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.
1. 0 ;

i i , . :
i i .

0 0 0i ,
i 0 0 0 .

2. ;

i i :

( i ) ( i ) ( ) ( )i .

i i ,

i i , :
( i) ( i) ( i) ( i) ( ) ( )i .

( i ) ( i ) ( ) ( )i .

i i :

( i)( i) ( i) i( i) i i ( i)( i)

.
i i i2
i
i
(
) (
)i

:
( i )( i ) ( ) ( )i .

i
, i 0 , i ,
i

:
i ( i)( i) ( ) ( )i

i.
i
( i)( i)
2 2
2 2 2

2 23

i.
i 2 2 2 2

3. z i ;

z i z i .
z i . :
i i .

i i , i , i .

4.

M (, ) M (, )
z i z i
.

z 1 z 2 z1 z 2 .

y
M(z)

z i z i

, ,
:
z z 2
z z 2 i .

z1 i z 2 i , :

1. z1 z 2 z1 z 2
2. z1 z 2 z1 z 2
3.

z1 z 2 z1 z 2

z
4. 1
z2

z1

z2

5. z 1 z 2 z z 1 z 2 z
6. z 1 z 2 ... z z 1 z 2 ... z

5. :

z 1 z 2 z1 z 2

z1 z 2 z1 z 2 :

M (z )

3 23
z1 i z 2 i , :

z1 z 2 ( i) ( i) ( ) ( )i
( ) ( )i ( i) ( i) z1 z 2
( ) ( )i ( i) ( i) z1 z 2

6. i ;

i ,
4 , 4,
:
i i 4

1
i

i 4 i (i 4 ) i 1 i i
-1

, 0
,

, 2
, 3

7. z2 z 0 , , R
0 .

z 2 z 0 , , , R 0 .
, , :
2

,
z

2
4 2

2 4 . , :

0 , : z1, 2

0 , : z

2
2

(1)() i 2 ( ) 2 i


0 , ,
, :
4 2
4 2
(2) 2
2

2
i

2
2

z1, 2

i
, .
2

:
z :
z , z z

4 23

z ,

z z

8. ;

M ( x, y) z x yi
. z M
O ,
| z | | OM | x 2 y 2

9. .

:
| z | | z | | z |
2
| z | zz
| z1 z 2 | | z1 | | z 2 |

z1
z
1
z2
z2

| z | | z |

| | z1 | | z 2 | | | z1 z 2 | | z1 | | z 2 |

10. : | z1 z 2 | | z1 | | z 2 |

:
| z1 z 2 | | z1 | | z 2 | | z1 z 2 | 2 | z1 | 2 | z 2 | 2
( z1 z 2 )( z1 z 2 ) z1 z1 z 2 z 2

z1 z 2 z1 z 2 z1 z1 z 2 z 2

, .

M(x,y)

|z|

5 23

11.) ,
| z1 z 2 |

| z z 0 | , 0;

) | z z1 | | z z 2 | ;

) .
:

(M 1 M 2 ) | z1 z 2 |

| z z 0 | , 0
K ( z 0 )

)
| z z1 | | z z 2 |
A( z1 ) B( z 2 ) .

6 23

:
-

.
1. f A ;

f
:
f ( A) { y | y f ( x) x A} .

f A

x A

f (A) .

2. f A ;

M ( x, y) y f (x) ,

M ( x, f ( x)) , x A .

- f C f .
- , , y f (x) C f . , y f (x)
f.
- C f f, :
) f C f .
) f f (A) C f .
) f x 0 A x x 0 C f (. 8).

y
Cf

()

Cf

f ()

x=x0

Cf

f (x0)

O
()

A(x0,f (x0))
x0

()

- C f , f , ,
f | f | .

7 23
) f ,
x x , f,
M ( x, f ( x)) M ( x, f ( x)) ,
x x . (. 9).

y=f (x)
(x,f (x))

O
(x,f (x))

y = f (x)

) | f | C f
x x ,
x x , C f
. (. 10).

