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1

Problems

77

9Xi

8 ;

x1,

-0.1

-0.2

Figure 1.44 The response of both the linear (dashed line) and nonlinear system (solid line) of Example 1.10.4with the initial velocitics set to zero.

If on depends the initial conditions. the initial conmodel in computingthe response comesinto play,then thesetermsshould nonlinearity ditions are suchthat the system's the Somewhat same is Otherwisea linearresponse perfectlyacceptable. be included. model.Which effectsto include and can be said for includingdampingin a system form one of the a and analyzing vibratingsystem whichnot to includewhenmodeling practice. of important aspects engineering

PROBLEMS

Those problems marked with an asterisk are intended to be solved using computational software or the Meu-,A.e Toolbox. Section 7.1 loaded with mass and the corresponding (static) 1.1. The spring of Figure 1.2 is successively displacement is recorded as follows. Plot the data and calculate the spring's stiffness. Note that the data contain some error. Also calculate the standard deviation.

n(ke)

x(m)

10

l.l4

t1 1.25

12 r.37

13 1.48

14 1.59

15 r.7l

16 r.82

1.2. Derive the solutionof mi * kx : 0 and plot the resultfor at leasttwo periodsfor the casewith @n: 2rad/s, xs : 1 mm, and os : 16 m-/s. = m 1 . 3 .S o l v e i ' r k x : 0 f o r k = 4 N l m , m : 1 k g , x o : l m m , a n d o o 0 . P l o t t h e s o l u t i o n ' to is system measured be 1 mm.The phase 1.4. The amplitudeof vibrationof an undamped is tobe? rad and the frequency found to be 5 rad/s. Calshift from t : 0 is measured culate the initial conditionsthat causedthis vibration to occur.

78

Response IntroductionVibration theFree to and

1 Chap.

1.5. An undamped system vibrates with a frequency of 10 Hz and amplitude L mm. Calculate the maximum amplitude of the system'svelocity and acceleration. 1.6. Show by calculation that,4sin(or,,t + S) can be representedas Bsinon/ * Ccosrrr,/ and calculate C and B in terms of ,4 and $. 1.7. Using the solution of equation (1.2) in the forni x(t): B s i n o r n /* C c o s r , . r n /

calculate the values of B and C in terms of the initial conditions x6 and o0. 1.8. Using Figure 1.6,verify that equation (1.10) satisfiesthe initial-velocity condition. L.9. (a) A 0.5-kg mass is attached to a linear spring of stiffness0.1 N/m. Determine the natural frequency of the system in hertz. (b) Repeat this calculation for a mass of 50 kg and a stiffness of 10 N/m and compare your result to that of part (a). 1.10. Derive the solution of the single-degree-of-freedom systemof Figure 1.4 by writing Newton's law, ma : -kx, in differential form using a dx : u da and integrating twice. 1.L1. Determine the natural frequency of the two systemsillustrated in Figure P1.11.

(a)

(b)

Figure P1.11 * 1 . 1 2 .P l o t t h e s o l u t i o n g i v e n b y e q u a t i o n ( 1 . 1 0 ) f o r t h:e c a s0 0 N / m n d m : l 0 k g f o r a 10 ek two completeperiodsfor eachof the following setsof initial conditions:(a) xu : 0, t r u: 1 m / s , ( b )r u : 0 . 0 1 , u o: O , a n d ( c ) r o: 0 . 0 1 , o . : 1 m / s . m m *1.13. Make a three-dimensional plot of the amplitudeA of an undampedoscillator surface given by equation(1.9)versus and tl6for the rangeofinitial conditions given by xs - 1 < x u < 0 . 1m a n d - 1 < r r n< 1 m / s f o r a s y s t e m w i t h n a t u r a l f r e q u e n c y o fa d / s . 10r 1.14. Use a free-bodydiagramof the pendulumof Window 1.1and derive the equationof motion givenin the windowby usingthe approximation sin(0) : 0 for small0. 1.15. A pendulumhaslengthof 250mm.What is the system's naturalfrequency inHertz? What length 1.16. The pendulumin Window 1".1 requiredto oscillateonceeverysecond. is shouldit be? 1.17. The approximation sin 0 : 0 is reasonable 0 less of for than10'.If a pendulumof length 0.5m hasan initial positionof 0(0) : 0, what is the maximumvalueof the initial anguaplar velocity that can be given to the pendulumwithout violatingthis small-angle proximation?(Be sureto work in radians.) Section 1.2 *1,.18.Plotthesolutionof :2rad/s,xs: alinearspring-masssystemwithfrequencycon and ao : 2.34mm/s,for at leasttwo periods. 1mm,

