Artificial intelligence meets the real World

There is no end to the applications of robotics, evoking a lot of interest across different sectors of the economy. At the same time, there are fears of robots taking over humanity. It’s time you get more familiar with this science in its early stages, today and in future Subhranshu Sekhar Samal, atirek Wribhu and r S. Sathyamurthy

!aser welding by a robot The word "robot’ originates from the #$ech word for forced labour or serf. It was introduced by playwright %arel #apek, whose ficional robotic inventions were much like r &rankenstein’s monsters'creatures created by chemical and biological methods rather than mechanical. (ut the current mechanical robots of popular culture are not much different from these fictionalbiological creations. The International Standards )rgani$ation *IS)+ definesa robot as an automatically,controlled, re, programmable, multi,purpose and manipulative machine, with or without locomotion, for use in industrial automation applications. -obotics is a fieldof multi,discipline engineering that deals with design, development and application of robots and the use of computer for their manipulation and processing. .volution of robotics The history of robotics can be traced back to ancient /reece. According to /reek mythology, the /reek god of fire and forge'0ephaestus'was served by mechanical robots. Another historical record suggests an ancient .gypt origin for robotics, where priests used steam,activated mechanisms to open the doors of their temple. (efore the first electrician was born, the earliest reference to a robot was in ancient #hina, in the form of an organic robot given by an artificer called 1an Shi to %ing 2u of 3hou around 4555 (#. The robot was made of leather and glue with actual human organs, and it ceased functioning when the organs were removed. It was around 675 (# when veteran /reek mathematician Archytas constructed a mechanical bird named "pigeon’'a robot powered by steam, which could fl. It was the firs recorded model airplane and a milestone in the history of robotics. (etween 4755 and 4855, odd mechanical marvels were springing up all over .urope. !eonardo a 9inci was the ne:t known robot designer after the ancient period. 0e invented a mechanical man in knight’s armour. ;ohn ee of .ngland invented a flying wooden beetle during the .li$abethan era. Another machine was 9aucanson’s "digesting duck’ in 4<6=, which was able to annoy real ducks, >uack, eat grain and produce fake faeces. The duck was even referred to by 9oltaire, albeit rather cryptically? @Without the duck of 9aucanson you have nothing to remind you of the glory of &rance.A Isaac asimov’s laws of robotics !aw $ero. A robot may not inBure humanity or, through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm. &irst law. A robot may not inBure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. Second law. A robot must obey orders given by human beings, e:cept where such orders would

edu Scope of robotics -obotics re>uires the application of mechanical engineering.apan for paint spraying 4=G8 S-I built Shakey'first mobile robot operated using AI techni>ues 4=<5 &irst robot arm developed at Stanford 4=<6 TJ'first minicomputer. Artificial intelligenc D. it operates automatically. It implies computational or symbol.ngineering physics *mechanics+ 6.urope+ built first microcomputer. A robot must protect its own e:istence as long as such protec.controlled robot 4=85 s and on -apid growth in the robot industry *. Sensors.purpose magnetic playback device for controlling machines 4=FG . then and now 4854 A punch. It possesses some form of mobility.ckert H 2auchly devised .ac>uard loom 48=5 &irst autonomous vehicles *Tesla+ 4=DD &irst reference to "robot’ in #apek’s play -ossum’s Eniversal -obots 4=68 Collard and -oselund devised programmable paint sprayer 4=FG e9ol'a general. which can be programmed to accomplish a large variety of tasks. -obotics.conflct with the first law.tion does not conflictwith the firstor second law. Sensors sense the environment and give useful feedback to the device.aided design and computer.card. (asic re>uirements of a robotic system Some basic features of a robot include? 2obility.controlled industrial robot *used e:tensively in the industry+ 4=<G -obot arms used on 9iking 4 and D space probes 4=<< AS. Third law.IIA# electronic computer 4=F8 2IT Crof. -obot motion and path plan. communica.binghamton. After being programmed.based integrated manufacturing.ningKdetection G. &le:ibility.manipulative capabilities that a designer can combine as desired. electricalKelectronic engineering. -obots act according to the environment rather than merely functioning as a data processing or computational device. Wiener published #ybernetics 4=7D &irst numerical control machine built at 2IT 4=7F uvoll designed first programmable robot *Enimation'first robot company+ 4=7= Clanet #orporation marketed the first commercially available robot 4=GD /2 installed first industrial robot on an assembly line 4=GF Artificial Intelligence labs opened at 2IT and S-I 4=G< 2ark II robot imported to . #omputational geometry and simulation 7. computer.aided manufacturing F. . .cs. So the robot is basically a computer. -obots operate with a range of programs and manipulate and transport materials in a variety of ways.A *.lectronic control. 2echanical capability. biological mechanics and software engineering. 9aucanson’s digesting duck developed in 4<6= A good depth in following maBor subBects is re>uired to deal with robotics technology? 4.tion and navigation systems . Crogrammability. #omputer.controlled te:tile machine called .apan becomes the biggest player+ Source? http?KKwww.

