   

 

                 

Equipped national with the intellectual tools, with which they fought the oppressive forces (parent country) o Demonstrating the degree of agency enjoyed by native actors to engage and shape the ideas and forms that accompanied Western scholarly discourse o The use of neologisms by native actors demonstrated an adaption of nationalism movements to use the ideological weapons of the Europeans against them o Apparent acceptance of Western academic institutions was not so much a matter of subjection, as a strategy to subvert the existing paradigm o New forms of… create opportunities, and shape both ideas themselves and how the individual engages in those ideas In communication with each other, subjects from throughout the colonial and postcolonial world could hear Western ideals and complain to each other that the West was failing to live up to its own rhetoric What is most significant is that these technologies transcended the boundaries of power and outlived the retreat of formal imperialism Utility of acquired knowledge Opportunity to exploit o The ideas these new practices implied were beyond the ability of any one party to monopolize and transformed the entire region o We cannot begin to fully understand…unless we grasp the relevant opposite or associated meanings and analyze the historical context in which the concept acquires its meaning Eighteenth century onwards, modern education (Western education) led to social awakening, gave impetus to social progress and brought many reforms Beginning in the 19th century, a critical number of elites throughout the world had become wholly conversant in these ideas, and were able to accept, reject, or manipulate them o All fought from the side of the oppressed o Patriots working against imperialistic forces New technologies create new realities and possibilities Escaped colonialism by become European Western education  key to material advancement for its recipients Give them interest in problems outside the scope of their activities Western ideas of independence and self-determination  provided the foundation for the achievement of independence In favor of solving the conflict by taking into consideration an attempt to harmonize the two apparently rival cultures Deep conviction of the need for patient understanding and rational inquiry concerning any new set of ideas Followed the Confucian teaching according to which one can perfect the imperfect character he is born with through “the effort of study” and “self-cultivation” Raises the issue of the intellectual’s status and that of “nationalism”, understood not in its political sense but rather as individual conscience and national identity The years he spent abroad meant not only an encounter with the values of another culture and civilization, but also, the rediscovery of his own culture Commits the arguments of his “opponent” to memory and becomes aware of his own weaknesses The rhetoric lesson learned from European literature, while trying to develop for it a Japanese idiom of expression Preserving traditional values along with Western culture, was an essential attitude As he points out, as long as Japan does not understand the “philosophical roots” of Western progress, its “development” would only be “form without substance”. “Individualism”, “universality” and “recognizing freedom” became the great “issues” of modern Japan “Freedom” and “individualism” on its own territory essentially depends on its become aware of the Western definitions of freedom and on reformulating them on a foundation of traditional values adapted to the modern present Attempts self-criticism and self-knowledge in order to attain true humility their programs pulled Japan from the fate of colonization, and plunged them into a world of international recognition and power Due to increased education, a growing awareness of the issues and conflicts affected the 3 rd world (colonies) made it difficult to justify the new wave of expansion by the western world, which would eventually trigger decolonization

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful