 10 . 1 fe? $ays aiter?ar$s Choyin4 8orje ?as ?alkin4 ?ith some monks on the banks of the 8>a-hu =i9er% ?hen he remarke$ on a lar4e ro-k in mi$stream. 1fter his perio$ of stu$y ?ith Pa?o =inpo-he% Kar/ mapa ?as in9ite$ to the -ourt of the prin-e of Tsan4% Karma Phuntso4 . He aske$ some of the monks to brin4 it out an$ split it in half. He then entere$ into intensi9e me$itation on the tea-hin4 he ha$ re-ei9e$.am4yal% ?ho subseJuently exten$e$ his rule throu4hout Tibet after the fall of the =inpun4 $ynasty. He aske$ Choyin4 8orje to pray for pea-e be-ause he ?as threat/ ene$ by a marau$in4 @on4ol -hief. This time the in9asion ?as a9erte$. The politi-al -limate $urin4 the boyhoo$ of the tenth Karmapa ?as stea$ily ?orsenin4. This prin-e ?as a patron of the Kaiptshan4 Ka4yu an$ 8rukpa Ka4yu. 1 little later Choyin4 8orje journeye$ to Tsurphu.

1t the -on-lusion of this perio$ Karmapa ma$e a pil4rima4e to the ori4inal .yin4ma monastery of Samye% ?here Shamar =inpo-he 4a9e him the bodhisattva 9o?s. SubseJuently% he tra9ele$ on to 8aklha Gamp' monastery. 3hen Choyin4 8orje ?as informe$ of this plan% he tol$ the kin4 that to en4a4e in su-h a military 9enture ?as -ontrary to the non9iolent ethi.=inpo-he% Choyin4 8orje 9isite$ 2ho$ra4% ?here he ?as informe$ of the $eath of the prin-e of Tsan4. am -ommitte$ not to arm e9en tiny inse-ts% so $o not sen$ an army. For that purpose the party then tra9ele$ to 2hasa an$ the pala-e of Sam$rup 2in4. Ha9in4 resol9e$ this politi-al $iffi-ulty% Choyin4 8orje -ontinue$ .n 9irtual exile% Karmapa $e9ote$ his time to instru-tin4 the people in Karma Ka4yu Bu$$hism% helpin4 the poor an$ ai$in4 the temples of the lo-ality. . 1t Chu?ar% the s-ene of @ilarepaKs $e-ease% Karmapa establishe$ a me$itation -enter. 3hile Choyin4 8oije ?as o--upie$ in this ?ay the army of Han4 ?on a 9i-tory o9er a marau$in4 splinter for-e of three hun$re$ thousan$ sol$iers an$ prepare$ to sen$ them a4ainst the main @on4ol army in Tibet itself% le$ by Gushri Khan% a supporter of the Gelu4pa s-hool.of dharma. There he painte$ a lar4e 4ol$en mural of the sixteen arhats an$ their follo?ers. The politi-al trouble that ha$ erupte$ in Tsan4 as a result of the animosity felt to?ar$ the monasteries of Sera an$ 8repun4 by the kin4 of Tsan4% 8esi Karma Tenkyon4 3an4po% pre-ipitate$ a @on4ol in9asion ?hi-h sprea$ rapi$ly throu4hout Tibet. He $issua$e$ the kin4 from this -ourse of a-tion% sayin4% 0. The $e-ease$ prin-eKs ?ife aske$ Karmapa to perform the $eath rites for her husban$.F Karmapa ?as su--essful an$ the kin4 -alle$ off the mobili>ation. 1t about this time% Shamar =inpo-he be-ame ill an$ passe$ a?ay. From there Choyin4 8oije -ontinue$ on his p\l* 4rima4e 9isitin4 the -a9es of Pa$masambha9a an$ @ilarepa an$ @ount Kailasa. Choyin4 8orje mo9e$ ahea$ of it to Han4 Sa/tham% the Sino/Tibetan bor$er re4ion% ?here Kin4 Karma Chime$ 2a?an4 an$ his -ourt re-ei9e$ him ?ith honor.

n response @injur 8orje offere$ his termas to Choyin4 8orje. 3hile tra9elin4 in Golok% Choyin4 8orje re-o4ni>e$ an$ enthrone$ the ne? in-arnation of the Gyaltshap tulku! SubseJuently he met the ne? in-arnations of the Situ an$ Pa?o =inpo-hes in Kham. Finally% on arri9al in the Golok re4ion% Choyin4 8orje met a -hil$ ?hom he re-o4ni>e$ to be the ne? in-arnation of Shamar =inpo-he. #'" 10 . Karmapa re-o4ni>e$ @injur 8orjeKs terma 6Etreasure textF7 tea-hin4%! ?hi-h $eri9e$ from the inspira/ tion of Guru Pa$masambha9a% as authenti-. He also or$aine$ many monks an$ 4a9e a textual transmission of the Tripitaka texts.mme$iately upon his arri9al% he exten$e$ an in9itation to the fifth 8alai 2ama% .4a/ ?an4 2ob>an4 Gyatsho% ?ho ?el-ome$ him an$ expresse$ his appre-ia/ tion that the Han4 army ?as not 4oin4 to in9a$e Tibet.n the 3ater x year Choyin4 8orje arri9e$ in 2hasa. 1t Su-hu Karpo% Choyin4 8orje 4a9e refu4e an$ some preliminary tea-hin4s of the Ka4yupa tra$ition to the youn4 Shamar Aeshe .yin4po. . 3hile tea-hin4 at this time% Karmapa ha$ a premonition of the rebirth of Shamar =inpo-he. . He $is4uise$ himself as a be44ar% so that he ?oul$ be able to tra9el unhin$ere$ throu4h the trouble$ lan$.mme$iately he set out by himself from Han4 Sa/tham to sear-h for the ne? Shamarpa. .e$o subse-t of the Karma Ka4yu. . 8urin4 their meetin4% .his dharma a-ti9ity by establishin4 a ne? monastery name$ 4min 2in4.n the Karma Ka4yu se-t% @injur 8orjeKs most reno?ne$ tea-hin4 has been his sadhana of Karma Pakshi. 1fter 4i9in4 the youn4 in-arnations some preliminary tea-hin4s% Karmapa% to4ether ?ith his party% left Han4 for 2hasa after ha9in4 been a?ay for thirty years.4a?an4 2ob>an4 Gyatsho an$ Choyin4 8orje $is-usse$ mahamudra( an$ Karmapa ?as assure$ that Tsurphu ?oul$ be 4i9en pro/ te-tion in -ase of nee$. 8urin4 this time he met Tulku @injur 8orje% ?ho ?as a stu$ent of Cha4me$ =a4a/asi =inpo-he% an emanation of @ikyo 8orje an$ foun$er of the . . .t is re-or$e$ that the youn4 in-arnation ha$ no $iffi-ulty in re-o4ni>in4 Karmapa $espite the latterKs $is4uise.

4a?an4 Tashi Pal$rup% Surman4 Gar?an4 =in-hen . The tenth KarmapaKs prin-ipal stu$ents ?ere Shamar Aeshe .yin4po% Gyaltshap 8rakpa Choyin4% Kuntu San4po% Situ @ipham Thinley =abten% Pa?o Thinley Gyatsho% Karma Cha4me$ =a4a/asi =inpo-he% the famous . He entruste$ the $etails of his next rebirth ?ith his ser9ant Kuntu San4po% ?ith Shamar =inpo-he an$ ?ith Gyaltshap =inpo-he. .From 2hasa% Karmapa 9isite$ the birthpla-e of Aeshe Tso4yal% the -onsort of Guru Pa$masambha9a.yin4po% the kin4 of Han4 Sa/tham% Karma Tse?an4 =in-hen% Prin-e Karma =in-hen ?ho a-hie9e$ the path of 9ision an$ the joyful sta4e% Prin-e Karma Phuntsok% the Prime @inister Karma Tenkyon4% treasurer Karma Sam$rup% Taklun4 . His remains ?ere enshrine$ in a stupa( ?hi-h ?as pla-e$ ?ith those of the pre9ious Karmapas in Tsurphu. Finally Choyin4 8orje returne$ to Tsurphu% after his years of ?an$erin4. . His party 9isite$ the famous lake that ?as sai$ to ha9e appeare$ at the time of her birth% an$ also some of Pa$masambha9aKs me$itation -a9es.yin4ma terton Hatson .n #)"( he re-ei9e$ intimations of his approa-hin4 $eath in a 9ision of @ahakall.yin4po an$ the fourth Surman4 Trun4pa Tulku. 1t $a?n on the full moon $ay of the se-on$ month of the 3oo$ Ti4er year% Choyin4 8orje passe$ a?ay at the a4e of se9enty.

.

u$en 8orje% a .yin4po. Then he ?as taken to Tsurphu% ?here he ?as enthrone$ by Shamar Aeshe .##' Karmapa Yeshe Dor"e '1.F 8urin4 Aeshe 8orjeKs youth in the year of the 3ater 8o4% the fifth . Aeshe 8orje re-ei9e$ the -omplete linea4e transmission of the Ka4yupa tra$ition. The fame$ terton% @injur 8orje% ?ho ?as a master of both Ka4yu an$ .MTEE./. THE E2ECE.t ?as at this time that he ?as 4i9en the name Aeshe 8orje by Terton @injur 8orje% ?ho relate$ Pa$masambha9aKs pre$i-tion -on-ernin4 the ele9enth Karmapa.E.yin4po% the youn4 Karmapa ?ent to stu$y ?ith Terton @injur 8orje an$ Taksham .yin4mapa terton! These t?o me$itation masters instru-te$ Aeshe 8orje in their Etreasure texts.e?s of this tra9ele$ an$ Shamar =inpo-he an$ Gyaltshap =inpo-he sent their representati9es% ?ho -onfirme$ that the $etails of Aeshe 8orjeKs birth -orrespon$e$ to those in the letters of pre$i-tion. . His tutors in-lu$e$ Shamar =inpo-he% Gyaltshap =inpo-he an$ the thir$ Karma Thinleypa.ST =A F THE S. This amusement 4ra$ually turne$ to a?e as they reali>e$ the natural $i4nity of these stories an$ the spirituality of the infant.TH K1=@1P1% Aeshe 8orje% ?as born in @ar Kham in the year of the Fire 8ra4on 6#)") C. n the $eath of Shamar Aeshe . 1fter re-ei9in4 lay or$ination# from Shamar =inpo-he% Aeshe 8orje -ommen-e$ his stu$ies. The youn4 -hil$ ha$ many 9isionary experien-es that he like$ to relate to his relati9es% mu-h to their amusement. .7.(1/0+* THE H.yin4ma se-ts re-o4ni>e$ the -hil$ as the Karmapa in-arnation. 1t 8e-hen Aan4ba-hen% the monastery of Shamar =inpo-he% the ne? Karmapa ?as 4i9en a 4reat -eremonial ?el-ome.

ne of the most influential fi4ures in the ex-han4e bet?een the Gelu4pas an$ the Karma Ka4yupas at this time ?as Te?o =inpo-he% Karma Ten$>in Thar4ye% ?ho ha$ ser9e$ the fifth 8alai 2ama an$ ?as one of the prin-ipal stu$ents of Karmapa Aeshe 8oije. Aeshe 8orjeKs remains ?ere enshrine$ in a stupa at Tsurphu monastery. 1 little later% Aeshe 8orje passe$ a?ay at a4e t?enty/six.8alai 2ama $ie$. n one o--asion Karmapa $emonstrate$ the po?er of his tea-hin4 by emanatin4 se9eral forms of himself% ea-h of ?hi-h 4a9e instru-tion to the in$i9i$uals present. KarmapaKs representati9es lo-ate$ the -hil$ an$ returne$ ?ith him to Tsurphu. 11 ### .yin-he an$ Chokyi 8on$rup. The ele9enth Karmapa ?as the shortest li9e$ of the Karmapa in-arnations. . 1t the time of KarmapaKs $eath many of his stu$ents sa? his form appear in front of the sun% a--ompanie$ by the fi4ures of t?o other 4urus.n #"'! he entruste$ a letter -ontainin4 a pre$i-tion of his next rebirth to Shamar =inpo-he% ?hom he appointe$ his re4ent. SubseJuently% Aeshe 8orje re-o4ni>e$ the ne? in-arnations of the Situ an$ Pa?o =inpo-hes% respe-ti9ely% Tenpi .n the year of the 3oo$en Pi4% Aeshe 8orje ha$ a 9ision that in$i-ate$ that the ei4hth Shamar =inpo-he ha$ been born in . . Aeshe 8oijeA -onsummate spirituality -ommuni-ate$ itself both throu4h his tea-hin4 an$ the apparently mira-ulous Juality of his a-ti9ity. 1fter the youn4 in-arnationQs arri9al at Tsurphu% he ?as enthrone$ by Karmapa an$ re-ei9e$ the re$ -ro?n of the Shamarpa in-arnation linea4e. =ule ?as assume$ by 8esi San4ye Gyatsho% the 8alai 2amaKs re4ent% ?ho -ontinue$ the poli-y of re-on-iliation. The party passe$ throu4h 2hasa ?ith the permission of 8esi San4ye Gyatsho. The ele9enth KarmapaKs prin-ipal stu$ents ?ere the ei4hth Shamar% Pal-hen Chokyi 8on$rup% an$ Te?o =inpo-he% Karma Ten$>in Thar4ye.epal near Homo Gan4kar mountain.