Chao.1

Problems

79

*1.19. Compute the natural frequency and plot the solution of a spring-mass system with mass of 1 kg and stiffness of 4 N/m and initial conditions of xs : 1 mm and t'6 : 0 mm/s, for at least two periods. 'lb design a linear spring-mass system it is often a matter of choosing a spring constanl 1.20. such that the resulting natural frequency has a specified value. Suppose that the mass of a system is 4 kg and the stiffness is 100 N/m. Horv much must the spring stiffness be changed in order to increasc the natural frequency lty I0%,? 1.21. Referring to Figure 1.7,if the maximum peak velocity of a vibrating system is 200 mrn/s at 4Hz and the maximum allowable peak acceleration is 5000 mm/s2, what wilt the peak displacernent be? 1.22. Show that lines of constant displacement and acceleration in Figure 1.7 have slopes of *1 and -1, respectively.If rms values instead of peak values are used, how does this affect the slope? 1.23. An automobile is modeled as a 1000-kg mass supported by a spring of stiffness k : 400,000 N/m. When it oscillates it does so with a maximum deflcction of 10 cm. massincreascsto as much as 1300kg. Calculatc the When loaded with passengers,the dechange in frequency,velocity amplitude, zrndacccleration amplitude if the ntaxin"rum flectii-rnremains L0 cm. 1.24. A machine oscillatesin simple harmonic motion and appears to be well rnodeled by an undamped single-degree-of-freedomoscillittion. Its accoleration is measured to have an amplitude of 10,000 mm/sz at 8 Hz. What is the machine's maximurn clisplacement? 1.25. A sirnple undamped spring-mass system is set into motion from rest by giving it an initial velocity of 100 mm/s. It oscillateswith a maximum amplitudc: of 10 mrn. What is its natural frequency? 1.26. An automobile exhibits a vertical oscillating displacement of maximum arnplitude 5 cnr and a measurcd maximum accelerationof 2000 cm/s2.Assuming that the automobilc systcrnin the vertical direction,calculate can be modeled as a single-degrec-of-frecdom of the automobile. the natural frequency Section 7.3 I mm.o,,:0mm/s.Sketchyourrcsultsanddeternrine 1 . 2 7 . S o l v ei + 1 i * - r : 0 f o r x 6 : which root dominates. lmrn/sandsketchtheresponse.Youmay 1 . 2 8 . S o l v ei + 2 * - l 2 x : 0 f o r x 6 : 0 m m , o o : wish to sketch x(t) : e-' and x(/) = -g-rfi1s1. 1.29. Derive the form of tr1,and \2 given by equation (1.31) fiom equation (1.28) and the definition of the damping ratio. 1.30. Use the Euler formulas to derive equation (1.36) from equation (1.35) and to determine the relationships listed in Window 1.4. 1.31. Using equation (1.35) as the form of the solution of the underdamped system,calculatc 'u6. the values of the constants a, and a2 in terms of the initial conditions x6 and 1.32. Calculate the constants A and $ in terms of the initial conditions and thus verify equation (1.38) for the underdamped case' 1.33. Calculate the constants a1 and a2in terms of the initial conditions and thus verify equations (1.42) and (1.43) for the overdamped case.

