You are on page 1of 51

A manual to support teachers in classrooms

bobbrandis.com 2 Tinaroo Ct Gladstone Qld Australia Phone 0408067696 ABN 24062975758

Table of Contents

Relief

2

Ways to be better at Learning Management

3

Ways to be better at Classroom Management

14

Ways to be better at Behaviour Management

19

Ways to be better at Lesson Management

31

Ways to be better at Outcome Management

41

About the

45

Advertising

47

Index of

48

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E
5 0
W A Y S
T O
B E
A
B E T T E R
R E L I E F
T E A C H E R

Relief Teaching.

Relief Teaching is so different to regular classroom teaching.

The students will respond to you differently and, if it is your first time with the class, they will not know your expectations or your style of teaching. You are different to their teacher and they know you won’t be with them for very long. How they respond to you will, to a large extent, be determined by how you respond to them.

You must convince the students that you

are going to make a difference,

are going to value-add to their day,

care about their performance and

you plan to do something about it.

Most people respond well to people they know and who they think will care about them. Students are no different. Show them in the first 10 minutes that you care.

This book outlines 50 strategies that could be part of your relief teaching repertoire.

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T Efirst 10 minutes that you care. This book outlines 50 strategies that could be part of your relief teaching repertoire. 2 " id="pdf-obj-2-46" src="pdf-obj-2-46.jpg">

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Ways to be better at Learning Management

T he biggest challenge facing teaching is that LEARNING must occur. Being the best teacher in the world is meaningless unless kids actually learn. Just like the doctor who quoted, “The surgery was a success but the

patient died.Teaching can not be achieved unless someone has learned as a result of your input.

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E

Make sure the MAIN thing is the main THING.

Always keep focused on the MAIN outcome of your lesson. This should be clearly established in your own mind well before you start the lesson. Write

the answer to this question somewhere in your diary, “At the end of this lesson I want kids to …”

The value of being a relief teacher is that you don’t have to use the current

jargon. Just use plain English to answer this question.

If you want children to write good sentences or publish a story or learn how to use

capitals letters or find x in an equation,

then make certain all your language, all your praise and all your effort clearly focuses on

this goal.

Don’t make a big deal about anything else such as handwriting/bookwork. Certainly, make passing comments as needed but don’t dwell.

Advertisement

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

  • Keep your language supportive and corrective.

Support the outcome by keeping the kids focused on the learning. You should be reinforcing all during the lesson, This is what you are learning.

While patrolling the room, always mention the outcomes you want to

achieve like, “… those adverbs are descriptive and really add meaning to your sentences…”

  • Don’t give out all the information every time.

Some time kids want to explore options to get information. Give out books, computer access and/or website for students to search.

Show the students how to use common search engines like Google. Make topics broad enough to allow students to have options in their interpretations.

Advertisement

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E
5 0 W A Y S
5 0
W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Consider group work as an option

There is no doubt that group work is the chatty option. Having kids facing other kids is a sure fire bet to start discussion. But if discussion is important to your lesson, then perhaps group work is a great option.

If the group is chatty, check out other options. CLICK HERE for 10 Ways to Keep Chatty Kids on Task.

Group work has the risk of bombing. Kids can become more difficult to bring back on task so have an escape plan if group work looks like it isfailing. (Relief teachers are known to be great pragmatists anyway.) See

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T ECLICK HERE for 10 Ways to Keep Chatty Kids on Task. Group work has the risk of bombing. Kids can become more difficult to bring back on task so have an escape plan if group work looks like it isfailing. (Relief teachers are known to be great pragmatists anyway.) See However, don’t use failure language . Avoid critical comments l ike, “Well that was a mess – back to rows.” Consider language which is more positive and developmental. “OK. Now let’s move to the next phase of the lesson. Thank you for moving your chairs quietly back to rows. Now get ready to listen about the next activity .” The most difficult thing in group work, for you as a relief teacher, is that it is protocol to return the room to the condition in which it was found. Group work is not to be confused with collaborative learning. See Advertisement 5 " id="pdf-obj-5-28" src="pdf-obj-5-28.jpg">

However, don’t use failure language. Avoid critical comments like, “Well that was a mess – back to rows.” Consider language which is more positive and developmental.

“OK. Now let’s move to the next phase of the lesson. Thank you for moving your chairs quietly back to rows. Now get ready to listen about the next activity.”

The most difficult thing in group work, for you as a relief teacher, is that it is protocol to return the room to the condition in which it was found.

Group work is not to be confused with collaborative learning. See

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T ECLICK HERE for 10 Ways to Keep Chatty Kids on Task. Group work has the risk of bombing. Kids can become more difficult to bring back on task so have an escape plan if group work looks like it isfailing. (Relief teachers are known to be great pragmatists anyway.) See However, don’t use failure language . Avoid critical comments l ike, “Well that was a mess – back to rows.” Consider language which is more positive and developmental. “OK. Now let’s move to the next phase of the lesson. Thank you for moving your chairs quietly back to rows. Now get ready to listen about the next activity .” The most difficult thing in group work, for you as a relief teacher, is that it is protocol to return the room to the condition in which it was found. Group work is not to be confused with collaborative learning. See Advertisement 5 " id="pdf-obj-5-46" src="pdf-obj-5-46.jpg">

Advertisement

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T ECLICK HERE for 10 Ways to Keep Chatty Kids on Task. Group work has the risk of bombing. Kids can become more difficult to bring back on task so have an escape plan if group work looks like it isfailing. (Relief teachers are known to be great pragmatists anyway.) See However, don’t use failure language . Avoid critical comments l ike, “Well that was a mess – back to rows.” Consider language which is more positive and developmental. “OK. Now let’s move to the next phase of the lesson. Thank you for moving your chairs quietly back to rows. Now get ready to listen about the next activity .” The most difficult thing in group work, for you as a relief teacher, is that it is protocol to return the room to the condition in which it was found. Group work is not to be confused with collaborative learning. See Advertisement 5 " id="pdf-obj-5-50" src="pdf-obj-5-50.jpg">
5 0 W A Y S
5 0
W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Investigations are powerful learning opportunities.

Investigations are those activities avoided by most relief teachers because they are usually difficult to organize on the spot. So be organized for an activity before you arrive.

Kids get a lot of value out of learning investigations and a part from the setting up; they are generally quite easy to manage probably because the kids, even the ratbags, are clearly focused.