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Karmapa 'hangchu* Dor"e
'1/0)(1/)+*

1+

THE T3E2FTH K1=@1P1% Chan4-hub 8orje% ?as bom in the 8e4e area of Kham in the year of the 3ater Sheep 6#"'( C.E.7. .n a--or$an-e ?ith the letter of pre$i-tion left by the per9ious Karmapa% his birthpla-e ?as besi$e the Gol$en =i9er 6Aan4tse7. Shortly before his birth his father% ?ho ?as the o?ner of a pottery business% ha$ been tol$ by Terton @injur 8oije that an auspi-ious e9ent ?as about to o--ur in his family. Chan4-hub 8orjeKs family ?as% in fa-t% $es-en$e$ from that of Kin4 Trison4 8etsun. 3hen he ?as t?o months ol$% Chan4-hub 8orje ?as hear$ to $e-lare% E. am the Karmapa.F ,e?s of this an$ of @injur 8oijeKs -on9i-tion that the infant ?as the ne? Karmapa in-arnation% prompte$ the ei4hth Shamar =inpo-he to sen$ a sear-h party to fin$ an$ test the boy. The party ?as -on$u-te$ to the house by Terton @injur 8orje himself. Chan4-hub 8orje satisfie$ ShamarpaKs representati9es that he ?as in$ee$ the Karmapa in-arnation. SubseJuently% he ?as name$ Chan4-hub 8orje by Shamar =inpo-he. 8urin4 his early years he ?as instru-te$ by se9eral note$ me$itation masters an$ s-holars% in-lu$in4 Situ Chokyi Hun4nay% Tsu4lak Tenpi ,yin4je an$ ,yenpa Tulku. 1t the a4e of se9en% he arri9e$ at Karma Gon. 1 little later Chan4-hub 8orje journeye$ to Kampo Gan4ra ?here he $i$ some intensi9e me$itation. From there he tra9ele$ to the ,an4-hen prin-ipality. n the ?ay to Tsurphu% the youn4 Karmapa ma$e a pil4rima4e to the -a9es at Baram% ?here Baram 8arma 3an4-huk ha$ been in retreat. Barampa ha$ been a -lose $is-iple of Gampopa an$ ha$ foun$e$ the Baram Ka4yu linea4e.
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THE H.ST =A F THE S.MTEE,

Finally% Chan4-hub 8orjeKs party rea-he$ Tsurphu% ?here he -on/ tinue$ his stu$ies. KarmapaKs innate spirituality unfol$e$ itself in his $reams. He ha$ a natural affinity for the tea-hin4s of the %alacakra Tantra an$ in one ni4ht he $reamt that he 9isite$ Sambhala% ?here he re-ei9e$ the empo?erment an$ textual transmission of Kala-akra from Kin4 =i4$en of Sambhala% ?ho ?as the hol$er of the Kala-akra tea-hin4 linea4e. The lifetime of the t?elfth Karmapa ?as a4ain a trouble$ perio$. The 8>un4arian @on4ols atta-ke$ -entral Tibet% killin4 2ap>an4 Khan% @intin4 2otsa?a 8harma Sri% Pa$ma Gyurme Gyatsho an$ many other 4reat ,yin4ma masters. 8urin4 four years of -onfli-t% many monasteries ?ere $estroye$% in-lu$in4 @in$rolin4 an$ 8orje 8ra4. =eli-s an$ treasures ?ere stolen an$ the entran-es to the Pa$masambha9a -a9es ?ere obstru-te$. 3hen the se9enth 8alai 2ama% Kal>an4 Gyatsho returne$ from Kham% the in9a$ers retreate$. Chan4-hub 8orje ?ent to 9isit Kal>an4 Gyatsho to ?hom he ma$e appropriate offerin4s an$ re-ei9e$ the latterKs blessin4. 3hen Karmapa ha$ arri9e$ ba-k at Tsurphu he ?as 9isite$ by Katok Tse?an4 ,orbu% to ?hom he 4a9e tea-hin4s on the six yogas of ,aropa an$ mahamudra! This lama ?as a fame$ me$itation master an$ terton of the Katok ,yin4ma linea4e. He in turn instru-te$ Chan4-hub 8orje in some ,yin4ma $o-trine. Karmapa set out on a pil4rima4e to the sa-re$ pla-es of ,epal. .n-lu$e$ in his party ?ere Shamar =inpo-he% Situ =inpo-he an$ the se9enth Gyaltshap =inpo-he. They ?ere ?el-ome$ in Kathman$u by Kin4 Ha4ajayamalla% ?ho fete$ them ?ith a 4reat -eremony. 8urin4 his stay in ,epal% Chan4-hub 8orje 9isite$ Aan4laysho$% ?here Guru Pa$masambha9a a--omplishe$ the me$itation on CajrakHaya in or$er to $estroy all hin$ran-es to his -ompassionate a-ti9ity. There% Karmapa an$ his party performe$ spiritual pra-ti-es of Pa$masambha9a in ?rathful

aspe-t% an$ thus% rene?e$ the link ?ith the inspiration of the E2otus BornF 4uru. 1n influen>a epi$emi- ha$ broken out in the Kathman$u 9alley an$ Chan4-hub 8orjeKs ai$ ?as reJuire$. Karmapa performe$ the spiritual pra-ti-e of 19alokites9ara first% an$ then ha9in4 symboli-ally purifie$ an amount of ?ater ?ith the -ompassion of 19alokites9ara% he% to4ether ?ith the other lamas in his party% blesse$ the area in a ?ater purifi-ation -eremony. The epi$emi- ?as stoppe$ an$ the kin4 arran4e$ a festi9e -elebration in KarmapaKs honor. SubseJuently% Chan4-hub 8orje% to4ether ?ith Shamarpa an$ Situ =inpo-he% tra9ele$ on to Kusina4ara in northern .n$ia% the pla-e of

1+

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The prin-ipal stu$ents of Chan4-hub 8orje ?ere Situ Chokyi Hun4/ nay% Pa?o Tsu4lak 8on$rup an$ his rein-arnation% 8ruk-hen Ka4yu Thinley Shin4ta.n #"!. Ha9in4 arri9e$ ba-k at Tsurphu% Karmapa $i$ not set out imme$iately for China. Throu4hout the journey% Situ =inpo-heKs sophisti-ate$ s-holarship 4reatly impresse$ the Hin$u pand3tas ?hom he met in $is-ussion. 1s he tra9ele$ on into China% Karmapa 4a9e tea-hin4s an$ empo?erments% espe-ially that of Cajrapani% embo$iment of the po?er of bu$$hahoo$. He $e-i$e$ to a--ept the in9itation an$ to4ether ?ith Shamarpa% Situpa an$ Gyaltshab/ pa% he slo?ly tra9ele$ ba-k to Tsurphu. . He ?ent into retreat an$ then 9isite$ 2hasa an$ tra9ele$ to southern Tibet% 4i9in4 tea-hin4s to many people. 2ater Chan4-hub 8orje performe$ another -eremony at 2ake Kokonor. The party finally arri9e$ at 2an Chu in #"(!% ?here Chan4-hub 8orje 9isite$ the Tara an$ 19alokites9ara temples% as ?ell as the Taoist temples.Sakyamuni Bu$$haKs $e-ease. . He sent a letter -ontainin4 $etails of his next rebirth to Situ =inpo-he. n the return journey to Tibet% Karmapa an$ his party 9isite$ a -a9e in the 9i-inity of Homo Gan4kar mountain% ?here 2esom Gen$un Bum% @ilarepaKs prin-ipal female stu$ent% ha$ pra-ti-e$ intensi9e me$itation. Chan4-hub 8orje met ?ith the rulers of the $istri-ts throu4h ?hi-h he passe$ an$ $is-usse$ dharma ?ith them.n a$$ition% Situ =inpo-he ?as aske$ to -omplete all the texts that Karmapa an$ Shamarpa ha$ starte$. Karmapa entruste$ Situ Chokyi Hun4nay ?ith the 4uar$ianship of the Karma Ka4yu s-hool% $urin4 his 9isit to China. 1bout this time Chan4-hub 8oije re-ei9e$ an in9itation to 9isit China from the emperor% Aun4 Chin4.aropa.% after 4i9in4 Situpa some empo?erments% Chan4-hub 8orje an$ Shamar =inpo-he set out for China. 3hen the party rea-he$ 1m$o pro9in-e% Karmapa performe$ a spe-ial -eremony for ?orl$ pea-e. 3hile in 2an Chu% Karmapa -ontra-te$ smallpox. . The party then 9isite$ @ount Kailasa% ?hi-h ?as reno?ne$ as the spiritual en9ironment of Cakrasaip9ara. n the thirtieth $ay of the tenth month of the year of the 3ater =at 6#"(!7 he passe$ a?ay. Chan4-hub 8orje met Surman4 Trun4pa =inpo-he% on ?hom he besto?e$ the mahamudra an$ the six yogas of . @any be-ame his stu$ents as a result of his mastery of philosophy an$ lin4uisti-s.

.K1=@1P1 CH1.GCH0B 8 =HE ++.

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The ##+ .7. arise in ?rathful form from the spa-e of trans-en$ent ?is$om. The po?er of this experien-e ?as so stron4 that it -ommuni-ate$ itself to e9eryone aroun$ 8u$ul 8orje.mme$iately the dharma prote-tor assume$ his -ompletely o9er?helmin4 ?rathful form an$ $e-lare$% E. The youn4 Karmapa ?as sai$ to be able to re-all e9ents from his past li9es. Then the 9ision $isappeare$ into spa-e. perform the four a-ti9ities of pa-ifyin4% enri-hin4% inte4ratin4 an$ $estroyin4.TH K1=@1P1% 8u$ul 8oije% ?as born in Chaba 8ron4% a 9illa4e four $ays journey from 2hasa% in the ei4hth month of the year of the 3ater x 6#"(( C. .E.n this ?ay the dharma prote-tor symboli-ally pointe$ to the mahamudra tea-hin4 that there is nothin4 separate from min$. . The infant ha$ a birthmark on his ton4ue in the shape of the Tibetan letter a( an$ as he 4re?% he $isplaye$ remarkable natural spirituality.F . Shortly after this% 2ama Katok Tse/ ?an4 . am the 4lorious roarin4 Cajra Bla-k/Cloake$ ne.n this elaborate -eremony 8u$ul 8orje re-ei9e$ his bla-k -ro?n.# This is the ultimate 9ie?. By the time he rea-he$ the a4e of four the youn4 boyKs fame ha$ sprea$ far an$ ?i$e. Gyaltshap =inpo-he sent a sear-h party ?ho lo-ate$ the -hil$% ?ho ?as then taken to Tsurphu% ?here Gyaltshabpa offi-ially re-o4ni>e$ an$ enthrone$ him as the thirteenth Karmapa. 8u$ul 8orje aske$ the apparition% E3ho are youIF . .orbu ha$ a 9ision% in ?hi-h he sa? the exa-t birthpla-e of Karmapa. n one early o--asion 8u$ul 8oije ha$ a hi4hly si4nifi-ant 9ision of the dharma prote-tor% the Cajra Bla-k/Cloake$ ne% in the form of a youn4 boy $resse$ in a ?hite silk robe an$ hol$in4 a -rystal plate full of flo?ers.=TEE.1) Karmapa Dudul Dor"e '1/))(1/9/* THE TH.