10

y=f (x)

y = | f (x)|

3.
) f ( x) x
) f ( x )

) f ( x ) x 2 ,

, 0
x

) f ( x ) x 3 , 0

) f ( x ) x , g( x ) | x | .

:
) f ( x) x

11

a>0

a<0

a=0

) f ( x ) x 2 , 0 .
y

12

>0

) f ( x ) x 3 , 0 .

<0

8 23

>0

13

<0

) f ( x )

, 0.
x
y

14

x
x

>0

<0

) f ( x ) x , g ( x ) | x | .

15

y
y |x |

y x

4. :
f (x) x ,
f (x) x
) f (x) x ,
) f ( x ) x , 0 1

) f ( x ) log x , 0 1

:
) : f ( x ) x , f ( x) x , f ( x ) x

9 23

16

1
2

y=x

()

y
1
2

y=x

()

/2

/2

3/2

y=x

()

, f ( x) x f ( x) x T 2 ,
f ( x) x T .

) f ( x ) x , 0 1 .
y

17

O
>1

()

:
1 ,

0 1 ,

x1 x2 x1 x 2
x1 x2 x1 x 2 .

) f ( x ) log x , 0 1

O
0<<1

()

10 23

18

1
O

>1

()

()

0<<1

1) log x y y x

4) log ( x1 x 2 ) log x1 log x 2

2) log x x log x x

5) log 1 log x 1 log x 2


x2

3) log 1

log 1 0

6) log x1k log x1

7) 1 , : log x1 log x 2 x1 x 2 ,

0 1 ,

log x1 log x 2 x1 x 2 .

8) x e xln , e ln .

5. f ,g ;

f g :

x A f ( x) g ( x) .

6. , ,
f ,g ;

f g , f - g , fg

f
f, g
g

( f g )(x) f ( x) g ( x) ,

( f g )(x) f ( x) g ( x)

( fg )(x) f ( x) g ( x)

f
f ( x)
( x)
g ( x)
g

11 23
f g , f g fg A B f g
,

f
A B , x
g

g (x) ,
{x | x A x B , g ( x) 0} .

7. f g ;

f, g , ,
g f ,

g,

( gof )(x) g ( f ( x)) .


f (A)

24

f (x)
f
g(B)

A
g
x

g( f (x))

g f

A1

) g f x f f (x)
g.

A1 {x A | f ( x) B} .
gof , A1 , f ( A) B .

) , f, g gof fog ,
.
f , g, h ho(gof ) , (hog)of

ho( gof ) (hog)of .


f, g h hogof .
.

8. f ;

f ,
x1 , x 2 x1 x 2 :

f ( x1 ) f ( x 2 )
f ,
x1 , x 2 x1 x 2 :

f ( x1 ) f ( x 2 )

12 23

9. f A x o A
;

f :
x 0 A () , f ( x 0 ) ,

f ( x) f ( x0 ) x A
x 0 A () , f ( x 0 ) ,

f ( x) f ( x0 )

x A

10. f A 1 1;

f :A R 1 1 , x1 , x 2 A
:
x1 x 2 ,

f ( x1 ) f ( x 2 ) .

) f :A R 1 1 , x1 , x 2 A
:

f ( x1 ) f ( x 2 ) ,

x1 x 2 .

f (x1 ) f (x 2 ) x1 x 2
) f 1 1 , :
- y f ( x) y x.
- .
f .
- , "1 1" . .
1 1
.
34
y

x , x0

g ( x) 1
(. 34).
, x0
x

y=g(x)

1 1,

11. f A
;

13 23

f :A R , 1 1. f

f 1

f (x) y f 1(y) x

) :
f

( f ( x )) x ,

x A

f(f

( y )) y ,

y f ( A) .

f (A) f,

f .

) C C f f 1
y x xOy x Oy .