80

Introductionto Vibration and the Free Response

Chap. 1

1.34. Calculate the constants a1and a2in terms of the initial conditions anci thus verify equation (1.46)for the critically damped case. 1.35. Using the definition of the damping ratio and the undamped natural frequency, derive equation (1.48)from (1.47). 1 . 3 6 . F o r a d a m p e d s y s t e mm , c , a n d k a r e k n o w n t o b e n r = 1 k g , c = 2 k g / s , k = 1 0 N / m . , Calculate the values of ( and o,,.Is the systemoverdamped,underdamped,or critically damped? *1.37. Plot;r(r) for a damped system of natural frequency @n: 2 rad/s and initial conditions xo: I mm, o0 : 0, for the fiiilowing values of the damping ratio: ( : 0.01, E: 0.2' ( : 0 . 6 , ( - 0 . 1 ,t : 0 . 4 , a n d ( : 9 . 3 . 8L.38. Plot the response x(t) of an underdampedsystemwith a, : 2radf s,( : 0'1, and oo : 0 for the following initial displacements:xe : 1 mm, -rn : 5 mm,"to : 10 mm, and xo : 100 mrn. landtre:0forx(r) andsketchtheresponse. i + x:0withxo: 1.40. A spring-mass-damper system has mass of 100 kg, stiffnessof 3000 N/m, and damping the damping ratio, and coefficient of 300 kg/s. Calculate the undamped natural frequency, frequency. I)oes the solution oscillate? the damped natural of 1.41. A spring mass-dampersystcm has massof 150 kg, stiffness 1500N/m and damping coefficient of 200 kg/s. Calculate the undamped natural frequency, the damping ratio Is and the damped natural freqtrency. the systemoverdamped,underdamped,or critically damped? Does the solution oscillate? *1.42. The system of Problem 1.40is given a zero initial velocity and an initial displacement of 0.1 rn. Calculate the form clf the responseand plot it for as long as it takes to die 1 . 3 9 . S o l v ei or.lt. *1.43. 'fhe system of Problern l.4l is givcn an initial velocity of 10 mm/s and an initial displacement of -5 mm. Clalculatethe form of the responseand plot it for as long as it takes to dic out. How long docs it take to die oul'l *1.44. Choose the damping coefficientof a spring-mass*damper systemwith mass of 150 kg its responscwill die out after about 2 s, given a zero and stiffness ol 2000 N/m such that initial position and an initial velocity of 10 mn.r/s. the 1.45. Derive the equation ol motion of the systcm in Figure P L45 and discuss effect of gravity on the natural frequencyand the damping ratio.

t,

Figure P1.45 the and in of 1.46. Derivethe equation motionof the system FigureP1.46 discuss effectof gravand the dampingratio.You may haveto make someapthe natural frequency ity on dampingforce only providea viscous proximations the cosine. Assumethe bearings of

Chap.1

Problems

8l

Engineer, African Mechanical ' in the verticaldirection.(From A' Diaz-JimenezSouth 6') Vol. 26, pP.65-69,191

FigureP1.46

Section 1.4 pendulum of Figure 1'19(b) if a mass nrt ts 1.47. Calculate the lrequency of the compound added to the tip, by using the energy method' with frequency 2 rad/s and damping ratto 1.4g. Calculate the total en"rgy in a damped system : 0.1 and 'uo: 0. Plot the total energy versustinte' ( : 0.01with mass10kffor the cur" tn of motion and natural frequency of an 1.4g. Use the energy method to calculate the equation airplane,ssteering-gearmechanismfortlrenosewheeloiitslandinggear.Themechasystemillustratedi' Figure P1'49' nism is modeled asihe single-degree-of-freeclom

( S t e e r i n gw h e e l )

(Tire-wheel assemblY)

mechanism' model FigureP1.49 Single-degree-of-freedorn of a steering

Thesteering.wheelancltireassemblyaremodeledasbeingfixedatgroundforthis as a linear spring-and-masssystem calculation. The steering-rod gear system is modeled as the disk diiection' The shaft-gear nechanism is modeled f"ting in th"ex i-, frl angle 0 such that the "*if through the of inertia -/ and torsional stiffnessk1.The gear,I turns diskdoesnotsliponthemass.obtainanequationinthelinearmotionx.

82

Introduction to Vibration theFree Response and

Chap. 1

1.50. A control pedal of an aircraft can be modeled as the single-degree-of-freedom system of F'igure P1.50.Consider the lever as a massless shaft and the pedal as a lumped mass at the end of the shaft. Use the energy method to determine the equation of motion in 0 and calculate the natural frequency of the system.Assume the spring to be unstretched at0 = 0.

Figure P1.50 Model of a foot pedal used to operate an aircraft control surface.

1.51.

'lb

savespace, two largepipesare shipped one stacked insidethe other as indicatedin FigureP1.51. Calculate naturalfrequency vibrationof the smallerpipe (of radius the of R1) rolling back and forth insidethe largerpipe (of radiusR). Use the energymethod and assume that the insidepipe rolls without slippingand hasa mass rn. of

Large pipe

oo

r,"----*;t oo

Tiuck bed

(a) Figure P1.51 prpe. (b) (a) Pipes stacked in a truck bed. (b) Vibration model of the inside

1.52. Consider example a simplependulum the of givenin ExampleI.4.2.Thependulummotion is observed decaywith a dampingratio of ( : 0.001. to Determinea dampingcoefficientand add a viscous dampingterm to the pendulumequation.