The -eremony took pla-e before the famous statue of the Bu$$ha -onstru-te$ by Karma Pakshi.yin4ma terton an$ stu$ent of the tenth Karmapa% ?ho intro$u-e$ the Kon-ho4 Chi$u! -y-le.#!' THE H. 8u$ul 8orje blen$e$ to4ether the t?o lifestyles of s-holar an$ E-ra>y/?is$omF yo4in% an$ he embo$ie$ the -ompassionate spontaneity of a?akene$ ener4y. .ST =A F THE S. SubseJuently% he perfe-te$ his pra-ti-e of the six yogas of . . 1t the a4e of thirty/one% the thirteenth Karmapa ?as or$aine$ a monk by Situ =inpo-he. 1t one time 2hasa ?as threatene$ by the floo$in4 ?aters of the Tsan4po or Chi-hu% Happy =i9er% or as it is kno?n in . His lo9e for animals be-ame le4en$ary. se9enth 8alai 2ama% Kal>an4 Gyatsho% an$ his prime minister% Pholha Sonam Thobjay% sent their 4reetin4s to the ne? Karmapa. 1 little ?hile after his enthronement% 8u$ul 8oije ?as 9isite$ in Tsurphu by the most s-holarly ei4hth Situ% Chokyi Hun4nay. 1t the a4e of fourteen% 8u$ul 8orje ?as or$aine$ a no9i-e by Situ =inpo-he in Tsurphu. 8u$ul 8orje ?as himself the subje-t of one of Pa$masambha9aKs prophe-ies.n$ia% the Brahmaputra =i9er.t ?as re-alle$ that in a book of prophe-y by Guru . . Situpa ?as $eli4hte$ to see the in-arnation of Chan4-hub 8oije% his o?n spiritual father% an$ 4a9e the youn4 boy a -omprehensi9e ran4e of Karma Ka4yu tea-hin4s.aropa an$ mahamudra an$ re-ei9e$ the -omplete transmission of the linea4e from Situ =inpo-he. .yin4ma tra$itions. mtsho7% @a$hyamaka philosophy% abhidharma( vinaya% an$ the sutras.yin4po% the famous . His stu$ies an$ pra-ti-e also in-lu$e$ the tea-hin4s of 8usum Khyenpa an$ the tea-hin4s of the six 9olumes -ompose$ by =i4$>in Hatson . The thirteenth KarmapaKs e$u-ation -ontinue$ after his or$ination an$ mainly follo?e$ the Ka4yu an$ .n this fashion he re-ei9e$ the most important streams of spiritual pra-ti-e -urrent in his $ay.n a$$ition% 8u$ul 8oije mastere$ the 0eva)ra Tantra( the 'cean o# Dakiriis 6Tib. He re-ei9e$ the empo?erments of the %alacakra Tantra to4ether ?ith its asso-iate$ tea-hin4s.L thkha!Qgro!rgya.MTEE.t is sai$ that he -ommuni-ate$ the essen-e of dharma to bir$s% mi-e% -ats% rabbits an$ bees. Ea-h $ay he spent mu-h time ?ith the -reatures% ?ho flo-ke$ to him% as ?ell as ?ith his human stu$ents.

.n a--or$an-e ?ith this% the -apitalKs authorities aske$ him to -ome as Jui-kly as possible. SubseJuently% 8u$ul 8orje offi-ially re-o4ni>e$ an$ enthrone$ the ne? Situ% Pa$ma . ( 1t 8anan4 in Kham% Karmapa performe$ a spe-ial -eremony for Karma monastery. . Keep this in min$. @essen4ers from Po?o Gyal$>on4 in southeastern Tibet arri9e$ at Tsurphu an$ in9ite$ Karmapa to bless their monastery. 8u$ul 8orje journeye$ throu4h Kham% tea-hin4 an$ besto?in4 his bless/ in4. His monks also ma$e a sil9er statue of Karmapa.n his later years a famous $emonstration of apparently mira-ulous ener4y of the Karmapa took pla-e. He sent a party to the pla-e in$i-ate$% ?here they foun$ the infant.n #"+"% at the a4e of sixty/four% ha9in4 entruste$ his in-arnation letter to Situ =inpo-he% 8u$ul 8orje passe$ a?ay.n #""! Karmapa tra9ele$ to 8e4e to see the a4e$ Situ =inpo-he. 8u$ul 8orje ?as unable to 4o but on the appointe$ $ay he 4a9e the blessin4 ?hile still in Tsurphu. 8u$ul 8oije arri9e$ in 2hasa an$ a9erte$ the $an4er by in9okin4 the inspiration of 19alokites9ara an$ Sakyamuni. Simultaneously% the assemble$ -ro?$s at Po?o Gyal$>on4 ?itnesse$ a rain of blesse$ barley from the sky. . He finan-e$ the -onstru-tion of many dharma -enters an$ also the printin4 of texts.F 8u$ul 8orje li9e$ in a 9ery simple fashion an$ $istribute$ his ?ealth both to the nee$y an$ to reli4ious proje-ts. The -eremony ?as sponsore$ by the 8anan4 noble family% ?ho presente$ 8u$ul 8orje ?ith a 4ol$ an$ sil9er 9ase.K1=@1P1 80802 8 =HE #!# Pa$ma% it ?as sai$ that if 2hasa ?as e9er in $an4er of bein4 floo$e$% KarmapaKs blessin4 shoul$ be reJueste$.n #""< Karmapa ha$ a 9ision in$i-atin4 the lo-ation of the ne? Situ in-arnation. 1mon4 the thirteenth KarmapaKs prin-ipal stu$ents ?ere Situ Pa$ma . .yin4-he 3an4po. He met ?ith the tenth Shamar =inpo-he% @ipham Cho$rup Gyatsho. 3hen it happens you ?ill un$erstan$ it in $etail. . His remains ?ere enshrine$ in a one story hi4h sil9er stupa in Tsurphu. 8urin4 his stay% Karmapa remarke$ to the family that he ?oul$ return to them in the future% sayin4 ESoon ?e shall meet a4ain.

MTEE.ST =A F THE S.yin4-he 3an4po% the 8ruk-hen Kun>i4 Chokyi .an4?a% Pa?o Tsu4lak Cho4yal% the 2a$akhi prin-e% Hemi Gyalsay% Khamtrul Hi4me Sen4e% an$ San4ye .#!! THE H. . .yenpa Tulku.

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For the next fe? years at 4min 2in4% The4-ho4 8orje stu$ie$ the $o-trines of the Ka4yu an$ . THE F 0=TEE. This party% ha9in4 rea-he$ Salmo Gan4% met ?ith t?o other parties from Situ =inpo-he an$ Gyaltshap =inpo-he. The4-ho4 8orje ?as himself hi4hly expert in 9arious arts an$ -rafts% in-lu$in4 s-ulpture an$ metal ?ork. The fourteenth Karmapa ?as an a--omplishe$ s-holar an$ lin4uist. 1fter bein4 enthrone$ an$ re-ei9in4 the va)ra -ro?n% the fourteenth Karmapa ?ent to Tsurphu% ?here he -ontinue$ his stu$ies.yin-he 3an4po% formally re-o4ni>e$ The4-ho4 8oije as the ne? Karmapa. He also or$aine$ him as a no9i-e.yin4ma tra$itions.an4?a. The ninth Situ% Pa$ma .TH K1=@1P1% The4-ho4 8oije% ?as born in Salmo Gan4 in Kham% the 9illa4e of the 8anan4 family% in the year of the Fire Snake 6#"+& C.#!< Karmapa Thegchog Dor"e 6#"+&/#&)&7 THE H.ST =A F THE S. . The ne?born -hil$ ?as hear$ to re-ite the Sanskrit alphabet.MTEE.7.t is re-or$e$ that% on the $ay of his birth% rainbo?s appeare$ an$ flo?ers bloome$% e9en thou4h it ?as in the $epths of the ?inter.an4?a to fin$ the in-arnation of his guru. . 8urin4 this perio$ he en4a4e$ in the rebuil$in4 an$ repair of the monastery itself an$ many of the stupas an$ temples in the surroun$in4 area. 1t the a4e of nineteen he ?as or$aine$ a monk by Situ =inpo-he an$ 8ruk-hen Chokyi . 8urin4 her pre4nan-y% his mother ha$ ha$ se9eral auspi-ious $reams% in$i-atin4 the birth of an in-arnate guru! .e?s of the pro$i4y tra9ele$ Jui-kly an$ a sear-h party ?as $is/ pat-he$ by 8ruk-hen Chokyi . To4ether they -on$u-te$ the -hil$ to 4min monastery% ?here they $etermine$ that the $etails of his birth mat-he$ exa-tly those set out in the pre9ious KarmapaKs letter of pre$i-tion.E.

He 4a9e linea4e tea-hin4s to Ham4on Kon4trul an$ Hamyan4 Khyentse 3an4po as ?ell as -ertain spe-ifi. Shortly before KarmapaKs $eath 2o$ro Thaye re-ei9e$ the transmission of the linea4e from him. Those in9ol9e$ in the mo9ement ?ere not just reli4ious s-holars an$ me$itators% but ?ere also talente$ artists% poets% $o-tors an$ e9en s-ientists% as ?as @ipham =inpo-he.tea-hin4s to the former. The4-ho4 8orje passe$ a?ay in #&)& at the a4e of se9enty. He re-o4ni>e$ an$ enthrone$ the tenth Situ% Pa$ma Kun>an4% at Palpun4 monastery.an$ poeti-s. 1- . . SubseJuently he institute$ the yearly performan-e of this ritual% alternatin4 ?ith the tsechu $an-e ritual of Pa$masambha9a% at Tsurphu. 8urin4 his stay there he 4a9e tea-hin4s to Kon4trul 2o$ro Thaye% the profoun$ =ime s-holar.He $e9ote$ mu-h of his time to poetry an$ ?as espe-ially skille$ in rhetori.n the #&)'s Karmapa tra9ele$ throu4hout Kham% ?orkin4 -ontinu/ ally for the the benefit of the people. 1lthou4h he ?as himself the embo$iment of -ompassion% The4-ho4 8orje $eman$e$ -omplete obser9an-e of the monasti. 8urin4 his lifetime there o--urre$ the 4reat Bu$$hist renais/ san-e in Tibet% $ue lar4ely to the =ime mo9ement. From the 4reat terton( Cho4yur 2in4pa% he re-ei9e$ the 4reat sadhana of Cajra/ kllaya.rules from those aroun$ him. . His #!. This mo9ement% ?hi-h ori4inate$ in Kham% ?as le$ by many tea-hers from the 9arious tra$itions su-h as Ham4on Kon4trul 2o$ro Thaye% Khyentse 3an4po an$ Terton Cho4yur 2in4pa.t ?as not an attempt to form a ne? s-hool or or4ani>ation% but rather it sou4ht to brin4 to4ether an$ make a9ailable the ri-hness of ea-h tra$ition to e9erybo$y. The4-ho4 8orje both influen-e$ an$ ?as himself influen-e$ by this tren$. The fourteenth Karmapa ?as reno?ne$ for his personal austerity an$ his stri-tness as a monk. 1fter his 4uru ha$ returne$ to Tsurphu% Kon4trul 2o$ro Thaye follo?e$ to -ontinue stu$yin4 ?ith him.

MTEE. .yin4-he an$ Hamyan4 Khyentse 3an4po. prin-ipal stu$ents ?ere Kon4trul 2o$ro Thaye% 8ruk-hen @ipham Cho/ kyi Gyatsho% 8e-hen Cho4yur 2in4pa% Pa?o Tsu4lak .ST =A F THE S.#!) THE H.

