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BALANCING

Balancing NOT COMPLETE Rotating Components Examples of rotating components in a mechanism or a machine.

(a)

(b) Figure 1: Examples of rotating components: (a) camshaft; (b) crankshaft Single-Plane (Static) Balance Consider a rotating shaft with three extruded masses as shown in Fig. 2. Assume the shaft rotates about its axis by a constant angular velocity . The objective of the single-plane balance, also known as static balance, is to make the shaking force to be zero, by adding another point-mass to the system if necessary.

(a) (b) Figure 2: Schematic representation of a rotating shaft with three extruded masses: (a) side view; (b) front view The orientation of each mass-point mi with respect to the x-axis, at a given time, can be described by an angle i and a position vector R i . Each mass-point will have a normal

P.E. Nikravesh 1

AME 352

BALANCING

component of acceleration equal to Ri 2 pointing toward the shaft axis. The inertia force associated with each mass is mi Ri 2 in the opposite direction of its corresponding acceleration. For static equilibrium, the sum of these inertia forces must be zero to have zero shaking force: m1R1 2 m2 R 2 2 m3R 3 2 mA R A 2 = 0 where subscript B represents the added mass to balance the system. We note that the coefficient 2 can be dropped form this equation to obtain (a) m1R1 m2 R 2 m3R 3 mA R A = 0 Because the force-equilibrium equation becomes independent from the angular velocity of the shaft, it is referred to as the static balancing although the shaft is in rotation. Equation (a) can be solved for the balance mass either graphically or analytically. Graphical solution: The process is demonstrated in Fig. 3. The solution vector mA R A provides the magnitude of mA RA (infinite possibilities for mA and RA ) and the angle A .

m1 R1 2 m2 R2 2 m2 R2

m1 R1

1

m3 R3 mA RA m2 R2 m1 R1

m3 m3 R3 2

R3

A

(b)

mA RA

(a) Figure 3 Analytical solution: We can write Eq. (a) in a more general form as

mi R i mA R A = 0 mA R A = mi R i

i =1 i =1

(b)

This equation can be projected onto the x- and the y-axes to obtain two algebraic equations:

mA RA ( x ) = mi Ri ( x )

i =1 n

mA RA ( y ) = mi Ri ( y )

i =1

n n mA RA = mi Ri ( x ) + mi Ri ( y ) i=1 i=1

(b.1)

A = arctan

mi Ri ( y ) mi Ri ( x )

i =1 i =1 n

(b.2)

Two-Plane (Dynamic) Balance The objective of the dynamic force balance is to eliminate the shaking force and the shaking moment. For this purpose we need to add two balancing masses. First we add one mass to eliminate the shaking moment, and then we add a second mass to eliminate the shaking force.

P.E. Nikravesh 2

AME 352

BALANCING

To eliminate the shaking moment we consider the side-view of the rotating component. We decide on two correction planes, A and B, in convenient locations as shown in Fig. 4(a). The plane of each mass-point has a distance i from the correction plane A. The distance of plane B from plane A is B . We add the first balancing mass mB RB (unknown at this point) in plane B. The inertia force of each mass, mi Ri 2 , causes a moment with respect to the correction plane A as mi Ri i 2 . This moment is perpendicular to vector R i and the rotational axis as shown in Fig. 4(b) for one of the masses. In order for the shaking moment to be zero, the sum of these moments, including the moment of the added mass in the correction plane B, must be zero: m1R11 2 m2 R 2 2 2 m3R 3 3 2 mB R B B 2 = 0 or, (c) m1R11 m2 R 2 2 m3R 3 3 mB R B B = 0 This equation can be solved for mB R B B either graphically or analytically.

Correction plane A Correction plane B

m1 R11 2

m1 R1 2

R1

i

B

(a) Figure 4 (b)

Graphical solution: The process is demonstrated in Fig. 5(a). Since every moment vector must be rotated 90 o with respect to its position vector, solve the solution vector mB R B B , then rotate the solution by 90 o to obtain vector mB R B . We can simplify this process by not rotating any of the vectors; i.e., we can draw the vectors along their corresponding position vectors, as shown in Fig. 5(b). Since B is known, the solution vector mB R B B provides the magnitude of mB RB (infinite possibilities for mB and RB ) and the angle B . The result for the first balancing mass is shown in Fig. 6. Note: If the correction plane A is placed such that the point masses are on both sides of the plane, then i s must be assigned positive and negative signs. This will effect the direction of a moment whether to be considered along R i or in the opposite direction.

m1 R11 m2 R2 2

m3 R3 3 mB RB B

m2 R2 2

m3 R3 3

m1 R11

3

P.E. Nikravesh

AME 352

BALANCING

(a) Figure 5

Correction plane A Correction plane B

(b)

B

mB RB

Figure 6 Analytical solution: We can write Eq. (c) in a more general form as

n n

mB RB

mi R i i mB R B B = 0 mB R B B = mi R i i

i =1 i =1

(b)

This equation can be projected onto the x- and the y-axes to obtain two algebraic equations:

mB RB ( x ) B = mi Ri ( x ) i

i =1 n

mB RB ( y ) B = mi Ri ( y ) i

i =1

mB RB =

n n R m i i ( x ) i + mi Ri ( y ) i i=1 i=1 B

mi Ri ( y ) i mi Ri ( x ) i

i =1 i =1 n n

(c.1)

B = arctan

(c.2)

In order to eliminate the shaking force, a second balancing mass is added in plane A according to the process of single-plane balance. In this process the added mass at B must be included in Eq. (a) like other extruded masses. The graphical solution is shown in Fig. 7.

m3 R3 mB RB

(a)

m2 R2 m1 R1 mA RA

P.E. Nikravesh

AME 352

BALANCING

Correction plane A

Correction plane B

mA RA

mA RA

(b) Figure 7

(c)

A Helpful Table A table like the one shown can be helpful in organizing your data and calculations. Mass Point 1 2 3 4 m R

mR

mR

B A 0 0

P.E. Nikravesh

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