14 23

:
-

.
1. f x o f x o ;

:
f (, x0 ) ( x0 , ) , :

lim f ( x)

x x0

lim f ( x) lim f ( x)

x x0

x x
0


) :
()
()

lim f ( x)

lim f ( x)

x x0

x x0

lim ( f ( x) ) 0

x x0

lim f ( x 0 h)
h 0

) 1 lim f ( x) 2 lim f ( x) f x 0
x x

x x0

1 f x 0 , 2 f x 0 .

) f x 0 , f x 0 ,
f

(, x0 ) ( x0 , )
( , x 0 )

( x0 , ) .

x 0 (. 39, 39) .
f x 0 , , x 0 (. 39)
.

lim x x 0

x x 0

lim c c

x x 0

2. f x o

x 0 ,

:
) f (, x0 ) ( x0 , ) .
) f (, x 0 ) , ,
( x0 , ) .

15 23
) f ( x0 , ) , ,
(, x 0 ) .

3. x o .

:
) 1
lim f ( x) 0 ,
x x0

f ( x) 0 x 0

lim f ( x) 0 , f ( x) 0

x 0

x x0

) 2
f , g x 0 f ( x) g ( x) x 0 ,

lim f ( x) lim g ( x)

x x0

x x0

) 3
f g x 0 , :
1.
2.

3.

lim ( f ( x) g ( x)) lim f ( x) lim g ( x)

x x0

x x0

x x0

lim (f ( x)) lim f ( x) ,

x x0

x x0

lim ( f ( x) g ( x)) lim f ( x) lim g ( x)

x x0

x x0

x x0

5. lim | f ( x ) | lim f ( x )
x x0

4. lim

x x0

lim f ( x)
f ( x ) x x0
,

g ( x) lim g ( x)
x x0

6. lim k f ( x) k lim f ( x) ,

x x0

x x0

x x0

lim g ( x) 0
xx0

f ( x) 0 x 0 .

) 4

1
P( x) x 1 x 1 x 0

x 0 R . :

lim P( x) P( x0 )

x x0

f (x)

P(x)
, P(x) , Q(x) x x 0 R Q(x 0 ) 0 .
Q(x)

lim

x x0

) 5

P ( x) P( x 0 )

Q( x) Q( x 0 ) , Q( x 0 ) 0

f ,g , h

h(x) f (x) g(x)

lim h(x) lim g(x)

x x 0

x x 0

x0

16 23

lim f (x)

x x 0

| x | | x | , x R .

lim x x 0

x x 0

x
lim
1
x 0 x

x 0.

lim x x 0

x x 0

x 1
0
x 0
x

lim

4 .

f g

xo .

f g x 0 , lim f ( g ( x)) ,
x x0

:
1. u g (x) .
2. ( ) u 0 lim g ( x)
x x0

3. ( ) lim f (u) .
uu0

g ( x) u 0 x 0 , , :

lim f ( g( x)) lim f (u) .

x x0

uu0

5 . x o .

,
(, x 0 ) ( x 0 , ) , :

f ( x) lim f ( x) lim f ( x)
) xlim

x
x x0

xx

f ( x) lim f ( x) lim f ( x) .
) xlim

x
x x0

xx

) lim f ( x) , f ( x) 0 x 0 , lim f ( x) , f ( x) 0 x 0 .
x x0

x x0

) lim f ( x) , lim ( f ( x)) , lim f ( x) , lim ( f ( x)) .


x x0

x x0

x x0

) lim f ( x) , lim
x x0

x x0

1
0.
f ( x)

) lim f ( x) 0 f ( x) 0 x 0 , lim
x x
x x0

x x0

1
, lim f ( x) 0
x x0
f ( x)

f ( x) 0 x 0 , lim

x x0

1
.
f ( x)

k f ( x)
) lim f ( x) , lim | f ( x) | . ) lim f ( x) , xlim
.
x

x x0

x x0

x x0

17 23
*
) i) lim 12 lim 12 , N
x 0

ii)

lim

x 0

x 0

1
,
x 2 1

1
,
x 2 1

lim

x 0

) :
1 ( )

x0
R

g :

f g :

f :

2 ( )

x0 R ,
f
:
g
:

fg :

>0

<0

>0

<0

:
() () , 0 () , () () ,

() () ,

0
,
0

6 . .