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E9en ?hen 9ery youn4 he ?as tau4ht basi.TH K1=@1P1% Khakhyab 8orje% ?as born in Shelkar in Tsan4 pro9in-e in the year of the . Khakhyab 8orje ?as an assi$uous stu$ent. THE F. He ?as offi-ially re-o4ni>e$ by Kon4trul 2o$ro Thaye% Hamyan4 Khyentse an$ 8ruk-hen @injur 3an4/ kyi Gyalpo an$ ?as -ro?ne$ in the E4ol$en throne -eremonyF at Tsurphu.#!& Karmapa Khakh a* Dor"e '18/1(19++* THE H. .7. 1t the a4e of six the -hil$ ?as re-o4ni>e$ as the ne? Karmapa in-arnation% in a--or$an-e ?ith the $etails -ontaine$ in the letter of pre$i-tion left by the fourteenth Karmapa.an$ astrolo4y. 1t the a4e of ei4ht he -onstru-te$ a @ahakala shrine an$ also -ompose$ a prayer to the dharmapala.FTEE.n #&&)% Khakhyab 8orje ?ent to see Kon4trul =inpo-he in Palpun4 monastery. He ?as also or$aine$ as a no9i-e by 8ruk-hen =inpo-he.mahayana dharma( lo4i.MTEE.ron Sheep 6#&"# C.n #&&# Karmapa an$ his entoura4e pai$ a 9isit to the thirteenth 8alai 2ama% Thubten Gyatsho an$ his -ourt. E. Khakhyab 8orje $isplaye$ remarkable intelli4en-e at a ten$er a4e an$ by the time he ?as four% he ?as -omposin4 prayers.! .yin4poKs terma 6Tib!+!gter!chos. The infant ?as marke$ by a tiny tuft of ?hite hair that 4re? bei ?een his eyebro?s% just as a similar tuft is sai$ to ha9e $istin4uishe$ the bo$y of the baby Sakyamuni. n his return to Tsurphu he be4an to stu$y ?ith the 9ery s-holarly abbot of Palpun4 monastery% Khan-hen Tashi >er% from ?hom he re-ei9e$ the textual transmission of the entire Tripitaka! He also stu$ie$ ?ith the ninth Pa?o =inpo-he% ?ho instru-te$ him in the six 9olumes of =i4$>in Hatson .ST =A F THE S. The a4e$ s-holar 4a9e Karmapa the empo?erments% textual .

. of the Sakya tra$ition from Khyentse =inpo-he. He also -onstru-te$ a ne? temple in 2hasa for the Efi9e sisters of lon4 lifeF 6Tib.4a4 Cholin4% 2hasa an$ Samye as ?ell as the pil4rima4e pla-e of Tsari ?here he $is-o9ere$ some termas an$ ?as prote-te$ by dakas an$ dakiriis! n his arri9al ba-k at Tsurphu% Khakhyab 8orje establishe$ a ne? seminary an$ repaire$ the main shrine.t #!+ 1.n #&+' Karmapa re-o4ni>e$ an$ enthrone$ the ele9enth Situ =in/ po-he% Pa$ma 3an4-huk Gyalpo. . He also re9isite$ San4 .transmissions an$ instru-tions of his o?n Five Treasures 6Tib. From Palpun4% Karmapa an$ his party tra9ele$ on to 8>on4sar% a 4reat Sakya monastery% ?here he re-ei9e$ tea-hin4s from Hamyan4 Khyentse =inpo-he. He re-o4ni>e$ the ne? 8ruk-hen in-arnation an$ 4a9e him the fi9e pre-epts.L tshe!ring!mched!lnga. 1t that time memories of his past li9es ?ere rea?ak/ ene$ in Khakhyab 8orje an$ he -ompose$ poetry -on-ernin4 the trainin4 of a bodhisattva! Some?hat later% Karmapa 9isite$ the famous hea$ of the 8rukpa Ka4yu monastery of San4 . 1fter his return to Palpun4% Kon4trul =inpo-he besto?e$ on him the tea-hin4s of the Shan4pa Ka4yu tra$ition. The -ontents of his stu$ies ran4e$ o9er Sanskrit% astrolo4y% me$i-ine% art% @a$hyamaka% "ra)naparamita( vinaya( abhidharma an$ the Five Dhar+ mas o# 1aitreya! SubseJuently% Karmapa re9isite$ 8>on4sar monastery% ?here he re-ei9e$ the empo?erments of the Collected Sadhanas 6Tib.t presents the major an$ minor tra$itions of reli4ious thou4ht an$ pra-ti-e from the =ime perspe-* ti9e an$ ha$ ha$ a profoun$ influen-e upon the subseJuent $e9elopment of dharma! Kon4trul =inpo-he also 4a9e Khakhyab 8orje the bodhisattva 9o?s an$ the empo?erments an$ tea-hin4 of Kala-akra. Throu4hout this perio$ Kha/ khyab 8orje stu$ie$ throu4hout the $ay an$ into the ni4ht.n #&&&% Khakhyab 8orje returne$ to stu$y ?ith Kon4trul =inpo-he.L sgrub! thab!kun! /dus.4a4 Cholin4.!6 . . .L md9od! This series -ontains o9er one hun$re$ 9olumes -ompile$% annotate$ an$ -ommente$ upon by Kon4trul 2o$ro Thaye.

MTEE.#(' THE H. .L rin!chen!g1] md9od. 1 little later% Karmapa returne$ to his 4uru% Kon4trul =inpo-he% at Palpun4 monastery an$ re-ei9e$ the empo?erments% tea-hin4s an$ textual transmissions of the 2ama Gon4$u -y-le. =eturnin4 to Tsurphu% Khakhyab 8orje $esi4ne$ ne? ornaments an$ -ostumes for the ritual $an-es of the dharmapala( Cajra Bla-k/Cloake$ ne.ST =A F THE S. He also -ommissione$ Kon4* trul =inpo-heKs sixty/three 9olume "recious Treasury 6Tib. an$ his o?n ?orks% the only -omplete -olle-tions of the ?orks o# Ka4yu s-holars to -ome out of Tibet. ?as $e$i-ate$ to the pea-e an$ happiness of Tibet an$ the rest of the ?orl$ at the reJuest of the 8alai 2ama.

Se9eral years earlier he ha$ entruste$ the $etails of his next in-arnation to Hampal Tsultim% his fa9orite atten$ant. Karmapa ?as extensi9ely honore$ an$ he 4a9e the kin4 instru-tions in dharma tea-hin4s. .n his fifty/first year% in #+!!% Karmapa Khakhyab 8orje passe$ a?ay. Khakhyab 8orjeKs prin-ipal stu$ents ?ere Situ Pa$ma 3an4-huk Gyalpo% Ham4on Kon4trul Khyentse >er% Palpun4 Khyentse Tulku% an$ Gyaltshap =inpo-he. n his return to Tibet% Khakhyab 8orje took se9eral -onsorts in fulfillment of his 4uruKs pre$i-tion. . He transmitte$ the Ka4yu linea4e to Situpa% Kon4trul =inpo-he an$ Palpun4 Khyentse =in/ po-he an$ then ?ent into retreat for ten years. Ten years earlier% in #+#!% he ha$ also insiste$ that the ne? year trumpets be blo?n to?ar$ the east instea$ of the south as ?as -ustomary. He instru-te$ them an$ Situ =inpo-he in Ka4yu dharma. 1 little later he re-o4ni>e$ the ne? in-arnations of Kon4trul =inpo-he% his o?n son% an$ Pa?o =inpo-he.K1=@1P1 KH1KHA1B 8 =HE 131 .n #&+& Khakhyab 8orje pai$ a brief 9isit to Bhutan on the in9itation of the kin4% 0r4yen 3an4-huk.

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K1=@1P1 KH1KHA1B 8 =HE 133 .

7. 3hen he ?as se9en years ol$ he re-ei9e$ the no9i-e or$ination from Situ =inpo-he an$ Ham4on Kon4trul of Palpun4. He ?as bom into an aristo-rati.yin4ma monastery of 8>ok Chen. 1 year later the va)ra -ro?n an$ the robes of the Karmapa ?ere brou4ht from Tsurphu to Kham for him. Before the -hil$Ks birth he $isappeare$ entirely from the ?omb for one ?hole $ay an$ then returne$ the next.family name$ 1thub.MTEE. 1 sear-h party ?as sent% an$ the -hil$ ?as spee$ily re-o4ni>e$ to be the sixteenth Karmapa in-arnation. 1-tin4 on his a$9i-e% the mother ha$ 4i9en birth in the nearby -a9e of Pa$masambha9a% -alle$ the 2ion Sky Castle.E. Situ =inpo-he then in9ite$ him to 9isit Palpun4 monastery. This pala-e% 8e4e 2hun$rup Ten4% ?hi-h ?as built by the fifteenth -entury . n the ?ay there% KarmapaKs party ?as met by the prin-e of 8e4e% Tse?an4 8u$ul% ?ho reJueste$ Karmapa to 9isit his pala-e.TH K1=@1P1% =an4jun4 =i4pe 8orje% ?as born at 8enkhok in the 8e4e re4ion of Kham near the ri9er Aan4tse% on the full moon $ay of the sixth month of the year of the 3oo$ @ouse 6#+!( C.#) Karmapa Rang"ung Rigpe Dor"e '19+)0* THE S. Shortly after?ar$s% Situ Pa$ma 3an4-huk Gyalpo opene$ the pre/ 9ious KarmapaKs letter of pre$i-tion an$ $is-o9ere$ therein a $etaile$ $es-ription of the house in ?hi-h =an4jun4 =i4pe 8oijeKs parents $?elt. The birth of a 4reat bodhisattva in the 1thub family ha$ been pre9iously pre$i-te$ by 8>ok Chen Tulku% Chokyi 8orje% hea$ of the famous .orbu an$ his motherKs Kal>an4 Cho$en. n the a-tual ni4ht of his birth% the atmosphere ?as -har4e$ ?ith portents% ?hi-h e9eryone in the lo-ality -oul$ sense.yin4ma saint% Than4ton4 Gyalpo% ?as near 8e4e Gon-hen% the main monastery 13 . His fatherQs name ?as Tse?an4 .

GPE 8 =HE #(. 1fter his return to Tsurphu% Karmapa ?as 4i9en a se-on$ E4ol$en throne -eremonyF by Situ =inpo-he an$ 8ruk-hen =inpo-he% @ipham Chokyi 3an4po% hea$ of the 8rukpa Ka4yu se-t. C.an4-hen. 1lon4 the ?ay% =an4jun4 =i4pe 8oije performe$ the va)ra -ro?n -ere/ mony for the first time in his lifetime at Gyina Gompa in . n his subseJuent arri9al at Tsurphu% Karmapa ?as ?el-ome$ by Palpun4 Kon4trul =inpo-he% Pa?o =inpo-he an$ Gyaltshap =inpo-he. . 3hile in 8e4e% =an4jun4 =i4pe 8orje 9isite$ an$ blesse$ the monasteryKs hu4e printin4 press. of the Sakya . 1 little later the party tra9ele$ on to Palpun4% ?here the youn4 Karmapa ?as 4i9en a 4reat ?el-ome. 1fter this auspi-ious e9ent% the party 9isite$ . Kan4kar =inpo-he ha$ memori>e$ the entire -ontents of the Tripitaka an$ numbere$ amon4 his stu$ents the profoun$ -ontemporary Sakya s-holar% 8e>hun4 =inpo-he% as ?ell as the eminent translator% Garma C.n #+(" =an4jun4 =i4pe 8orje an$ his entoura4e set out on a journey to 8e4e in Kham% to 9isit Situ =inpo-he.ron Sheep year% =an4jun4 =i4pe 8oije an$ Situ =inpo-he% a--ompanie$ by a monasti-amp of a thousan$ people -alle$ Karmapa garchen% set out for Tsurphu. Four $ays later he ?as enthrone$ by Situ =inpo-he in the main shrine of the monastery.GH0. 1fter a short perio$ of time =an4jun4 =i4pe 8oije 9isite$ the thir/ teenth 8alai 2ama in 2hasa% from ?hom he re-ei9e$ the Ehair -uttin4F -eremony. For the next four years =an4jun4 =i4pe 8orje stu$ie$ ?ith Bern Khyentse =inpo-he an$ Bo Kan4kar @ahapan$ita% ?ho ?as a--laime$ as the last 4reat Kamtshan4 Ka4yu s-holar of the time.4orpa linea4e. 3hile stu$yin4 ?ith Kan4kar =inpo-he% Karmapa relate$ the stories of his pre/ 9ious li9es to his 4uru.yen-hen Than4lha% an en9iron/ ment symboli-ally $e$i-ate$ to the ener4y of the Karma Ka4yu tra$ition. 8urin4 this -eremony% the 8alai 2ama% Thubten Gyatsho% per-ei9e$ the va)ra -ro?n% ?o9en from the hair of one hun$re$ thousan$ dakiriis( abo9e the hea$ of =an4jun4 =i4pe 8orje.G =.K1=@1P1 =1. Chan4. n the journey many hi4hly . n the t?enty/thir$ $ay of the fourth month of the .