If you haven’t tried investigations in a classroom, try an easy one first.

Probability This is a simple activity exploring chance rolling die and flipping coins. CLICK HERE.

This one explores the relationship between the drop height and the bounce height of a table tennis ball. CLICK HERE

One you have a few investigations up your sleeve, you can refine them, resource them as you see fit and pull them out whenever you need to.

Advertisement

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T ECLICK HERE . This one explores the relationship between the drop height and the bounce height of a table tennis ball. CLICK HERE One you have a few investigations up your sleeve, you can refine them, resource them as you see fit and pull them out whenever you need to. Advertisement Free – with Making Maths More Fun 6 " id="pdf-obj-6-44" src="pdf-obj-6-44.jpg">

Free with Making Maths More Fun

5 0 W A Y S
5 0
W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Allow Time to THINK

Students need time to THINK and process new concepts. Relief teachers, because they know content and skills, sometimes go on without giving kids the take up time needed to understand a concept. Sometimes relief teachers talk too fast and pepper the students with questions and activities without

giving them time to process. You know the old adage, “Stop and smell the roses!” That is also true in the classroom.

When you have taught a new skill, concept or strategy, simply stop. Watch the class as they process what has been covered. When you need to ask a question, simply pause before expecting an answer. Some students just need time to

o

process and understand the question;

o

retrieve the necessary information and then (finally)

o

formulate a response

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E
5 0 W A Y S
5 0
W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Be pragmatic.

Sometimes lessons develop in a completely different way than you expected. Sometimes that can be a good thing. So how do you know the difference?

Go back to

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E

. Is the main thing still the main thing? If not, then bring

the lesson back and consider the matter another day.

Let’s say you want to explore the Voyage to the Moon. During the discussion the class is animated and excited about discussing the more general nature of space travel can we get to other universes, how can we travel at the light of speed, what do astronauts eat?

Now consider the MAIN thing. If you want to discuss the technology of Apollo 11, then move the discussion back. If your MAIN thing was the key issues of space, then go with the flow.

How exciting learning can be!

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E
5 0 W A Y S
5 0
W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Put learning into practice

Kids, from the beginning of time have always asked, “Why do we have to learn this?”

And it used to be so simple.

“You need to learn how to club dinosaurs so we can eat, Kronk.”

But now, the answer is much more complicated. Why do we have to do algebra? Why do we have to write about our Christmas/Easter holiday yet again?

You probably need to be prepared and have answers ready. The best way not to be forced to answer the difficult question is to put it into practice. If you learn about FRICTION show how it applies to rolling a ball on the carpet V the floor.

If you learn about 3D shapes make them. Use shopping catalogues for math activities. Explore probability by rolling dice.

Advertisement

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T EUse shopping catalogues for math activities. Explore probability by rolling dice. Advertisement 9 " id="pdf-obj-9-40" src="pdf-obj-9-40.jpg">
5 0 W A Y S
5 0
W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Allow TIME to TALK.

Allow students the time to talk. Check out this strategy. Honestly, everyone needs to be given a chance to talk. Put 30 adults together in a small room and tell them to be quiet. It is not a practical application of learning.

Talking is fundamental to how we learn and not allowing children that opportunity seems to me to be a little unfair. And quite frankly, it makes your job, as a relief teacher, that much harder.

The management issue is to keep the talk on the task at hand. Off task behaviour is not acceptable in a learning situation. All the more reason to teach that learning through talking is important.

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T Ethis strategy . Honestly, everyone needs to be given a chance to talk. Put 30 adults together in a small room and tell them to be quiet. It is not a practical application of learning. Talking is fundamental to how we learn and not allowing children that opportunity seems to me to be a little unfair. And quite frankly, it makes your job, as a relief teacher, that much harder. The management issue is to keep the talk on the task at hand. Off task behaviour is not acceptable in a learning situation. All the more reason to teach that learning through talking is important. Share your learning process There is nothing more valuable to a student learner than to see a master at work. When learning a new concept, vocalise the thought processes you use to interpret meaning. Show your class how you develop meaning. Senior high school math teachers are great at this, particularly if they are introducing a new and difficult concept. They often think aloud and bring their class with them. This is a great way, even for younger students, to see learning in action from a master . Vocalise your thought processes to your class, show the kids how you create links to prior knowledge, how you use your decoding skills. You didn’t get where you are now because you are a slouch. Show off the techniques you use to develop understanding. In this situation, you are indeed, a role model to kids. 10 " id="pdf-obj-10-27" src="pdf-obj-10-27.jpg">

Share your learning process

There is nothing more valuable to a student learner than to see a master at work. When learning a new concept, vocalise the thought processes you use to interpret meaning.

Show your class how you develop meaning. Senior high school math teachers are great at this, particularly if they are introducing a new and difficult concept. They often think aloud and bring their class with them.

This is a great way, even for younger students, to see learning in action from a master. Vocalise your thought processes to your class, show the kids how you create links to prior knowledge, how you use your decoding skills.

You didn’t get where you are now because you are a slouch. Show off the

techniques you use to develop understanding. In this situation, you are indeed, a role model to kids.

5 0 W A Y S
5 0
W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Use an ADVANCED ORGANISER.

David Ausebel developed the theory of Advanced Organisers in 1960. Essentially, he believed that if students were given a framework before the lesson, they work better be able to apply or understand the concept.

This could be as simple as displaying on a board what you are going to do during the lesson. I do the same with my program for the day.

There is considerable debate in educational forums about the intricacies of this strategy. I leave that to the academics.

All I know is that it works.

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T EDavid Ausebel developed the theory of Advanced Organisers in 1960. Essentially, he believed that if students were given a framework before the lesson, they work better be able to apply or understand the concept. This could be as simple as displaying on a board what you are going to do during the lesson. I do the same with my program for the day. There is considerable debate in educational forums about the intricacies of this strategy. I leave that to the academics. All I know is that it works. Build your lesson Identify you introduction, the body of your lesson and your conclusion. Kids will respond to this structure. I know, you haven’t heard this since Uni days. Life was so much simpler then. And now we have much more complex lesson structures. And … I’m not sure we are any better at it. If you can identify these three elements, so can the kids. This is part of that Advanced Organiser stuff (see number . This is what adds meaning to learning. 11 " id="pdf-obj-11-29" src="pdf-obj-11-29.jpg">

Build your lesson

Identify you introduction, the body of your lesson and your conclusion. Kids will respond to this structure. I know, you haven’t heard this since Uni days. Life was so much simpler then.