designing of bio. nuclear science. studies related to robot technology and its implications are supported by the epartment of Science and Technology * ST+ and epartment of Scientificand Industrial -esearch. It is often necessary to write programming codes from scratch when dealing with new robots. As no standard operating systems and software are currently in use. robot locomotion *particularly for legged.graduate students to pursue higher studies in the field of robotics and autmation in India and abroad. there e:ists diversity in the possible configurationsin which a robot can be built and also in the hardware used. especially at the undergraduate level.e:ploration. control and algorithms is the primary re>uirement for doing any work in robotics. however. It is. the basic knowledge of aerodynamics and aircraft mechanics is essential. sea.<. #hallenges Standardisation is a maBor hurdle. -obotics can be broadly divided into mechanical design and control algorithms. 2aterial science and technology 8. Students’ participation in various robotics contests. The ST. . if one would like to get involved in aerial robotics such as unmanned aircrafts. )ther issues such as concurrency. amphibious and flying robots+. There is lot of research happening to improve the motion of robots through a good structural design and enhance their efficiencyand adaptability through better control design. computer vision and artificialintelligence. etc. facilitates -H in various areas of national interest. A high level of specialisation is re>uired to work on any particular aspect of robotics. compliance control. -obotics still remains a popular course as an elective subBect for engineering students. )ptical engineering -obots are being used in industries. workshops and conferences are also conducted by universities and institutes at regular intervals to proBect the recent developments in robotics technologies at national and international levels. The interdisciplinary field of roboics also findsapplications to pursue research in various sectors. In addition to this. servicing of electric signals transmission. These activities have inspired a notable number of under. )pportunities in india Innovation coupled with consolidated research and development in robot technology has catapulted India’s scientificposition to a level that e>uals other advanced countries in recent years. cost. Crivate institutes play a big role in robotics training for participation in these events. )ut of G55 to <55 robots widely used in India. epartment of Information Technology and 2inistry of . -esearch on robotics and related technologies is being carried out at various centres to e:plore the possible applications of robotics in various fields *refer Table II+ In India.medical e>uipment.arth Sciences *formerly epartment of )cean evelopment+. Seminars. most are used in engineering institutes and research organisations *see Tables I and II+. -obotics education is taking shape and many universities are introducing courses in robotics and automation at the postgraduate level as main or elective subBects. humancomputer interactions and cognitive computer vision are also facing a great deal of scrutiny with considerable research going on in each area. a known fact that robots are not widely used by Indian companies. 0ence there are not too many options for taking up robotics as a degree itself. A good background in mechanics. meets and e:pos at international level has also increased marginally in recent years from India.

technology has to incorporate into the machines a stable and conscientious mindset. we may even order a robot.replica that speaks.teacher. reacts.&uture of robotics There is no limit to the applications of robotics technology. responds and behaves Bust like us. preserving our essence in artificial form for eternity.A . 0umanoid robots will impact various aspects of our lives from our workplace to healthcare. there might be a robo. Incorporating more knowledge at the university level. In the future. (ut robotics research is still in infancy and many targets need to be met before all this becomes a reality. space to classroom. These range from household to deep sea. &or serving the society in the form of a teaching tool. who would possibly complete a teaching module from a remote place via the Internet. In the near future. robots with artificial cognition may develop a will of their own and potentially turn against people robots that are able to have their own thoughts and take independent actions. So we can follow the saying? @The -oad to success is always under construction. one may consider a robo.professor. and medical to communication. To produce intelligent human.

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