1 little later Karmapa 9isite$ the monastery of the nineteenth -entury master% Cho4yur 2in4pa% the last 4reat terton! There 2ama Samten Gya/ tsho reJueste$ Karmapa to brin4 an en$ to the $rou4ht that ?as affli-tin4 the monastery.n a$$ition% he sa? Karmapa in the form of 8usum Khyenpa.an4-henKs pala-e an$ Tse-hu Gompa% the 8rukpa Ka4yu monastery un$er the patrona4e of the kin4. SubseJuently% Situpa instru-te$ his stu$ent in Kon4trul 2o$ro ThayeKs profoun$ ?orks% the %agyu Ngagd9od( ?hi-h -ontains the a$9an-e$ tantric tea-hin4s of @arpa 2otsa?a% an$ the Dam Ngagd9od( -ontainin4 the a$9an-e$ tea-hin4s of the ei4ht ori4inal Tibetan Bu$$hist se-ts. 1s he bathe$ it starte$ to rain an$ a sprin4 -ame up un$er the ?ashtub.n the area of 8ron4 Tup there is a small lake in ?hi-h it is sai$ that =an4jun4 =i4pe 8orje left footprints in the ?ater% ?hi-h may be seen by anyone% e9en in ?inter ?hen the lake is fro>en. Karmapa ?as in9ite$ to 9isit the kin4 of . 3hile outsi$e the temple% =i4pe 8oijeKs $o4 an$ horse also left -lear footprints in the ro-k. .n response% =an4jun4 =i4pe 8orje aske$ for some ?ater in ?hi-h to ?ash himself. 1t the 8>on4sar monastery of Khyentse Chokyi 2o$ro% the 4reat =ime s-holar% =i4pe 8orje performe$ the va)ra -ro?n -eremony. . 1fter a short me$itation retreat% Karmapa an$ Situ =inpo-he re-ei9e$ an in9itation to 9isit China from General Chan4 Kai Shek.ST =A F THE S.#() THE H. symboli.e9ents took pla-e ?hi-h -on9eye$ the inspiration of KarmapaKs ener4y. 3hen Karmapa finally arri9e$ at Palpun4 monastery he ?as ?el/ -ome$ by Situ =inpo-he. Ho?e9er% Karmapa $i$ not a--ept the in9itation personally% -hoosin4 instea$ to sen$ Bern Khyentse =inpo-he as his representati9e. 1t =i?a Parma monastery as Karmapa performe$ the rituals of the ?rathful Pa$masambha9a festi9al% fire flame$ from the tormas 6Eofferin4 -akesF7. . n a 9isit to Pan4phu4 monastery% Karmapa an$ Situ =inpo-he left their footprints in stone. n his return to Palpun4% =i4pe .MTEE.an4/ -hen housin4 nine hun$re$ nuns% the lar4est -on9ent in Tibet. Khyentse =inpo-he en9isa4e$ the spiritual form of the va)ra -ro?n floatin4 about ei4hteen in-hes abo9e KarmapaKs hea$. He also 9isite$ Kay-ha Gompa% a 8rukpa Ka4yu -on9ent in .

=i4pe 8orje then tra9ele$ to 2umbin.n the ninth month of the year of the . =i4pe 8oije then tra9ele$ to =e?alsar 6Tib.n$ia an$ Sikkim.n #+<< he ?ent on a pil4rima4e% first to Samye monastery an$ then on to 2ho$rak% the home of @arpa 2otsa?a. . 1fter a journey lastin4 ele9en months% =i4pe 8orje an$ his entoura4e rea-he$ Tsurphu.n the follo?in4 year the a4e$ Situ =inpo-he tra9ele$ to Tsurphu to 4i9e further tea-hin4s to his spiritual son.n .% the birthpla-e of Sakamuni Bu$$ha. . . The t?enty/t?o year ol$ =i4pe 8orje re-ei9e$ full or$ination as a monk from Situpa.G =.n a$$ition% his 4uru instru-te$ him in the .ron 8ra4on 6#+<'7% Karmapa be4an the journey ba-k to Tsurphu. For the next three years% Karmapa entere$ into intensi9e pra-ti-e% ?hile ne? -onstru-tion ?ork ?as -arrie$ out on the monastery.epal he performe$ the va)ra -ro?n -eremony an$ 4a9e his blessin4s to the people. 1t the in9itation of the mahara)a of Sikkim% Tashi . He also 9isite$ Caranasi% the site of SakyamuniKs first sermon an$ Bo$h4aya% the pla-e of his enli4htenment. That same year =i4pe 8orje ?as in9ite$ to 9isit Bhutan at the reJuest of the se-on$ kin4% Hi4me 3an4-huk. .n$ia% ?hi-h is sa-re$ to Pa$masambha9a.yachen %ad9od-olle-tion of Kon4trul 2o$ro Thaye an$ the Chigshe %undrol! From 0r4en =inpo-he% Karmapa re-ei9e$ the -omplete empo?erments an$ textual transmissions of Terton Cho4yur 2in4paKs tea-hin4.L 9hing!skyong!7 ?as seate$ be4an to nei4h.GH0. .L sgrub!thabs!kun!btus7. . 8urin4 his stay he performe$ the va)ra -ro?n -eremony se9eral times an$ 4a9e many empo?erments. @any ?hite snakes appeare$ on the surfa-e of the lake there an$ this ?as re4ar$e$ as a 9ery auspi-ious e9ent. n the ?ay% he 9isite$ Ben-hen monastery% ?here% on his arri9al% a statue of the horse on ?hi-h the dharmapala Shin4-hon4 6Tib.K1=@1P1 =1.L mtsho!pad!ma.am4yal% Karmapa 9isite$ Gan4tok% ?here he performe$ the bla-k -ro?n -eremony an$ 4a9e empo?erments. .GPE 8 =HE #(" 8orje re-ei9e$ the empo?erments% textual transmissions an$ instru-tions of the -olle-te$ spiritual pra-ti-es of the Sakya tra$ition 6Tib.n the fourth month of the year of the Fire Pi4 6#+<"7 Karmapa journeye$ to ?estern Tibet an$ from there on to . in .

's Karmapa -arrie$ on his tea-hin4 an$ a$ministrati9e $uties both in Tsurphu an$ in other parts of the -ountry. 8urin4 this perio$ an outbreak of smallpox rea-he$ epi$emi.#(& THE H. .ST =A F THE S. . 8urin4 the lon4 journey ba-k to Tsurphu he passe$ throu4h the area of @ount Kailasa an$ 2ake @anasaro?ar.n the early years of the #+.MTEE.< the Chinese authorities in Pekin4 in9ite$ His Holiness the fourteenth 8alai 2ama% an$ the hea$s of the other Tibetan reli4ious tra$itions% to4ether ?ith other $i4nitaries% to 9isit Pekin4 an$ other parts of China.(% =i4pe 8orje 4a9e the empo?erments an$ textual transmissions of 8e-hen Cho4yur 2in4paKs terma tea-hin4 to @in$rol 2in4 Chon4 =in/ po-he% ?ho as hea$ of the @in$rol 2in4 monastery ?as in effe-t the senior lama of the . He also tra9ele$ extensi9ely throu4hout Kham as the personal ambassa$or of the 8alai 2ama in an attempt to restore -alm to an in-reasin4ly ?orrie$ popula-e.aropa.yin4ma tra$ition. Kon4trul =inpo-he 4a9e him the Rinchen Terd9od( an$% in a$$ition% instru-tions in mahdmudra an$ the six yogas of . He ?as able to sen$ a letter to Palpun4 $es-ribin4 the ?hereabouts of the Situ in-arnation. =i4pe 8orje in9ite$ Ham4on Kon4trul of Palpun4 to -ome to Tsurphu an$ 4i9e him further tea-hin4s.n #+. Finally Karmapa an$ his party arri9e$ ba-k in Tsurphu in the ele9enth month of the year of the Earth =at 6#+<&7. . To -elebrate KarmapaKs mastery of mahdmudra( Palpun4 Kon4trul -ompose$ a poem in ?hi-h he praise$ him as bein4 a perfe-t hol$er of the mahdmudra linea4e. His Holiness Karmapa a--epte$ the in9itation an$% to4ether ?ith the rest of the party% tra9ele$ to Pekin4. 3hile there% Karmapa re-ei9e$ a 9isionary intimation from @ahakala in$i-atin4 the -ir-umstan-es of the rebirth of Situ =inpo-he. @any Ka4yu lamas an$ stu$ents -ame to Karmapa ?hile he tra9ele$% to re-ei9e empo?erments an$ or$inations. 1t the -ompletion of his stu$ies% =i4pe 8orje re-ei9e$ the textual transmission of the linea4e from Kon4trul =inpo-he an$ Situ =inpo-he. n the return journey% Karmapa formally enthrone$ the ne? Situpa at Palpun4.n #+. .proportions but ?as brou4ht un$er -ontrol as a result of a CajrakHaya exor-ism performe$ by Karmapa.

GPE 8 =HE #(+ Follo?in4 his return to Tsurphu% Karmapa super9ise$ the -onstru-/ tion of a resi$en-e for His Holiness the 8alai 2ama% ?hom he in9ite$ to 9isit. 1t this . 8urin4 the 9isit =i4pe 8orje sho?e$ the 8alai 2ama the ?ealth of reli-s -olle-te$ at Tsurphu an$ a ritual Pa$ma/ sambha9a $an-e ?as hel$ in his honor.n$ia an$ the fame$ 1janta -a9es% ?hi-h -ontain Bu$$hist -ar9in4s ma$e $urin4 the Gupta $ynasti. Karmapa 9isite$ Cham$o% ?here he trie$ to brin4 about pea-e bet?een the Khampas an$ the Chinese for-es.% serious hostilities broke out in the 8e4e an$ .n return the 8alai 2ama aske$ Karmapa to perform the -eremony of the va)ra -ro?n. so Karmapa an$ his party exten$e$ their journey into .n$ia an$ .n the same year% #+.an4-hen $istri-ts of Kham.) ?as -elebrate$ ?orl$?i$e as the t?enty/fi9e hun$re$th anni9ersary of 2or$ Bu$$haKs parinirvana. . The 8alai 2ama an$ his entoura4e ?ere 4reete$ ?ith 4reat festi9ities an$ he ?as reJueste$ to 4i9e the empo?erment of the one thousan$ arme$ 19alokites9ara.G =.) His Holiness 9isite$ 8ruk 8e-hen Chokhor 2in4% the prin-i/ pal 8rukpa Ka4yu monastery. The year #+. Both si$es promise$ to keep a fi9e year tru-e.perio$.n Kalimpon4% Karmapa roet ?ith Her =oyal Hi4hness 1>hi 3an4mo% the Bhutanese prin-ess% ?ho un$ertook to buil$ a monastery for His Holiness in eastern Bhutan. .epal% ?here they 9isite$ all the sa-re$ pla-es of pil4rima4e. . From there he tra9ele$ on to Sikkim% ?here he a4ain met the kin4% Tashi . He 4a9e tea-hin4s an$ also performe$ a purifi-ation rite.am4yal.n #+.K1=@1P1 =1.epal% =i4pe 8orje returne$ to ..GH0. From . .

#<' THE H. 3ith Karmapa ?ere the thirteenth Shamar =inpo-he% the t?elfth Gyaltshap =inpo-he% the me$itation master% 8rupon Ten>in =inpo-he% 8abtrul =io* po-he% Khan$ro Chenmo% the saintly fourth -onsort of Karmapa Khak* hyab 8orje% an$ others in-lu$in4 His HolinessKs 4eneral se-retary% 8oije 2opon Top4a =inpo-he an$ the author. =eali>in4 that he must lea9e Tibet no?% in or$er to help preser9e buddhadharma( =i4pe 8orje informe$ the 8alai 2ama of his plans. Ho?e9er he $e-line$ the in9itation% sayin4 that he ?oul$ be -omin4 to it in the future% ?hen he ha$ nee$ of it. time% =i4pe 8orje ?as aske$ to 9isit =umtek monastery in Sikkim% ?hi-h ha$ been establishe$ $urin4 the lifetime of the ninth Karmapa. The hostilities bet?een the Chinese Communist army an$ the Kham* pa resistan-e ?ere no? ra4in4 throu4hout Tibet. Kar/ mapa sent Situ =inpo-he% San4ye . ."% serious hostilities ha$ broken out a4ain in Kham. .nexorably% the -onfli-t sprea$ from Kham into -entral Tibet. The youn4 Palpun4 Ham/ 4on Kon4trul ?as sent to Kalimpon4 in . The party in-lu$e$ in-arnate lamas( monks an$ lay people. From Se-hen Kon4trul% Karmapa himself re-ei9e$ the textual transmissions an$ tea-h/ in4s of the 2ongchen D9odun( the profoun$ se9en 9olume ?ork of 2on4/ -henpa% ?hi-h $eals ?ith maha ati! . Ho?e9er% Karmapa himself $e-i$e$ not to lea9e at that time% sayin4 that he ?oul$ -ome to Bhutan if the situation $eterioriate$.n$ia to stay ?ith his family% ?ealthy mer-hants% the San$u. 1 stream of refu4ees ?as pourin4 into -entral Tibet. 1mon4 these refu4ees ?ere many Ka4yu lamas su-h as the ninth San4ye . 8urin4 this time Karma* pa re-o4ni>e$ the t?elfth Gyaltshap in-arnation the ne? Palpun4 Kon4trul =inpo-he% an$ Bon4sar Khyentse% =inpo-he.yenpa =inpo-he an$ the 9enerable me$itation master% Kalu =inpo-he% to Bhutan. From all appearan-es the an-ient Bu$$hist -ulture of Tibet ?as about to be extin4uishe$ like the li4ht of a lamp.t ?as his intention to stay behin$ in Tsurphu until the last possible moment in or$er to ren$er assistan-e to the refu4ees. SubseJuently% in the mi$$le of the fourth ni4ht of the se-on$ month of the year of the Earth Pi4 6#+S+7% Karmapa% $resse$ in lay -lothin4% to4ether ?ith a party of one hun$re$ an$ sixty people% left Tsurphu% -arryin4 some pre-ious reli-s an$ shrine implements that ?ere li4ht in ?ei4ht.yenpa =inpo-he% Situ =inpo-he% Talep =inpo-he an$ their follo?ers ?ho -ame to Tsurphu.MTEE. 3hen =an4jun4 =i4pe 8orje returne$ to Tsurphu early in #+.ST =A F THE S.