And now we have much more complex lesson structures.

And … I’m not sure we are any better at it. If you can identify these three

elements, so can the kids. This is part of that Advanced Organiser stuff (see

number

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T EDavid Ausebel developed the theory of Advanced Organisers in 1960. Essentially, he believed that if students were given a framework before the lesson, they work better be able to apply or understand the concept. This could be as simple as displaying on a board what you are going to do during the lesson. I do the same with my program for the day. There is considerable debate in educational forums about the intricacies of this strategy. I leave that to the academics. All I know is that it works. Build your lesson Identify you introduction, the body of your lesson and your conclusion. Kids will respond to this structure. I know, you haven’t heard this since Uni days. Life was so much simpler then. And now we have much more complex lesson structures. And … I’m not sure we are any better at it. If you can identify these three elements, so can the kids. This is part of that Advanced Organiser stuff (see number . This is what adds meaning to learning. 11 " id="pdf-obj-11-45" src="pdf-obj-11-45.jpg">

. This is what adds meaning to learning.

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

  • Provide a FOCAL point in the classroom

Have you ever been in a crowd and pointed skyward. Everybody looks skyward.

It is not much different in a class. Give the kids something at which to look. If you are studying water, have pictures of dams, if you are looking at Africa have pictures of lions, if you are studying film and drama have a picture of Pamela Stephenson.

Use the board as a YOUR scribble pad and watch how the kids focus. This is the SCREEN generation. I’m sure some of these kids would sit at a screen saver if the computer ever had a chance to need it.

  • Manage the interruptions.

Goodness knows the modern relief teacher (just like the modern teacher) has it tough and part of the problem is the constant stream of interruptions that occur during the day. Learn the hierarchy of the school, to see what interruptions can be controlled. Start from the top. The boss, well, that goes without saying. Instructions must be followed then and there.

But others … respectfully request that the interruption occur outside your

valued teaching and the kids valuable learning time. (And good luck with

that!)

Advertisement

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E
5 0 W A Y S
5 0
W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Be visible in the classroom

This has to be the first lesson on Learning Management 101. Why wouldn’t it be? Learning occurs best when you interact with students and that only happens when students can see you.

I have seen all too often, a relief teacher anchored at the desk having already issued 30 worksheets left by the regular teacher.

Let’s face it. Learning isn’t going to happen.

Be visible - Let the students see you better still, let the students see you work. How can you expect them to, if you don’t?

Be visible Interact. Ask questions check for understanding. Help check for misunderstandings.

Be visible offer guidance if needed and encouragement when not.

Advertisement

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Ways to be better at Classroom Management

T he classroom is vital to the learning environment. The order, the processes, the procedures. Obviously the good classroom teacher will have these completely ingrained in the students. So when a stranger (you) comes in to

disrupt their world you can expect, “We don’t do it that way.”

And the students are perfectly entitled to be protective of their classroom. So be prepared to ask the students about procedural matters.

Don’t feel threatened if your way is the wrong way because it is different to their usual practice.

Never force the issue by saying, “Well we are going to do it my way.If there is conflict between you and their regular teacher, they will REJECT YOU!

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E
5 0 W A Y S
5 0
W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Set

the

classroom

up

for

success

 

Unfortunately you don’t have much choice here. The classroom only belongs to you for a short period of time. You are really only a classroom sitter.

But there are some things you can do to help. Don’t be afraid to move some furniture around to suit the day you have planned. I suggest taking a photo with your phone so you know how it looked. Then you could return it to its original condition at the end of the day.

The physical layout should reflect your teaching style. If you want students to collaborate in small groups, for example, organize them around tables or clusters of desks. For whole-group discussions, try a circle or U-shaped desk configuration. If you plan on an individualized instruction, you might set up learning stations.

Keep YOUR equipment within easy reach and secure all your valuables. Easily accessible materials and supplies can eliminate delays, disruptions, and confusion for students.

Generally I prefer desks in cooperative groups of four any more generally becomes more complex to manage. So if necessary, just put a bit of distance between large groups. It is amazing how little is needed to create a perceived barrier.

I know some relief teachers who bring a bean bag to school since reading and interacting with groups on the floor is their modus operandi.

Good for them.

Advertisement

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E
5 0 W A Y S
5 0
W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Making Learning Rewarding.

  • I know the old argument about intrinsic worth of education and kids should not work just for rewards Blah! Blah! Blah!

But honestly, would you work if you didn’t get paid? Kids love rewards (and so do I!)

  • I use a business card approach as just one of my strategies. I used to make up my own which proved a laborious task. Now I get them made for next to

nothing through Vistaprint. Billy’s Billy
nothing through Vistaprint.
Billy’s
Billy

You can get 250 very cheaply and you can design your own. Leave a space for a childs name and hand a few out very early in the day so kids know what you are offering.

Imagine handing this to a child and telling them to take that home to their Mum or Dad. What a buzz that would create around the classroom.

Advertisement

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

  • Control the movement.

The way kids move around the room is important to the success of the learning environment. Make certain pathways to the common areas are clear and free. This includes the bin, the tap, your desk.

I’m sure the classroom teacher would already have this in place, but it is worth checking before hand. Stand back and have a critical look at the thoroughfare areas of the classroom.

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E

Keep

the

turkeys

from

flying.

It is a sad fact that there will be a class where you will encounter turkeys. You know the kids who spend the whole day going “Gobble! Gobble! Gobble!” At least that is what it sounds like. Certainly it makes as much sense.

These are the stressors of the day. Statistically, in a class of 25 you will encounter about 4 unfortunately.

Hopefully you will have recognised them early and put in place the proactive steps of standing close, maintaining eye contact.

You need to cut them off quickly. The rule, as a relief teacher, is – “Don’t interfere with the learning of others!”

Let the turkeys know that you will not tolerate their interference when others want to learn. And if they sulk and sit at their desk well that will work! As long as they aren’t interfering with others!

Of course some turkeys fly only when they have an audience. You will recognise these turkeys early in the day. In this case don’t give them an audience. If one starts to spread wings, deny him/her the audience and say (in as quiet a voice as

you can), “Class, I would you like you to turn you chairs and look this way.”