84

Introduction Vibration the FreeResponse to and 1 1.64. RepeatProblen.r.63for the svstem FigureP1.{r,1. of

Chap.1

FigureP1.64

1.65. A manufacturer nrakes a leaf spring from a steel (e - Z x 1011 N/m2) and sizesthe spring so that the device has a specificfrequency.Later, to save weight, the spring is made of aluminurn(C - 7.1 x 10'0N/m2). Assumingthat the massof the springis much smaller then that of the device the spring is attachedto, determine if the frequency incrcasesor decreases and hv how much.

Section 1.6 1.66. Show that the logarithmic decrementis equal tcr a = ltnll

where ,r, is the an'rplitude of vibratio n after rJ". nn". elapsed. n 1.67. Derive equation (1.68) for the trililar suspension system. 1.68. A prototype compositcmalerial is fornred and hence has unknown modulus.An experiment is perfornrcd consistingo[ f ornring it into a cantileveredbeam of length 1 nt ancl m o m e n t 1 . = 1 0 ' " m a w i t h a 6 - k g m a s sa t t a c h c d t i t s c n d . T h e s y s t e mi s g i v e n a n i n i t i a l a displacementar"rd found to oscillatcwith a period of 0.5 s.Calculatethe modulus E. 'I'he 1.69. free responseof a 1000-kgautomobile with stiffnessof k - 400,000N/m is observed to be of the form given in Figure 1.31.Modeling the autornobile as a single-degrce-of-freedon.r oscillationin the vertical direction,determine the damping coefficient to if the displacenlentat I, is rnelrsured be 2 crn nnd 0.22cm at tr. 1.70. A pendulum decaysfrom l0 crn to I cnr over one pcriod. Dctermine its damping ratio. 1.7L. The relationshipbetween the log decrement6 and the damping ratio ( is often approximated as 6 : 2n(. For what valuesof ( would you considerthis a good approximation to equation (1.72)'! 1.72. A damped systemis nrodeledas illustratedin Figure 1.9.The massof the systemis measured to be -5kg and its spring constant is measured to be 5000 N/m. It is observed that during free vibration the amplitude decays to 0.25 of its initial value after five cycles. Calculate the viscousdamping coefficient, c. Section 1.7 (seealso Problems 1.60 and 1.85 through 1.90) 1.73. Choose a dashpot'sviscousdamping value such that when placed in parallel with the spring of Example 1.7.2reduces the frequency of oscillation to 9 rad/s.

Chap.1

Problems

85

'xo system, = 0 andoo : 10mrn/s'Determinem' c'andk suchthat 1.74. For an underdamped the amplitudeis lessthan 1 mm. to is 1.75. RepeatProblem1.74if the mass restricted lie between10 kg < m < 15 kg. of 1.76. Use the formula for the torsionalstiffness a shaft frotn equation(1.6a)to designa N'm/rad. of stiffness 105 1-mshaftwith torsional do difference you note? usingaluminum.What L.77. RepeatExample1.7.2 as 1.78. Try to designa bar (seeFigure1.20)that hasthe samestiffness the springof Examplel.7.2.Note that the bar mustremainat least10 timesaslong asit is wide in order to be modeledby the formulaof Figure1.20. N/m2)' x N/m2) andrubber(E =l x 106 usingplastic(E: 1.40 10e 1.79. RepeatProblem1.78 any of thesefeasible? Are Section 1.8 (seealso Problem 1.j9) Assume in 1.80. Considerthe invertedpendulumof Figure1.36as discussed Example1.8'1. rate c) alsoactson the pendulumparallelto the two springs. (of damping that a dashpot of How doesthis affectthe stabilityproperties the pendulum? of rod Replacethe massless of the invertedpenclulun Figure 1.36with a solid-object 1.81. of the Calculate equations vibrationand discttss compoundpendulumof Figure1.19(b). is for valuesof the parameter whichthe system stable:. Use the energymethodto to connected two springs. 1.82. Considerthe disk of FigureP1.82 0(r). for of oscillation smallangles naturalfrequency the calculate system's

Figure P1.82 Vibration model of a rolling disk mounted against two sprlngs, attached at point s.