GPE 8 =HE #<# The partyKs es-ape route lay o9er the Himalayas into Bhutan.n fa-t% the military for-es ha$ been in -lose pursuit of the refu4ees% an$ ha$ they not $one as Karmapa $ire-te$ they ?oul$ ha9e been -apture$. ft. Ha9in4 9isite$ Kin4 Hi4me 8or4e 3an4/ -huk in Thimphu% the Bhutanese -apital% Karmapa $e-i$e$ to mo9e on into .+7 he an$ his party ?ent to Gan4tok% the Sikkimese -apital. Ho?e9er% as the ninth Karmapa% 3an4-huk 8orje ha$ -ommissione$ the buil$in4 of =um/ tek monastery% he% the sixteenth Karmapa% ?oul$ like to establish his seat/in/exile there. He replie$ that as Tibetan refu4ees they hope$ one $ay to be able to return to Tibet. That ?inter 6#+. 1t Baxa% on the bor$er of Bhutan an$ . Follo?in4 his arri9al at =umtek% Karmapa -eremonially enthrone$ Palpun4 Kon4trul =inpo-he an$ besto?e$ many empo?erments upon him.K1=@1P1 =1.n$ia.+/)'7% =i4pe 8orje 9isite$ .7% ?hi-h marks the Tibet/Bhutan bor$er% Karmapa ur4e$ e9eryone on% sayin4 that they must -ross the pass that same $ay.GH0. T?enty/one $ays after lea9in4 Tsurphu% Karmapa an$ his party ar/ ri9e$ in the Bumthan4 $istri-t of Bhutan% the lan$ sai$ to bear the foot/ prints of one hun$re$ thousan$ dakinls! He ?as 4i9en a 9ery ?arm ?el/ -ome by the Bhutanese prin-ess an$ nun% 1>hi 3an4mo% an$ others.. . Ho?/ e9er% the foo$ supply ?as only suffi-ient for t?o ?eeks. Karmapa $e-i$e$ to a--ept the in9itation% an$ on the t?enty/fifth $ay of the fourth month of the year of the Earth Pi4 6#+. KarmapaKs party passe$ throu4h southern Tibet an$ the lo-al people 4a9e mu-h assistan-e to the refu4ees. Therefore% their resi$en-e ?oul$ in one sense be only temporary. The party expen$e$ their last ener4y in -rossin4 o9er into Bhutan% assiste$ by 4ui$es from the lo-al people.n$ia% His Holiness met ?ith the Sikkimese Prime @inister% Banya Sahib Tashi 8a$ul% ?ho -on9eye$ the mahara)a8s in9itation to Karmapa to resi$e in Sikkim.n$ia% ?here he first met . Fleetin4 9isits ?ere pai$ alon4 the ?ay to @arpa 2otsa?aKs house in 2ho$rak an$ also to a @ilarepa shrine% the famous nine story to?er built at @arpa 2otsa?aKs $ire-tion% ?here His Holiness 4a9e the @ilarepa initiation an$ performe$ the sadhana! 1s the 4roup rea-he$ the last sno? pass% @on 2a Gar Chun4 6ele9a/ tion #+%&.G =. Kalu =inpo-he% to4ether ?ith his monks% -ame to 9isit Karmapa in Tashi Cho$>on4% as $i$ Situ =inpo-he. Karmapa ?as ?armly ?el-ome$ by the royal family an$ the people% an$ ?as aske$ ?here he ?oul$ like to settle. 8urin4 the follo?in4 ni4ht there ?as a 4reat sno?/ fall% ?hi-h blo-ke$ all the passes for t?o or three $ays.

This has been a -on-ise a--ount of the li9es of the sixteen Karmapas. 8urin4 this perio$ His Holiness re-o4ni>e$ the ne? 8ruk-hen =in/ po-he% 8rukpa Aon4$>in =inpo-he% 8>i4ar Choktor =inpo-he% the t?o ne? San4ye . . The KarmapaKs unborn nature% kno?in4 past% present an$ future% perfe-tly reali>in4 the tea-hin4s of dharma% an$ effortlessly ra$iatin4 the liberatin4 po?er of -ompassion% -ompletely trans-en$s the net?ork of -on-epts. The site -hosen ha$ many auspi-ious si4nsL se9en hills fa-in4% se9en streams flo?in4 to?ar$ it% a mountain behin$ it% sno? mountains in front of it% an$ a ri9er belo?% t?irlin4 in the shape of a -on-h shell.n the summer Karmapa 4a9e many empo?erments to lar4e numbers of people ?ho flo-ke$ to see him. Ho?e9er% in the final analysis all re-or$s are limite$.G =. The 4reat enthusiasm for the ?ork amon4 KarmapaKs follo?ers meant that the -onstru-tion ?as a--om/ plishe$ in four years.n$ian 4o9ernments to ai$ in the -onstru-tion of a ne? monastery% situate$ on se9enty a-res of lan$ near the ol$ =umtek monastery. 0p to the present time His Holiness Karmapa has or$aine$ more than (%''' monks an$ re-o4ni>e$ hun$re$s of tulkus. . . For more $etaile$ a--ounts one shoul$ -onsult the ori4inal re-or$s an$ bio4raphies.GPE 8 =HE His Holiness the 8alai 2ama in Benares an$ later Pan$it . He has -ause$ to be publishe$ a ne? printin4 of the 8e4e %an)ur% the basi.#<! K1=@1P1 =1.ehru% the then prime minister% ?ho ?as 9ery sympatheti. His Holiness has ma$e t?o exten$e$ trips aroun$ the ?orl$. Se9eral of his o?n Karma Ka4yu lamas ha9e establishe$ dharma -enters in the 3est% an$ His Holi/ ness has toure$ them an$ 4i9en tea-hin4s.GH0. 2ar4e sums of money ?ere $onate$ to Karmapa from the Sikkimese an$ .both to Bu$$hism an$ the pli4ht of the Tibetan refu4ees.n a 4esture of inter$enominational -ooperation an$ fello?ship% he has $istribute$ #"' sets to institutions of all four se-ts of Tibetan Bu$$hism an$ to representati9es of the Bonpo faith.en-y-lope$ia of Bu$$haKs tea-hin4.yenpa tulkus 6one of ?hom ?as bom in 1meri-a7% Surman4 Gar?an4 =inpo-he% 8ron4ram Hatrul% the ne? 8>ok Chen Ponlob in-ar/ nation an$ 8rupon tulku Cho4yur 2in4pa.

e? AorkL Harper H =o?% #+)<7% p.% in &uddhist Te3ts through the ges( e$. 1t the en$ of the text there is a 4lossary -ontainin4 trans-riptions of Tibetan personal an$ pla-e names..For further $etail see "olitical 0istory o# Tibet by Shakabpa% %armapa* The &lack 0at 2ama o# Tibet by . !.uni9ersity% he subseJuently be-ame a tantric yogin. !. 1t this le9el% the ?hole phenomenal ?orl$ arises as the mahdmudra! .Cirupa ?as one of the most a--omplishe$ an$ influential of the ei4hty/four Bu$$hist mahasiddhas of me$ie9al ... E$?ar$ Con>e 6.8 THE =ET. .ik 8ou4las an$ @eryl 3hite% an$ the 0istory o# the %arma %agyupa Sect by Situ Pan-hen an$ Belo Tse?an4 Kun-hab. @any referen-es in the text may therefore be -larifie$ by referrin4 to the intro$u-tion.E8ream yoga.P1 #. is the fourth an$ final sta4e of mahdmudra me$itation ?herein the yogin trans-en$s the notions of me$itation an$ attainment. .ST =.aropa. an$ to a lesser extent ?ith that of the lay -ommunity of dharma follo?ers.n or$er to keep this se-tion brief% ?e ha9e en$ea9ore$ to -o9er the main points an$ $etails of Ka4yu tea-hin4 in the se-tion% The Histori-al an$ Theoreti-al Ba-k4roun$..3or$s from the Tibetan an$ Sanskrit o--ur throu4hout the text. enun-iate$ by Sakyamuni Bu$$ha.8a9i$ Snell4ro9e% trans. THE H.. (.=u$yar$ Kiplin4% EThe Balla$ of East an$ 3estF 6#&&+7% The Collected 5orks o# Rudyard %ipling 61@S Press% #+<#7..C12 1. <. CH1PTE= #.t is -on-erne$ ?ith the $is-ipline of the monasti.Ainaya is the thir$ of the three baskets -Tripitaka.% pa4e <")% translate$ by Geor4e =oeri-h. 80S0@ KHAE. 3here9er they ha9e not been translate$ into En4lish% they appear in an an4li-i>e$ spellin4. . ri4inally a monk an$ s-holar at CikramasTla% the famous monasti. #<( .G an$ ETib.EBeyon$ me$itationF 6Tib.n$ia. @any of the in-i$ents relate$ in the li9es of the first six Karmapas are also allu$e$ to in the &lue nnals% Book C.C12 B1CKG= 0.See the &lue nnals of *Gos 2otsa?a% Book C.L bsgom!med. !. !((.T= 80CT.F respe-ti9ely% ?hi-h in$i-ate their exa-t spellin4 in the ori4inal lan4ua4es.% ?hi-h -ontains an a--ount of the li9es of these Karmapas an$ the early Ka4yu tra$ition. 8ream yoga is also one of the six $o-trines of .-ommunity -sahgha. Certain $ream yoga pra-ti-es are asso-iate$ ?ith 9arious $eities su-h as 1mitabha an$ Tara. @any of these Sanskrit an$ Tibetan ?or$s are follo?e$ by trans-riptions% ?ithin parentheses an$ pre-e$e$ by ESkt.#OT S . is a parti-ular aspe-t of anuttara tantra yoga in ?hi-h the pra-titioner exten$s me$itati9e a?areness throu4h the un$erstan$in4 an$ trans/ formation of $reams.8 #. 0n$er the inspiration of Cajra$hara he elaborate$ the Epath an$ fruit*Q $o-trine% ?hi-h ?as later transmitte$ in Tibet ?ithin the Sakya tra$ition. #.