And if that doesn’t work well, you know what happens to turkeys eventually, don’t you?

5 0 W A Y S
5 0
W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Be prepared. Have a time out area ready.

In every flight I have taken, the flight attendant always asks passengers to be aware of the nearest exit.

In the classroom, particularly if you are new, you need to consider the exit strategies if things go pear-shaped.

Your teaching colleague next door will be the best point of call and usually a great source of support.

Advertisement

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E
5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Ways to be better at Behaviour Management

Y our behaviour , as the relief teacher, is the single most influential impact on the behaviour of the students in your classroom. You have a huge

impact on how your day will go. There are a couple of MUST DO

strategies that will help your day run smoothly.

  • Anticipate Compliance.

Generally most students want to behave and very few really want the tension of getting into trouble. So if you give instructions, anticipate that the student will comply and act as if this is the case.

For example, in your travels around the room you notice Gina is reading a book and not doing her math. You take the least intrusive path, “Thanks for putting

that book away, Gina.” (NB Closed request -

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E

) And continue to move

around the room as if you know Gina is going to comply.

Gina feels your expectation and 99.9% of the time she will comply, because she is not going to get any mileage if she doesn’t. You have already moved on!

Consider the alternative action. You say the same thing, but stand at Gina’s desk

with arms on your hips and a snarl ready on your lips. You’re ready for a fight

and Gina is likely to accommodate you.

  • Close your requests with the appropriate language.

Close your request. You can close off a request by prefacing your statement with an expectation of compliance. Such statements like “Thank you for closing the windows for me, Paul”. Few students are likely to refuse a request phrased in such a way.

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

  • Differentiate between discipline and managing behaviour

Relief teachers seem to take things to heart far too often. Learn to differentiate between discipline and behaviour.

Discipline is a belief system of values and principles. Children learn that at home. Discipline involves the principles of honesty, fairness and the values of integrity and personal accountability amongst many many more.

Teachers don’t discipline students, we manage their behaviour. Parents are still

accountable (not teachers) if their child breaks the law, damages property.

Society dumps on teachers far too easily.

So … don’t reach for the bottle just yet. Ahh heck – go for it anyway!

  • Stop on my SIGNAL

Do the class know when you want their attention? Avoid screaming, “Listen Now!” because as a Relief Teacher the class is not attuned to your voice. Try other options like a small bell, clap of hands, a silly bike horn. Experiment with different techniques that will work for you.

Whatever you use, it is important to have a STOP SIGNAL at your disposal.

Advertisement

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E
5 0 W A Y S
5 0
W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Disregard the secondary behaviours

Secondary behaviours are those that occur when you have a discussion with the student and the student wants to take control.

They are 'chase me' behaviours designed to push your buttons, gain a furious response and ultimately distract you from the purpose of the discussion. Some kids are masters at it, having practised it very well at home.

OK. So you want Freddie (it’s a shame that, statistically, most of the

offenders are boys) to leave the room. You have exhausted all of your positive reinforcement, redirection techniques, warnings and sanctions and need him to leave.

The secondary behaviours are the chair being thrown back, stamping, general huffing and puffing posturing. Freddie is building up a real performance for the benefit of his classmates.

He may want to divert the conversation away from the original behaviour or try to encourage a confrontation.

Don't allow him to take control of your behaviour. Resist the temptation to address the secondary behaviours at the moment. Instead, remember them for later.

There is little doubt that Freddie will eventually leave and when he has left the room, he has followed your instructions. The dramatic trail of disruption that he has left in his wake can be dealt with later. Your calm and considered response will be watched by the class and they will be impressed by your confidence, even in those emotionally fuelled moments.

The class will slowly learn that these misbehaviours will not work with you. Job well done!

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E
5 0
W A Y S
T O
B E
A
B E T T E R
R E L I E F
T E A C H E R
5 0 W A Y S
5 0
W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

 

Keep

your

instruction

DIRECT

Major long-term studies have proven the irrefutable success of direct instruction (now called explicit teaching)

The term refers to a method for teaching that is fast-paced and provides constant interaction between students and the teacher.

I’m old – very old. So I can remember direct instruction well. I was taught by this method and I taught using this method. It was the staple of my teaching repertoire. Direct Instruction is rich in structure and drilling and content. It is starting to become more popular given the current drive for proven results.

Many studies have proven its success as a teaching strategy.

What does it mean for the Relief Teacher and how do you DO it? Direct instruction is a sequence of supports:

setting a purpose for learning

telling students what to do

showing them how to do it

guiding their hands-on application of the new learning.

Direct instruction begins with setting the stage for learning, followed by a clear explanation of what to do (telling), followed by modeling of the process (showing), followed by multiple opportunities for practice (guiding) until students can participate independently. Direct instruction moves from a situation where the teacher has HEAVY input to where students have full responsibility with minimal teacher involvement.

Advertisement

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T Estudies have proven its success as a teaching strategy. What does it mean for the Relief Teacher and how do you DO it? Direct instruction is a sequence of supports:  setting a purpose for learning  telling students what to do  showing them how to do it  guiding their hands-on application of the new learning. Direct instruction begins with setting the stage for learning, followed by a clear explanation of what to do (telling), followed by modeling of the process (showing), followed by multiple opportunities for practice (guiding) until students can participate independently. Direct instruction moves from a situation where the teacher has HEAVY input to where students have full responsibility with minimal teacher involvement. Advertisement 24 " id="pdf-obj-24-74" src="pdf-obj-24-74.jpg">

24

5 0 W A Y S
5 0
W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Avoid going for the throat FIRST!

As hard as it might prove to be, don’t go for the throat first. Start with the non-intrusive strategies.

You might have to take a few deep breaths first. You do remember that World War One started with one shot.

I have sometimes been caught out by not making a concerted effort to get all the facts first.

Advertisement

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E
5 0 W A Y S
5 0
W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Distract Diffuse Disperse.

The truth of the matter is that sometimes you are going to be confronted with a disagreement between students. This can happen within metres of a teacher.

Here is a simple strategy that (usually) works.

Firstly, DISTRACT students from hurting or hitting - what ever is occurring. This might be a whistle or calling out. (Water on the fighting dogs!). The aim is to get the offenders to focus on you, not each other. ("I'm here gentlemen/ladies. Look at me!" - repeat this calmly.). If you can use humour, now is a good time to apply it. If not - DON'T.