Section1.9 indicated' *1.83. Reproduce Figure l'37 for the varioustime steps +L.84. Use numerical integrationto solve the systemof Example 1.7.3with m = 136I kg, : I k : 2.688 x 10sN/m, c : 3.81x 103kgls subjectto the initial conditionsx(0) ,r.'(0) 0.01m/s. Compareyour resultusingnumericalintegrationto just plotting = and 1.3)by plottingboth formulafrom Section solution(usingthe appropriate the analytical on the samegraph. *1.85. Consideragainthe dampedsystem Problem1.84and designa dampersuchthat the of There are at leasttwo waysto do this.Here it is inoscillationdiesout afte;2 seconds. following ExamplesI.9.2,1.9.3,or!.9-4' numerically, tendedto solvefor the response is response achieved. c parameter until the desired of values the damping usingdifferent *1.86. Consideragainthe dampedsystem Example1.9.2anddesigna dampersuchthat the of There are at least two ways to do this. Here it is oscillation dies out aftei 25 seconds.

86

**1 Response Chap. lntroductionVibration theFree to and
**

1.9.4, I.9.2,1..9.3,or numerically, followingExamples intendedto solvefor the response is parameter until the desired response achieved.Is values the damping c usingdifferent of your resultoverdamped, underdamped, criticallydamped? or *1.87. Repeat : Problem 1.85 the initialconditions-r(0) 0.1m ando(0) = 0.01mm/s. for *1.88. A springand damperare attached a mass 100kg in the arrangement givenin Figto of r(0) : 0.Lm andc'(0) : 1 mm/s.Deis ure 1.9.The system giventheinitialconditions will cometc rest k signthe springand damper(i.e.,choose and c) suchthat the system to more than two completecycles.Tiy keep c as small as in 2 seconds not oscillate and possible. Also compute(. *1.89. RepeatExample1.7 by usingthe numerical five problems. approach the previous of .L *1.90. RepeatExample1.7.L the initial conditions x(0) : 0.01m and o(0) : L mm/s. for

Section1.10 friction force l0r to 1.91. A 2-kg massconnectecl a springof stiffness N/m hasa dry-sliding How long 20 oscillates, amplitude its decreases cm in 15 cycles. (itr) of 3 N.As the mass doesthis take? 9 x l0rN/mwithafriction m o 1 . 9 2 . C o n s i d e r t h e s y s t e mF ifg u r e l . 4 0 w i t h : S k g a n d k : forcc of magnitude6 N. If the initial amplitudeis 4 cm, determinethe amplitudeone cyclelater aswell asthe dampedfrequency. *1.93. Compute and plot the responseof the systemof Figure P1.93for tire casewhere t r o : 0 . 1 r r , o o : 0 . 1 m / s , p = 0 . 0 5 , n : 2 5 0 k g , o = 2 0 " , a n d f= 3 0 0 0 N / m . H o w l o n g doesit take for the vibrationto die out?

Figure P1.93

*1.94. Computeand plot the response a system with Coulombdampingof equation(1.88) of m for the casewhere xo : 0.5 rl,oo : 0 m/s, p : 0.1., : 100kg' and ft : 1500N/m. How long doesit take for the vibrationto die out'? *1.95. A mass Model the in slidingfriction asillustrated FigureP1.95. movesin a fluid against damping)plus Coulombfriction because dampingforce asa slowfluid (i.e.,linearviscous m of the sliding,with the followingparameters: : 250kg, p = 0.01,c : 25 kg/s, and xs to k : 3000N/m. (a) Computeand plot the response the initial conditions = 0.1m, ro to oo : 0.1 m/s (b) Computeand plot the response the initial conditions : 0.1 m, oo : 1 m/s. How long doesit take for the vibrationto die out in eachcase?