the Dharmadharmatdvibhanga an$ the 1adhyantavibhangd2! They ?ere -ompose$ by the thir$Pfourth -entury master 1sari4a% un$er the inspiration 6Tib. The $ates of his birth an$ $eath are ##!)/#!!.ST =A F THE S. bhidharma or Efurther dharmaF spe-ifi-ally $eals ?ith the enumeration an$ analysis of psy-holo4i-al states. of basi. of @aitreya.L shin!r)e. The forty/t?o pea-eful $eities embo$y the sunyata 6EemptinessF7 of bu$$hahoo$ an$ the ?rathful $eities embo$y the prabhasvara 6EluminosityF7 of bu$$hahoo$. is an important $eity in both the Eol$F an$ Ene?F tantric tra$itions.n$rabhuti. =. &.or$ination line.EThe pea-eful an$ ?rathful $eitiesF -omprise the ati mandala of the a?akene$ state.7 ?as an immensely learne$ Kashmiri pandita ?ho ?as in9ite$ to Tibet to establish a firm monasti. "./#!!.L bka:gyur. He ?as fame$ for his ma4i-al po?ers an$ is parti-ularly asso-iate$ ?ith the Cakrasam9ara -y-le. .n$rabhuti ?as an ei4hth -entury tantric yogin fame$ as one of the ei4hty/ four mahdsiddhas! He rei4ne$ as Kin4 of 0$$iyana in the north?est of . .19alokites9ara is the bodhisattva embo$iment of the -ompassion of bu$/ $hahoo$% an$ the spiritual EsonF of Bu$$ha 1mitabha% to ?hose padma 6ElotusF7 EfamilyF he belon4s.MTEE.n parti-ular% the abhidharma analysis is $e9elope$ to4ether ?ith the hinayana me$itati9e $is-ipline of tranJuillity an$ insi4ht.#<< THE H. C.Prin-ess 2aksmlnkara ?as a 9ery a--omplishe$ yoginl an$ sister of Kin4 . #.e? AorkL 1n-hor PressP8ouble$ay% #+")7. . The %an)ur -ontains the -omplete sutra an$ tantra tea-hin4s of Bu$$ha% ?hile the Tan)ur -ontains the authoritati9e -ommentaries by the foremost Bu$$hist masters of . bhidharma is the se-on$ of the three baskets of dharma enun-iate$ by the Bu$$ha.The Five Te3ts o# 1aitreya -omprises the 1ahayanasutrdlamkdra( the <ttaratantra% the bhisamayalamkara.The ten 9irtues 6Tib. CH1PTE= (. .The sadahga yoga is a series of anuttara tantra yoga pra-ti-es $eri9e$ from the Kala-akra -y-le. CH1PTE= !.G 8 =HE #. She -ompose$ the tantric text% 7ndnasiddhi! See 8r. ". !. !.n relation to spee-h the 9irtues are bein4 truthful% 4entle% -on-iliatory an$ meanin4ful.Aamantaka 6Tib. He be-ame the prin-ipal 4uru of Sakya Pan$ita Kun4a Gyaltsen throu4h ?hom his influen-e sprea$. This -y-le is in-lu$e$ in Ham4on Kon4trurs %agyu Ngagd9od. .Sakyasri 6##<. ).GH0.n$ia an$ be-ame the a$opti9e father of Pa$masambha9a. .L bstan!/gyur. The -lear an$ penetratin4 ?is$om of Aamantaka is the slayer of $eath. =ayQs bio/ 4raphi-al arti-le in 2oka F* 7ournal#rom Naropa Institute 6. (.E.n relation to the bo$y the 9irtues are non/9iolen-e% not stealin4 an$ sexual morality. =1. +..Cajra4hanta ?as one of the ei4hty/four mahdsiddhas. <. an$ Tan)ur 6Tib.n relation to min$ they are non-o9etousness% nona44ression an$ -orre-tness of 9ie?.The %an)ur 6Tib.L byin!rlabs. He is asso-iate$ ?ith the anuttara tantra tra$ition. K1=@1 P1KSH. ).morality for both lay an$ or$aine$ Bu$$hists -omprise three se-tions pertainin4 to bo$y% spee-h an$ min$. The %an)ur an$ Tan)ur ?ere -olle-te$ by the 4reat Bu$$hist s-holar% Buton =in-hen$rup 6#!+'/#()<7.The Samputika is a -ommentary on the Sri+sampa anuttara tantra -ompose$ in the me$ie9al perio$..n$ia.L dge!ba!bcu!ba. -omprise the -anon of Tibetan @ahayana Bu$$hism.

. .Sambhala is the mysti. . #. His o?n stu$ents ?ere like?ise numerous.t has no? -ease$ to exist as an in$epen$ent linea4e.L klesa.L nigu! chos! drug. CH1PTE= ". . CH1PTE= .t $estroys the fi9e snakes of the $efilements. TES #<.i4uma ha9in4 been . . SHEGP1 #.Kun-hen =on4tonpa 6#()"/#<<+7 ?as a 9ery eminent Sakyapa master.4ok Cho$or an$ @eton Tsonpo ?ere t?o of the Efour pillars%F or prin-ipal $is-iples of @arpa. (.uh / yasama)a an$ 0eva)ra! The six $o-trines of ..yin4ma linea4e. 8ESH.. into its un$erlyin4 ?is$om. !. &.EThe Prayer of Samantabha$raF is a 9ery important Eoral tra$itionF prayer of the .G31 8 .4or-hen Kun4a San4po% ?ho foun$e$ the .4or subse-t of the Sakya tra$ition.The trans-en$ent nature of bu$$hahoo$ is refle-te$ in fi9e aspe-ts or bu$$ha EfamiliesF 6Skt.n$ian tantric yogin( ?ho hel$ the linea4e of the path an$ fruit tea-hin4 ?hi-h he re-ei9e$ from his guru Cirupa. He transmitte$ many tea-hin4 in the form of son4s. .alan$a in Phen/ yul.i4uma 6Tib. CH 8=1G GA1TSH . rhat is the term for sainthoo$ ?ithin the hinayana path. = 2PE 8 =HE #. .Aa4$e or Aa4$e Pan-hen 6Tib. CH1PTE= <. 6#!++/#("&7 ?as a master of both sutra an$ tantra% learne$ in the tea-hin4s of the major dharma tra$itions in Tibet at that time. The $o-trines arc yogas of the inner heat% $ream% luminosity% transferen-e% illusory bo$y an$ bardo! !.L gyag!sde!pan!chen.8ombhi Heruka ?as an important .The garuda is the -elestial ha?k of .t is hel$ to be situate$ to the north of Tibet.y ea-h of ?hi-h effe-ts the transformation of a $efilement 6Skt. +.The Duk Ngal Shi)ay $o-trine 6EPa-ifi-ation of Sufferin4F7 ?as elaborate$ by Pha$ampa San4ye. -orrespon$ to the six $o-trines of .L kula.t -ontains essential instru-tions for transferen-e to the -omplete a?areness of Samantabha$ra% the primor$ial bu$$ha. (. =on4ton Sheja Kunri4 -ompose$ many important philosophi-al treatises on the "ra)naparamita! He foun$e$ the monastery of .t symboli>es the bu$$ha/nature.. ..n$ian mytholo4y% ?hi-h hat-hes from its e44 fully $e9elope$. Tra$itionally it is hel$ that the $ispensation of Sakyamuni Bu$$ha is prote-te$ by sixteen arhat $is-iples.aropa% ..8E.aropaKs -onsort. He stu$ie$ un$er .n Tibetan the ?or$ is translate$ 8ra-hompa 6Tib.1 stupa is a -on-rete representation of the bo$y% spee-h an$ min$ of the Bu$$ha% 9enerate$ as a repository of reli-s an$ blessin4s.L dgra!bcom!pa: Ehe ?ho has slain the foeF of the $efilements. <. CH1PTE= ). Kin4 Su-an$ra of Sambhala re-ei9e$ the Kala-akra tea-hin4 from Bu$$ha an$ entruste$ it to his su--essors.The fi9e tantras are Cakrasamvara( 1ahamaya( Aa)rabhairava( . His prin-ipal stu$ent ?as Gorampa Sonam Sen4e.4ok Choku 8oije ?as the most talente$ s-holar amon4 @arpaKs stu$ents an$ re-ei9e$ the transmision of tantric -ommentarial tea-hin4 from his guru! @eton Tsonpo parti-ularly spe-iali>e$ in the tea-hin4 of He9ajra. He is sai$ to ha9e stu$ie$ ?ith one hun$re$ an$ ei4ht tea-hers. TH . Ea-h family has a bu$$ha an$ his -ourt of male an$ female bodhisattvas! !.kin4$om ?here the hol$ers of the Kala-akra $o-trine $?ell.

are -on-eale$ in the 9ast expanse of a?areness% an$ $is-o9ere$ in me$itation by 9isionaries.! EThou4ht termasF 6Tib.GCH0K 8 =HE #.yin4po% an emanation of Guru Pa$masambha9a. 2ay or$ination -onsists of takin4 refu4e in the three je?els an$ -ommittin4 oneself to the fi9e basi. CH1PTE= &.. For $etails -onsult the 0istory o# the %arma %agyupa Sect by Situ Pan-hen an$ Belo Tse?an4 Kun-hab. !.The four a-ti9ities 6Tib. AESHE 8 =HE #.KA 8 =HE #.pre-epts of the lay follo?ersL non9iolen-e% not takin4 ?hat is not 4i9en% sexual morality% no false or harmful spee-h an$ no intoxi-ation% plus three spe-ial pre-eptsL a9oi$in4 soft an$ luxurious be$s% eatin4 at improper times an$ je?elry% sin4in4 an$ $an-in4.! CH1PTE= #(.ST =A F THE S.L dkon!mchog!spyi!/dus.G 8 =HE #. (. Gyal?a Choyan4 ?as a minister at the -ourt of Kin4 Trison4 8etsun.L gter!ston.The four dharmas of Gampopa ?ere -ommuni-ate$ as the essen-e of the spiritual path by Gampopa. is a famous terma -y-le $is-o9ere$ by the sixteenth -entury master =i4$>in Hatson . CH1PTE= ##. This mantra is the essen-e of the Eperfe-tion of ?is$omF tea-hin4% an$ is referre$ to in the 0eart Sutra as the pa-ifier of sufferin4s. CH1PTE= +. This -y-le has -ontinue$ to exert a 4reat influen-e on both the . @.Kon-ho4 Chi$u 6Tib. . CH A.MTEE.L sa!gter.#<) THE H.L phrin!las!b9hi7L pa-ifyin4% enri-hin4% inte4ratin4 an$ $estroyin4% embo$y the ener4eti.! @any treasures ?ere burie$ by Guru Pa$masambha9a an$ his -lose $is-iples an$ ?ere $is-o9ere$ by emanations of the guru in subseJuent -enturies.4ok 2otsa?a ?as one of the -hief stu$ents of 1tlsa. He ?orke$ ?ith his guru on translation of the "ra)naparamita literature an$ playe$ a parti-ularly important role in the establishment of @a$hyamaka philosophy in Tibet.The mantra of the Eperfe-tion of ?is$omF is om gate gate paragate parasamgate bodhi svaha.These are the 1ulamadhyamakakarika( Sunyatasaptatikarika( 4uk+ tisastikakarika( Aigrahavyavartariikarika( Aaidalyasutra( and Ayavaharasiddhi <.L dgong!gter.Gyal?a Choyan4 ?as one of the t?enty/fi9e prin-ipal stu$ents of Guru Pa$masambha9a in the ei4hth -entury. 80802 8 =HE #.L upasaka( upasika. #.The ei4ht moral pre-epts are the fi9e basi. 31.Termas are Etreasure textsF ?hi-h are -on-eale$ an$ later $is-o9ere$ by Etreasure $is-o9erersF 6Tib. The dharmapalas are en$o?e$ ?ith the four a-ti9ities% ?ith ?hi-h they prote-t the ener4y of dharma! !.yin4ma an$ Ka4yu tra$itions to this $ay.-ompassion of the a?akene$ state. These are kno?n as Eearth treasuresF 6Tib..pre-epts 6see note # to -hapter . He re-ei9e$ the spiritual pra-ti-e of the $eity Haya4ri9a from Guru Pa$ma% an$ subseJuently a-hie9e$ -omplete reali>ation.7% upon ?hi-h the pra-ti tioner be-omes a lay follo?er 6Skt. !. They are as follo?sL EBless me that my min$ may enter the dharma ) Bless me that dharma may follo? the pathPBless me that the path may -larify -onfusionPBless me that -onfusion may be transforme$ into ?is$omF CH1PTE= #'.