Never get in the middle no matter how big you are.

Secondly, DIFFUSE the anger by NOT being angry yourself. (Riots develop when both sides are angry.) Avoid shouting or panicking. Be calm - at least sound calm. Keep your directions short and clear. Never give more than ONE direction at a time.

"Bill, thanks for standing over there. John, thanks for putting your hands down." Repeat if necessary but do not change the directions. "OK. Let's sit down and face opposite directions." Having students sit on the ground really has a calming effect. (Watch what NYPD do). and then handcuff them to the nearest pole.

Thirdly, DISPERSE. You only need the offenders. Chase the watchers away. (Move on citizens. Nothing to see here)

The next step depends on your level of authority. If you are comfortable dealing with the offenders at this point, then do it. I suggest if you are a relief teacher you probably need to pass the offenders over to some one.

Now

...

that is another article!

5 0 W A Y S
5 0
W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Use the assertive “I message”

These I-messages are expressions of our feelings. Thomas Gordon, creator of Teacher Effectiveness Training (TET), tells us to structure these messages in three parts. First, include a description of the child’s behavior. “When you

talk while I talk

Second, relate the effect this behavior has on the teacher.

...

And third, let the student know the feeling

...

which frustrates me.”

I

... have to stop my teaching

... that it generates in the teacher. “

A teacher, distracted by a student who was constantly talking while he tried

to teach, once made this powerful expression of feelings: “I cannot imagine

what I have done to you that I do not deserve the respect from you that I

get from the others in this class. If I have been rude to you or inconsiderate in any way, please let me know. I feel as though I have somehow offended

you and now you are unwilling to show me respect.”

The student did not talk during his lessons again.

Advertisement

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T EThomas Gordon, creator of Teacher Effectiveness Training (TET), tells us to structure these messages in three parts. First, include a descripti on of the child’s behavior. “When you talk while I talk “ ” Second, relate the effect this behavior has on the teacher. ” ... And third, let the student know the feeling ... which frustrates me.” I ... have to stop my teaching ... that it generates in the teacher. “ A teacher, distracted by a student who was constantly talking while he tried to teach, once made this powerful expression of feelings: “I cannot imagine what I have done to you that I do not deserve the respect from you that I get from the others in this class. If I have been rude to you or inconsiderate in any way, please let me know. I feel as though I have somehow offended you and now you are unwilling to show me respect.” The student did not talk during his lessons again. Advertisement 27 " id="pdf-obj-27-61" src="pdf-obj-27-61.jpg">

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

  • Never make it PERSONAL

If an important goal is for our students to treat each other with respect, then the responsibility for modelling respectful communication is on you.

Words can be very powerful. Be careful how you use them.

Be sure that your words focus on the behaviour not on the student. There is a very big difference between saying, "You are so lazy!" and, "You haven't done your homework."

Teacher remarks should be about behaviours. Students should know you value them even when you have to address areas that need improvement.

It is important to remember that some of our students will test us to see if we can maintain our respectful attitude even after they push our buttons. Never personalize students' remarks or behaviour.

Always remember that often the child who acts like they need approval the least is the one who needs it the most.

  • Model behavior.

Kids love double standards. A teacher yelling at a student for yelling in the

playground just doesn’t make sense.

Make no mistake, you are on show. The students want to see how you solve conflict. They will often use that as an exemplar.

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E
5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E
5 0
W A Y S
T O
B E
A
B E T T E R
R E L I E F
T E A C H E R

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

  • Know when to IGNORE.

Sometimes you have to learn to pick the battles. There is no good coming back

with, “We won the battle, General but we lost the war!”

Some relief teachers (and some teachers) target the most trivial matters which are blown out of all proportion.

Cops in Australia now have to halt car pursuits when it seems the risks outweigh the rewards.

So if a shirt is not tucked in or a paper has been thrown to the floor, give it the due weight it deserves.

  • Direct the learning to the MISCREANT.

The student who continually misbehaves is often disengaging themselves from the lesson for a purpose. Perhaps they are finding the work too difficult and do not want to show themselves up as being a dunderhead.

Being a rebellious youth is far more socially acceptable.

If you suspect this is the case, engage the student in a learning activity that shows the rest of the class they are capable.

You have to tread carefully here and manufacture a situation when the student looks good.

Nothing breeds success like success!

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Ways to be better at Lesson Management

  • esson Management is the
    L fundamental indicator of success. The lesson is the equivalent of a carpenters hammer.

bread and butter

for

teachers. It

is

the

No teacher leaves university without a comprehensive understanding of lesson design. But is the hustle and bustle of the busy day, it sometimes is not given enough credence.

All else is smoke and mirrors. If you can structure your lessons effectively, then you are well on your way to helping your students achieve results.

Advertisement

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E
5 0 W A Y S
5 0
W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Keep the STUDENTS learning through Active Engagement

Learning is superficial until the learner is actively engaged. Teaching that emphasizes active engagement helps students process and retain information. It leads to self-questioning, deeper thinking, and problem solving.

Engagement strategies like repetition, trial and error, and posing questions move the brain into active and constructive learning. Such activities can lead to higher student achievement.

First, select learning activities that support the content of the instruction and engage students. Here are five steps teachers should follow:

Thoroughly learn/understand the curriculum.

Identify teaching objectives and strategies that engage students and build understanding.

Ask yourself these planning questions:

o

What is the goal?

o

What order does the teaching need to follow?

o

What do the students already know?

o

What do I want them to learn?

Prepare the lesson based on your goals.

Construct processing/learning activities that match the concepts, skills, and goals.

To engage students, the teacher must help students draw on their own experiences to build a "scaffold" on which they can "hang" new ideas. When students are actively engaged, they focus on what is being taught and better process new information.

Most effective teaching takes place in "chunks," so it is best to teach new information in 10 minute segments followed by a processing activity.

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

A processing activity is an activity that causes students to pose questions, manipulate information, and relate the new learning to what they already know. Such engagements reinforce the learning and help move the learning to the long-term memory banks.

A processing activity can be as simple as a 60-second jotting down of the important points just covered, telling your partner three things that you just learned, or expressing something in a song. Other activities include:

Designing a concept map,

Creating an outline,

Writing a story problem,

Making up a different ending to a story,

Designing mock trials,

Conducting an experiment,

Measuring the length of the hallways with triangles.