)
:
l i m x
x

lim

1
0,
x

,
lim x
x
- ,

N*

lim

1
0,
x

* .

) P( x) x 1 x 1 0 , 0 :
lim P( x) lim ( x )

) f ( x)

x 1 x 1 1 x 0
x 1 x 1 1 x 0

lim P( x) lim ( x )

, 0 , 0 :

18 23

x
x
lim f ( x) lim
lim f ( x) lim

x x
x
x x


-

1 (. 60),

lim 0 ,
x

lim log x ,

x 0

60

lim
x

y=a x

lim log x

y=loga x
O

0 1 (. 61),

lim x ,

lim log x ,
x 0

lim x 0

lim log x

y
y=a

61

f ,
f (,) .
f
f (, ) .
,
x 0 :

.

1
O 1

x
y=loga x

19 23

:
-

1. f x 0 ;

f x 0 x 0 . f

lim f(x) f(x0 )

x 0 ,

xx0

: , f x 0 , lim f(x) f(x0 ) 0


xx
0

2. f x 0 ;

M f x 0 :
) x 0
) x 0 , , f(x0 ) x 0 .

3. f ;

f , , ,
.

4. ;

, x0

lim P( x) P( x0 ) .
x x0

P
, x 0
Q
P ( x) P( x 0 )
.
lim

x x0 Q ( x )
Q( x 0 )

f ( x) x g( x) x , x0
lim x x0

x x0

lim x x0 .

x x0

, ( ) :
f ( x ) x

g( x) log x , 0 1 .

20 23

5.
x 0 :
f g x 0 , x 0 : f g
,

c f ,

c ,

f g ,

f
,
g

|f|

x 0 .
6.
f x 0 g f ( x 0 ) ,
gof x 0 .

7. f (, ) ;

f (, ) ,
(, ) . (. 63)

8. f [, ] ;

f [, ] ,
(, )

lim f ( x) f ()
lim f ( x) f ( ) (. 63)
x

(
a
()

63

[
a

()

:
f [,]
x 0

2.
9. Bolzano
f , [, ] . :
f [, ] , ,
f () f ( ) 0 ,
, , x 0 (, ) ,
f ( x0 ) 0

21 23

, , , f ( x) 0 (, ) .
, f (
).

Bolzano :
f ,
x x , . (.
65)
y
y
65
f (x)>0

a
O

f (x)<0
()

()

f
f .
y
66

10.

+
4

f ;

) f.
) ,
f . f
.
11. ( Bolzano)
f, [, ] . :
f [, ]
f () f ( )
, f () f ( ) , x0 (, ) ,
f ( x0 )

22 23

f () f ( ) . f () f ( ) (. 67).
g ( x) f ( x) , x [, ] , :

g [, ]
g () g ( ) 0 ,

67

g () f () 0

f ()

B(, f ())

g ( ) f ( ) 0 .

y=
f (a)

, Bolzano,
x0 (, ) , g ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) 0 , f ( x 0 ) .

( , f ())
x0

a x0

x0

y
f

68

f()

[, ] , , ,

y=
f(a)
O

12.
f () f
.

(
a
()

69

(
a
()

[
a

()

[, ] , .

23 23

13. ( )
f [, ] , f [, ]
m. (. 69)
, x1 , x2 [, ] , , m f ( x1 ) M f ( x 2 ) ,
m f ( x) M ,

x [, ] .

m
m
[
a

x2
()

x1


f [, ]
y
[m, M ] , m .
70

1
, f ( x) x , x [0, 2 ]
[1, 1] , [0, 2 ] m 1 M 1 .

3/2
O

/2

x
2

1
14. f (, ) ,
( , ) (. 71),
lim f ( x)
x

B lim f ( x) .
x

, , f (, ) ,
( B, A) (. 71).

y
B

(
a

()

71

(
a

()