an$ Ta$kar 8ro>an4ma 6gtad!dkar!/gro!b9ang!ma7.orbu relates that in the . TES #<" (.yin4ma s-holar% -ontemporary ?ith the tenth Shamarpa% makes spe-ial referen-e to his life in or$er to -lear up mis-on-eptions that ?ere be4innin4 to proliferate e9en at that time. #% p. 1fter he passe$ a?ay his personal property ?as taken by the Chinese an$ . !pan!mgrin!b9ang!md.orbu relates that people ?ere sprea$in4 false rumors about the tenth Shamar =inpo-he% ?ho ?as a 9ery 4reat lama! Tse?an4 .n his -olle-te$ ?orks 6Col. The Efi9e sisters of lon4 lifeF are dak inis( i. The lea$er of the fi9e is Tashi Tserin4ma% ?ho ?as the mysti. 1 Himalayan le4en$ has it that @iyo 2ob>an4ma resi$es some?here on the slopes of Homo 2un4ma 6the lo-al name for the mountain also kno?n as @ount E9erest% in the ?est% an$ Homo Gan4kar in the literature of Tibet7. The other four sisters are Thin4i Shal>on4ma -mthing!gi!9hal!b9ang! ma. .% embo$iments of feminine ener4y.t @iyo 2ob>an4ma 6mi!g!yo!blo!b9ang!ma7% Chopan 8rin>an4ma 6-o$Q.1 -ertain amount of -ontro9ersy atten$s the history of the tenth Shamar =inpo-he.ron 8o4 year the Shamarpa ?as poisone$ an$ that as a result his health $e-line$ -onsi$erably% ho?e9er% he $i$ not pass a?ay until a -ouple of years later on the full moon $ay of the sixth month of the 3ater @ouse year at the a4e of fifty/one. .e. !'#7 Katok Tse?an4 ...-onsort of @ilarepa. They ?ere put un$er obli4ation to prote-t the dharma by both Guru Pa$masambha9a an$ @ilarepa. 1mon4 se9eral $ispute$ -ontentions% it is often state$ that the tenth Shamar =inpo-he poisone$ himself. KH1KHA1B 8 =HE #.epalese. CH1PTE= #. Ho?e9er% a respe-te$ .

ram bar.than4 bu.mn4a* -hen.bar 8 8ak 8akpo 8am 8am-hu 8ampa 8anan4 8arma 8e-hen 8e4e $?a4s $?a4s.-hen ban.m$o ah.Kkhor m-ho4.1LOSS&!2 1m$o 1thub 1>hi KbaK.lun4 -hi.ba phya4.r4yal m-ho4P4yur m-ho4.>hi #<& .re ben.thub a.-hu $am.-hub -hen -hen.mo spyan.nan4 $ar.4lin4 skyon4] -hos.po skyi$.r4ya -ha4s.$byin4s -hu.-hen $e.l$an Chu?ar Baram Bar$o Bare Ben-hen Ben4ar Beru Bum Bumthan4 Buton a.s4ar be.K4rub -hos.-hu spyi.sprul -hos.po 4$ams $am.me$ 4-o$ -hos.4ra4s -hos. pa $a.K$us 4-i4.$o ba.Kphel -hos.las -hos.r$>on4 -hos.kyi phyo4s.yan4 -hos.K$>in -hos.ma b$e.ru bum bum.$or -hos.shes Cho4yal Cho4yur Chok$en Chokhor Choktor Chokyi -hos.r4e B Cholay Cholin4 Chon4 Chophel Choyan4 Choyin4 spyi.m$o -han4 byan4.l$an -hos.me$ -hab.ston Chilun4 Chime$ Cho$ Cho$en Cho$or Cho$ra4 Cho$rup Cho$>in Cho$>on4 -ha.

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$byan4 mkhyen.mtsho 4yi.ba Kay-ha kas.pa khyun4.pa *jaZtshon mkhyen.pa mkhon Kjam.pa s4om.sprul mkhan.ri s4an4.sras r4yal.to4 s4ar.than4 4u.pa s4an4 4an4s.-hen r4yal.-ha 4o.r$>on4 r4yal. ram.$kar 4an4s.ras r4ya.po s4am.m4on mkhan.K$us 4o.brtse Kbye$.#.pa r4yal.K$ris s4am.tshab r4yal.bral Khan-hen Ha$ral Khan$ro Ham4on Khenpo Hampa Khon Hampal Khyab Hamyan4 Khyenpa Hatson Khyentse Haypa Khyun4po Hetsun Kon-ho4 Hi4$rei .' G2 SS1=A G Ga Ga$en Ga$ri Gampo Gampopa Gan4 Gan4kar Gan4ra Gan4ri Gan4tok Gar-hen Gar?an4 Gelu4pa Gen$un Geshe Go-ha Golok Gompa Gomtsul Gon Gon4-hen Gon4$u Gorampa Gun4tan4 Gushri Gya-hen Gyal$>on4 Gyaipo Gyalsay Gyaltsen Gyaltshap Gysltshabpa Gyal?a Gyare Gyatsho Gyina Gyurme H r4a $4a.pa $4e.lu4s.p a H Khamtrul khams.na K4yur.ba r4ya.khyab Kham khams Khampa khams.Kl$an 4a.mtshan r4yal.$ban4 $4e.tshul $4on $4on4s.-hen $4on4s. pa 4un4.shri r4ya.m-ho4 Kji4s.btsun $kon.*$un $4e.po ije.bral mkhaC4ro Kjam.po.lok $4on.bshes 4o.ra 4an4s.-hen 4ar.-hen bya.$pal skyabs Qjam.me$ Ka?a ka.-ha Hemi Khakhyab hemis mkhaK.po r4yal.po byams.tshab.

nya4 mi.br4yu$.pa slob.pa @a-hi4 skal.la.bra4 @ikyo lhun.4tsho 4nam.pa bkaK.khan4 @ai lha.aljor .b>i4 2on4-henpa 2opon 2otsa?a skyi$ bkaK.spyo$.amtsho?a .4lin4 mi.po Qji4s.r4yal nam.K4yur le4s.m$>o$ bkaK.b>an4 @ipham blo.nan4.ston mi.ras.rten kon4.pa Kyi Ka$ampa Ka$>o$ Ka4yu 2 Ka4yupa Kal>an4 2in4je Kun>an4 2in4pa 2ob>an4 kun.-hu mal.som karma.ri4 2hathe4 K 2ho$rak 2hun$rup Kuntu 2hunpo kun.4ros @onla4ar/ klon4 -hun4 klon4.$kar le4s.me$ kon4.mtsho.4$ams.4-i4 .pa rma.mkhyen 2hakhan4 2hamo Kunri4 2haije 2hasa kun.4ar.G2 SS1=A #.# Kon4jo Hi4me Kon4po Hi4ten Kon4trul Homo Kun-hen Honan4pa Kun$en Hu Kun$rol Hun4nay Kun4a Hyan4 Kun4ba Kunkhyen kon4.pa lha ka.jo Kji4s.se me.ije @inlin4 4lin4.-hen.sa @ase lha.s4rol Kbyun4.-hen @o?a klon4.tho4 lha.tsa.pa @inyak blo.$pon .bsha$ karma le.ba nan4xhen snan4.amtsho .an4$on ma.4rol mi.Q4rub bkaK.$on .ak-hu lo.ma kam.Kbyor rnam.ba .sprul jo.-hu brlabs kam.b>an4 @a-hu @ lha.la.ba na4.$ban4 kan4. mo kun.the4 @eton lho.-hen mal mar mar.am4yal . .pa smin.4rub @ilarepa lhun.tu 2ab Kampo 2ama Kamtshan4 2a?an4 Kan4kar 2e4$rup Kanjur 2ekshay Karma 2esom Karmapa 2ha Katok 2ha-hen Ka-ho$ Kun>i4 Ko-ho$pa mkhaK.mkhyen jo.po @in$rol 4lin4 @injur 4lin4.an4-hen ma.l$an ju kun. -hun4 mo.tshan4 bla.pa kun.br4yu$ bkaK.$4aK byan4 kun4.ije @arpa .bskyo$ mi.ba kun.ha.spyo$ 2on4 2on4-hen kun.pham mon.nas kun.po bla.K4yur smin.mo @ar lha.b>an 2o$ro 4 mkhaK.

an4?a .-hen myin4 snyin4.yin-hen sn4a4s.pa nor.4orpa .m$>o$ n4a4s..bye$ nyin.min .yenre snan4.$ban4 .ma nyin.pa n4or.yin4ma n4a4.l$an snyen.4om .ma snyin4.ba .4al .>er G2 SS1=A snyan.yin-he 4nas.yin4-he bsn4al .rum.e$o .-hmyin4.s4rub >er snyen.yin4po m4o4 .bu 4min nu.ras nyi.4ompa .4ok .u$en .4akphu .m$o .pa Ko$.nan4 .yima 4nas.4a?an4 .4a4$>o$ .! .yen$rup .po snyu4.enan4 .4onpa .phu .yenpa #.pa *o4.orbu .pa ' n4on.yu4rumpa n4om n4om.

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$ban4.ri G2 SS1=A 3an4po #..po .Tin4ri tin4.

=i-har$son% Hu4h.G2.la4 ye.ba. S 0=CES kam! tshang!sdom!rgyun! mam! thar! mdor! bsdus! tshul! khrims! mdses( rgyan karma( kam! tshang! brgyud!pa! rirt!po! che! nam!par! thar!pa! rab! /byams!nor! bu! 9la! to chu!shel!gyi!phreng!ba! -Two volumes* II??C!E! and 6JJ$ C!E!. Snell4ro9e% 8a9i$% an$ =i-har$son% Hu4h.&.F 7ournal o# the Royal siatic Society( #+.ston.mo b>an4. %armapa* The &lack 0at 2ama o# Tibet! 2on$onL 2u>a-% #+")..BET1.-an yan4.shes yon4.ote.-hen >han4 >hin4.lun4 yan.% an$ 3hite% @. uThe Karmapa Se-tL 1n Histori-al . by Situ 1ahapandita Tenpi Nyinchi and &ay 2otsawa( Tsewang %unkhyab by %arma Trakpa 4ongdu mkhas!pa8i!dga!ston by the se-on$ Pa?o =inpo-he% Tsuklak Ten4?a rgyal!ba!9hwa!dmar!nag!gi!mam!thar!mdor!bsdus by Drupon Ten9in Rinpoche chos! r)e! karma!pa!sku! 8phreng! rim! byon!gyi! mam! thar! mdor! bsdus! dpag! bsam! 8khri! shing by 1endong Tshampa Rinpoche( Ngaydon Ten)ay chos!byong! bstan!palpadma!)ay!paJ!nying!che by "adma %arpo deb!ther!sngon!po by *Gos 2otsa?a% Shonu Pal my mg!ma/i! chos! /byung by Dud)om Rinpoche mtsungs! mi!bla! ma! chos! r)e! karma!pa! rim! by on! kyi! tun! mon!gi! mam!par! thar!pa by %arma Ngelek E.SH S 0=CES 8ou4las% .s$e yan4.pa Sabmo San4po Se-hen Shan4 Shin4ta Shonnu S >ab.rta 4>hon. .po >e.le.yar.bra4.#. Cultural 0istory o# Tibet! Boul$erL Prajfta Press% #+&'.yu.yun4.sho$ 4.nu BIBLIO !"P#$ T.pa 4.) G2 SS1=A A Aa4$e Aan4ba-hen Aan4laysho$ Aarlun4 A-nla4 Aeshe Aon4$>in Aon4tonpa Au$rakpa ya4.K$>in 4.

=an4jun4 =i4pe 8orje% is the sixteenth of the line ?hi-h be4an ?ith 8usum Khyenpa% the first Karmapa% in the t?elfth --ntury. .sixteen line $ra?in4s% base$ on the thangka paintin4s of the Karmapas at =umi-k monastery% the s-at of the present Karmapa. Karma Thinley% =inpo-he% bom in East Tibet is a me$itation master% artist% an$ s-holar. 1meri-a% an$ Great Britain. The present Karmapa. Karma Thinley presents the bio4raphies of all of the Karmapas% base$ on his translations from numerous Tibetan sour-es.not only histories of the trainin4 an$ tea-hin4 of these 4reat tea-h-rsB they ar. He is the foun$er of the Kampo Gan4ra 4roup of Bu$$hist -enters in Cana$a. 1--ompanyin4 the text ar." The History of the Sixteen Karmapas of Tibet From the Fore?or$ by Cho4yam Trun4paL The practicing lineage o# the %agyu tradition remains the crown )ewel o# the contemplative &uddhist world! The e3amples and li#e stories o# great teachers o# this tradition have inspired countless practitioners( such that their lives could he #urther devoted to meditative disciplines! The %armapas are particularly the great pillars o# the %agyu tradition( who have enabled the practicing lineage to continue in spite o# political( social and economic obstacles! The Karmapa is the spiritual lea$er of the Karma Ka4yu se-t of Tibetan Bu$$hism.also inspirational texts use$ to -ulti9ate $e9otion in the pra-titioner.G2 SS1=A #. These bio4raphies ar.

& G2 SS1=A .#.