When students are actively engaged in their learning, they are processing and retaining information and using higher order thinking.

Advertisement

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E
5 0 W A Y S
5 0
W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Develop Cooperative Learning Situations

Let’s not turn this into an academic exercise.

Cooperative learning occurs when a group of kids come together to explore or solve a problem by working and learning together. I know a lot of teachers plonk this into the group work category, but it seldom is.

The purpose is to work together to do something that they could NOT do individually. That is why group work is not really cooperative learning. Often time group work fails because it is not structured correctly and has no chance to become cooperative.

What cooperative learning does, when used properly, is ENGAGE the students.

But they need an appropriate task or investigation.

CLICK HERE for a suitable task.

CLICK HERE for strategies that support cooperative learning.

Advertisement

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T ECLICK HERE for a suitable task. CLICK HERE for strategies that support cooperative learning. Advertisement 35 " id="pdf-obj-35-38" src="pdf-obj-35-38.jpg">
5 0 W A Y S
5 0
W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Develop Collaborative Learning Situations

I’m sure I am going to be disbarred from every academic arena in the country

for this.

The academic have argued the semantics about collaborative and cooperative learning for years, and still the argument has gone no further than semantics.

Let me keep this simple. I see collaborative learning occurring when the teacher directs the activity without actually knowing where it is going to go.

For example, BRAINSTORMING develops a whole range of ideas and you don’t know what the kids will come up with. Unless of course you simply ADD your own and make THEM the important ones. (I’ve done that plenty of times).

But this is a collaborative approach to learning where the teacher is part of the learning process. I have found that kids engage with this strategy quite well. After the brainstorming activity you can set tasks for individual students or small groups and they will feel they own the learning.

Advertisement

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T EBRAINSTORMING develops a whole range of ideas and you don’t know what the kids will come up with. Unless of course you simply ADD your own and make THEM the important ones. ( I’ve done that plenty of times ). But this is a collaborative approach to learning where the teacher is part of the learning process. I have found that kids engage with this strategy quite well. After the brainstorming activity you can set tasks for individual students or small groups and they will feel they own the learning. Advertisement 36 " id="pdf-obj-36-38" src="pdf-obj-36-38.jpg">

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

  • Keep a sense of HUMOUR

Kids LOVE IT when they see teachers laugh or smile. Your class will spend more time in your classroom than almost any other single place in their lives.

And sure, teaching is serious business but it is important, usually for your own

sanity, that you don’t lose sight of the trees for the forest.

Kids need to see how adults interact. Show them that having a joke and not taking everything SO seriously is important.

  • Teach on the Move

Teach while walking the classroom. Don’t anchor yourself to the front of the room or to your desk. This enables you to stand beside the recalcitrant students and offer support to students who need it. With my lesson plans and activities on PowerPoint, I control the lesson from anywhere with a laser pointer like this one. I purchased it on eBay for less than $15. It is the best thing I have ever bought.

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

  • Balance the lesson.

Variety is the spice of life or so the saying goes. I have visited many lessons in my time as a principal.

And in some of these rooms I find it difficult to stay awake, myself.

Are you boring the brains out of your class?

Stand back and have a good hard look. If you are add variety. Speed it up, slow it down, add visuals, change the lesson from passive to active, get excited, calm things down do anything to break up the boredom.

  • Intersperse passive time with activity.

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E

I know I just said that in number but I mean it. Sometime kids are glued onto their chair for the whole day. And some times day in and day out. Sure, they go out for PE occasionally but REALLY?

Have a go at standing up. Try talking the answers instead of writing them. Tell the answer to your partner. Show your partner a different way to do something. Teach your friend something he didn’t know before. Make a diorama to interpret a poem.

Anything to get the blood re-flowing. I wonder if you can get DVT in a classroom?

Advertisement

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

  • Keep the STORM on the horizon

There are some times in the classroom where you can feel the tension rise. Just like the onset of a summer storm.

It takes a wise teacher to diffuse any situation when storms are a-brewing. Storms bring so much collateral damage that it takes a long time to recover.

You have two options. If the heat is rising, you have to decide whether

  • 1. to put the storm shutters up and weather it out or

  • 2. to pull up anchor and move to calmer waters.

Me, I prefer to pull up anchor. So if an activity is creating too much friction, if some of the kids are causing unnecessary angst, I like to move onto something which will lower the temperatures.

I find an activity which is on the floor. A look at me, listening style activity does the trick.

  • Peer Tutoring

Use peer tutoring for students who are having difficulty. Students who have

mastered the concept could tutor students who don’t.

Students can often explain concepts to other students with relevance. They become the teacher. Set them the goal of having their student pass the test.

They cement their understanding of the concept and improve others.

If you want to understand a concept LEARN it. If you want to REALLY understand it TEACH it.

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

  • Keep them ON TASK.

One of the greatest challenges for Relief Teachers - or any teacher for that matter - is to keep the kids on task.

Writing is often seen as passive so these strategies will keep your students active and ON TASK.

  • 1. Each student gets one sheet of paper (say A4) size and they write their

name on top.

  • 2. Select one topic relevant to what they are studying (eg. the Moon)

  • 3. They start with their sheet and write ONE fact about the moon. (eg.

the moon takes a month to orbit the earth).

  • 4. On YOUR signal they swap their paper to the left and receive from the

right. They get a short time to READ and then on YOUR signal they write - but the idea has to be original.

  • 5. When they get their sheet back they should have 5, 10 or 15 ideas

about the moon - depending on the size of the group.

  • 6. They could then go about check its accuracy.

You can vary the size of the group, the complexity of the topic, the speed of the rotation.

  • Keep the DAY PLAN visible to everyone.

Keep your daily plan in front of the kids at all times.

This will show the kids that you are organised and that you mean business. A PowerPoint with a hyper link to the lessons is a great organiser.

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Ways to be better at Outcome Management

A

s a relief teacher you are not directly accountable for the long term success of your students. You are probably not going to be there long enough anyway.

But, do you know how kids suddenly become motivated if they know something is going to be tested or assessed?

Well, they do the opposite for some relief teachers because they know that they are NOT going to be assessed or tested. What they learn on your watch will probably be retaught by their regular teacher.

So what is the motivation for them to learn?

Yeah! I know what you are saying. Intrinsic value of learni… BLAH! BLAH! BLAH!