87 Chap.1 Problems

P1'95 Figure c' new dampingccefficient' that of *1.g6. considerthe system Problem1.95(a) andcomputea oscillation' the will cause vibrationto die out after one : 0'How many are there? of the equilibriumpositions i + ,jf,x + Bxz 1.97. Compute - |'xt 1 1'rs : 0' How many are there? i * .ilznx L.98. Computethe equilibriumpositionsof of ;ith a lengthof 1 m and initial conditions *1.gg. consider the pendulumo1E*ample1.10.3 0o:rr./10..0"'ao,:o.Comparethe'differencebetweentheresponseofthelinear versionofthependulumequation[i.e.,withsin(0):0]andttieresponseofthenonlinear versionofthependulumequationbvplottingth".".pon'"ofbothforfourperiods. is : n /2 rad' *1.100. RepeatProblem1'99if the initial displacement 8o

l . . l 0 l . . I f t h e p e n d u l u m o f E x a m p l e l . l 0 . 3 i s g i v e n a n i n i t i a lthisn d i t i o n n e a r t h e e q u i l i b r i u m p o c o equilibrium? around : sition of 0o : T tuOunAdo 0 doesit oscillate * l . l 0 2 . C a l c u l a t e t h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e s y s t e m o f P r o b l e m l . g 8 f o r t : e100'r a l c o n d i t i o n s h i n i t i : 0' of.3 frequency rad/s aTl for B xo : 0.01-,oo :'6 -7t'and a natural *l.l03.RepeatProblemt.l02andplottheresponseofthelinearversionofthesystem(B:0) onthesameplottocomparethedifferencebetweenthelinearandnonlinearverslon of this equationof motion'

TOOLBOX Mo,Lo". ENGINEERING VIBRATION

a Mnrr-ee Toolbox has Dr. JosephC. Slater of Wright State University "{!g:9 is organizedby chapVllratiln Tittlbox (EVT) keyed to this text.The EngiTeerfng Problemsfound at the end of eachchapter and may be usedto soivethe ioolbox thosehomeworkproblemssuggested ter. In addition,the EvT may be usedto solve forcomputerusageinSectionsl.gandl.l0'rathertlranusingMerLeedirectly.M,+ parametric intendedto assisiin analysis' Lae and the EVT ur"lni"ru.tive and are s t u d i e s a n d d e s i g n , a s w e l l a s i n s o l v i n g h o m e w o r kuse'For professional i n e e r i n p r o b l e m s . T h e E n use' g free of chargefor educational bration Toolbox is tlcensea Toolbox author directly' usersshouldcontacttn" E"gi"""ring Vibration TheEVTisupdatedandimprovedregularlyandcanbedownloadedforfree. or current revision'go to the on To downloaa,upout",o' oUiulniniormatiori "'ug" Vibration Toolboxhomepageat Engineering ght' cs.wri edu/-vtoolbo.x http ://www. well ,irn on earlier versionsof M.lrt-ns, as This siteincludeslinks to editionsthat a s t h e m o s t r e c e n t v e r s i o n . A n e - m a i l l i s t o f i n s t r u c t updates. s eEVTEis de- m a i o r s w h oThe t h e V T i s u ,"""iu" e-mailnotificationof the latest tained Sousers andVMS) "u,, supportedby Merlen (including Macintosh signedto run on any;i;tf-*ittt the current versionof Merand is regularlyupdatedto mainiaincompatibility LAB'Abriefintrodu"u"'.Merl-,ceandUNIXisavailableonthehomepageas well.PleasereadthefileReadme.txttogetstartedandtypehelpvtoo.lbox

88

Introduction Vibration the FreeResponse to and

Chap.1

installation to obtain au overview. Once installed, typing vtbud will display the current revision status of your installation and attempt to download the current revision status from the anonymous FTP site. Updates can then be downloaded incrementally as desired. Please seeAppendix G for further information.

TOOLBOX PROBLEMS

T81.1. Fix [your choiceor usethe valuesfrom Example1.3.1 with x(0) : 1 mm] the values of m, c, k, and x(0) and plot the responses for a rangeof valuesof the initial vex(t) locity i(0) to seehow the response depends the initial velocity. on Remember use to numbers with consislent units. TBl.2. Usingthe values from ProblemTBl.l andi(0) : 0, plot the response for a range x(r) of values x(0) to seehow the response of depends the initialdisplacement. on T81.3. Reproduce Figures 1.10, 1.11, 1.12. and T81.4. consider solvingProblem1.32andcompare time for eachresponse reachand the to staybelow0.01mm. TBl.5' SolveProblems 1.88, 1.89, 1.90 and using Engineering the vibrationToolbox. T81.6. SolveProblems1.93, 1.94, and 1.95usingthe Engineering VibrationToolbox.

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