You need to stamp your authority (not literally) and make your students understand that you are going to value add to their day and you WILL be making certain they understand, achieve, improve, recognise success during your watch.

So there…

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

  • SCORE your understanding

A quick way to check for understanding which is surprisingly effective is the five finger score.

It is only a simple test and by no means an objective measure.

At an important juncture in the lesson, ask the kids to indicate, using their fingers, (5 being the highest and best score to 1 being the lowest score) what they think about a particular concept.

For example, during a math lesson you ask the kids, “Indicate how well you understand the formula for the area of a circle?” Kids will put up their fingers from 1 to 5.

If you see lots of 5s, you are home and hosed. You scored another victory, you educational marvel, you!

  • Explain it to ME.

Never accept a nod of assent as understanding. Swap places with the

student. Even sit in their chair. Let the student take the front of the

classroom and ask her, “Explain it to me again!”

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

  • Dear Mum,

Today I learned …

This is a great way to end the day on a positive. The students write a letter to their parents (or significant adult in their life) and outline what they did during the day (or week) that you were there.

You might need to make a judgement call about whether or not you need to proof these pieces of work.

The students could then place the note in the envelope and drop it in their mailbox at home for their parents to find.

  • Draw a picture of you NOW.

This one is based on the BEFOE and AFTER scenario.

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

  • Only accept a high standard of work.

Students will produce work to the standard you accept. Only accept a high standard of work.

Early in your first day with your class, set the standard of work you will accept by asking, "Is that the best work you can produce?"

If the answer is "No", then respond with, "Well, if it's not good enough for you, then it's not good enough for me. How about you have another go and show your classmates AND ME your best work."

If the answer is "Yes", respond with, "Let me help you improve. Use a "

sharper pencil, write more clearly, use a ruler for your lines ... appropriate

as

  • Ticket to leave.

Just before the bell is due to go give all children two tickets. Before the students leave the room they must hand over two tickets, on which they have recorded two things they NOW know about the lesson they just had. Proof that you have valued-added to their day.

Advertisement

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

About the Author.

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T E

Hi.

My name is Bob Brandis.

My history is below but in a nutshell,

I have been with Education Qld for 38 years,

a teacher for 35;

of which 32 were as a principal.

I am now a relief teacher because I enjoy it.

  • I want to share my experience and improve your relief teaching skills.

  • I started with Education Queensland in 1973. I spent a few years teaching primary

classes in Brisbane before taking over my first principal position at my one teacher

school in 1979.

  • I progressed through the principal ranks taking on bigger and bigger schools until I earned principalship of my big city school in Gladstone.

Throughout my career I kept close to my classrooms and teachers.

After 38 years with Education Queensland - 32 years as principal, I retired from full time work in 2010. During that time I taught in every classroom from Prep through to Year 12.

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

I saw some great relief teachers and some who just struggled through their days, not for the want of trying.

After I retired, I decided to join the ranks of relief teaching and walk the talk. I now do relief teaching in small country schools with multi-age students, small city schools with composite classes and large city schools.

Not surprisingly relief teaching is not the same as regular classroom teaching.

You don't have the same authority as the regular classroom teacher with the children. You won't have developed the same relationships and you may not even have the chance to do so.

As a relief teacher, you are not accountable for the long term goals of your students but you are accountable for the short term goals.

Relief Teaching is about

establishing your authority quickly, succinctly and often (not to be confused

with aggression); having curriculum assignments/tasks which are purposeful, powerful and

meaningful to your students; managing students productively for the duration of your visit.

being fully prepared for your day.

I offer you my experience and will happily share activities, tasks and curriculum assignments that are tried and tested in various classrooms and various age groups. Visit my website reliefteaching.com and join the discussion, upload free lessons, share thoughts about relief teaching, open up some food for thought and read articles that will help become a better relief teacher.

5 0 W A Y S T O B E A B E T T Ereliefteaching.com and join the discussion, upload free lessons, share thoughts about relief teaching, open up some food for thought and read articles that will help become a better relief teacher. 46 " id="pdf-obj-46-58" src="pdf-obj-46-58.jpg">

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Advertising Policy.

The advertisements throughout this book are either direct links to eBooks and other Resources available as instant downloads from the suppliers or a direct link to the suppliers website.

While the author has been selective and chosen resources most suited to the topic at hand, the author makes no claims about the quality or suitability of any of the resources available.

Many of them are really good. I have downloaded quite a few of them myself - but not all of them.

(Come On! I’m not made of money. Even I have to pay.)

Should you elect to purchase any item, the deal you develop is between the supplier and yourself.

I would like to think that all the suppliers throughout this eBook are totally honest about their product(s).

However, I do not publically endorse any product nor any of the claims made within.

5 0

W A Y S

T O

B E

A

B E T T E R

R E L I E F

T E A C H E R

Index of Articles.

Allow TIME to TALK., 10 Allow Time to THINK, 7 Anticipate Compliance, 19 Avoid going for the throat FIRST!, 23

Keep a sense of HUMOUR, 33 Keep the STORM on the horizon, 35 Keep the STUDENTS learning through Active Engagement,

 

29

Balance the lesson., 34

Keep the turkeys from flying., 17

Be pragmatic., 8 Be prepared. Have a time out area ready., 18 Be visible in the classroom, 13 Build your lesson, 11

Keep your instruction DIRECT, 22 Keep your language supportive and corrective., 4 Know when to IGNORE., 27

Close your requests with the appropriate language., 19 Consider group work as an option, 5 Control the movement., 17

Make sure the MAIN thing is the main THING., 3 Making Learning Rewarding., 16 Manage the interruptions., 12 Model behavior., 26

Dear Mum,, 39

Direct the learning to the

Never make it PERSONAL, 26

Develop Collaborative Learning Situations, 32

Only accept a high standard of work.,

Develop Cooperative Learning

40

Situations, 31 Differentiate between discipline and managing behaviour, 20

MISCREANT., 27 Disregard the secondary behaviours,

Peer Tutoring, 35 Provide a FOCUS point in the classroom, 12 Put learning into practice, 9

21

SCORE of understanding, 38

Distract Diffuse Disperse., 24 Don’t give out all the information – every time., 4 Draw a picture of you NOW., 39

Set the classroom up for success, 15 Share your learning process, 10 Stop on my SIGNAL, 20

Explain it to ME, 38

Teach on the Move, 33 Ticket to leave., 40

Investigations are powerful learning

Use an ADVANCED ORGANISER.,

opportunities., 6

11

Use the assertive “I message”, 25

This book was distributed courtesy of:

This book was distributed courtesy of: For your own Unlimited Reading and FREE eBooks today, visit:http://www.Free-eBooks.net Share this eBook with anyone and everyone automatically by selecting any of the options below: To show your appreciation to the author and help others have wonderful reading experiences and find helpful information too, we'd be very grateful if you'd kindly post your comments for this book here . COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Free-eBooks.net respects the intellectual property of others. When a book's copyright owner submits their work to Free-eBooks.net, they are granting us permission to distribute such material. Unless otherwise stated in this book, this permission is not passed onto others. As such, redistributing this book without the copyright owner's permission can constitute copyright infringement. If you believe that your work has been used in a manner that constitutes copyright infringement, please follow our Notice and Procedure for Making Claims of Copyright Infringement as seen in our Terms of Service here: http://www.free-ebooks.net/tos.html " id="pdf-obj-49-4" src="pdf-obj-49-4.jpg">

For your own Unlimited Reading and FREE eBooks today, visit:

Share this eBook with anyone and everyone automatically by selecting any of the options below:

This book was distributed courtesy of: For your own Unlimited Reading and FREE eBooks today, visit:http://www.Free-eBooks.net Share this eBook with anyone and everyone automatically by selecting any of the options below: To show your appreciation to the author and help others have wonderful reading experiences and find helpful information too, we'd be very grateful if you'd kindly post your comments for this book here . COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Free-eBooks.net respects the intellectual property of others. When a book's copyright owner submits their work to Free-eBooks.net, they are granting us permission to distribute such material. Unless otherwise stated in this book, this permission is not passed onto others. As such, redistributing this book without the copyright owner's permission can constitute copyright infringement. If you believe that your work has been used in a manner that constitutes copyright infringement, please follow our Notice and Procedure for Making Claims of Copyright Infringement as seen in our Terms of Service here: http://www.free-ebooks.net/tos.html " id="pdf-obj-49-13" src="pdf-obj-49-13.jpg">
This book was distributed courtesy of: For your own Unlimited Reading and FREE eBooks today, visit:http://www.Free-eBooks.net Share this eBook with anyone and everyone automatically by selecting any of the options below: To show your appreciation to the author and help others have wonderful reading experiences and find helpful information too, we'd be very grateful if you'd kindly post your comments for this book here . COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Free-eBooks.net respects the intellectual property of others. When a book's copyright owner submits their work to Free-eBooks.net, they are granting us permission to distribute such material. Unless otherwise stated in this book, this permission is not passed onto others. As such, redistributing this book without the copyright owner's permission can constitute copyright infringement. If you believe that your work has been used in a manner that constitutes copyright infringement, please follow our Notice and Procedure for Making Claims of Copyright Infringement as seen in our Terms of Service here: http://www.free-ebooks.net/tos.html " id="pdf-obj-49-15" src="pdf-obj-49-15.jpg">
This book was distributed courtesy of: For your own Unlimited Reading and FREE eBooks today, visit:http://www.Free-eBooks.net Share this eBook with anyone and everyone automatically by selecting any of the options below: To show your appreciation to the author and help others have wonderful reading experiences and find helpful information too, we'd be very grateful if you'd kindly post your comments for this book here . COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Free-eBooks.net respects the intellectual property of others. When a book's copyright owner submits their work to Free-eBooks.net, they are granting us permission to distribute such material. Unless otherwise stated in this book, this permission is not passed onto others. As such, redistributing this book without the copyright owner's permission can constitute copyright infringement. If you believe that your work has been used in a manner that constitutes copyright infringement, please follow our Notice and Procedure for Making Claims of Copyright Infringement as seen in our Terms of Service here: http://www.free-ebooks.net/tos.html " id="pdf-obj-49-17" src="pdf-obj-49-17.jpg">

To show your appreciation to the author and help others have wonderful reading experiences and find helpful information too, we'd be very grateful if you'd kindly post your comments for this book here.

COPYRIGHT INFORMATION

This book was distributed courtesy of: For your own Unlimited Reading and FREE eBooks today, visit:http://www.Free-eBooks.net Share this eBook with anyone and everyone automatically by selecting any of the options below: To show your appreciation to the author and help others have wonderful reading experiences and find helpful information too, we'd be very grateful if you'd kindly post your comments for this book here . COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Free-eBooks.net respects the intellectual property of others. When a book's copyright owner submits their work to Free-eBooks.net, they are granting us permission to distribute such material. Unless otherwise stated in this book, this permission is not passed onto others. As such, redistributing this book without the copyright owner's permission can constitute copyright infringement. If you believe that your work has been used in a manner that constitutes copyright infringement, please follow our Notice and Procedure for Making Claims of Copyright Infringement as seen in our Terms of Service here: http://www.free-ebooks.net/tos.html " id="pdf-obj-49-25" src="pdf-obj-49-25.jpg">
This book was distributed courtesy of: For your own Unlimited Reading and FREE eBooks today, visit:http://www.Free-eBooks.net Share this eBook with anyone and everyone automatically by selecting any of the options below: To show your appreciation to the author and help others have wonderful reading experiences and find helpful information too, we'd be very grateful if you'd kindly post your comments for this book here . COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Free-eBooks.net respects the intellectual property of others. When a book's copyright owner submits their work to Free-eBooks.net, they are granting us permission to distribute such material. Unless otherwise stated in this book, this permission is not passed onto others. As such, redistributing this book without the copyright owner's permission can constitute copyright infringement. If you believe that your work has been used in a manner that constitutes copyright infringement, please follow our Notice and Procedure for Making Claims of Copyright Infringement as seen in our Terms of Service here: http://www.free-ebooks.net/tos.html " id="pdf-obj-49-27" src="pdf-obj-49-27.jpg">

Free-eBooks.net respects the intellectual property of others. When a book's copyright owner submits their work to Free-eBooks.net, they are granting us permission to distribute such material. Unless otherwise stated in this book, this permission is not passed onto others. As such, redistributing this book without the copyright owner's permission can constitute copyright infringement. If you believe that your work has been used in a manner that constitutes copyright infringement, please follow our Notice and Procedure for Making Claims of Copyright Infringement as seen in our Terms of Service here: